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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 35

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 27.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.7. וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.7. And thou shalt sacrifice peace-offerings, and shalt eat there; and thou shalt rejoice before the LORD thy God."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 29.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.40. And with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink-offering."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.7. וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה׃ 28.7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a hin for the one lamb; in the holy place shalt thou pour out a drink-offering of strong drink unto the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.5. עָשִׂיתִי לִי גַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים וְנָטַעְתִּי בָהֶם עֵץ כָּל־פֶּרִי׃ 2.5. I made me gardens and parks, and I planted trees in them of all kinds of fruit;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel."
6. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.21. So Jonathan put on the holy garments in the seventh month of the one hundred and sixtieth year, at the feast of tabernacles, and he recruited troops and equipped them with arms in abundance.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.372, 15.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.140 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Mishnah, Avot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. Ten wonders were wrought for our ancestors in the Temple: [1] no woman miscarried from the odor of the sacred flesh; [2] the sacred flesh never became putrid; [3] no fly was ever seen in the slaughterhouse; [4] no emission occurred to the high priest on the Day of Atonement; [5] the rains did not extinguish the fire of the woodpile; [6] the wind did not prevail against the column of smoke; [7] no defect was found in the omer, or in the two loaves, or in the showbread; [8] the people stood pressed together, yet bowed down and had room enough; [9] never did a serpent or a scorpion harm anyone in Jerusalem; [10] and no man said to his fellow: the place is too congested for me to lodge overnight in Jerusalem."
10. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. How were the bikkurim taken up [to Jerusalem]? All [the inhabitants of] the cities of the maamad would assemble in the city of the maamad, and they would spend the night in the open street and they would not entering any of the houses. Early in the morning the officer would say: “Let us arise and go up to Zion, into the house of the Lord our God” (Jeremiah 31:5)."
11. Mishnah, Middot, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. There were chambers underneath the Court of Israel which opened into the Court of Women, where the Levites used to keep lyres and lutes and cymbals and all kinds of musical instruments. The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. Similarly the Court of the Priests was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. And a row of mosaic stones separated the Court of Israel from the Court of the Priests. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: there was a step a cubit high on which a platform was placed, and it had three steps each of half a cubit in height. In this way the Court of the Priests was made two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. The whole of the Court was a hundred and eighty-seven cubits in length by a hundred and thirty-five in breadth. And thirteen prostrations were made there. Abba Yose ben Ha says: they were made facing the thirteen gates. On the south beginning from the west there were the upper gate, the gate of burning, the gate of the firstborn, and the water gate. And why was it called the water gate? Because they brought in through it the pitcher of water for libation on the festival. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: in it the water welled up, and in the time to come from there it will come out from under the threshold of the Temple. Corresponding to them in the north beginning in the west were the gate of Yehoniah, the gate of the offering, the women's gate, the gate of song. Why was it called the gate of Yehoniah? Because Yehoniah went forth into captivity through it. On the east was the gate of Nicanor; it had two doors, one on its right and one on its left (10 +. There were further two gates in the west which had no special name (12 +."
12. Mishnah, Parah, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. Courtyards were built in Jerusalem over rock, and beneath them there was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And they used to bring there pregt women, and there they gave birth to their children and there they raised them. And they brought oxen, upon whose backs were placed doors, and the children sat upon them with stone cups in their hands. When they reached the Shiloah spring they got down and filled the cups with water and then they ascended and sat again on the doors. Rabbi Yose said: each child used to let down his cup and fill it from his place."
13. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.7-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
14. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.4-4.5, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came [to the Temple Mount] and the attendants threw down [their lulavim] before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take [his lulav] in his own home." 4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”" 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."
15. Mishnah, Tamid, 2.2, 3.8, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. They then began to throw the ashes on to the heap (tapuah). This heap was in the middle of the altar, and sometimes there was as much as three hundred kor on it. On festivals they did not use to clear away the ash because it was reckoned an ornament to the altar. It never happened that the priest was neglectful in taking out the ashes." 3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 5.3. He then handed them over to the attendants, who stripped them of their garments, and they would leave on them only the pants. There were windows there on which was inscribed the name of the garment to which each was assigned."
16. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.1-1.8, 2.5, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Seven days before Yom HaKippurim they remove the high priest from his house to the chamber of the counselors and they set up another priest to take his place lest something should occur to him to disqualify him [from being able to worship]. Rabbi Judah said: they even prepare another wife for him in case his wife should die, as it says “And he shall make atonement for himself and for his house” (Leviticus 16:6): “his house” this refers to his wife. They said to him: if so there would be no end to the matter." 1.2. All seven days he sprinkles the blood and burns the incense and cleans lamps and offers the head and the leg; And on all other days if he wants he offers, for the high priest is first in offering a portion and has first place in taking a portion." 1.3. They delivered to him elders from the elders of the court and they read before him [throughout the seven days] from the order of the day. And they say to him, “Sir, high priest, you read it yourself with your own mouth, lest you have forgotten or lest you have never learned.” On the eve of Yom HaKippurim in the morning they place him at the eastern gate and pass before him oxen, rams and sheep, so that he may recognize and become familiar with the service." 1.4. All seven days they did not withhold food or drink from him. On the eve of Yom HaKippurim near nightfall they would not let him eat much because food brings about sleep." 1.5. The elders of the court handed him over to the elders of the priesthood and they took him up to the upper chamber of the house of Avtinas. They adjured him and then left. And they said to him [when leaving]: “Sir, high priest, we are messengers of the court and you are our messenger and the messenger of the court. We adjure you by the one that caused His name dwell in this house that you do not change anything of what we said to you.” He turned aside and wept and they turned aside and wept." 1.6. If he was a sage he would expound, and if not, the disciples of the sages would expound before him. If he was familiar with reading [the Scriptures] he would read, if not they would read before him. From what would they read before him? From Job, Ezra and Chronicles. Zechariah ben Kv’utal says: I have often read before him from Daniel." 1.7. If he wished to sleep, young priests would snap their middle finger before him and say: “Sir high priest, stand up and drive the sleep away by standing once on this [cold] floor. They would keep him busy until the time for the slaughtering [of the daily morning offering] would arrive." 1.8. Every day they would remove [the ashes from] the altar at the cock’s crow or close to that time, either before or after. But on Yom HaKippurim from midnight, and on the festivals at the [end of the] first watch; And the cock’s crow would not arrive before the Temple court was full of Israelites." 2.5. The tamid was offered up by nine, ten, eleven or twelve [priests], neither by more, nor by less. How so? [The offering] itself by nine; At the festival [of Sukkot] in the hand of one a flask of water, behold there were ten. In the evening by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine and in the hands of two men were two logs of wood. On Shabbat by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine, in the hands of two men two handfuls of incense for the showbread. And on Shabbat which fell during the festival of Sukkot one man carried in his hand a flask of water." 7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
17. Mishnah, Zevahim, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. The hatat of a bird was sacrificed by the southwest horn [of the altar]. It is valid [if done] in any place, but this was its [particular] place. That horn served for three things below, and three things above: Below: for the hatat of the bird, For the presenting [of meal-offerings]. And for the residue of the blood. Above: for the pouring out of wine and water, and for the olah of a bird when there was too much on the east."
18. Mishnah, Shekalim, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.3. And where did they make the prostrations? Four [times] in the north, four [times] in the south, three [times] in the east, and twice in the west, in front of the thirteen gates. The southern gates close to the west [side were]: the Upper Gate, the Fuel Gate, the Gate of the Firstborn [Animals], and the Water Gate. Why was it called the Water Gate? Because through it was brought in the flask of water for the libation on Sukkot. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: through it the waters trickle forth and in the time to come “they will come forth from under the threshold of the Temple” (Ezekiel 47:1). On the opposite side in the north close to the west were: Jechoniah’ Gate, the Gate of the offerings, the Gate of the Women, and the Gate of Song. And why was it called the Jechoniah’ Gate? Because through it Jechoniah went out into his captivity. In the east was the Nicanor’s Gate, and it had two small gates, one to the right and one to the left. There were also two gates in the west which had no name."
19. New Testament, Luke, 4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him.
20. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.3, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.3. Why is the name \"Water Gate\"? It is so called because through it they take the flask of water used for the libation at the Feast. R. Eliezer b. Jacob says of it, \"The waters are dripping, intimating that water oozing out and rising, as if from this flask, will in future days come forth from under the threshold of the Temple, and so it says, ‘When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his ankles ; and again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his knees.’”Another interpretation of waters that were to the knees, \"intimating that after they have been blessed, they flow out. Again, he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the loins, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his loins. Afterwards he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through. Though one cannot cross it on foot, yet one may be able to do so by swimming; though one cannot cross it in a small boat, as we learn from the Scripture, For the waters were risen, waters to swim in they were risen too high for swimming. Though one cannot cross it in a small boat, yet one may be able to do so in a large boat, as we learn from the Scripture, There shall not go thereon any rowing ship. Though one cannot cross it in a large boat, yet one may be able to do so in a fast sailing vessel, as we learn from the Scripture, And gallant ship shall not pass over it. 2 And so it is said, And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea ; in summer and in winter shall it be. It may be other fountains will be mixed with them, as we learn from the Scripture, In that day shall there be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Whither do the waters go ? To the Mediterranean, and to the sea of Tiberias, and to the Dead Sea, that their waters may be healed, as it is said : And he said to me, These waters issue forth towards the eastern region that is the Dead Sea ; and shall go down into the Arabah that is the Sea of Tiberias ; and they shall go towards the other sea that is the Mediterranean Sea ; and the waters shall be healed ; and it shall come to pass that every living creature that swarms, in every place whither the river comes, shall live ; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come hither, that all things may be healed and live, whithersoever the river cometh. And it also says : And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand by it ; from Engedi even unto Englaim shall be a place for the spreading of nets ; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many. And it also says : But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof, shall not be healed ; they shall be given for salt. And also : By the river, upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail ; it shall bring forth first-fruits every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary ; and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for healing intimating that all \"the waters of creation\" will come forth as from the mouth of this flask. So the well, which was with Israel in the wilderness, was like a rock of the size of a k'bara, 6 and was oozing out and rising as from the mouth of this flask, travelling with them up the mountains and going down with them to the valleys. Wherever Israel encamped it encamped opposite them before the door of the Tabernacle. The princes of Israel with their slaves surrounded it, and said over it this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it. Then the waters bubbled forth, and rose on high like a pillar; and every one drew out the staff of his tribe and family, as it is said, The well which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre and with their staves. And from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; and from Bamoth to the valley, etc. going round every camp of the Lord, and watering all Jeshimon ; and it made mighty streams, as it is said, And streams overflowed. 3 And they were sitting in skiffs, going from place to place, as it is written, They ran in the dry places like a river. If Israel went up on the right, it would come down on the right ; if on the left, it would come down on the left. The waters which emptied themselves from it became a great river, pouring themselves into the Mediterranean, and bringing thence all the precious things of the world, as it is said, These forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee ; thou hast lacked nothing." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
21. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. השתא [הא] אמרי לא צריכא לקדושי אלא מצאו את אלו ומנאום,ולא אלו בלבד אלא כל שתעלה לך מסורת בידך מאבותיך שמוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון כל המצות הללו נוהגין בה מפני שקדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה וקידשה לעתיד לבא קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל,תרי תנאי אליבא דר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ואיבעית אימא הא ר' אלעזר בר יוסי אמרה דתניא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אמר אשר לוא חומה (ויקרא כה, ל) אע"פ שאין לו עכשיו והיה לו קודם לכן:,ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רבי לוי ואיתימא רבי יונתן דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאנשי כנסת הגדולה כל מקום שנאמר ויהי אינו אלא לשון צער,ויהי בימי אחשורוש (אסתר א, א) הוה המן ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים (רות א, א) הוה רעב ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב (בראשית ו, א) וירא ה' כי רבה רעת האדם (בראשית ו, ה),ויהי בנסעם מקדם (בראשית יא, ב) הבה נבנה לנו עיר (בראשית יא, ד) ויהי בימי אמרפל (בראשית יד, א) עשו מלחמה (בראשית יד, ב) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו (יהושע ה, יג) וחרבו שלופה בידו ויהי ה' את יהושע (יהושע ו, כז) וימעלו בני ישראל (יהושע ז, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים (שמואל א א, א) כי את חנה אהב וה' סגר רחמה (שמואל א א, ה),ויהי (כי) זקן שמואל ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל [וה' עמו] (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי שאול עוין את דוד (שמואל א יח, ט) ויהי כי ישב המלך בביתו (שמואל ב ז, א) רק אתה לא תבנה הבית (מלכים א ח יט),והכתיב (ויקרא ט, א) ויהי ביום השמיני ותניא אותו היום היתה שמחה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא כיום שנבראו בו שמים וארץ כתיב הכא ויהי ביום השמיני וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ה) ויהי (בקר) יום אחד,הא שכיב נדב ואביהוא,והכתיב (מלכים א ו, א) ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה והכתיב (בראשית כט, י) ויהי כאשר ראה יעקב את רחל והכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד והאיכא שני והאיכא שלישי והאיכא טובא,אמר רב אשי כל ויהי איכא הכי ואיכא הכי ויהי בימי אינו אלא לשון צער,חמשה ויהי בימי הוו ויהי בימי אחשורוש ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים ויהי בימי אמרפל (ישעיהו ז, א) ויהי בימי אחז (ירמיהו א, ג) ויהי בימי יהויקים,(א"ר) לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו מאי קמ"ל,כי הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה ויחשבה לזונה,אלא משום דכסתה פניה בבית חמיה ולא הוה ידע לה זכתה ויצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים מלכים מדוד נביאים דא"ר לוי מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים היו וכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ,וא"ר לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה,תניא נמי הכי ארון שעשה משה יש לו עשר אמות לכל רוח וכתיב (מלכים א ו, כ) ולפני הדביר עשרים אמה אורך וכתיב כנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות וכנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות ארון גופיה היכא הוה קאי אלא לאו שמע מינה בנס היה עומד,ר' יונתן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו יד, כב) וקמתי עליהם וגו' והכרתי לבבל שם ושאר ונין ונכד נאם ה' שם זה הכתב שאר זה לשון נין זה מלכות ונכד זו ושתי,רבי שמואל בר נחמני פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו נה, יג) תחת הנעצוץ יעלה ברוש ותחת הסרפד יעלה הדס,תחת הנעצוץ תחת המן הרשע שעשה עצמו ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו ז, יט) ובכל הנעצוצים ובכל הנהלולים,יעלה ברוש זה מרדכי שנקרא ראש לכל הבשמים שנאמר (שמות ל, כג) ואתה קח לך בשמים ראש מר דרור ומתרגמינן מרי דכי,תחת הסרפד תחת ושתי הרשעה בת בנו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ששרף רפידת בית ה' דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, י) רפידתו זהב,יעלה הדס זו אסתר הצדקת שנקראת הדסה שנאמר (אסתר ב, ז) ויהי אומן את הדסה והיה לה' לשם זו מקרא מגילה לאות עולם לא יכרת אלו ימי פורים,ר' יהושע בן לוי פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (דברים כח, סג) והיה כאשר שש ה' עליכם להיטיב אתכם כן ישיש להרע אתכם,ומי חדי הקב"ה במפלתן של רשעים והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כ, כא) בצאת לפני החלוץ ואומרים הודו לה' כי לעולם חסדו וא"ר יוחנן מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בהודאה זו לפי שאין הקב"ה שמח במפלתן של רשעים,ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (שמות יד, כ) ולא קרב זה אל זה כל הלילה בקשו מלאכי השרת לומר שירה אמר הקב"ה מעשה ידי טובעין בים ואתם אומרים שירה,אמר רבי אלעזר הוא אינו שש אבל אחרים משיש ודיקא נמי דכתיב כן ישיש ולא כתיב ישוש ש"מ,רבי אבא בר כהנא פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (קהלת ב, כו) לאדם שטוב לפניו נתן חכמה ודעת ושמחה זה מרדכי הצדיק ולחוטא נתן ענין לאסוף ולכנוס זה המן לתת לטוב לפני האלהים זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב ותשם אסתר את מרדכי על בית המן,רבה בר עופרן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ירמיהו מט, לח) ושמתי כסאי בעילם והאבדתי משם מלך ושרים מלך זו ושתי ושרים זה המן ועשרת בניו,רב דימי בר יצחק פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא 10b. bNow, didn’t they saylater in the same ibaraitathat bit is not necessary to consecratethem? bRather,this is what the ibaraitameans to say: It is due to the fact that when the exiles ascended from Babylonia bthey discovered these and enumerated them. /b,The ibaraitacontinues. bAnd not only these, butin banycity with regard to bwhich you receive a tradition from your ancestors that it was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, all these mitzvot are observed in it, due tothe fact bthat the initial consecration sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bfor its time and sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bforever.This is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between one statement bof Rabbi Yishmael andanother statement bof Rabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara answers: This is a dispute between btwolater itanna’im /i,who hold baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei.Each transmitted Rabbi Yishmael’s opinion in a different manner. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that one of the traditions is mistaken, as with regard to bthisstatement, bRabbi Elazar bar Yosei said it, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saidthat the verse states: b“Which has [ ilo /i] a wall”(Leviticus 25:30). The word ilois written with an ialef /i, meaning no, that it does not have a wall, but its vocalization is in the sense of its homonym, ilowith a ivav /i, meaning that it has a wall. This indicates that beven though it does not presently havea wall, as it was destroyed, bbut it had a wall previously,it retains its status as a walled city. It is Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, who maintains that the first consecration sanctified Jerusalem forever.,§ The Gemara returns to the primary topic of this chapter, the book of Esther. The Gemara cites various aggadic interpretations of the verses of the Megilla. The opening verse of the Megilla states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRabbi Levi said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yonatanwho said: bThis matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom the members of the Great Assembly. Anywhere thatthe word ivayhiis stated, it isan ominous btermindicating bnothing otherthan impending bgrief,as if the word were a contraction of the words ivaiand ihi /i, meaning woe and mourning.,The Gemara cites several proofs corroborating this interpretation. b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”led to grief, as there bwas Haman. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days when the judges ruled”(Ruth 1:1) introduces a period when there bwas famine. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i], when men began to multiply”(Genesis 6:1) is immediately followed by the verse: b“And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth”(Genesis 6:5)., b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] as they journeyed from the east”(Genesis 11:2) is followed by: b“Come, let us build us a city”(Genesis 11:4), which led to the sin of the Tower of Babel. The Gemara cites further examples: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1), about whom it is stated: b“These made war”(Genesis 14:2). Another verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho”(Joshua 5:13), it was there that he saw an angel b“with his sword drawn in his hand”as a warning. It is written: b“And the Lord was [ ivayhi /i] with Joshua”(Joshua 6:27), and immediately afterward: b“But the children of Israel committed a trespass”(Joshua 7:1). It states: b“And it came to pass that there was a certain man of Ramathaim”(I Samuel 1:1), and it mentions shortly afterward Hannah’s inability to conceive: b“For he loved Hannah, but the Lord had closed up her womb”(I Samuel 1:5).,Similarly, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Samuel was old”(I Samuel 8:1), and then it is written: b“And his sons did not walk in his ways”(I Samuel 8:3). Also, it states: b“And it came to pass that David was successful in all his ways, and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14), and only a few verses prior it is written: b“And Saul viewed David with suspicion”(I Samuel 18:9). In another instance, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when the king dwelt in his house”(II Samuel 7:1). Here King David mentioned his desire to build a temple for God, but it is written elsewhere that he was told: b“Yet you shall not build the house”(II Chronicles 6:9).,After citing several verses where ivayhiportends grief, the Gemara mentions a number of verses that seem to indicate otherwise. bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1), which was the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle? bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to that day: bOn that day there was joy before the Holy One, Blessed be He, similar tothe joy that existed on the bday on which the heavens and earth were created.The Gemara cites a verbal analogy in support of this statement. bIt is written here,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day,” and it is written there,in the Creation story: b“And it was [ ivayhi /i]evening, and it was bmorning, one day”(Genesis 1:5). This indicates that there was joy on the eighth day, when the Tabernacle was dedicated, similar to the joy that existed on the day the world was created. Apparently, the term ivayhiis not necessarily a portent of grief.,The Gemara answers: This verse does not contradict the principle. On the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle, a calamity also befell the people, bas Nadav and Avihu died. /b,The Gemara cites additional verses where ivayhiis not indicative of impending grief: bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the four hundred and eightieth year”(I Kings 6:1), which discusses the joyous occasion of the building of the Temple? bAndfurthermore, bisn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] when Jacob saw Rachel”(Genesis 29:10), which was a momentous occasion? bAnd isn’t it written: “And it was [ ivayhi /i] evening, and it was [ ivayhi /i] morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5)? bAnd isn’t there the secondday of Creation, band isn’t there the thirdday, where the term ivayhiis used? bAnd aren’t there manyverses in the Bible in which the term ivayhiappears and no grief ensues? Apparently, the proposed principle is incorrect.,Rather, bRav Ashi said:With regard to beveryinstance of ivayhi /ialone, bthere aresome that mean bthis,grief, band there aresome that mean bthat,joy. However, wherever the phrase b“and it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i]”is used in the Bible, bit is nothing otherthan ba term ofimpending bgrief. /b,The Gemara states that bthere are fiveinstances of ivayhi bimei /iin the Bible. b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahasuerus”; “And it came to pass in the days [ ivayhi bimei /i] when the judges ruled”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Amraphel”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahaz”(Isaiah 7:1); b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Jehoiakim”(Jeremiah 1:3). In all those incidents, grief ensued.,§ Apropos the tradition cited by Rabbi Levi above, the Gemara cites additional traditions that he transmitted. bRabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers.The Gemara questions: bWhatnovel element bis thisstatement bteaching us? /b,The Gemara responds: It is bin accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Any bride who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophetswill bemerge from her. From where do wederive this? bFrom Tamar, as it is written: “When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute; for she had covered her face”(Genesis 38:15). Can it be that bbecauseTamar bcovered her face he thought her to be a prostitute?On the contrary, a harlot tends to uncover her face., bRather, because she covered her face in the house of her father-in-law and he was not familiar with herappearance, Judah didn’t recognize Tamar, thought she was a harlot, and sought to have sexual relations with her. Ultimately, bshe merited that kings and prophets emerged from her. Kingsemerged from her bthrough David,who was a descendant of Tamar’s son, Peretz. However, there is no explicit mention that she was the forebear of bprophets.This is derived from that bwhich Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors. Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers, and it is written: “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz”(Isaiah 1:1). Amoz was a member of the Davidic dynasty, and his son, the prophet Isaiah, was also a descendant of Tamar., bAnd Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: The place of the Arkof the Covet bis notincluded bin the measurementof the Holy of Holies in which it rested.,The Gemara comments: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Ark crafted by Moses had ten cubitsof empty space bon each side. And it is writtenin the description of Solomon’s Temple: b“And before the Sanctuary, which was twenty cubits in length,and twenty cubits in breadth” (I Kings 6:20). The place “before the Sanctuary” is referring to the Holy of Holies. It was twenty by twenty cubits. If there were ten cubits of empty space on either side of the Ark, apparently the Ark itself occupied no space. bAnd it is written: And the wing of one of the cherubs was ten cubits and the wing of the other cherub was ten cubits;the wings of the cherubs occupied the entire area. If so, bwhere was the Ark itself standing? Rather,must one bnot conclude from itthat the Ark bstood by means of a miracleand occupied no space?,§ The Gemara cites prologues utilized by various Sages to introduce study of the Megilla: bRabbi Yonatan introduced this passage,the book of Esther, bwith an introduction from here: “For I will rise up against them,says the Lord of hosts, band cut off from Babylonia name, and remt, and offspring [ inin /i], and posterity, says the Lord”(Isaiah 14:22). This verse may be interpreted homiletically: b“Name,” this isthe bwritingof ancient Babylonia that will disappear from the world. b“Remt,” this isthe blanguageof ancient Babylonia. b“offspring,” this istheir bkingdom. And “posterity,” this is Vashti,who according to tradition was Nebuchadnezzar’s granddaughter, and the book of Esther relates how she too was removed from the throne., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Instead of the thorn shall the cypress come up, and instead of the nettle shall the myrtle come up;and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off” (Isaiah 55:13). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interpreted the verse homiletically as referring to the righteous individuals who superseded the wicked ones in the book of Esther., b“Instead of the thorn”;this means binstead of the wicked Haman.He is referred to as a thorn bbecause he turned himself into an object of idol worship,as he decreed that all must prostrate themselves before him. The Gemara cites proof that the term thorn is used in connection with idol worship, bas it is written: “And upon all thorns, and upon all brambles”(Isaiah 7:19), which is understood to be a reference to idol worship.,The next section of the verse discusses what will replace the thorns, i.e., Haman: b“Shall the cypress [ iberosh /i] come up”; this is Mordecai.Why is he called a cypress [ iberosh /i]? bBecause he was called the chief[irosh/b] bof all the spices, as it is stated: “Take you also to yourself the chief spices, of pure myrrh [ imar deror /i]”(Exodus 30:23), band we translate“pure myrrh,” into Aramaic as imari dakhei /i.Mordecai was like imari dakhi /i, the chief [ irosh /i] of spices, and therefore he is called iberosh /i.,The verse continues: “And binstead of the nettle [ isirpad /i],”this means binstead of the wicked Vashti.Why is she called a nettle [ isirpad /i]? Because she was bthe daughter of the son of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who burned the ceiling [ isaraf refidat /i] of the House of God, as it is written: “Its top [ irefidato /i] of gold”(Song of Songs 3:10).,The next section of the verse states: b“Shall the myrtle [ ihadas /i] come up”; this is the righteous Esther, who was called Hadassahin the Megilla, bas it is stated: “And he had brought up Hadassah;that is, Esther” (Esther 2:7). The concluding section of the verse states: b“And it shall be to the Lord for a name”; this is the reading of the Megilla. “For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off”; these are the days of Purim. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And it shall come to pass, that as the Lord rejoiced over you to do you good,and to multiply you; so the Lord will rejoice over you to cause you to perish, and to destroy you” (Deuteronomy 28:63). The verse indicates that just as the Lord rejoiced in the good he did on behalf of Israel, so too, the Lord bwill rejoice to cause you harm. /b,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bDoes the Holy One, Blessed be He,in fact brejoice over the downfall of the wicked? But it is written: “As they went out before the army, and say: Give thanks to the Lord, for His kindness endures forever”(II Chronicles 20:21), band Rabbi Yoḥa said: For whatreason were the words: b“for He is good” not stated in thisstatement of bthanksgiving,as the classic formulation is: “Give thanks to the Lord; for He is good; for His kindness endures forever” (I Chronicles 16:34)? bBecause the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked.Since this song was sung in the aftermath of a military victory, which involved the downfall of the wicked, the name of God was not mentioned for the good., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And the one came not near the other all the night”(Exodus 14:20)? bThe ministering angels wanted to singtheir bsong,for the angels would sing songs to each other, as it states: “And they called out to each other and said” (Isaiah 6:3), but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The work of My hands,the Egyptians, are bdrowning at sea, and youwish to bsay songs?This indicates that God does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked., bRabbi Elazar saidthat this is how the matter is to be understood: Indeed, God Himself bdoes not rejoiceover the downfall of the wicked, bbut He causes others to rejoice.The Gemara comments: One can blearn fromthe language of the verse bas well, as it is written: “Sothe Lord bwill rejoice [ iken yasis /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:63). bAnd it is not written iyasus /i,the grammatical form of the verb meaning: He will rejoice. Rather, it is written iyasis /i. The grammatical form of this verb indicates that one causes another to rejoice. Consequently, these words are understood to mean that God will cause others to rejoice. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn fromit that this is the case., bRabbi Abba bar Kahana introduced this passage with an introduction from here.The verse states with regard to God’s reward to the righteous: b“He gives to a man that is good in His sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). The Gemara explains that bthisverse bisreferring to bthe righteous Mordecai.With regard to the next part of the verse: b“But to the sinner He gives the task of gathering and heaping up,” this isreferring to bHaman.The conclusion of the verse states: b“That he may give it to one who is good before God”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). bThis is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman”(Esther 8:2)., bRabba bar oferan introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And I will set my throne in Elam, and destroy from there the king and the princes, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 49:38). b“The king”who was destroyed; bthis isreferring to bVashti. “And the princes”; this isreferring to bHaman and his ten sons. /b, bRav Dimi bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109a. קליות ואגוזין בערב פסח כדי שלא ישנו וישאלו אמרו עליו על רבי עקיבא שהיה מחלק קליות ואגוזין לתינוקות בערב פסח כדי שלא ישנו וישאלו תניא רבי אליעזר אומר חוטפין מצות בלילי פסחים בשביל תינוקות שלא ישנו,תניא אמרו עליו על ר' עקיבא מימיו לא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד בבהמ"ד חוץ מערבי פסחים וערב יום הכפורים בע"פ בשביל תינוקות כדי שלא ישנו וערב יוה"כ כדי שיאכילו את בניהם,ת"ר חייב אדם לשמח בניו ובני ביתו ברגל שנא' (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך במה משמחם ביין,רבי יהודה אומר אנשים בראוי להם ונשים בראוי להן אנשים בראוי להם ביין ונשים במאי תני רב יוסף בבבל בבגדי צבעונין בארץ ישראל בבגדי פשתן מגוהצין,תניא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אין שמחה אלא בבשר שנאמר (דברים כז, ז) וזבחת שלמים ואכלת שם ושמחת לפני ה' אלהיך ועכשיו שאין בית המקדש קיים אין שמחה אלא ביין שנאמר (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש,אמר רבי יצחק קסתא דמוריסא דהוה בציפורי היא הות כמין לוגא דמקדשא ובה משערין רביעית של פסח אמר רבי יוחנן תמנייתא קדמייתא דהוה בטבריא הות יתירה על דא ריבעא ובה משערין רביעית של פסח,א"ר חסדא רביעית של תורה אצבעים על אצבעים ברום אצבעים וחצי אצבע וחומש אצבע כדתניא (ויקרא טו, טז) ורחץ במים את כל בשרו שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים במים במי מקוה את כל בשרו מים שכל גופו עולה בהן וכמה הן 109a. broasted grains and nuts on Passover eve, so that they will not sleep andalso so bthey will askthe four questions at night. bThey said about Rabbi Akiva that he would distribute roasted grains and nuts to children on Passover eve, so that they would not sleep andso bthey would ask. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: One grabs the imatzoton the nights of Passover.One should eat them very quickly bon account of the children, sothat, due to the hasty consumption of the meal, bthey will not sleepand they will inquire into the meaning of this unusual practice., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabbi Akivathat binall bhis days he never saidto his students that the btime had come to arisefrom their learning bin the study hall.Instead, he would continue to teach as long as they were willing to listen. This was true bexcept for the eves of Passover and the eve of Yom Kippur,when he would stop teaching. The Gemara explains the reasons for these exceptions: bOn the eve of Passover,he would stop bon account ofthe bchildren, so thatthey would go to sleep during the day, so that bthey would notbe tired and bsleepat night. bAndon bthe eve of Yom Kippur,he would stop bso thathis students bwouldremember to bfeed their children. /b, bThe Sages taught: A man is obligated to gladden his children and the members of his household on a Festival, as it is stated: “And you shall rejoice on your Festival,you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow that are within your gates” (Deuteronomy 16:14). bWith whatshould bone make them rejoice? With wine. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says:One should enable each member of his household to rejoice with an item that pleases them, bmen with what is fit for them and women with what is fit for them.Rabbi Yehuda elaborates: bMen with what is fit for them,i.e., bwith wine. Andas for the bwomen, with whatshould one cause them to rejoice? bRav Yosef teaches:One should delight them with new clothes, bin Babylonia with colored clothesand bin Eretz Yisrael withthe bpressed linen clothesthat are manufactured there., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: When the Temple is standing, rejoicing is only throughthe eating of sacrificial bmeat, as it is stated: “And you shall sacrifice peace-offerings and you shall eat there and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 27:7). bAnd now that the Temple is not standingand one cannot eat sacrificial meat, he can fulfill the mitzva of brejoicingon a Festival bonly bydrinking bwine, as it is stated: “And wine that gladdens the heart of man”(Psalms 104:15)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: The vesselused for measuring bbrine [ imoraysa /i] that was in Tzippori was the samevolume bas the ilogin the Temple, and with itthe Sages would bmeasure the quarter /b- ilog bof Passover.They would fill this vessel and then divide the liquid it contained into four equal parts. The result was one quarter- ilog /i, which is the minimum measure of wine for the four cups on Passover and for certain other ihalakhot /i. bRabbi Yoḥa said: The old eighthmeasure bthat wasin use bin Tiberias was greater than thiseighth measure bbyone bquarter /b- ilog /i, band with it we measurethe bquarter /b- ilog bof Passover.When the old measure is filled and poured into the newer version, the amount left in the original vessel is one quarter- ilog /i., bRav Ḥisda said: The quarter /b- ilogmeasurement bof the Torah is two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadthsin volume, bby the height of two fingerbreadths and one half fingerbreadth and one-fifth of a fingerbreadth.This statement is bas it was taughtin a ibaraitaconcerning a ritual bath, about which the verse states: b“And he shall bathe all his flesh in the water”(Leviticus 15:16), from which the Sages expounded: This phrase teaches bthat there should be nothing interposing between one’s fleshand bthe water.The expression b“in the water”indicates that the verse is referring to a specific body of water, i.e., bin the water of a ritual bath.The phrase b“all his flesh”teaches that one must immerse in bwater that his whole body can enterat once. bAnd how much is that? /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:
26. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21b. כלי עץ העשוי לנחת הוא וכל כלי העשוי לנחת אינו מקבל טומאה וחוצץ בפני טומאה אלא מלמד שמגביהין אותו לעולי רגלים ואומרים להם ראו חיבתכם לפני המקום שסילוקו כסדורו שנאמר (שמואל א כא, ז) לשום לחם חום ביום הלקחו,ותו ליכא והאמר רב אושעיא בשעה שבנה שלמה בית המקדש נטע בו כל מיני מגדים של זהב והיו מוציאין פירותיהן בזמנן וכשהרוח מנשבת בהן נושרין שנא' (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו וכשנכנסו נכרים להיכל יבש שנאמר (נחום א, ד) ופרח לבנון אומלל ועתיד הקב"ה להחזירן שנאמר (ישעיהו לה, ב) פרוח תפרח ותגל אף גילת ורנן כבוד הלבנון נתן לה,ניסי דקביעי לא קא חשיב השתא דאתית להכי ארון וכרובים נמי ניסי דקביעי נינהו,אמר מר ועשן המערכה ומי הוה עשן במערכה והתניא חמשה דברים נאמרו באש של מערכה רבוצה כארי וברה כחמה ויש בה ממש ואוכלת לחין כיבשין ואינה מעלה עשן,כי קא אמרינן בדהדיוט דתניא (ויקרא א, ז) ונתנו בני אהרן הכהן אש על המזבח אע"פ שאש יורדת מן השמים מצוה להביא מן ההדיוט,רבוצה כארי והתניא א"ר חנינא סגן הכהנים אני ראיתיה ורבוצה ככלב לא קשיא כאן במקדש ראשון כאן במקדש שני,ובמקדש שני מי הואי והאמר רב שמואל בר איניא מאי דכתיב (חגי א, ח) וארצה בו ואכבד וקרינן ואכבדה מאי שנא דמחוסר ה"א אלו חמשה דברים שהיו בין מקדש ראשון למקדש שני ואלו הן ארון וכפורת וכרובים אש ושכינה ורוח הקודש ואורים ותומים אמרי אין מיהוה הוה סיועי לא מסייעא,ת"ר שש אשות הן יש אוכלת ואינה שותה ויש שותה ואינה אוכלת ויש אוכלת ושותה ויש אוכלת לחין כיבשין ויש אש דוחה אש ויש אש אוכלת אש,יש אש אוכלת ואינה שותה הא דידן שותה ואינה אוכלת דחולין אוכלת ושותה דאליהו דכתיב (מלכים א יח, לח) ואת המים אשר בתעלה לחכה אוכלת לחין כיבשין דמערכה יש אש דוחה אש דגבריאל ויש אש אוכלת אש דשכינה דאמר מר הושיט אצבעו ביניהם ושרפן,ועשן המערכה אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו והאמר ר' יצחק בר אבדימי במוצאי יו"ט האחרון של חג הכל צופין לעשן המערכה נוטה כלפי צפון עניים שמחין ובעלי בתים עצבין מפני שגשמי שנה מרובין ופירותיהן מרקיבין נטה כלפי דרום עניים עצבין ובעלי בתים שמחין מפני שגשמי שנה מועטין ופירותיהן משתמרין,נטה כלפי מזרח הכל שמחין כלפי מערב הכל עצבין דאזיל ואתי כדיקלי ואבדורי לא הוה מיבדר,אמר מר כלפי מזרח הכל שמחין כלפי מערב הכל עצבין ורמינהו מזרחית לעולם יפה מערבית לעולם קשה רוח צפונית יפה לחטין בשעה שהביאו שליש וקשה לזיתים בזמן שהן חונטין רוח דרומית קשה לחטין בשעה שהביאו שליש ויפה לזיתים בזמן שהן חונטין,ואמר רב יוסף ואיתימא מר זוטרא וסימניך שלחן בצפון ומנורה בדרום האי מרבה דידיה והאי מרבה דידיה,לא קשיא הא לן והא להו, br br big strongהדרן עלך שבעת ימים /strong /big br br

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
altar Rubenstein(1995) 120, 140
eating Rubenstein(1995) 140
epstein,j.n. Rubenstein(1995) 140
fox,h. Rubenstein(1995) 140
hazzan,communal functionary Levine (2005) 438
high priest Rubenstein(1995) 120, 140
josephus Rubenstein(1995) 120
joy,rejoicing Rubenstein(1995) 140
leadership,synagogue Levine (2005) 438
luke,hyperetes Levine (2005) 438
luke,jesus Levine (2005) 438
luke,prophetic reading Levine (2005) 438
myth Rubenstein(1995) 140
pagan,pagans,leadership Levine (2005) 438
pharisees Rubenstein(1995) 140
priest,priests,and hazzan Levine (2005) 438
priest Rubenstein(1995) 120, 140
procession Rubenstein(1995) 120
prophets (books of) Levine (2005) 438
rain Rubenstein(1995) 140
reading,alexandrian synagogue' Levine (2005) 438
sabbath Rubenstein(1995) 120
sacrifices Rubenstein(1995) 120
siloam Rubenstein(1995) 120
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein(1995) 140
sukkot,shofar,lulav,ethrog Levine (2005) 438
targum Rubenstein(1995) 120
temple Rubenstein(1995) 120, 140
trumpet Rubenstein(1995) 120
water libation Rubenstein(1995) 120
willow Rubenstein(1995) 120
wine Rubenstein(1995) 120