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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11241
Xenophon, The Education Of Cyrus, 8.8.15


ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ θρυπτικώτεροι πολὺ νῦν ἢ ἐπὶ Κύρου εἰσί. τότε μὲν γὰρ ἔτι τῇ ἐκ Περσῶν παιδείᾳ καὶ ἐγκρατείᾳ ἐχρῶντο, τῇ δὲ Μήδων στολῇ καὶ ἁβρότητι· νῦν δὲ τὴν μὲν ἐκ Περσῶν καρτερίαν περιορῶσιν ἀποσβεννυμένην, τὴν δὲ τῶν Μήδων μαλακίαν διασῴζονται.Furthermore, they are much more effeminate now than they were in Cyrus’s day. For at that time they still adhered to the old discipline and the old abstinence that they received from the Persians, but adopted the Median garb and Median luxury; now, on the contrary, they are allowing the rigour of the Persians to die out, while they keep up the effeminacy of the Medes.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 1.71, 1.123.1, 1.126, 1.130.1, 1.210.2, 9.122 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.71. Croesus, mistaking the meaning of the oracle, invaded Cappadocia, expecting to destroy Cyrus and the Persian power. ,But while he was preparing to march against the Persians, a certain Lydian, who was already held to be a wise man, and who, from the advice which he now gave, won a great name among the Lydians, advised him as follows (his name was Sandanis): “O King, you are getting ready to march against men who wear trousers of leather and whose complete wardrobe is of leather, and who eat not what they like but what they have; for their land is stony. ,Further, they do not use wine, but drink water, have no figs to eat, or anything else that is good. Now if you conquer them, of what will you deprive them, since they have nothing? But if on the other hand you are conquered, then look how many good things you will lose; for once they have tasted of our blessings they will cling so tightly to them that nothing will pry them away. ,For myself, then, I thank the gods that they do not put it in the heads of the Persians to march against the Lydians.” Sandanis spoke thus but he did not persuade Croesus. Indeed, before they conquered the Lydians, the Persians had no luxury and no comforts. 1.126. So when they all came with sickles as ordered, Cyrus commanded them to reclaim in one day a thorny tract of Persia, of two and one quarter or two and one half miles each way in extent. ,The Persians accomplished the task appointed; Cyrus then commanded them to wash themselves and come the next day; meanwhile, collecting his father's goats and sheep and oxen in one place, he slaughtered and prepared them as a feast for the Persian host, providing also wine and all the foods that were most suitable. ,When the Persians came on the next day he had them sit and feast in a meadow. After dinner he asked them which they liked more: their task of yesterday or their present pastime. ,They answered that the difference was great: all yesterday they had had nothing but evil, to-day nothing but good. Then, taking up their word, Cyrus laid bare his whole purpose, and said: ,“This is your situation, men of Persia : obey me and you shall have these good things and ten thousand others besides with no toil and slavery; but if you will not obey me, you will have labors unnumbered like your toil of yesterday. ,Now, then, do as I tell you, and win your freedom. For I think that I myself was born by a divine chance to undertake this work; and I hold you fully as good men as the Medes in war and in everything else. All this is true; therefore revolt from Astyages quickly now!” 1.130.1. Thus Astyages was deposed from his sovereignty after a reign of thirty-five years: and the Medes had to bow down before the Persians because of Astyages' cruelty. They had ruled all Asia beyond the Halys for one hundred and twenty-eight years, from which must be subtracted the time when the Scythians held sway. 1.210.2. So then Hystaspes replied with this: “O King, may there not be any Persian born who would plot against you! But if there is, may he perish suddenly; for you have made the Persians free men instead of slaves and rulers of all instead of subjects of any. 9.122. This Artayctes who was crucified was the grandson of that Artembares who instructed the Persians in a design which they took from him and laid before Cyrus; this was its purport: ,“Seeing that Zeus grants lordship to the Persian people, and to you, Cyrus, among them, let us, after reducing Astyages, depart from the little and rugged land which we possess and occupy one that is better. There are many such lands on our borders, and many further distant. If we take one of these, we will all have more reasons for renown. It is only reasonable that a ruling people should act in this way, for when will we have a better opportunity than now, when we are lords of so many men and of all Asia?” ,Cyrus heard them, and found nothing to marvel at in their design; “Go ahead and do this,” he said; “but if you do so, be prepared no longer to be rulers but rather subjects. Soft lands breed soft men; wondrous fruits of the earth and valiant warriors grow not from the same soil.” ,The Persians now realized that Cyrus reasoned better than they, and they departed, choosing rather to be rulers on a barren mountain side than dwelling in tilled valleys to be slaves to others.
2. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

491b. by the superior I mean, not shoemakers or cooks, but those who are wise as regards public affairs and the proper way of conducting them, and not only wise but manly, with ability to carry out their purpose to the full; and who will not falter through softness of soul. Soc. Do you perceive, my excellent Callicles, that your count against me is not the same as mine against you? For you say I am ever repeating the same things, and reproach me with it, whereas I charge you, on the contrary, with never saying the same thing on the same subject;
3. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.130 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 8.8, 8.8.2, 8.8.7-8.8.14, 8.8.16-8.8.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.8.2. I know, for example, that in early times the kings and their officers, in their dealings with even the worst offenders, would abide by an oath that they might have given, and be true to any pledge they might have made. 8.8.8. In the next place, as I will now show, they do Physical deterioration not care for their physical strength as they used to do. For example, it used to be their custom neither to spit nor to blow the nose. It is obvious that they observed this custom not for the sake of saving the moisture in the body, but from the wish to harden the body by labour and perspiration. But now the custom of refraining from spitting or blowing the nose still continues, but they never give themselves the trouble to work off the moisture in some other direction. 8.8.10. They had also the custom of not bringing pots into their banquets, evidently because they thought that if one did not drink to excess, both mind and body would be less uncertain. So even now the custom of not bringing in the pots still obtains, but they drink so much that, instead of carrying anything in, they are themselves carried out when they are no longer able to stand straight enough to walk out. 8.8.11. Again, this also was a native custom of theirs, neither to eat nor drink while on a march, nor yet to be seen doing any of the necessary consequences of eating or drinking. Even yet that same abstinence prevails, but they make their journeys so short that no one would be surprised at their ability to resist those calls of nature. 8.8.13. Again, it is still the custom for the boys to be educated at court; but instruction and practice in horsemanship have died out, because there are no occasions on which they may give an exhibition and win distinction for skill. And while anciently the boys used there to hear cases at law justly decided and so to learn justice, as they believed—that also has been entirely reversed; for now they see all too clearly that whichever party gives the larger bribe wins the case. 8.8.16. I should like to explain their effeminacy more The effeminacy of the orientals in detail. In the first place, they are not satisfied with only having their couches upholstered with down, but they actually set the posts of their beds upon carpets, so that the floor may offer no resistance, but that the carpets may yield. Again, whatever sorts of bread and pastry for the table had been discovered before, none of all those have fallen into disuse, but they keep on always inventing something new besides; and it is the same way with meats; for in both branches of cookery they actually have artists to invent new dishes. 8.8.18. They take great pride also in having as many cups as possible; but they are not ashamed if it transpire that they came by them by dishonest means, for dishonesty and sordid love of gain have greatly increased among them. 8.8.19. Furthermore, it was of old a national custom The modern knighthood not to be seen going anywhere on foot; and that was for no other purpose than to make themselves as knightly as possible. But now they have more coverings upon their horses than upon their beds, for they do not care so much for knighthood as for a soft seat. 8.8.24. Neither do they employ the scythed chariot any longer for the purpose for which Cyrus had it made. For he advanced the charioteers to honour and made them objects of admiration and so had men who were ready to hurl themselves against even a heavy-armed line. The officers of the present day, however, do not so much as know the men in the chariots, and they think that untrained drivers will be just as serviceable to them as trained charioteers. 8.8.27. I think now that I have accomplished the task Conclusion that I set before myself. For I maintain that I have proved that the Persians of the present day and those living in their dependencies are less reverent toward the gods, less dutiful to their relatives, less upright in their dealings with all men, and less brave in war than they were of old. But if any one should entertain an opinion contrary to my own, let him examine their deeds and he will find that these testify to the truth of my statements.
5. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.6.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.6.6.  First of all, then, since she was about to set out upon a journey of many days, she devised a garb which made it impossible to distinguish whether the wearer of it was a man or a woman. This dress was well adapted to her needs, as regards both her travelling in the heat, for protecting the colour of her skin, and her convenience in doing whatever she might wish to do, since it was quite pliable and suitable to a young person, and, in a word was so attractive that in later times the Medes, who were then domit in Asia, always wore the garb of Semiramis, as did the Persians after them.
6. Strabo, Geography, 11.13.9-11.13.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.13.9. As for customs, most of theirs and of those of the Armenians are the same, because their countries are similar. The Medes, however, are said to have been the originators of customs for the Armenians, and also, still earlier, for the Persians, who were their masters and their successors in the supreme authority over Asia. For example, their Persian stole, as it is now called, and their zeal for archery and horsemanship, and the court they pay to their kings, and their ornaments, and the divine reverence paid by subjects to kings, came to the Persians from the Medes. And that this is true is particularly clear from their dress; for tiara, citaris, pilus, tunics with sleeves reaching to the hands, and trousers, are indeed suitable things to wear in cold and northerly regions, such as the Medes wear, but by no means in southerly regions; and most of the settlements possessed by the Persians were on the Red Sea, farther south than the country of the Babylonians and the Susians. But after the overthrow of the Medes the Persians acquired in addition certain parts of the country that reached to Media. However, the customs even of the conquered looked to the conquerors so august and appropriate to royal pomp that they submitted to wear feminine robes instead of going naked or lightly clad, and to cover their bodies all over with clothes. 11.13.10. Some say that Medeia introduced this kind of dress when she, along with Jason, held dominion in this region, even concealing her face whenever she went out in public in place of the king; and that the Jasonian hero-chapels, which are much revered by the barbarians, are memorials of Jason (and above the Caspian Gates on the left is a large mountain called Jasonium), whereas the dress and the name of the country are memorials of Medeia. It is said also that Medus her son succeeded to the empire and left his own name to the country. In agreement with this are the Jasonia of Armenia and the name of that country and several other things which I shall discuss.
7. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 7978.32.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Herodian, History of The Empire After Marcus, 1.7.5, 5.3.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accession (imperial) Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
achaemenid, empire Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
alexander the great Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
appearance Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
asia Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
asians Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
astyages (king of media) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
athenian, democracy Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
barbarians Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
cambyses (king of persia) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
caracalla Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
clothing Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 55
commodus Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
cyrus Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
cyrus (the great) Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
cyrus (the younger) Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
cyrus the great (king of persia) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55, 129
darius (king of persia) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
decadence, processes of Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55, 129
deception Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
destruction/ruin Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
diodorus siculus Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
dionysus Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
disguise, idealization Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
divine Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
dress Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241; Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
drinking/drunkenness Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
drinking / drinking parties Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 32
education Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55
effeminacy Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241; Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
effeminate Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
elagabalus Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
eunuchs Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
excess (see also luxury and eros) Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
greece Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
greeks Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
herodotus, imperialism in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus, military training in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus, prosperity in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus, soft and hard peoples Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus, subjugation/subject-people in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus, weakness of non-persians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
herodotus Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
ionia Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 32
irony Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
jason Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
leader, leadership Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
luxury Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
luxury (see also excess) Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36, 37
lydians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
macrinus (opellius) Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
madness Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
medea Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
medes Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 55, 129
military, training, weakness in neglecting Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55
military, training Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
nobility of birth Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
omens Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
onlookers Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
oriental, clothing Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
oriental, luxury Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
orientalism Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55
persia Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
persians Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36, 37; Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55, 129; Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
religion Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
semiramis Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
softness, μαλακός / μαλακίᾳ' Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 32
softness/weakness Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54, 55, 129
softness Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 32
soldiers Chrysanthou, Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire (2022) 241
sparta Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
symposia/feasting Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
thrace Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
thucydides Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 36
toil Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
virtue Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
wealth/prosperity Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 129
women Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54
writers, fourth-century/ Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 125
xenophon Fabre-Serris et al., Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity (2021) 37
xerxes Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 54