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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11242
Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.7.6


ὅλως δὲ τῶν οὐρανίων, ᾗ ἕκαστα ὁ θεὸς μηχανᾶται, φροντιστὴν γίγνεσθαι ἀπέτρεπεν· οὔτε γὰρ εὑρετὰ ἀνθρώποις αὐτὰ ἐνόμιζεν εἶναι οὔτε χαρίζεσθαι θεοῖς ἂν ἡγεῖτο τὸν ζητοῦντα ἃ ἐκεῖνοι σαφηνίσαι οὐκ ἐβουλήθησαν. κινδυνεῦσαι δʼ ἂν ἔφη καὶ παραφρονῆσαι τὸν ταῦτα μεριμνῶντα οὐδὲν ἧττον ἢ Ἀναξαγόρας παρεφρόνησεν ὁ μέγιστον φρονήσας ἐπὶ τῷ τὰς τῶν θεῶν μηχανὰς ἐξηγεῖσθαι.In general, with regard to the phenomena of the heavens, he deprecated curiosity to learn how the deity contrives them: he held that their secrets could not be discovered by man, and believed that any attempt to search out what the gods had not chosen to reveal must be displeasing to them. He said that he who meddles with these matters runs the risk of losing his sanity as completely as Anaxagoras, who took an insane pride in his explanation of the divine machinery.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Aristophanes, Birds, 1073, 1072 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1072. ἢν ἀποκτείνῃ τις ὑμῶν Διαγόραν τὸν Μήλιον
2. Herodotus, Histories, 9.5 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.5. For this reason he sent Murychides to Salamis who came before the council and conveyed to them Mardonius message. Then Lycidas, one of the councillors, said that it seemed best to him to receive the offer brought to them by Murychides and lay it before the people. ,This was the opinion which he declared, either because he had been bribed by Mardonius, or because the plan pleased him. The Athenians in the council were, however, very angry; so too were those outside when they heard of it. They made a ring round Lycidas and stoned him to death. Murychides the Hellespontian, however, they permitted to depart unharmed. ,There was much noise at Salamis over the business of Lycidas; and when the Athenian women learned what was afoot, one calling to another and bidding her follow, they went on their own impetus to the house of Lycidas and stoned to death his wife and his children.
3. Lysias, Orations, 6.16-6.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

26c. these very gods about whom our speech now is, speak still more clearly both to me and to these gentlemen. For I am unable to understand whether you say that I teach that there are some gods, and myself then believe that there are some gods, and am not altogether godless and am not a wrongdoer in that way, that these, however, are not the gods whom the state believes in, but others, and this is what you accuse me for, that I believe in others; or you say that I do not myself believe in gods at all and that I teach this unbelief to other people. That is what I say, that you do not believe in gods at all. You amaze me, Meletus! Why do you say this?
5. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

96a. Phaedo. Now I will tell you my own experience in the matter, if you wish; then if anything I say seems to you to be of any use, you can employ it for the solution of your difficulty. Certainly, said Cebes, I wish to hear your experiences. Listen then, and I will tell you. When I was young, Cebes, I was tremendously eager for the kind of wisdom which they call investigation of nature. I thought it was a glorious thing to know the causes of everything, why each thing comes into being and why it perishes and why it exists;
7. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

273e. and is able to divide things by classes and to comprehend particulars under a general idea, he will never attain the highest human perfection in the art of speech. But this ability he will not gain without much diligent toil, which a wise man ought not to undergo for the sake of speaking and acting before men, but that he may be able to speak and to do everything, so far as possible
8. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 2.67 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.2, 1.1.11-1.1.14, 1.3.3, 2.2.13, 4.3.16, 4.7.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1.2. First then, that he rejected the gods acknowledged by the state — what evidence did they produce of that? He offered sacrifices constantly, and made no secret of it, now in his home, now at the altars of the state temples, and he made use of divination with as little secrecy. Indeed it had become notorious that Socrates claimed to be guided by the deity: That immanent divine something, as Cicero terms it, which Socrates claimed as his peculiar possession. it was out of this claim, I think, that the charge of bringing in strange deities arose. 1.1.11. He did not even discuss that topic so favoured by other talkers, the Nature of the Universe : and avoided speculation on the so-called Cosmos of the Professors, how it works, and on the laws that govern the phenomena of the heavens: indeed he would argue that to trouble one’s mind with such problems is sheer folly. 1.1.12. In the first place, he would inquire, did these thinkers suppose that their knowledge of human affairs was so complete that they must seek these new fields for the exercise of their brains; or that it was their duty to neglect human affairs and consider only things divine? 1.1.13. Moreover, he marvelled at their blindness in not seeing that man cannot solve these riddles; since even the most conceited talkers on these problems did not agree in their theories, but behaved to one another like madmen. 1.1.14. As some madmen have no fear of danger and others are afraid where there is nothing to be afraid of, as some will do or say anything in a crowd with no sense of shame, while others shrink even from going abroad among men, some respect neither temple nor altar nor any other sacred thing, others worship stocks and stones and beasts, so is it, he held, with those who worry with Universal Nature. Some hold that What is is one, others that it is infinite in number: some that all things are in perpetual motion, others that nothing can ever be moved at any time: some that all life is birth and decay, others that nothing can ever be born or ever die. 1.3.3. Though his sacrifices were humble, according to his means, he thought himself not a whit inferior to those who made frequent and magnificent sacrifices out of great possessions. The gods (he said) could not well delight more in great offerings than in small — for in that case must the gifts of the wicked often have found more favour in their sight than the gifts of the upright — and man would not find life worth having, if the gifts of the wicked were received with more favour by the gods than the gifts of the upright. No, the greater the piety of the giver, the greater (he thought) was the delight of the gods in the gift. He would quote with approval the line: According to thy power render sacrifice to the immortal gods, Hes. WD 336 and he would add that in our treatment of friends and strangers, and in all our behaviour, it is a noble principle to render according to our power. 2.2.13. And yet, when you are resolved to cultivate these, you don’t think courtesy is due to your mother, who loves you more than all? Don’t you know that even the state ignores all other forms of ingratitude and pronounces no judgment on them, Cyropaedia I. ii. 7. caring nothing if the recipient of a favour neglects to thank his benefactor, but inflicts penalties on the man who is discourteous to his parents and rejects him as unworthy of office, holding that it would be a sin for him to offer sacrifices on behalf of the state and that he is unlikely to do anything else honourably and rightly? Aye, and if one fail to honour his parents’ graves, the state inquires into that too, when it examines the candidates for office. 4.3.16. Nay, be not down-hearted, Euthydemus; for you know that to the inquiry, How am I to please the gods? the Delphic god replies, Follow the custom of the state ; and everywhere, I suppose, it is the custom that men propitiate the gods with sacrifices according to their power. How then can a man honour the gods more excellently and more devoutly than by doing as they themselves ordain? 4.7.5. But he strongly deprecated studying astronomy so far as to include the knowledge of bodies revolving in different courses, and of planets and comets, and wearing oneself out with the calculation of their distance from the earth, their periods of revolution and the causes of these. of such researches, again he said that he could not see what useful purpose they served. He had indeed attended lectures on these subjects too; but these again, he said, were enough to occupy a lifetime to the complete exclusion of many useful studies.
10. Aristotle, Metaphysics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, 122 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Cicero, Academica, 1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.15. Tum Varro ita exorsus est: 'Socrates mihi videtur, id quod constat inter omnes, primus a rebus occultis et ab ipsa natura involutis, in quibus omnibus *d omnes ante eum philosophi occupati fuerunt, avocavisse philosophiam et ad vitam communem adduxisse, ut de virtutibus et de vitiis omninoque de de 1 om. *d bonis rebus et malis quaereret, caelestia autem vel procul esse a nostra cognitione censeret vel, si maxime cognita essent, nihil tamen ad bene vivendum.
13. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.10. Nec vero Pythagoras nominis solum inventor, sed rerum etiam ipsarum amplificator amplicator G fuit. qui cum post cum post ( eras. q) K hunc Phliasium sermonem in Italiam venisset, exornavit eam Graeciam, quae magna dicta est, et privatim et publice praestantissumis et institutis et artibus. cuius de disciplina aliud tempus fuerit fortasse dicendi. sed ab antiqua philosophia usque ad Socratem, qui Archelaum, Anaxagorae discipulum, audierat, numeri motusque tractabantur, et unde omnia orerentur orarentur K quove reciderent, recederent X corr. V 1 aut c s studioseque ab is siderum magnitudines intervalla cursus currus G 1 antiquirebantur G ( alt. i e corr. 2 ) anquirebantur et cuncta caelestia. Socrates autem primus philosophiam devocavit e caelo et in urbibus conlocavit et in domus domos s ac fort. V 1 (u e corr. c ) domibus Gr. etiam introduxit et coëgit de vita et moribus rebusque bonis et malis quaerere.
14. Plutarch, Pericles, 32.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32.1. About this time also Aspasia was put on trial for impiety, Hermippus the comic poet being her prosecutor, who alleged further against her that she received free-born women into a place of assignation for Pericles. And Diopeithes brought in a bill providing for the public impeachment of such as did not believe in gods, or who taught doctrines regarding the heavens, directing suspicion against Pericles by means of Anaxagoras.
15. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE

16. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 2.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.12. and says that Anaxagoras declared the whole firmament to be made of stones; that the rapidity of rotation caused it to cohere; and that if this were relaxed it would fall.of the trial of Anaxagoras different accounts are given. Sotion in his Succession of the Philosophers says that he was indicted by Cleon on a charge of impiety, because he declared the sun to be a mass of red-hot metal; that his pupil Pericles defended him, and he was fined five talents and banished. Satyrus in his Lives says that the prosecutor was Thucydides, the opponent of Pericles, and the charge one of treasonable correspondence with Persia as well as of impiety; and that sentence of death was passed on Anaxagoras by default.
17. Heraclitus Lesbius, Fragments, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alcibiades Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
anaxagoras Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
anaxagoras of clazomenae Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
anaximenes of miletus Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
apollo of delphi on, determining elements of cult Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
aristophanes, birds Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
aristotle, god of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
aristotle, on charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
astronomy Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
athens and athenians, and religious authority Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
athens and athenians, attitudes of, toward asiatics Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
athens and athenians, cults and cult places of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
athens and athenians, in persian war era Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
burkert, walter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
charis, aristotle on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
charis, from dedications Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
charis, from statues of gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
charis, to parents Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
cosmology Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
dances, and charis of gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
darius i Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
dedications Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
demeter, eleusinian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
demeter, mysteries of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
demeter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
diagoras of melos Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
dialectic Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
diopeithes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
eleusis, and persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
eleusis Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
festivals, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
heralds, eleusinian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
heralds, persian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
herodotus, ethnic perspectives of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
herodotus, historical perspective of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
herodotus, on sovereignty Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
herodotus, religious perspective of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
honouring the gods, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
hymns Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
ionian cosmology and science Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
isocrates Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
julian Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
kerykes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
kosmos, and law (nomos) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
law (nomos) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
medism Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
metragyrtes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
mother of the gods, and athens Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
mother of the gods, and persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
mysteries, profanation of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
myth of er, nature (physis)' Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
parents, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
peloponnesian war Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
persia and persians, sovereignty claimed by Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
philolaus of croton, xvii Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
plato, cosmology of Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
plato Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
prayers, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
priests and priestesses, selection of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
proper respect for gods, rewards from Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
proper respect for gods, through sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
pythagoras and pythagoreans, and apollo Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
pythagoras and pythagoreans, on sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
pythagoras of samos Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
pythagoreans Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
reid, thomas Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 171
religious correctness, rewards and punishments Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sacrifices, and apollo of delphi Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sacrifices, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sacrifices, criticisms of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sacrifices, expensive Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sacrifices, pythagoras on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
sardis, under persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
socrates, scope of enquiry Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 171
socrates Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 171
socrates of athens Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28
socratic literature Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 171
statues of gods, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 179
tyranny, theology of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
wallace, robert w. Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 258
xenophon of athens Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 28