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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11242
Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.9


τοὺς δὲ μηδὲν τῶν τοιούτων οἰομένους εἶναι δαιμόνιον, ἀλλὰ πάντα τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης γνώμης, δαιμονᾶν ἔφη· δαιμονᾶν δὲ καὶ τοὺς μαντευομένους ἃ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἔδωκαν οἱ θεοὶ μαθοῦσι διακρίνειν (οἷον εἴ τις ἐπερωτῴη πότερον ἐπιστάμενον ἡνιοχεῖν ἐπὶ ζεῦγος λαβεῖν κρεῖττον ἢ μὴ ἐπιστάμενον, ἢ πότερον ἐπιστάμενον κυβερνᾶν ἐπὶ τὴν ναῦν κρεῖττον λαβεῖν ἢ μὴ ἐπιστάμενον), ἢ ἃ ἔξεστιν ἀριθμήσαντας ἢ μετρήσαντας ἢ στήσαντας εἰδέναι· τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα παρὰ τῶν θεῶν πυνθανομένους ἀθέμιτα ποιεῖν ἡγεῖτο. ἔφη δὲ δεῖν, ἃ μὲν μαθόντας ποιεῖν ἔδωκαν οἱ θεοί, μανθάνειν, ἃ δὲ μὴ δῆλα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἐστί, πειρᾶσθαι διὰ μαντικῆς παρὰ τῶν θεῶν πυνθάνεσθαι· τοὺς θεοὺς γὰρ οἷς ἂν ὦσιν ἵλεῳ σημαίνειν.If any man thinks that these matters are wholly within the grasp of the human mind and nothing in them is beyond our reason, that man, he said, is irrational. But it is no less irrational to seek the guidance of heaven in matters which men are permitted by the gods to decide for themselves by study: to ask, for instance, Is it better to get an experienced coachman to drive my carriage or a man without experience? Cyropaedia I. vi. 6. Is it better to get an experienced seaman to steer my ship or a man without experience? So too with what we may know by reckoning, measurement or weighing. To put such questions to the gods seemed to his mind profane. In short, what the gods have granted us to do by help of learning, we must learn; what is hidden from mortals we should try to find out from the gods by divination: for to him that is in their grace the gods grant a sign.


τοὺς δὲ μηδὲν τῶν τοιούτων οἰομένους εἶναι δαιμόνιον, ἀλλὰ πάντα τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης γνώμης, δαιμονᾶν ἔφη· δαιμονᾶν δὲ καὶ τοὺς μαντευομένους ἃ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἔδωκαν οἱ θεοὶ μαθοῦσι διακρίνειν (οἷον εἴ τις ἐπερωτῴη πότερον ἐπιστάμενον ἡνιοχεῖν ἐπὶ ζεῦγος λαβεῖν κρεῖττον ἢ μὴ ἐπιστάμενον, ἢ πότερον ἐπιστάμενον κυβερνᾶν ἐπὶ τὴν ναῦν κρεῖττον λαβεῖν ἢ μὴ ἐπιστάμενον), ἢ ἃ ἔξεστιν ἀριθμήσαντας ἢ μετρήσαντας ἢ στήσαντας εἰδέναι· τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα παρὰ τῶν θεῶν πυνθανομένους ἀθέμιτα ποιεῖν ἡγεῖτο. ἔφη δὲ δεῖν, ἃ μὲν μαθόντας ποιεῖν ἔδωκαν οἱ θεοί, μανθάνειν, ἃ δὲ μὴ δῆλα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἐστί, πειρᾶσθαι διὰ μαντικῆς παρὰ τῶν θεῶν πυνθάνεσθαι· τοὺς θεοὺς γὰρ οἷς ἂν ὦσιν ἵλεῳ σημαίνειν.If any man thinks that these matters are wholly within the grasp of the human mind and nothing in them is beyond our reason, that man, he said, is irrational. But it is no less irrational to seek the guidance of heaven in matters which men are permitted by the gods to decide for themselves by study: to ask, for instance, Is it better to get an experienced coachman to drive my carriage or a man without experience? Is it better to get an experienced seaman to steer my ship or a man without experience? So too with what we may know by reckoning, measurement or weighing. To put such questions to the gods seemed to his mind profane. In short, what the gods have granted us to do by help of learning, we must learn; what is hidden from mortals we should try to find out from the gods by divination: for to him that is in their grace the gods grant a sign.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Homer, Iliad, 2.353, 16.233-16.235 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.353. /For I declare that Cronos' son, supreme in might, gave promise with his nod on that day when the Argives went on board their swift-faring ships, bearing unto the Trojans death and fate; for he lightened on our right and shewed forth signs of good. Wherefore let no man make haste to depart homewards until each have lain with the wife of some Trojan 16.233. /and himself he washed his hands, and drew flaming wine. Then he made prayer, standing in the midst of the court, and poured forth the wine, looking up to heaven; and not unmarked was he of Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt:Zeus, thou king, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, thou that dwellest afar, ruling over wintry Dodona,—and about thee dwell the Selli 16.234. /and himself he washed his hands, and drew flaming wine. Then he made prayer, standing in the midst of the court, and poured forth the wine, looking up to heaven; and not unmarked was he of Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt:Zeus, thou king, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, thou that dwellest afar, ruling over wintry Dodona,—and about thee dwell the Selli 16.235. /thine interpreters, men with unwashen feet that couch on the ground. Aforetime verily thou didst hear my word, when I prayed: me thou didst honour, and didst mightily smite the host of the Achaeans; even so now also fulfill thou for me this my desire. Myself verily will I abide in the gathering of the ships
2. Homer, Odyssey, 14.327-14.328, 19.296-19.297 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Empedocles, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4. Herodotus, Histories, 3.40-3.43, 7.15-7.18 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.40. Now Amasis was somehow aware of Polycrates' great good fortune; and as this continued to increase greatly, he wrote this letter and sent it to Samos : “Amasis addresses Polycrates as follows. ,It is pleasant to learn that a friend and ally is doing well. But I do not like these great successes of yours; for I know the gods, how jealous they are, and I desire somehow that both I and those for whom I care succeed in some affairs, fail in others, and thus pass life faring differently by turns, rather than succeed at everything. ,For from all I have heard I know of no man whom continual good fortune did not bring in the end to evil, and utter destruction. Therefore if you will be ruled by me do this regarding your successes: ,consider what you hold most precious and what you will be sorriest to lose, and cast it away so that it shall never again be seen among men; then, if after this the successes that come to you are not mixed with mischances, strive to mend the matter as I have counselled you.” 3.41. Reading this, and perceiving that Amasis' advice was good, Polycrates considered which of his treasures it would most grieve his soul to lose, and came to this conclusion: he wore a seal set in gold, an emerald, crafted by Theodorus son of Telecles of Samos ; ,being resolved to cast this away, he embarked in a fifty-oared ship with its crew, and told them to put out to sea; and when he was far from the island, he took off the seal-ring in sight of all that were on the ship and cast it into the sea. This done, he sailed back and went to his house, where he grieved for the loss. 3.42. But on the fifth or sixth day from this it happened that a fisherman, who had taken a fine and great fish, and desired to make a gift of it to Polycrates, brought it to the door and said that he wished to see Polycrates. This being granted, he gave the fish, saying: ,“O King, when I caught this fish, I thought best not to take it to market, although I am a man who lives by his hands, but it seemed to me worthy of you and your greatness; and so I bring and offer it to you.” Polycrates was pleased with what the fisherman said; “You have done very well,” he answered, “and I give you double thanks, for your words and for the gift; and I invite you to dine with me.” ,Proud of this honor, the fisherman went home; but the servants, cutting up the fish, found in its belly Polycrates' seal-ring. ,As soon as they saw and seized it, they brought it with joy to Polycrates, and giving the ring to him told him how it had been found. Polycrates saw the hand of heaven in this matter; he wrote a letter and sent it to Egypt, telling all that he had done, and what had happened to him. 3.43. When Amasis had read Polycrates' letter, he perceived that no man could save another from his destiny, and that Polycrates, being so continually fortunate that he even found what he cast away, must come to an evil end. ,So he sent a herald to Samos to renounce his friendship, determined that when some great and terrible mischance overtook Polycrates he himself might not have to sadden his heart for a friend. 7.15. Greatly frightened by the vision, Xerxes leapt up from his bed, and sent a messenger to summon Artabanus. When he came, Xerxes said, “Artabanus, for a moment I was of unsound mind, and I answered your good advice with foolish words; but after no long time I repented, and saw that it was right for me to follow your advice. ,Yet, though I desire to, I cannot do it; ever since I turned back and repented, a vision keeps coming to haunt my sight, and it will not allow me to do as you advise; just now it has threatened me and gone. ,Now if a god is sending the vision, and it is his full pleasure that there this expedition against Hellas take place, that same dream will hover about you and give you the same command it gives me. I believe that this is most likely to happen, if you take all my apparel and sit wearing it upon my throne, and then lie down to sleep in my bed.” 7.16. Xerxes said this, but Artabanus would not obey the first command, thinking it was not right for him to sit on the royal throne; at last he was compelled and did as he was bid, saying first: ,“O king, I judge it of equal worth whether a man is wise or is willing to obey good advice; to both of these you have attained, but the company of bad men trips you up; just as they say that sea, of all things the most serviceable to men, is hindered from following its nature by the blasts of winds that fall upon it. ,It was not that I heard harsh words from you that stung me so much as that, when two opinions were laid before the Persians, one tending to the increase of pride, the other to its abatement, showing how evil a thing it is to teach the heart continual desire of more than it has, of these two opinions you preferred that one which was more fraught with danger to yourself and to the Persians. ,Now when you have turned to the better opinion, you say that, while intending to abandon the expedition against the Greeks, you are haunted by a dream sent by some god, which forbids you to disband the expedition. ,But this is none of heaven's working, my son. The roving dreams that visit men are of such nature as I shall teach you, since I am many years older than you. Those visions that rove about us in dreams are for the most part the thoughts of the day; and in these recent days we have been very busy with this expedition. ,But if this is not as I determine and it has something divine to it, then you have spoken the conclusion of the matter; let it appear to me just as it has to you, and utter its command. If it really wishes to appear, it should do so to me no more by virtue of my wearing your dress instead of mine, and my sleeping in your bed rather than in my own. ,Whatever it is that appears to you in your sleep, surely it has not come to such folly as to infer from your dress that I am you when it sees me. We now must learn if it will take no account of me and not deign to appear and haunt me, whether I am wearing your robes or my own, but will come to you; if it comes continually, I myself would say that it is something divine. ,If you are determined that this must be done and there is no averting it, and I must lie down to sleep in your bed, so be it; this duty I will fulfill, and let the vision appear also to me. But until then I will keep my present opinion.” 7.17. So spoke Artabanus and did as he was bid, hoping to prove Xerxes' words vain; he put on Xerxes' robes and sat on the king's throne. Then while he slept there came to him in his sleep the same dream that had haunted Xerxes; it stood over him and spoke thus: ,“Are you the one who dissuades Xerxes from marching against Hellas, because you care for him? Neither in the future nor now will you escape with impunity for striving to turn aside what must be. To Xerxes himself it has been declared what will befall him if he disobeys.” 7.18. With this threat (so it seemed to Artabanus) the vision was about to burn his eyes with hot irons. He leapt up with a loud cry, then sat by Xerxes and told him the whole story of what he had seen in his dream, and next he said: ,“O King, since I have seen, as much as a man may, how the greater has often been brought low by the lesser, I forbade you to always give rein to your youthful spirit, knowing how evil a thing it is to have many desires, and remembering the end of Cyrus' expedition against the Massagetae and of Cambyses' against the Ethiopians, and I myself marched with Darius against the Scythians. ,Knowing this, I judged that you had only to remain in peace for all men to deem you fortunate. But since there is some divine motivation, and it seems that the gods mark Hellas for destruction, I myself change and correct my judgment. Now declare the gods' message to the Persians, and bid them obey your first command for all due preparation. Do this, so that nothing on your part be lacking to the fulfillment of the gods' commission.” ,After this was said, they were incited by the vision, and when daylight came Xerxes imparted all this to the Persians. Artabanus now openly encouraged that course which he alone had before openly discouraged.
5. Plato, Alcibiades I, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

126c. Alc. To my mind, Socrates, friendship with one another will be there, while hatred and faction will be absent. Soc. Now, by friendship do you mean agreement or disagreement? Alc. Agreement. Soc. And what art is it that causes states to agree about numbers? Alc. Arithmetic. Soc. And what of individuals? Is it not the same art? Alc. Yes. Soc. And it makes each single person agree with himself? Alc. Yes. Soc. And what art makes each of us agree with himself
6. Plato, Alcibiades Ii, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

148e. took counsel together and decided that the best thing they could do was to send and inquire of Ammon ; and moreover, to ask also for what reason the gods granted victory to the Spartans rather than to themselves: for we —such was the message— offer up to them more and finer sacrifices than any of the Greeks, and have adorned their temples with votive emblems as no other people have done, and presented to the gods the costliest and stateliest processions year by year, and spent more money thus than
7. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21b. But see why I say these things; for I am going to tell you whence the prejudice against me has arisen. For when I heard this, I thought to myself: What in the world does the god mean, and what riddle is he propounding? For I am conscious that I am not wise either much or little. What then does he mean by declaring that I am the wisest? He certainly cannot be lying, for that is not possible for him. And for a long time I was at a loss as to what he meant; then with great reluctance I proceeded to investigate him somewhat as follows.I went to one of those who had a reputation for wisdom
8. Plato, Charmides, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

164c. or harmful without knowing the effect of his own action; and yet, in doing what was helpful, by your statement, he has done temperately. Or did you not state that?
9. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14b. Socrates. You might, if you wished, Euthyphro, have answered much more briefly the chief part of my question. But it is plain that you do not care to instruct me.
10. Plato, Laches, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

195e. Lach. I do: it seems to be the seers whom he calls the courageous: for who else can know for which of us it is better to be alive than dead? And yet, Nicias, do you avow yourself to be a seer, or to be neither a seer nor courageous? Nic. What! Is it now a seer, think you, who has the gift of judging what is to be dreaded and what to be dared? Lach. That is my view: who else could it be? Nic. Much rather the man of whom I speak, my dear sir: for the seer’s business is to judge only the signs of what is yet to come—whether a man is to meet with death or disease or loss of property
11. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

25d. Pro. You mean the class of the infinite? Soc. Yes. Mix with that the second class, the offspring of the limit. Pro. What class do you mean? Soc. The class of the finite, which we ought just now to have reduced to unity, as we did that of the infinite. We have not done that, but perhaps we shall even now accomplish the same end, if these two are both unified and then the third class is revealed. Pro. What third class, and what do you mean? Soc. The class of the equal and double and everything which puts an end
13. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

356c. but not that course if the pleasant are outweighed by the painful. Can the case be otherwise, I should ask, than thus, my friends? I am certain they could state no alternative.
14. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

148e. THEAET. But I assure you, Socrates, I have often tried to work that out, when I heard reports of the questions that you asked, but I can neither persuade myself that I have any satisfactory answer, nor can I find anyone else who gives the kind of answer you insist upon; and yet, on the other hand, I cannot get rid of a feeling of concern about the matter. SOC. Yes, you are suffering the pangs of labor, Theaetetus, because you are not empty, but pregt. THEAET. I do not know, Socrates; I merely tell you what I feel.
15. Plato, Theages, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

128d. Soc. No, good sir, the meaning of it escapes you; but I will tell it you. There is something spiritual which, by a divine dispensation, has accompanied me from my childhood up. It is a voice that, when it occurs, always indicates to me a prohibition of something I may be about to do, but never urges me on to anything; and if one of my friends consults me and the voice occurs, the same thing happens: it prohibits, and does not allow him to act. And I will produce witnesses to convince you of these facts. You know our Charmides here, who has grown so handsome, the son of Glaucon:
16. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

71d. rectifies all its parts so as to make them straight and smooth and free, it causes the part of the soul planted round the liver to be cheerful and serene, so that in the night it passes its time sensibly, being occupied in its slumbers with divination, seeing that in reason and intelligence it has no share.
17. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 299, 484, 496-501, 298 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 5.6.29, 6.1.31 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.1.31. Then Xenophon, seeing that something more was needed, came forward and spoke again: Well, soldiers, he said, that you may understand the matter fully I swear to you by all the gods and goddesses that in very truth, so soon as I became aware of your intention, I offered sacrifices to learn whether it was best for you to entrust to me this command and for me to undertake it; and the gods gave me such signs in the sacrifices that even a layman could perceive that I must withhold myself from accepting the sole command.
19. Xenophon, Apology, 14, 13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20. Xenophon, On Horsemanship, 9.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21. Xenophon, The Cavalry General, 9.8-9.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.8.22 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.8.22. This Diphridas was as a man no less attractive than Thibron, and as a general he was more self-controlled and enterprising. For the pleasures of the body did not hold the mastery over him, but in whatever task he was engaged, he always gave himself wholly to it. As for Ecdicus, after sailing to Cnidos and learning that the commons in Rhodes were in possession of everything, and were masters both by land and by sea, having twice as many triremes as he had himself, he remained quiet in Cnidos.
23. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 1.6.2, 1.6.46, 8.1.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.6.2. My son, it is evident both from the sacrifices and from the signs from the skies that the gods are sending you forth with their grace and favour; and you yourself must recognize it, for I had you taught this art on purpose that you might not have to learn the counsels of the gods through others as interpreters, but that you yourself, both seeing what is to be seen and hearing what is to be heard, might understand; for I would not have you at the mercy of the soothsayers, in case they should wish to deceive you by saying other things than those revealed by the gods; and furthermore, if ever you should be without a soothsayer, I would not have you in doubt as to what to make of the divine revelations, but by your soothsayer’s art I would have you understand the counsels of the gods and obey them.
24. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.1-1.1.8, 1.3.2, 1.4, 1.4.14-1.4.18, 4.3, 4.3.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1.1. I have often wondered by what arguments those who drew up the indictment against Socrates could persuade the Athenians that his life was forfeit to the state. The indictment against him was to this effect: Socrates is guilty of rejecting the gods acknowledged by the state and of bringing in strange deities: he is also guilty of corrupting the youth. 1.1.2. First then, that he rejected the gods acknowledged by the state — what evidence did they produce of that? He offered sacrifices constantly, and made no secret of it, now in his home, now at the altars of the state temples, and he made use of divination with as little secrecy. Indeed it had become notorious that Socrates claimed to be guided by the deity: That immanent divine something, as Cicero terms it, which Socrates claimed as his peculiar possession. it was out of this claim, I think, that the charge of bringing in strange deities arose. 1.1.3. He was no more bringing in anything strange than are other believers in divination, who rely on augury, oracles, coincidences and sacrifices. For these men’s belief is not that the birds or the folk met by accident know what profits the inquirer, but that they are the instruments by which the gods make this known; and that was Socrates ’ belief too. 1.1.4. Only, whereas most men say that the birds or the folk they meet dissuade or encourage them, Socrates said what he meant: for he said that the deity gave him a sign. Many of his companions were counselled by him to do this or not to do that in accordance with the warnings of the deity: and those who followed his advice prospered, and those who rejected it had cause for regret. 1.1.5. And yet who would not admit that he wished to appear neither a knave nor a fool to his companions? but he would have been thought both, had he proved to be mistaken when he alleged that his counsel was in accordance with divine revelation. Obviously, then, he would not have given the counsel if he had not been confident that what he said would come true. And who could have inspired him with that confidence but a god? And since he had confidence in the gods, how can he have disbelieved in the existence of the gods? 1.1.6. Another way he had of dealing with intimate friends was this: if there was no room for doubt, he advised them to act as they thought best; but if the consequences could not be foreseen, he sent them to the oracle to inquire whether the thing ought to be done. 1.1.7. Those who intended to control a house or a city, he said, needed the help of divination. For the craft of carpenter, smith, farmer or ruler, and the theory of such crafts, and arithmetic and economics and generalship might be learned and mastered by the application of human powers; 1.1.8. but the deepest secrets of these matters the gods reserved to themselves; they were dark to men. You may plant a field well; but you know not who shall gather the fruits: you may build a house well; but you know not who shall dwell in it: able to command, you cannot know whether it is profitable to command: versed in statecraft, you know not whether it is profitable to guide the state: though, for your delight, you marry a pretty woman, you cannot tell whether she will bring you sorrow: though you form a party among men mighty in the state, you know not whether they will cause you to be driven from the state. 1.3.2. And again, when he prayed he asked simply for good gifts, Cyropaedia I. vi. 5. for the gods know best what things are good. To pray for gold or silver or sovereignty or any other such thing, was just like praying for a gamble or a fight or anything of which the result is obviously uncertain. 1.4.14. For is it not obvious to you that, in comparison with the other animals, men live like gods, by nature peerless both in body and in soul? For with a man’s reason and the body of an ox we could not carry out our wishes, and the possession of hands without reason is of little worth. Do you, then, having received the two most precious gifts, yet think that the gods take no care of you? What are they to do, to make you believe that they are heedful of you? 1.4.15. I will believe when they send counsellors, as you declare they do, saying, Do this, avoid that. But when the Athenians inquire of them by divination and they reply, do you not suppose that to you, too, the answer is given? Or when they send portents for warning to the Greeks, or to all the world? Are you their one exception, the only one consigned to neglect? 1.4.16. Or do you suppose that the gods would have put into man a belief in their ability to help and harm, if they had not that power; and that man throughout the ages would never have detected the fraud? Do you not see that the wisest and most enduring of human institutions, cities and nations, are most god-fearing, and that the most thoughtful period of life is the most religious? 1.4.17. Be well assured, my good friend, that the mind within you directs your body according to its will; and equally you must think that Thought indwelling in the Universal disposes all things according to its pleasure. For think not that your eye can travel over many furlongs and yet god’s eye cannot see the the whole world at once; that your soul can ponder on things in Egypt and in Sicily, and god’s thought is not sufficient to pay heed to the whole world at once. 1.4.18. Nay, but just as by serving men you find out who is willing to serve you in return, by being kind who will be kind to you in return, and by taking counsel, discover the masters of thought, so try the gods by serving them, and see whether they will vouchsafe to counsel you in matters hidden from man. Then you will know that such is the greatness and such the nature of the deity that he sees all things Cyropaedia VIII. vii. 22. and hears all things alike, and is present in all places and heedful of all things. 4.3.12. and think of the power of expression, which enables us to impart to one another all good things by teaching and to take our share of them, to enact laws and to administer states. Truly, Socrates, it does appear that the gods devote much care to man. Yet again, in so far as we are powerless of ourselves to foresee what is expedient for the future, Cyropaedia I. vi. 46. the gods lend us their aid, revealing the issues by divination to inquirers, and teaching them how to obtain the best results. With you, Socrates, they seem to deal even more friendly than with other men, if it is true that, even unasked, they warn you by signs what to do and what not to do.
25. Xenophon, On Household Management, 11.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11.8. For I seem to realise that, while the gods have made it impossible for men to prosper without knowing and attending to the things they ought to do, to some of the wise and careful they grant prosperity, and to some deny it; and therefore I begin by worshipping the gods, and try to conduct myself in such a way that I may have health and strength in answer to my prayers, the respect of my fellow-citizens, the affection of my friends, safety with honour in war, and wealth increased by honest means.
26. Xenophon, Symposium, 4.47-4.49 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.47. Very well; in the first place, it is clear as day that both Greeks and barbarians believe that the gods know everything both present and to come; at any rate, all cities and all races ask the gods, by the diviner’s art, for advice as to what to do and what to avoid. Second, it is likewise manifest that we consider them able to work us good or ill; at all events, every one prays the gods to avert evil and grant blessings. 4.48. Well, these gods, omniscient and omnipotent, feel so friendly toward me that their watchfulness over me never lets me out of their ken night or day, no matter where I am going or what business I have in view. They know the results also that will follow any act; and so they send me as messengers omens of sounds, dreams, and birds, and thus indicate what I ought to do and what I ought not to do. And when I do their bidding, I never regret it; on the other hand, I have before now disregarded them and have been punished for it. 4.49. None of these statements, said Socrates , is incredible. But what I should like very much to know is how you serve them to keep them so friendly. A very economical service it is, I declare! responded Hermogenes. I sound their praises,—which costs nothing; I always restore them part of what they give me; I avoid profanity of speech as far as I can; and I never wittingly lie in matters wherein I have invoked them to be my witnesses. Truly, said Socrates , if it is conduct like this that gives you their friendship, then the gods also, it would seem, take delight in nobility of soul! Such was the serious turn given to the discussion of this topic.
27. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

28. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agesilaus ii Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
agriculture, success in, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 113, 177
agriculture, success in, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
altars, founded by divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
amasis Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
animals Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
aphrodite Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
apollo Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
apollo of delphi on, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
apollo of delphi on, and spartas laws Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
appearances Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
aristocracy, and sōphrosynē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
aristotle, on divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
aristotle, on eudaimonia Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
aristotle, on proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
artemis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
athenians, consultation of oracle of amphiaraos at oropos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
authority Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57
beauty, as object of prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
bion Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
calchas Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
cambyses Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
children, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
children, prayers for Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
conjecture Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
counting Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
critias, platos portrayal Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
critias Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
cyropaedia Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
cyrus Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
cyrus the elder Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
daimones, daimonion of socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112, 113, 118, 177
daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 113
daimonion Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57
dances, making gods propitious Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
dead, the, divine guidance concerning Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
dead, the, funerals for Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
dead, the, service to Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
dearness to god, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
dearness to god, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118, 177
dedications, and proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
dedications, and religious correctness Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
dedications, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
delphi, sanctuary and oracle at Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 321
demiurge Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
distress Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
divination, and approximation to the divine Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
divination, and daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112, 113
divination, and dearness to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118, 177
divination, and divine benevolence Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
divination, and knowledge-claims Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
divination, and pollution Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
divination, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41, 177
divination, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112, 113, 118, 177
divination, as conjectural Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
divination, establishing elements of cult Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
divination, philosophers acceptance of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
divination, practised by amateurs Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
divination, pythagoras on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
divination Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 321, 322, 323, 324; Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112, 113, 118; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110; Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
dodona, oracle at Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324
dream incubation, technique Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
dream incubation Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
dreams, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
dreams Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
duty (ta deonta) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
egypt Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324
empedocles Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
epirus, sanctuary of zeus at Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324
eudaimonia, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
euxenippos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
exactness Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
festivals, established by divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
god of the path, kroisos and Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
gods Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
good Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
harmonics Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
health, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
heraclitus Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 321
homer, on divination Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
homicide, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
homicide, trials for Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
iamata Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
impiety Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
interpretation, of entrails Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
irreligiosity Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
knowledge, and sōphrosynē Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
kroisos, king of lydia Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
kyropaidia (xenophon) Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
kyros, king of the persians Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
learning Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
manipulation Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
manteis, and the daimonion Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
marriage, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
mathematics Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
measurement Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
memory Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
music Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
mys of europos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
mystification Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
nomoi Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
nostradamus, m. Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 321
number Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
oaths Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
omens, testing of Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
on sacrifices Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
on sanctuaries Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
oracles Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57; Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
oropos, oracle of amphiaraos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
persians Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
piety, kroisos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
piety Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
pigeons, the Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324
pollution, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
prayers, activities Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
prayers, and dearness to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
prayers, and religious correctness Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
prayers, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
prayers, criticisms of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
prayers, objects of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
prayers, proper Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41, 177
prayers, propitiating the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
prayers, pythagoras on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
proper respect for gods, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
proper respect for gods, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
proper respect for gods, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
proper respect for gods, rewards from Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
proper respect for gods, through dedications Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
proper respect for gods, through prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
proper respect for gods, through sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41, 177
proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
propitiousness of gods, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 113, 118, 177
propitiousness of gods, through dance Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
propitiousness of gods, through prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
propitiousness of gods, through sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
propitiousness of gods, through statues Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
propitiousness of gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
pythagoras and pythagoreans, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
pythagoras and pythagoreans, on prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
pythagoreans Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
questions, divinatory Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46, 79
rationality, in divination Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
religious correctness, and accounts of god Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
religious correctness, and dedications Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
religious correctness, and sacrifices Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
religious correctness, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
religious correctness, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112
religious correctness, rewards and punishments Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
religious correctness Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
rituals, divinatory rituals Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
sacrifices, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 112, 177
sacrifices, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
sacrifices, propitiating gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
sanctuaries, aristotle on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
sanctuaries, founded by divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
self-mastery/self-restraint (enkrateia), in xenophon Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
selloi Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324
service to gods'" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
service to gods', and apollo of delphi" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 118
service to gods', and sound thinking" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
service to gods', propitiating the gods" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
service to gods', rewards of" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
service to gods', rewards of" '89.0_110@apollo Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
socrates, piety Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
socrates Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57; Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 322
socratic literature, of xenophon Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
sokrates, xenophons sokrates Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 79
sokrates Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
sophocles Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
statues of gods, propitiating gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
stoicism, teiresias Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
strength of body, as object of prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
strength of body, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41, 177
sōphrosynē (moderation, self-control, discipline, sound-mindedness, temperance), in platos charmides Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 257
test/testing, of the oracle Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57
trust, lack of trust' Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy, Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience (2019) 46
war, success in, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
war, success in, as object of prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
war, success in, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
wealth, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
wealth, as object of prayer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
wealth, as reward for service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 41
weighing Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
wisdom Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 242
xenophanes, his attitude to divine disclosure, his attitude to divine disclosure Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
xenophon, on divination Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110
xenophon, on piety Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
xenophon, on self-mastery Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
xenophon Bartels, Plato's Pragmatic Project: A Reading of Plato's Laws (2017) 57; Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 423
zeus, bion on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 177
zeus Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 324; Tor, Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology (2017) 110