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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11240
Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.25


nanBut when people had come from Caryae telling of the dearth of men, promising that they would themselves act as guides, and bidding the Thebans slay them if they were found to be practising any deception, and when, further, some of the Perioeci appeared, asking the Thebans to come to their aid, engaging to revolt if only they would show themselves in the land, and saying also that even now the Perioeci when summoned by the Spartiatae were refusing to go and help them — as a result, then, of hearing all these reports, in which all agreed, the Thebans were won over, and pushed in with their own forces by way of Caryae, while the Arcadians went by way of Oeum, in Sciritis.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 7.166, 8.73, 9.27.3 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.166. They add this tale too—that Gelon and Theron won a victory over Amilcas the Carchedonian in Sicily on the same day that the Greeks defeated the Persian at Salamis. This Amilcas was, on his father's side, a Carchedonian, and a Syracusan on his mother's and had been made king of Carchedon for his virtue. When the armies met and he was defeated in the battle, it is said that he vanished from sight, for Gelon looked for him everywhere but was not able to find him anywhere on earth, dead or alive. 8.73. Seven nations inhabit the Peloponnese. Two of these are aboriginal and are now settled in the land where they lived in the old days, the Arcadians and Cynurians. One nation, the Achaean, has never left the Peloponnese, but it has left its own country and inhabits another nation's land. ,The four remaining nations of the seven are immigrants, the Dorians and Aetolians and Dryopians and Lemnians. The Dorians have many famous cities, the Aetolians only Elis, the Dryopians Hermione and Asine near Laconian Cardamyle, the Lemnians all the Paroreatae. ,The Cynurians are aboriginal and seem to be the only Ionians, but they have been Dorianized by time and by Argive rule. They are the Orneatae and the perioikoi. All the remaining cities of these seven nations, except those I enumerated, stayed neutral. If I may speak freely, by staying neutral they medized. 9.27.3. Furthermore, when the Argives who had marched with Polynices against Thebes had there made an end of their lives and lay unburied, know that we sent our army against the Cadmeans and recovered the dead and buried them in Eleusis.
2. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.27, 6.5.32-6.5.49 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.5.27. After achieving this deed the Arcadians marched to join the Thebans at Caryae; and when the Thebans heard what had been accomplished by the Arcadians, they proceeded to make the descent with far greater boldness. Coming 370 B.C. to Sellasia, they at once burned and pillaged it; but when they arrived in the plain, they encamped there, in the sacred precinct of Apollo. The next day they marched on. Now they did not even make the attempt to cross over by the bridge against Sparta, for in the sanctuary of Athena Alea the hoplites were to be seen, ready to oppose them; but keeping the Eurotas on their right they passed along, burning and plundering houses full of many valuable things. 6.5.32. It now seemed somewhat more certain that they would make no further attempt upon the city; and in fact their army departed thence and took the road toward Helos and Gytheium. And they burned such of the towns as were unwalled and made a three days’ attack upon Gytheium, where the Lacedaemonians had their dockyards. There were some of the Perioeci also who not only joined in this attack, but did regular service with the troops that followed the Thebans. A most striking indication of Xenophon’s pro-Spartan feeling (see Introd. p. x) is found in the fact that he here omits all reference to the greatest of the humiliations which Sparta suffered at this time: (1) the re-establishment by Epaminondas, the Theban general, of the independence of Messenia, which for centuries had been subject to the Spartans; and (2) the founding of the great city, Megalopolis, as the capital of an independent Arcadia. Nevertheless, Xenophon alludes several times in the following book to the accomplished fact of Messenian independence and to Megalopolis. 6.5.33. When the Athenians heard of all these things, they 370 B.C. were in a state of concern as to what they should do in regard to the Lacedaemonians, and by resolution of the Senate they called a meeting of the Assembly. Now it chanced that there were present ambassadors of the Lacedaemonians and of the allies who still remained to them. Wherefore the Lacedaemonians spoke — Aracus, Ocyllus, Pharax, Etymocles, and Olontheus — almost all of them saying much the same things. They reminded the Athenians that from all time the two peoples had stood by one another in the most important crises for good ends; for they on their side, they said, had aided in expelling the tyrants The house of the Peisistratidae, in 511 B.C. from Athens, while the Athenians, on the other hand, gave them zealous assistance at the time when they were hard pressed by the Messenians. In the so-called Third Messenian War, 464-455 B.C. 6.5.34. They also described all the blessings which were enjoyed at the time when both peoples were acting in union, recalling how they had together driven the barbarian back, recalling likewise how the Athenians had been chosen by the Greeks as leaders of the fleet and custodians of the common funds, Referring to the formation of the Confederacy of Delos, 477 B.C. the Lacedaemonians supporting this choice, while they had themselves been selected by the common consent of all the Greeks as leaders by land, the Athenians in their turn supporting this selection. 6.5.35. And one of them even said something like this: But if you and we, gentlemen, come to agreement, there is hope now that the Thebans will be decimated, as the old saying has it. The Athenians, however, were not very much inclined to accept all this, and a murmur went round to the effect that this is what they say now, but in the time when 370 B.C. they were prosperous they were hostile to us. The weightiest of the arguments urged by the Lacedaemonians seemed to their hearers to be, that at the time when they subdued the Athenians, though the Thebans wanted to destroy Athens utterly, it was they who had prevented it. 6.5.36. Most stress was laid, however, upon the consideration that the Athenians were required by their oaths to come to their assistance; for it was not because the Lacedaemonians had done wrong that the Arcadians and those with them were making an expedition against them, but rather because they had gone to the aid of the Tegeans for the reason that the Mantineans, in violation of their oaths, had taken the field against them. At these words an uproar again ran through the Assembly; for some said that the Mantineans had done right in avenging the followers of Proxenus who had been slain by the followers of Stasippus, while others said that they were in the wrong because they had taken up arms against the Tegeans. 6.5.37. While the Assembly itself was trying to determine these matters, Cleiteles, a Corinthian, arose and spoke as follows: Men of Athens, it is perhaps a disputed point who began the wrong-doing; but as for us, can anyone accuse us of having, at any time since peace was concluded, either made a campaign against any city, or taken anyone’s property, or laid waste another’s land? Yet, nevertheless, the Thebans have come into our country, and have cut down trees, and burned down houses, and seized property and cattle. If, therefore, you do not aid us, who are so manifestly wronged, will you not surely be acting in violation of your oaths? They were the same oaths, you remember, that you yourselves took care to 370 B.C. have all of us swear to all of you. Thereupon the Athenians shouted their approval, saying that Cleiteles had spoken to the point and fairly. 6.5.38. Then Procles, a Phliasian, arose after Cleiteles and said: Men of Athens, it is clear to everyone, I imagine, that you are the first against whom the Thebans would march if the Lacedaemonians were got out of the way; for they think that you are the only people in Greece who would stand in the way of their becoming rulers of the Greeks. 6.5.39. If this is so, I, for my part, believe that if you undertake a campaign, you would not be giving aid to the Lacedaemonians so much as to your own selves. For to have the Thebans, who are unfriendly to you and dwell on your borders, become leaders of the Greeks, would prove much more grievous to you, I think, than when you had your antagonists far away. Furthermore, you would aid yourselves with more profit if you should do so while there are still people who would fight on your side, than if they should perish first and you should then be compelled to enter by yourselves upon a decisive struggle with the Thebans. 6.5.40. Now if any are fearful that in case the Lacedaemonians escape this time, they may again in the future cause you trouble, take thought of this, that it is not those whom one benefits, but those whom one injures, of whom one has to fear that they may some day attain great power. And you should bear in mind this likewise, that it is meet both for individuals and for states to acquire a goodly store in the days when they are strongest, in order that, if some day they become powerless, they may draw upon their previous labours for succour. 6.5.41. So to you 370 B.C. has now been offered by some god an opportunity, in case you aid the Lacedaemonians in their need, of acquiring them for all time as friends who will plead no excuses. For it is not in the presence of only a few witnesses, as it seems to me, that they would now receive benefit at your hands, but the gods will know of this, who see all things both now and for ever, and both your allies and your enemies know also what is taking place, and the whole world of Greeks and barbarians besides. For to none of them all is it a matter of indifference. 6.5.42. Therefore, if the Lacedaemonians should show themselves base in their dealings with you, who would ever again become devoted to them? But it is fair to expect that they will prove good rather than base men, for if any people in the world seem consistently to have striven for commendation and to have abstained from deeds of shame, it is truly they. Besides all this, take thought of the following considerations likewise. 6.5.43. If ever again danger should come to Greece from barbarians, whom would you trust more than the Lacedaemonians? Whom would you more gladly make your comrades in the ranks than these, whose countrymen, posted at Thermopylae, chose every man to die fighting rather than to live and admit the barbarian to Greece? Therefore, both because they proved themselves brave men along with you, and because there is hope that they will so prove themselves again, is it not surely right that you and we alike should show all good-will toward them? 6.5.44. It is also worth while to show the Lacedaemonians good-will for the sake of the allies who are present with them. For be well assured that those who remain faithful to them in their misfortunes are 370 B.C. the very men who would be ashamed if they did not make due requital to you. And if we who are willing to share the peril with them seem to be small states, reflect that if your state is added to our number, we who aid them shall no longer be small states. 6.5.45. In former days, men of Athens, I used from hearsay to admire this state of yours, for I heard that all who were wronged and all who were fearful fled hither for refuge, and here found assistance; now I no longer hear, but with my own eyes at this moment see the Lacedaemonians, those most famous men, and their most loyal friends appearing in your state and in their turn requesting you to assist them. 6.5.46. I see also the Thebans, who then See 35 above, and cp. note on iii. 13. did not succeed in persuading the Lacedaemonians to enslave you, now requesting you to allow those who saved you to perish. It is truly a noble deed that is told of your ancestors, when they did not suffer those Argives who died at the Cadmea to go unburied; After the defeat of the legendary expedition of the Seven against Thebes it was only the intervention of the Athenians which compelled the Thebans to permit the burial of the enemy’s dead. but you would achieve a far nobler deed if you did not suffer those Lacedaemonians who still live either to incur insult or to perish. 6.5.47. And while that other deed was also noble, when you checked the insolence of Eurystheus and preserved the sons of Heracles, The sons of Heracles, driven from Peloponnesus by Eurystheus, found protection and aid at Athens. would it not surely be an even nobler one if you saved from perishing, not merely the founders, but the whole state as well? And noblest of all deeds if, after the Lacedaemonians saved you then by a 370 B.C. vote, void of danger, you shall aid them now with arms and at the risk of your lives. 6.5.48. Again, when even we, who by word urge you to aid brave men, are proud of doing so, it would manifestly be generous of you, who are able to aid by act, if, after being many times both friends and enemies of the Lacedaemonians, you should recall, not the harm you have suffered at their hands, but rather the favours which you have, received, and should render them requital, not in behalf of yourselves alone, but also in behalf of all Greece, because in her behalf they proved themselves brave men. 6.5.49. After this the Athenians deliberated, and they would not endure to listen to those who spoke on the other side, but voted to go to the aid of the Lacedaemonians in full force, and chose Iphicrates as general. And when his sacrifices had proved favourable and he had issued orders to his men to dine in the Academy, cp. II. ii. 8. many, it is said, went thither ahead of Iphicrates himself. After this Iphicrates led the way and they followed, believing that he would lead them to some noble achievement. And when, after arriving in Corinth, he delayed there for some days, they at once began to censure him, for the first time, for this delay; then when he at length marched them forth, they eagerly followed wherever he led the way, and eagerly attacked any stronghold against which he brought them.
3. Ennius, Annales, 216 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Brutus, 42 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

42. si quidem uterque cum civis egregius fuisset, populi ingrati pulsus iniuria se ad hostis contulit conatumque iracundiae suae morte sedavit. Nam etsi aliter apud te est est apud te BGHM , Attice, de Coriolano, concede tamen ut huic generi mortis potius adsentiar. At ille ridens : tuo vero, inquit, arbitratu; quoniam quidem concessum est rhetoribus ementiri in historiis, ut aliquid dicere possint argutius. Vt enim tu nunc de Corio- lano, sic Clitarchus, sic Stratocles de Themistocle finxit.
5. Cicero, Brutus, 42 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

42. si quidem uterque cum civis egregius fuisset, populi ingrati pulsus iniuria se ad hostis contulit conatumque iracundiae suae morte sedavit. Nam etsi aliter apud te est est apud te BGHM , Attice, de Coriolano, concede tamen ut huic generi mortis potius adsentiar. At ille ridens : tuo vero, inquit, arbitratu; quoniam quidem concessum est rhetoribus ementiri in historiis, ut aliquid dicere possint argutius. Vt enim tu nunc de Corio- lano, sic Clitarchus, sic Stratocles de Themistocle finxit.
6. Cicero, On Invention, 1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.27. Narratio est rerum gestarum aut ut gestarum expo- sitio. narrationum genera tria sunt: unum genus est, in quo ipsa causa et omnis ratio controversiae con- tinetur; alterum, in quo digressio aliqua extra causam aut criminationis aut similitudinis aut delectationis non alienae ab eo negotio, quo de agitur, aut amplificationis causa interponitur. tertium genus est remotum a civi- libus causis, quod delectationis causa non inutili cum exercitatione dicitur et scribitur. eius partes sunt duae, quarum altera in negotiis, altera in personis maxime versatur. ea, quae in negotiorum expositione posita est, tres habet partes: fabulam, historiam, argumen- tum. fabula est, in qua nec verae nec veri similes res continentur, cuiusmodi est: Angues ingentes alites, iuncti iugo historia est gesta res, ab aetatis nostrae memoria remota; quod genus: Appius indixit Cartha- giniensibus bellum. argumentum est ficta res, quae tamen fieri potuit. huiusmodi apud Terentium: Nam is postquam excessit ex ephebis, Sosia illa autem narratio, quae versatur in personis, eiusmodi est, ut in ea simul cum rebus ipsis personarum sermones et animi perspici possint, hoc modo: Venit ad me saepe clam it ans: Quid agis, Micio? Cur perdis adulescentem nobis? cur amat? Cur potat? cur tu his rebus sumptum suggeris, Vestitu nimio indulges? nimium ineptus es. Nimium ipse est durus praeter aequumque et bonum. hoc in genere narrationis multa debet inesse festivitas, confecta ex rerum varietate, animorum dissimilitudine, gravitate, lenitate, spe, metu, suspicione, desiderio, dissimulatione, errore, misericordia, fortunae commu- tatione, insperato incommodo, subita laetitia, iucundo exitu rerum. verum haec ex iis, quae postea de elocu- tione praecipientur, ornamenta sumentur.
7. Cicero, De Oratore, 2.62-2.64 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.62. Sed illuc redeo: videtisne, quantum munus sit oratoris historia? Haud scio an flumine orationis et varietate maximum; neque eam reperio usquam separatim instructam rhetorum praeceptis; sita sunt enim ante oculos. Nam quis nescit primam esse historiae legem, ne quid falsi dicere audeat? Deinde ne quid veri non audeat? Ne quae suspicio gratiae sit in scribendo? Ne quae simultatis? 2.63. Haec scilicet fundamenta nota sunt omnibus, ipsa autem exaedificatio posita est in rebus et verbis: rerum ratio ordinem temporum desiderat, regionum descriptionem; vult etiam, quoniam in rebus magnis memoriaque dignis consilia primum, deinde acta, postea eventus exspectentur, et de consiliis significari quid scriptor probet et in rebus gestis declarari non solum quid actum aut dictum sit, sed etiam quo modo, et cum de eventu dicatur, ut causae explicentur omnes vel casus vel sapientiae vel temeritatis hominumque ipsorum non solum res gestae, sed etiam, qui fama ac nomine excellant, de cuiusque vita atque natura; 2.64. verborum autem ratio et genus orationis fusum atque tractum et cum lenitate quadam aequabiliter profluens sine hac iudiciali asperitate et sine sententiarum forensibus aculeis persequendum est. Harum tot tantarumque rerum videtisne nulla esse praecepta, quae in artibus rhetorum reperiantur? In eodem silentio multa alia oratorum officia iacuerunt, cohortationes, praecepta, consolationes, admonita, quae tractanda sunt omnia disertissime, sed locum suum in his artibus, quae traditae sunt, habent nullum.
8. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 1.13-1.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
advantage Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
argumentum, truth-content Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
argumentum Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84
assembly, discursive parameters Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
atticus, liber annalis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82, 84, 85
atticus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
augustus, dedicatee of de architectura Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
barbarians Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
carya, historicity of sack Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84, 85
caryatids Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84, 85
ciceromarcus tullius cicero, brutus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82, 84
clitarchus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
coriolanus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
cremera Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
cura, of augustus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
de architectura, and greek knowledge Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
diognetus rhodian architect Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
exempla Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
fabula Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
fiction, in historiography Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
fundamenta, in historiography Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
helepolis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
helping paradigm (international relations), and justice Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
herodotus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
historia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
historicity, of vitruvian exempla Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
history and historiography, architectonics of Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
history and historiography, fiction in Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
history and historiography, laws of Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
history and historiography, plurality of Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
history and historiography, synchronism in Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
horace Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
leuctra Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
medism Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
milnor, kristina Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
narratio Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
natura, and truth Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
ornamenta and ornatus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
pais, ettore Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
persians Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84
plataea Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84, 85
reciprocity, negative' Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
reciprocity Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
res verae, in painting Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
salamis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
sparta, spartans Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
sparta Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84, 85
stratocles Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
thebes, thebans Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
thebes Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
themistocles Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84
triumphs Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82
truth Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 85
vitruvius, doubts about reliability Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 82, 84, 85
woodman, a. j. Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 82
xenophon, speeches Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 203
xenophon Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 84, 85