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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11094
Vergil, Georgics, 1.155-1.157


Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastrisThe slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men


et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaciWith care on care, nor suffering realm of hi


falce premes umbras votisque vocaveris imbremIn drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 11, 110-119, 12, 120, 13-20, 202-209, 21, 210-212, 22-26, 299-301, 311, 42-46, 465-478, 50, 109 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

109. Filling both land and sea, while every day
2. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 1024 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1024. φρένες δύσαρκτοι· πρὸς δὲ καρδίᾳ φόβος
3. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 10.65 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and
5. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 108 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

108. οὔπω λευγαλέου τότε νείκεος ἠπίσταντο
6. Callimachus, Aetia, 1.25-1.28 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.445 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.445. σχέτλιʼ Ἔρως, μέγα πῆμα, μέγα στύγος ἀνθρώποισιν
8. Cato, Marcus Porcius, On Agriculture, 61.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.87, 2.161 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.87. Let someone therefore prove that it could have been better. But no one will ever prove this, and anyone who essays to improve some detail will either make it worse or will be demanding an improvement impossible in the nature of things. "But if the structure of the world in all its parts is such that it could not have been better whether in point of utility or beauty, let us consider js is the result of chance, or whether on the contrary the parts of the world are in such a condition that they could not possibly have cohered together if they were not controlled by intelligence and by divine providence. If then that produces of nature are better than those of art, and if art produces nothing without reason, nature too cannot be deemed to be without reason. When you see a statue or a painting, you recognize the exercise of art; when you observe from a distance the course of a ship, you do not hesitate to assume that its motion is guided by reason and by art; when you look at a sun‑dial or a water-clock, you infer that it tells the time by art and not by chance; how then can it be consistent to suppose that the world, which includes both the works of art in question, the craftsmen who made them, and everything else besides, can be devoid of purpose and of reason? 2.161. The great beasts of the forest again we take by hunting, both for food and in order to exercise ourselves in the mimic warfare of the chase, and also, as in the case of elephants, to train and discipline them for our employment, and to procure from their busy a variety of medicines for diseases and wounds, as also we do from certain roots and herbs whose values we have learnt by long-continued use and trial. Let the mind's eye survey the whole earth and all the seas, and you will behold now fruitful plains of measureless extent and mountains thickly clad with forests and pastures filled with flocks, now vessels sailing with marvellous swiftness across the sea.
10. Cicero, On Duties, 1.11-1.13, 2.16-2.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.11. Principio generi animantium omni est a natura tributum, ut se, vitam corpusque tueatur, declinet ea, quae nocitura videantur, omniaque, quae sint ad vivendum necessaria, anquirat et paret, ut pastum, ut latibula, ut alia generis eiusdem. Commune item animantium omnium est coniunctionis adpetitus procreandi causa et cura quaedam eorum, quae procreata sint; sed inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur, ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat paulum admodum sentiens praeteritum aut futurum; homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat rebusque praesentibus adiungit atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitae cursum videt ad eamque degendam praeparat res necessarias. 1.12. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem ingeneratque in primis praecipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quae suppeditent ad cultum et ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis ceterisque, quos caros habeat tuerique debeat; quae cura exsuscitat etiam animos et maiores ad rem gerendam facit. 1.13. In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque investigatio. Itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum aut admirabilium ad beate vivendum necessariam ducimus. Ex quo intellegitur, quod verum, simplex sincerumque sit, id esse naturae hominis aptissimum. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ut nemini parere animus bene informatus a natura velit nisi praecipienti aut docenti aut utilitatis causa iuste et legitime imperanti; ex quo magnitudo animi exsistit humanarumque rerum contemptio. 2.16. Longiores hoc loco sumus, quam necesse est. Quis est enim, cui non perspicua sint illa, quae pluribus verbis a Panaetio commemorantur, neminem neque ducem bello nec principem domi magnas res et salutares sine hominum studiis gerere potuisse? Commemoratur ab eo Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, quos negat sine adiumentis hominum tantas res efficere potuisse. Utitur in re non dubia testibus non necessariis. Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur conspiratione hominum atque consensu, sic nulla tam detestabilis pestis est, quae non homini ab homine nascatur. Est Dicaearchi liber de interitu hominum, Peripatetici magni et copiosi, qui collectis ceteris causis eluvionis, pestilentiae, vastitatis, beluarum etiam repentinae multitudinis, quarum impetu docet quaedam hominum genera esse consumpta, deinde comparat, quanto plures deleti sint homines hominum impetu, id est bellis aut seditionibus, quam omni reliqua calamitate. 2.17. Cum igitur hie locus nihil habeat dubitationis, quin homines plurimum hominibus et prosint et obsint, proprium hoc statuo esse virtutis, conciliare animos hominum et ad usus suos adiungere. Itaque, quae in rebus iimis quaeque in usu et tractatione beluarum fiunt utiliter ad hominum vitam, artibus ea tribuuntur operosis, hominum autem studia ad amplificationem nostrarum rerum prompta ac parata virorum praestantium sapientia et virtute excitantur. 2.16.  I have dwelt longer on this point than was necessary. For who is there to whom those facts which Panaetius narrates at great length are not self-evident — namely, that no one, either as a general in war or as a statesman at home, could have accomplished great things for the benefit of the state, without the hearty co‑operation of other men? He cites the deeds of Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, who, he says, could not have achieved so great success without the support of other men. He calls in witnesses, whom he does not need, to prove a fact that no one questions. And yet, as, on the one hand, we secure great advantages through the sympathetic cooperation of our fellow-men; so, on the other, there is no curse so terrible but it is brought down by man upon man. There is a book by Dicaearchus on "The Destruction of Human Life." He was a famous and eloquent Peripatetic, and he gathered together all the other causes of destruction — floods, epidemics, famines, and sudden incursions of wild animals in myriads, by whose assaults, he informs us, whole tribes of men have been wiped out. And then he proceeds to show by way of comparison how many more men have been destroyed by the assaults of men — that is, by wars or revolutions — than by any and all other sorts of calamity. 2.17.  Since, therefore, there can be no doubt on this point, that man is the source of both the greatest help and the greatest harm to man, I set it down as the peculiar function of virtue to win the hearts of men and to attach them to one's own service. And so those benefits that human life derives from iimate objects and from the employment and use of animals are ascribed to the industrial arts; the cooperation of men, on the other hand, prompt and ready for the advancement of our interests, is secured through wisdom and virtue [in men of superior ability].
11. Varro, On Agriculture, 1.18.7-1.18.8, 2.10.1, 3.1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Horace, Sermones, 1.1.115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.10-1.11, 1.67, 1.71, 1.159-1.214, 1.313-1.314, 1.932, 2.48-2.49, 2.621, 2.629-2.630, 2.1150-2.1174, 3.1-3.2, 3.9, 3.59-3.78, 4.7, 5.9-5.12, 5.14-5.21, 5.114, 5.142, 5.206-5.217, 5.233-5.234, 5.917, 5.923-5.926, 5.934, 5.939-5.942, 5.965, 5.1006, 5.1091-5.1104, 5.1165-5.1167, 5.1250-5.1251, 5.1266-5.1268, 5.1281-5.1349, 5.1361-5.1378, 5.1416, 5.1436-5.1442, 5.1452-5.1457, 6.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Propertius, Elegies, 3.1.9-3.1.12 (1st cent. BCE

15. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.386, 4.412, 6.277, 9.62, 10.727, 12.250, 12.261 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.386. me bear on winged winds his high decree. 4.412. but carefully dissembling what emprise 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 9.62. dappled with white he rode; a crimson plume 10.727. in shining vesture he, and glittering arms. 12.250. Father omnipotent, I call; on thee 12.261. unto Evander's city! From these plains
16. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.23, 1.45-1.47, 1.50-1.53, 1.60-1.63, 1.72, 1.74, 1.79, 1.84-1.93, 1.100, 1.104-1.106, 1.112-1.113, 1.118-1.154, 1.156-1.168, 1.176-1.186, 1.197-1.207, 1.218, 1.229, 1.233-1.249, 1.257, 1.270, 1.273-1.283, 1.291-1.294, 1.299, 1.316-1.334, 1.337-1.351, 1.353, 1.415-1.423, 1.439, 1.493-1.497, 1.507-1.508, 1.512-1.514, 2.39, 2.47-2.72, 2.114, 2.145-2.156, 2.170-2.176, 2.211, 2.467, 2.472-2.474, 2.496, 2.507, 2.510, 2.513-2.515, 2.524, 2.541-2.542, 3.339-3.348, 3.518, 4.6, 4.106, 4.512 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.45. His arms draws in, yea, and hath left thee more 1.46. Than thy full meed of heaven: be what thou wilt— 1.47. For neither Tartarus hopes to call thee king 1.50. Elysium's fields, and Proserpine not heed 1.51. Her mother's voice entreating to return— 1.52. Vouchsafe a prosperous voyage, and smile on thi 1.53. My bold endeavour, and pitying, even as I 1.60. And teach the furrow-burnished share to shine. 1.61. That land the craving farmer's prayer fulfils 1.62. Which twice the sunshine, twice the frost has felt; 1.63. Ay, that's the land whose boundless harvest-crop 1.72. The saffron's fragrance, ivory from Ind 1.74. Iron from the naked Chalybs, castor rank 1.79. When old Deucalion on the unpeopled earth 1.84. By the ripe suns of summer; but if the earth 1.85. Less fruitful just ere Arcturus rise 1.86. With shallower trench uptilt it—'twill suffice; 1.87. There, lest weeds choke the crop's luxuriance, here 1.88. Lest the scant moisture fail the barren sand. 1.89. Then thou shalt suffer in alternate year 1.90. The new-reaped fields to rest, and on the plain 1.91. A crust of sloth to harden; or, when star 1.92. Are changed in heaven, there sow the golden grain 1.93. Where erst, luxuriant with its quivering pod 1.100. With refuse rich to soak the thirsty soil 1.104. oft, too, 'twill boot to fire the naked fields 1.105. And the light stubble burn with crackling flames; 1.106. Whether that earth therefrom some hidden strength 1.112. Or that it hardens more and helps to bind 1.113. The gaping veins, lest penetrating showers 1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height 1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour? 1.147. But no whit the more 1.148. For all expedients tried and travail borne 1.149. By man and beast in turning oft the soil 1.150. Do greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane 1.151. And succory's bitter fibres cease to harm 1.152. Or shade not injure. The great Sire himself 1.153. No easy road to husbandry assigned 1.154. And first was he by human skill to rouse 1.156. With care on care, nor suffering realm of hi 1.157. In drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove 1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen; 1.159. To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line— 1.160. Even this was impious; for the common stock 1.161. They gathered, and the earth of her own will 1.162. All things more freely, no man bidding, bore. 1.163. He to black serpents gave their venom-bane 1.164. And bade the wolf go prowl, and ocean toss; 1.165. Shooed from the leaves their honey, put fire away 1.166. And curbed the random rivers running wine 1.167. That use by gradual dint of thought on thought 1.168. Might forge the various arts, with furrow's help 1.176. And hem with hounds the mighty forest-glades. 1.177. Soon one with hand-net scourges the broad stream 1.178. Probing its depths, one drags his dripping toil 1.179. Along the main; then iron's unbending might 1.180. And shrieking saw-blade,—for the men of old 1.181. With wedges wont to cleave the splintering log;— 1.182. Then divers arts arose; toil conquered all 1.183. Remorseless toil, and poverty's shrewd push 1.184. In times of hardship. Ceres was the first 1.185. Set mortals on with tools to turn the sod 1.186. When now the awful groves 'gan fail to bear 1.197. Prune with thy hook the dark field's matted shade 1.198. Pray down the showers, all vainly thou shalt eye 1.199. Alack! thy neighbour's heaped-up harvest-mow 1.200. And in the greenwood from a shaken oak 1.201. Seek solace for thine hunger. 1.202. Now to tell 1.203. The sturdy rustics' weapons, what they are 1.204. Without which, neither can be sown nor reared 1.205. The fruits of harvest; first the bent plough's share 1.206. And heavy timber, and slow-lumbering wain 1.207. of the Eleusinian mother, threshing-sleigh 1.218. And share-beam with its double back they fix. 1.229. Lest weeds arise, or dust a passage win 1.233. Or burrow for their bed the purblind moles 1.234. Or toad is found in hollows, and all the swarm 1.235. of earth's unsightly creatures; or a huge 1.236. Corn-heap the weevil plunders, and the ant 1.237. Fearful of coming age and penury. 1.238. Mark too, what time the walnut in the wood 1.239. With ample bloom shall clothe her, and bow down 1.240. Her odorous branches, if the fruit prevail 1.241. Like store of grain will follow, and there shall come 1.242. A mighty winnowing-time with mighty heat; 1.243. But if the shade with wealth of leaves abound 1.244. Vainly your threshing-floor will bruise the stalk 1.245. Rich but in chaff. Many myself have seen 1.246. Steep, as they sow, their pulse-seeds, drenching them 1.247. With nitre and black oil-lees, that the fruit 1.248. Might swell within the treacherous pods, and they 1.249. Make speed to boil at howso small a fire. 1.257. His arms to slacken, lo! with headlong force 1.270. Aye, more than time to bend above the plough 1.273. Thee, too, Lucerne, the crumbling furrows then 1.274. Receive, and millet's annual care returns 1.275. What time the white bull with his gilded horn 1.276. Opens the year, before whose threatening front 1.277. Routed the dog-star sinks. But if it be 1.278. For wheaten harvest and the hardy spelt 1.279. Thou tax the soil, to corn-ears wholly given 1.280. Let Atlas' daughters hide them in the dawn 1.281. The Cretan star, a crown of fire, depart 1.282. Or e'er the furrow's claim of seed thou quit 1.283. Or haste thee to entrust the whole year's hope 1.291. Pursue thy sowing till half the frosts be done. 1.292. Therefore it is the golden sun, his course 1.293. Into fixed parts dividing, rules his way 1.294. Through the twelve constellations of the world. 1.299. And black with scowling storm-clouds, and betwixt 1.316. And when the first breath of his panting steed 1.317. On us the Orient flings, that hour with them 1.318. Red Vesper 'gins to trim his 'lated fires. 1.319. Hence under doubtful skies forebode we can 1.320. The coming tempests, hence both harvest-day 1.321. And seed-time, when to smite the treacherous main 1.322. With driving oars, when launch the fair-rigged fleet 1.323. Or in ripe hour to fell the forest-pine. 1.324. Hence, too, not idly do we watch the stars— 1.325. Their rising and their setting-and the year 1.326. Four varying seasons to one law conformed. 1.327. If chilly showers e'er shut the farmer's door 1.328. Much that had soon with sunshine cried for haste 1.329. He may forestall; the ploughman batters keen 1.330. His blunted share's hard tooth, scoops from a tree 1.331. His troughs, or on the cattle stamps a brand 1.332. Or numbers on the corn-heaps; some make sharp 1.333. The stakes and two-pronged forks, and willow-band 1.334. Amerian for the bending vine prepare. 1.337. Before the fire; now bruise it with the stone. 1.338. Nay even on holy days some tasks to ply 1.339. Is right and lawful: this no ban forbids 1.340. To turn the runnel's course, fence corn-fields in 1.341. Make springes for the birds, burn up the briars 1.342. And plunge in wholesome stream the bleating flock. 1.343. oft too with oil or apples plenty-cheap 1.344. The creeping ass's ribs his driver packs 1.345. And home from town returning brings instead 1.346. A dented mill-stone or black lump of pitch. 1.347. The moon herself in various rank assign 1.348. The days for labour lucky: fly the fifth; 1.349. Then sprang pale Orcus and the Eumenides; 1.350. Earth then in awful labour brought to light 1.351. Coeus, Iapetus, and Typhoeus fell 1.353. The gates of heaven; thrice, sooth to say, they strove 1.415. Wields with red hand the levin; through all her bulk 1.416. Earth at the hurly quakes; the beasts are fled 1.417. And mortal hearts of every kindred sunk 1.418. In cowering terror; he with flaming brand 1.419. Athos , or Rhodope, or Ceraunian crag 1.420. Precipitates: then doubly raves the South 1.421. With shower on blinding shower, and woods and coast 1.422. Wail fitfully beneath the mighty blast. 1.423. This fearing, mark the months and Signs of heaven 1.439. Attend it, and with shouts bid Ceres come 1.493. Stalks on the dry sand mateless and alone. 1.494. Nor e'en the maids, that card their nightly task 1.495. Know not the storm-sign, when in blazing crock 1.496. They see the lamp-oil sputtering with a growth 1.497. of mouldy snuff-clots. 1.507. With scattering snout the straw-wisps. But the cloud 1.508. Seek more the vales, and rest upon the plain 1.512. Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock 1.513. Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing 1.514. The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable 2.39. Shrink to restore the topmost shoot to earth 2.47. Come then, and learn what tilth to each belong 2.48. According to their kinds, ye husbandmen 2.49. And tame with culture the wild fruits, lest earth 2.50. Lie idle. O blithe to make all Ismaru 2.51. One forest of the wine-god, and to clothe 2.52. With olives huge Tabernus! And be thou 2.53. At hand, and with me ply the voyage of toil 2.54. I am bound on, O my glory, O thou that art 2.55. Justly the chiefest portion of my fame 2.56. Maecenas, and on this wide ocean launched 2.57. Spread sail like wings to waft thee. Not that I 2.58. With my poor verse would comprehend the whole 2.59. Nay, though a hundred tongues, a hundred mouth 2.60. Were mine, a voice of iron; be thou at hand 2.61. Skirt but the nearer coast-line; see the shore 2.62. Is in our grasp; not now with feigned song 2.63. Through winding bouts and tedious preluding 2.64. Shall I detain thee. 2.65. Those that lift their head 2.66. Into the realms of light spontaneously 2.67. Fruitless indeed, but blithe and strenuous spring 2.68. Since Nature lurks within the soil. And yet 2.69. Even these, should one engraft them, or transplant 2.70. To well-drilled trenches, will anon put of 2.71. Their woodland temper, and, by frequent tilth 2.72. To whatso craft thou summon them, make speed 2.114. Fat olives, orchades, and radii 2.145. Alders in miry fens; on rocky height 2.146. The barren mountain-ashes; on the shore 2.147. Myrtles throng gayest; Bacchus, lastly, love 2.148. The bare hillside, and yews the north wind's chill. 2.149. Mark too the earth by outland tillers tamed 2.150. And Eastern homes of Arabs, and tattooed 2.151. Geloni; to all trees their native land 2.152. Allotted are; no clime but placeName key= 2.153. Black ebony; the branch of frankincense 2.154. Is placeName key= 2.155. of balsams oozing from the perfumed wood 2.156. Or berries of acanthus ever green? 2.170. And, showered it not a different scent abroad 2.171. A bay it had been; for no wind of heaven 2.172. Its foliage falls; the flower, none faster, clings; 2.173. With it the Medes for sweetness lave the lips 2.174. And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175. But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods 2.176. Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold 2.211. Avernian inlets pours the Tuscan tide? 2.467. Hedges too must be woven and all beast 2.472. Besport them, sheep and heifers glut their greed. 2.473. Nor cold by hoar-frost curdled, nor the prone 2.474. Dead weight of summer upon the parched crags 2.496. Whose entrails rich on hazel-spits we'll roast. 2.507. Looks keenly forward to the coming year 2.510. Be first to dig the ground up, first to clear 2.513. Twice doth the thickening shade beset the vine 2.514. Twice weeds with stifling briers o'ergrow the crop; 2.515. And each a toilsome labour. Do thou praise 2.524. Still set thee trembling for the ripened grapes. 2.541. To plant, nor lavish of their pains? Why trace 2.542. Things mightier? Willows even and lowly broom 3.339. Not toward thy rising, Eurus, or the sun's 3.340. But westward and north-west, or whence up-spring 3.341. Black Auster, that glooms heaven with rainy cold. 3.342. Hence from their groin slow drips a poisonous juice 3.343. By shepherds truly named hippomanes 3.344. Hippomanes, fell stepdames oft have culled 3.345. And mixed with herbs and spells of baneful bode. 3.346. Fast flies meanwhile the irreparable hour 3.347. As point to point our charmed round we trace. 3.348. Enough of herds. This second task remains 3.518. Crams the black void of his insatiate maw. 4.6. Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans 4.106. Steadfast no inch to yield till these or those 4.512. I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires
17. Columella, De Re Rustica, 3.21.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21.4. Sed haec quamvis plurimum delectent, note target= 3.21.4.  But though all these give the greatest delight, still profit prevails over pleasure. For the head of the household comes down the more willingly to feast his eyes upon his wealth in proportion to its splendour; and, as the poet says of the sacred deity, Wheresoever the god has turned his goodly head, truly, whatever the person and eyes of the master are frequent visitors, there the fruit abounds in richer measure. But, dismissing this statement, which is applicable also to vines not grouped according to their kinds, I shall proceed with those matters which are most deserving of notice.
18. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.6.32-1.6.36, 1.24.1-1.24.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 90.7-90.14, 90.16, 90.18-90.19, 90.22, 90.24-90.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1.6. But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak. Some people have followed this diet so closely since the time of Pelasgus that even the Pythian priestess, when she forbade the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians, uttered the following verses:— In Arcadia are many men who eat acorns, Who will prevent you; though I do not grudge it you. It is said that it was in the reign of Pelasgus that the land was called Pelasgia.
21. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.2. 2.But we shall begin from the abstinence of certain nations, in the narration of which, what is asserted of the Greeks will first claim our attention, as being the most allied to us, and the most appropriate of all the witnesses that can be adduced. Among those, therefore, that have concisely, and at the same time accurately collected an account of the affairs of the Greeks, is the Peripatetic Dicaearchus 1, who, in narrating the pristine life of the Greeks, says, the ancients, being generated with an alliance to the Gods, were naturally most excellent, and led the best life; so that, when compared to us of the present day, who consist of an adulterated and most vile matter, they were thought to be a golden race; and they slew no animal whatever. The truth of this, he also says, is testified by the poets, who denominate these ancients the golden race, and assert that every good was present with them. The fertile earth for them spontaneous bore of fruits a copious and unenvy'd store; In blissful quiet then, unknown to strife, The worthy with the worthy passed their life 2. |111 Which assertions, indeed Dicaearchus explaining, says, that a life of this kind was under Saturn; if it is proper to consider it as a thing that once existed, and that it is a life which has not been celebrated in vain, and if, laying aside what is extremely fabulous, we may refer it to a physical narration. All things, therefore, are very properly said to have been then spontaneously produced; for men did not procure any thing by labour, because they were unacquainted with the agricultural art, and, in short, had no knowledge of any other art. This very thing, likewise, was the cause of their leading a life of leisure, free from labours and care; and if it is proper to assent to the decision of the most skilful and elegant of physicians, it was also the cause of their being liberated from disease. For there is not any precept of physicians which more contributes to health, than that which exhorts us not to make an abundance of excrement, from which those pristine Greeks always preserved their bodies pure. For they neither assumed such food as was stronger than the nature of the body could bear, but such as could be vanquished by the corporeal nature, nor more than was moderate, on account of the facility of procuring it, but for the most part less than was sufficient, on account of its paucity. Moreover, there were neither any wars among them, nor seditions with each other. For no reward of contention worth mentioning was proposed as an incentive, for the sake of which some one might be induced to engage in such dissensions. So that the principal thing in that life was leisure and rest from necessary occupations, together with health, peace, and friendship. But to those in after times, who, through aspiring after things which greatly exceeded mediocrity, fell into many evils, this pristine life became, as it was reasonable to suppose it would, desirable. The slender and extemporaneous food, however, of these first men, is manifested by the saying which was afterwards proverbially used, enough of the oak; this adage being probably introduced by him who first changed the ancient mode of living. A pastoral life succeeded to this, in which men procured for themselves superfluous possessions, and meddled with animals. For, perceiving that some of them were innoxious, but others malefic and savage, they tamed the former, but attacked the latter. At the same time, together with this life, war was introduced. And these things, says Dicaearchus, are not asserted by us, but by those who have historically discussed a multitude of particulars. For, as possessions were now of such a magnitude as to merit attention, some ambitiously endeavoured to obtain them, by collecting them [for their own use], and calling on others to do the same, but others directed their attention to the preservation of them when collected. Time, therefore, thus gradually proceeding, and men always directing their attention to what |112 appeared to be useful, they at length became conversant with the third, and agricultural form of life. And this is what is said by Dicaearchus, in his narration of the manners of the ancient Greeks, and the blessed life which they then led, to which abstinence from animal food contributed, no less than other things. Hence, at that period there was no war, because injustice was exterminated. But afterwards, together with injustice towards animals, war was introduced among men, and the endeavour to surpass each other in amplitude of possessions. On which account also, the audacity of those is wonderful, who say that abstinence from animals is the mother of injustice, since both history and experience testify, that together with the slaughter of animals, war and injustice were introduced. SPAN
22. Servius, In Vergilii Georgicon Libros, 1.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Bacchylides, Odes, 5.177

24. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

25. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

26. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.61



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aetiology Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 206
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 159, 252
age, golden Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
amor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
aristaeus and orpheus Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30, 34, 39
bees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
birds Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 255
caesar, octavian, and maecenas Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
caesar, octavian, as reader Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
callimachus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
cato Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159; Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
centaurs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
cereal crops Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 252, 255
ceres Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67
change Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
columella Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 255
comparison Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
creation myth Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
cura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
deification, of octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
earth Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188, 252
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
eris Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 66
farmer, as soldier Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 34
farmer, morally ambiguous status of Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 39
farmer Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30, 34, 39
finales, book 1 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188, 255
finales, book 2 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67, 188, 252
gigantomachy/giants Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 206, 252
golden age Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 206
grafting Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
growth, spontaneous (wild) Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 252
hesiod Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
heuretai Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67
home Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
iacchus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
imagery, chariots Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 255
intertextuality Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
iron age, moral ambiguity of Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 39
iron age, technology of Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 34
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 206
justice Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 39
labor' Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
labor, in hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
labor, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 188, 206, 252
labor Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
liber Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 64, 65, 66, 206
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 66
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
lucretius, laws of nature in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
lucretius, natura in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
lucretius, religion in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63
maecenas and caesar, as reader of the poem Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
maecenas and caesar Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
marius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
muses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
mysteries Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
myth, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
myth Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
natura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
nature Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
neptune Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
nightingale, as victim of farmer Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 88
octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 252
order Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
orpheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
personification Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 255
pindar Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 188
politics, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
prayer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67
primitivism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 62
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
prometheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
providentialism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 65, 66, 206
readers of georgics and ambiguity of text, learn sympathy for loss Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 88
religion, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 67
religion, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67, 206
saturn Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
scha¨fer, s. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
scipio Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
scythia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
servius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
sphragis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62, 65, 66
technology, as aggression Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 34
titans Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
tomis Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
trees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
triptolemus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
typhoeus Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232
varro Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 255
vergil, georgics Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 67
vines Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 255
virgil, and aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 252
virgil, and octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
war, and agriculture Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 255
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 255
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 255
war, octavian as warrior Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
weather signs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 206
zeus Clay and Vergados, Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry (2022) 232; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
zoogony Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29