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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11094
Vergil, Georgics, 1.147


Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terramBut no whit the more


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 11, 110-119, 12, 120, 13-26, 299-301, 311, 42-46, 465-478, 50, 109 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

109. Filling both land and sea, while every day
2. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 1024 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1024. φρένες δύσαρκτοι· πρὸς δὲ καρδίᾳ φόβος
3. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 10.65 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and
5. Callimachus, Aetia, 1.25-1.28 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.445 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.445. σχέτλιʼ Ἔρως, μέγα πῆμα, μέγα στύγος ἀνθρώποισιν
7. Cato, Marcus Porcius, On Agriculture, 61.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.87, 2.161 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.87. Let someone therefore prove that it could have been better. But no one will ever prove this, and anyone who essays to improve some detail will either make it worse or will be demanding an improvement impossible in the nature of things. "But if the structure of the world in all its parts is such that it could not have been better whether in point of utility or beauty, let us consider js is the result of chance, or whether on the contrary the parts of the world are in such a condition that they could not possibly have cohered together if they were not controlled by intelligence and by divine providence. If then that produces of nature are better than those of art, and if art produces nothing without reason, nature too cannot be deemed to be without reason. When you see a statue or a painting, you recognize the exercise of art; when you observe from a distance the course of a ship, you do not hesitate to assume that its motion is guided by reason and by art; when you look at a sun‑dial or a water-clock, you infer that it tells the time by art and not by chance; how then can it be consistent to suppose that the world, which includes both the works of art in question, the craftsmen who made them, and everything else besides, can be devoid of purpose and of reason? 2.161. The great beasts of the forest again we take by hunting, both for food and in order to exercise ourselves in the mimic warfare of the chase, and also, as in the case of elephants, to train and discipline them for our employment, and to procure from their busy a variety of medicines for diseases and wounds, as also we do from certain roots and herbs whose values we have learnt by long-continued use and trial. Let the mind's eye survey the whole earth and all the seas, and you will behold now fruitful plains of measureless extent and mountains thickly clad with forests and pastures filled with flocks, now vessels sailing with marvellous swiftness across the sea.
9. Cicero, On Duties, 1.11-1.13, 2.16-2.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.11. Principio generi animantium omni est a natura tributum, ut se, vitam corpusque tueatur, declinet ea, quae nocitura videantur, omniaque, quae sint ad vivendum necessaria, anquirat et paret, ut pastum, ut latibula, ut alia generis eiusdem. Commune item animantium omnium est coniunctionis adpetitus procreandi causa et cura quaedam eorum, quae procreata sint; sed inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur, ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat paulum admodum sentiens praeteritum aut futurum; homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat rebusque praesentibus adiungit atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitae cursum videt ad eamque degendam praeparat res necessarias. 1.12. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem ingeneratque in primis praecipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quae suppeditent ad cultum et ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis ceterisque, quos caros habeat tuerique debeat; quae cura exsuscitat etiam animos et maiores ad rem gerendam facit. 1.13. In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque investigatio. Itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum aut admirabilium ad beate vivendum necessariam ducimus. Ex quo intellegitur, quod verum, simplex sincerumque sit, id esse naturae hominis aptissimum. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ut nemini parere animus bene informatus a natura velit nisi praecipienti aut docenti aut utilitatis causa iuste et legitime imperanti; ex quo magnitudo animi exsistit humanarumque rerum contemptio. 2.16. Longiores hoc loco sumus, quam necesse est. Quis est enim, cui non perspicua sint illa, quae pluribus verbis a Panaetio commemorantur, neminem neque ducem bello nec principem domi magnas res et salutares sine hominum studiis gerere potuisse? Commemoratur ab eo Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, quos negat sine adiumentis hominum tantas res efficere potuisse. Utitur in re non dubia testibus non necessariis. Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur conspiratione hominum atque consensu, sic nulla tam detestabilis pestis est, quae non homini ab homine nascatur. Est Dicaearchi liber de interitu hominum, Peripatetici magni et copiosi, qui collectis ceteris causis eluvionis, pestilentiae, vastitatis, beluarum etiam repentinae multitudinis, quarum impetu docet quaedam hominum genera esse consumpta, deinde comparat, quanto plures deleti sint homines hominum impetu, id est bellis aut seditionibus, quam omni reliqua calamitate. 2.17. Cum igitur hie locus nihil habeat dubitationis, quin homines plurimum hominibus et prosint et obsint, proprium hoc statuo esse virtutis, conciliare animos hominum et ad usus suos adiungere. Itaque, quae in rebus iimis quaeque in usu et tractatione beluarum fiunt utiliter ad hominum vitam, artibus ea tribuuntur operosis, hominum autem studia ad amplificationem nostrarum rerum prompta ac parata virorum praestantium sapientia et virtute excitantur. 2.16.  I have dwelt longer on this point than was necessary. For who is there to whom those facts which Panaetius narrates at great length are not self-evident — namely, that no one, either as a general in war or as a statesman at home, could have accomplished great things for the benefit of the state, without the hearty co‑operation of other men? He cites the deeds of Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, who, he says, could not have achieved so great success without the support of other men. He calls in witnesses, whom he does not need, to prove a fact that no one questions. And yet, as, on the one hand, we secure great advantages through the sympathetic cooperation of our fellow-men; so, on the other, there is no curse so terrible but it is brought down by man upon man. There is a book by Dicaearchus on "The Destruction of Human Life." He was a famous and eloquent Peripatetic, and he gathered together all the other causes of destruction — floods, epidemics, famines, and sudden incursions of wild animals in myriads, by whose assaults, he informs us, whole tribes of men have been wiped out. And then he proceeds to show by way of comparison how many more men have been destroyed by the assaults of men — that is, by wars or revolutions — than by any and all other sorts of calamity. 2.17.  Since, therefore, there can be no doubt on this point, that man is the source of both the greatest help and the greatest harm to man, I set it down as the peculiar function of virtue to win the hearts of men and to attach them to one's own service. And so those benefits that human life derives from iimate objects and from the employment and use of animals are ascribed to the industrial arts; the cooperation of men, on the other hand, prompt and ready for the advancement of our interests, is secured through wisdom and virtue [in men of superior ability].
10. Varro, On Agriculture, 1.18.7-1.18.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Catullus, Poems, 64.384-64.408 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Horace, Sermones, 1.1.115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.10-1.11, 1.67, 1.71, 1.159-1.214, 1.313-1.314, 1.932, 1.1021-1.1028, 2.700-2.707, 2.1058-2.1063, 2.1150-2.1174, 3.1-3.2, 3.9, 3.59-3.78, 3.978-3.1023, 4.7, 5.9-5.12, 5.14-5.21, 5.114, 5.142, 5.206-5.217, 5.233-5.234, 5.419-5.431, 5.917, 5.923-5.926, 5.934, 5.939-5.942, 5.965, 5.1006, 5.1091-5.1104, 5.1165-5.1167, 5.1250-5.1251, 5.1266-5.1268, 5.1295, 5.1361-5.1378, 5.1416, 5.1436-5.1442, 5.1452-5.1457, 6.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Ovid, Fasti, 1.337-1.456 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.337. Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt 1.338. Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339. No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340. Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341. Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm 1.342. And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343. The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper 1.344. And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345. He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346. To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347. The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull 1.348. Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349. Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow 1.350. Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature 1.351. She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice 1.352. Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353. The swine were punished: terrified by that example 1.354. You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355. Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356. Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357. ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358. There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359. Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360. To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361. The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362. But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363. Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed 1.364. And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365. His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief 1.366. But added these final words to what she said: 1.367. ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss 1.368. And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369. But lest he still deceives you by changing shape 1.370. Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371. The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep 1.372. And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373. He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face 1.374. But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375. Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard 1.376. He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377. Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth 1.378. Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379. The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380. Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381. Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382. That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383. What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384. Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385. Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays 1.386. With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387. Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin 1.388. Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389. I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans 1.390. Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391. A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian 1.392. Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393. Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus 1.394. That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395. There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus 1.396. And whoever else was not averse to jesting 1.397. The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust 1.398. And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399. And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass 1.400. And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401. Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment 1.402. They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403. Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland 1.404. A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405. There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair 1.406. Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407. One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee 1.408. Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409. One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass 1.410. Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411. So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs 1.412. Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413. You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414. Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415. But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens 1.416. of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417. He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone 1.418. He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419. But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420. She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421. It was night, and drowsy from the wine 1.422. They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423. Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth 1.424. Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425. Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426. Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427. Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed 1.428. He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429. Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430. But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431. He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet 1.432. He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433. Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously 1.434. Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435. Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away 1.436. And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437. But the over-expectant god with his rigid member 1.438. Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439. The creator of that ruckus paid with his life 1.440. And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441. You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace 1.442. You harmless race that haunt the woodlands 1.443. Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings 1.444. And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks 1.445. But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues 1.446. And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447. Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods 1.448. The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449. Though long untouched, birds were killed at last 1.450. And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451. So the white dove, torn from her mate 1.452. Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453. Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose 1.454. Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455. The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night 1.456. Because he summons the day with his waking cries
15. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.150, 5.341, 5.391, 5.523-5.532, 5.564-5.565, 15.110-15.142 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Propertius, Elegies, 1.1.9-1.1.16, 3.1.9-3.1.12 (1st cent. BCE

17. Tibullus, Elegies, 1.3.35-1.3.50, 1.10.1-1.10.12, 2.3.14-2.3.16, 2.3.31-2.3.32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.386, 4.412, 6.277, 9.62, 10.727, 12.250, 12.261 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.386. me bear on winged winds his high decree. 4.412. but carefully dissembling what emprise 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 9.62. dappled with white he rode; a crimson plume 10.727. in shining vesture he, and glittering arms. 12.250. Father omnipotent, I call; on thee 12.261. unto Evander's city! From these plains
19. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.23, 1.39, 1.45-1.47, 1.50-1.53, 1.60-1.63, 1.72, 1.74, 1.79, 1.84-1.93, 1.100, 1.104-1.106, 1.112-1.113, 1.118-1.146, 1.148-1.168, 1.176-1.186, 1.197-1.207, 1.218, 1.229, 1.233-1.249, 1.257, 1.276-1.283, 1.291-1.294, 1.299, 1.316-1.334, 1.337-1.355, 1.415-1.423, 1.439, 1.446-1.447, 1.512-1.514, 2.9-2.82, 2.211, 2.386, 2.394, 2.467, 2.513-2.515, 2.532-2.537, 2.541-2.542, 3.3-3.8, 3.115-3.117, 3.258-3.263, 3.266-3.268, 3.299, 3.306-3.307, 3.313, 3.525-3.530, 4.6, 4.106, 4.149-4.152, 4.170-4.175, 4.560-4.562 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.39. Sole dread of seamen, till far placeName key= 1.45. His arms draws in, yea, and hath left thee more 1.46. Than thy full meed of heaven: be what thou wilt— 1.47. For neither Tartarus hopes to call thee king 1.50. Elysium's fields, and Proserpine not heed 1.51. Her mother's voice entreating to return— 1.52. Vouchsafe a prosperous voyage, and smile on thi 1.53. My bold endeavour, and pitying, even as I 1.60. And teach the furrow-burnished share to shine. 1.61. That land the craving farmer's prayer fulfils 1.62. Which twice the sunshine, twice the frost has felt; 1.63. Ay, that's the land whose boundless harvest-crop 1.72. The saffron's fragrance, ivory from Ind 1.74. Iron from the naked Chalybs, castor rank 1.79. When old Deucalion on the unpeopled earth 1.84. By the ripe suns of summer; but if the earth 1.85. Less fruitful just ere Arcturus rise 1.86. With shallower trench uptilt it—'twill suffice; 1.87. There, lest weeds choke the crop's luxuriance, here 1.88. Lest the scant moisture fail the barren sand. 1.89. Then thou shalt suffer in alternate year 1.90. The new-reaped fields to rest, and on the plain 1.91. A crust of sloth to harden; or, when star 1.92. Are changed in heaven, there sow the golden grain 1.93. Where erst, luxuriant with its quivering pod 1.100. With refuse rich to soak the thirsty soil 1.104. oft, too, 'twill boot to fire the naked fields 1.105. And the light stubble burn with crackling flames; 1.106. Whether that earth therefrom some hidden strength 1.112. Or that it hardens more and helps to bind 1.113. The gaping veins, lest penetrating showers 1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height 1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour? 1.148. For all expedients tried and travail borne 1.149. By man and beast in turning oft the soil 1.150. Do greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane 1.151. And succory's bitter fibres cease to harm 1.152. Or shade not injure. The great Sire himself 1.153. No easy road to husbandry assigned 1.154. And first was he by human skill to rouse 1.155. The slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men 1.156. With care on care, nor suffering realm of hi 1.157. In drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove 1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen; 1.159. To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line— 1.160. Even this was impious; for the common stock 1.161. They gathered, and the earth of her own will 1.162. All things more freely, no man bidding, bore. 1.163. He to black serpents gave their venom-bane 1.164. And bade the wolf go prowl, and ocean toss; 1.165. Shooed from the leaves their honey, put fire away 1.166. And curbed the random rivers running wine 1.167. That use by gradual dint of thought on thought 1.168. Might forge the various arts, with furrow's help 1.176. And hem with hounds the mighty forest-glades. 1.177. Soon one with hand-net scourges the broad stream 1.178. Probing its depths, one drags his dripping toil 1.179. Along the main; then iron's unbending might 1.180. And shrieking saw-blade,—for the men of old 1.181. With wedges wont to cleave the splintering log;— 1.182. Then divers arts arose; toil conquered all 1.183. Remorseless toil, and poverty's shrewd push 1.184. In times of hardship. Ceres was the first 1.185. Set mortals on with tools to turn the sod 1.186. When now the awful groves 'gan fail to bear 1.197. Prune with thy hook the dark field's matted shade 1.198. Pray down the showers, all vainly thou shalt eye 1.199. Alack! thy neighbour's heaped-up harvest-mow 1.200. And in the greenwood from a shaken oak 1.201. Seek solace for thine hunger. 1.202. Now to tell 1.203. The sturdy rustics' weapons, what they are 1.204. Without which, neither can be sown nor reared 1.205. The fruits of harvest; first the bent plough's share 1.206. And heavy timber, and slow-lumbering wain 1.207. of the Eleusinian mother, threshing-sleigh 1.218. And share-beam with its double back they fix. 1.229. Lest weeds arise, or dust a passage win 1.233. Or burrow for their bed the purblind moles 1.234. Or toad is found in hollows, and all the swarm 1.235. of earth's unsightly creatures; or a huge 1.236. Corn-heap the weevil plunders, and the ant 1.237. Fearful of coming age and penury. 1.238. Mark too, what time the walnut in the wood 1.239. With ample bloom shall clothe her, and bow down 1.240. Her odorous branches, if the fruit prevail 1.241. Like store of grain will follow, and there shall come 1.242. A mighty winnowing-time with mighty heat; 1.243. But if the shade with wealth of leaves abound 1.244. Vainly your threshing-floor will bruise the stalk 1.245. Rich but in chaff. Many myself have seen 1.246. Steep, as they sow, their pulse-seeds, drenching them 1.247. With nitre and black oil-lees, that the fruit 1.248. Might swell within the treacherous pods, and they 1.249. Make speed to boil at howso small a fire. 1.257. His arms to slacken, lo! with headlong force 1.276. Opens the year, before whose threatening front 1.277. Routed the dog-star sinks. But if it be 1.278. For wheaten harvest and the hardy spelt 1.279. Thou tax the soil, to corn-ears wholly given 1.280. Let Atlas' daughters hide them in the dawn 1.281. The Cretan star, a crown of fire, depart 1.282. Or e'er the furrow's claim of seed thou quit 1.283. Or haste thee to entrust the whole year's hope 1.291. Pursue thy sowing till half the frosts be done. 1.292. Therefore it is the golden sun, his course 1.293. Into fixed parts dividing, rules his way 1.294. Through the twelve constellations of the world. 1.299. And black with scowling storm-clouds, and betwixt 1.316. And when the first breath of his panting steed 1.317. On us the Orient flings, that hour with them 1.318. Red Vesper 'gins to trim his 'lated fires. 1.319. Hence under doubtful skies forebode we can 1.320. The coming tempests, hence both harvest-day 1.321. And seed-time, when to smite the treacherous main 1.322. With driving oars, when launch the fair-rigged fleet 1.323. Or in ripe hour to fell the forest-pine. 1.324. Hence, too, not idly do we watch the stars— 1.325. Their rising and their setting-and the year 1.326. Four varying seasons to one law conformed. 1.327. If chilly showers e'er shut the farmer's door 1.328. Much that had soon with sunshine cried for haste 1.329. He may forestall; the ploughman batters keen 1.330. His blunted share's hard tooth, scoops from a tree 1.331. His troughs, or on the cattle stamps a brand 1.332. Or numbers on the corn-heaps; some make sharp 1.333. The stakes and two-pronged forks, and willow-band 1.334. Amerian for the bending vine prepare. 1.337. Before the fire; now bruise it with the stone. 1.338. Nay even on holy days some tasks to ply 1.339. Is right and lawful: this no ban forbids 1.340. To turn the runnel's course, fence corn-fields in 1.341. Make springes for the birds, burn up the briars 1.342. And plunge in wholesome stream the bleating flock. 1.343. oft too with oil or apples plenty-cheap 1.344. The creeping ass's ribs his driver packs 1.345. And home from town returning brings instead 1.346. A dented mill-stone or black lump of pitch. 1.347. The moon herself in various rank assign 1.348. The days for labour lucky: fly the fifth; 1.349. Then sprang pale Orcus and the Eumenides; 1.350. Earth then in awful labour brought to light 1.351. Coeus, Iapetus, and Typhoeus fell 1.352. And those sworn brethren banded to break down 1.353. The gates of heaven; thrice, sooth to say, they strove 1.354. Ossa on placeName key= 1.355. Aye, and on Ossa to up-roll amain 1.415. Wields with red hand the levin; through all her bulk 1.416. Earth at the hurly quakes; the beasts are fled 1.417. And mortal hearts of every kindred sunk 1.418. In cowering terror; he with flaming brand 1.419. Athos , or Rhodope, or Ceraunian crag 1.420. Precipitates: then doubly raves the South 1.421. With shower on blinding shower, and woods and coast 1.422. Wail fitfully beneath the mighty blast. 1.423. This fearing, mark the months and Signs of heaven 1.439. Attend it, and with shouts bid Ceres come 1.446. That bring the frost, the Sire of all himself 1.447. Ordained what warnings in her monthly round 1.512. Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock 1.513. Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing 1.514. The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable 2.9. Hither, O Father of the wine-press, come 2.10. And stripped of buskin stain thy bared limb 2.11. In the new must with me. 2.12. First, nature's law 2.13. For generating trees is manifold; 2.14. For some of their own force spontaneous spring 2.15. No hand of man compelling, and posse 2.16. The plains and river-windings far and wide 2.17. As pliant osier and the bending broom 2.18. Poplar, and willows in wan companie 2.19. With green leaf glimmering gray; and some there be 2.20. From chance-dropped seed that rear them, as the tall 2.21. Chestnuts, and, mightiest of the branching wood 2.22. Jove's Aesculus, and oaks, oracular 2.23. Deemed by the Greeks of old. With some sprouts forth 2.24. A forest of dense suckers from the root 2.25. As elms and cherries; so, too, a pigmy plant 2.26. Beneath its mother's mighty shade upshoot 2.27. The bay-tree of placeName key= 2.28. Nature imparted first; hence all the race 2.29. of forest-trees and shrubs and sacred grove 2.30. Springs into verdure. Other means there are 2.31. Which use by method for itself acquired. 2.32. One, sliving suckers from the tender frame 2.33. of the tree-mother, plants them in the trench; 2.34. One buries the bare stumps within his field 2.35. Truncheons cleft four-wise, or sharp-pointed stakes; 2.36. Some forest-trees the layer's bent arch await 2.37. And slips yet quick within the parent-soil; 2.38. No root need others, nor doth the pruner's hand 2.39. Shrink to restore the topmost shoot to earth 2.40. That gave it being. Nay, marvellous to tell 2.41. Lopped of its limbs, the olive, a mere stock 2.42. Still thrusts its root out from the sapless wood 2.43. And oft the branches of one kind we see 2.44. Change to another's with no loss to rue 2.45. Pear-tree transformed the ingrafted apple yield 2.46. And stony cornels on the plum-tree blush. 2.47. Come then, and learn what tilth to each belong 2.48. According to their kinds, ye husbandmen 2.49. And tame with culture the wild fruits, lest earth 2.50. Lie idle. O blithe to make all Ismaru 2.51. One forest of the wine-god, and to clothe 2.52. With olives huge Tabernus! And be thou 2.53. At hand, and with me ply the voyage of toil 2.54. I am bound on, O my glory, O thou that art 2.55. Justly the chiefest portion of my fame 2.56. Maecenas, and on this wide ocean launched 2.57. Spread sail like wings to waft thee. Not that I 2.58. With my poor verse would comprehend the whole 2.59. Nay, though a hundred tongues, a hundred mouth 2.60. Were mine, a voice of iron; be thou at hand 2.61. Skirt but the nearer coast-line; see the shore 2.62. Is in our grasp; not now with feigned song 2.63. Through winding bouts and tedious preluding 2.64. Shall I detain thee. 2.65. Those that lift their head 2.66. Into the realms of light spontaneously 2.67. Fruitless indeed, but blithe and strenuous spring 2.68. Since Nature lurks within the soil. And yet 2.69. Even these, should one engraft them, or transplant 2.70. To well-drilled trenches, will anon put of 2.71. Their woodland temper, and, by frequent tilth 2.72. To whatso craft thou summon them, make speed 2.73. To follow. So likewise will the barren shaft 2.74. That from the stock-root issueth, if it be 2.75. Set out with clear space amid open fields: 2.76. Now the tree-mother's towering leaves and bough 2.77. Darken, despoil of increase as it grows 2.78. And blast it in the bearing. Lastly, that 2.79. Which from shed seed ariseth, upward win 2.80. But slowly, yielding promise of its shade 2.81. To late-born generations; apples wane 2.82. Forgetful of their former juice, the grape 2.211. Avernian inlets pours the Tuscan tide? 2.386. A spark hath fallen, that, 'neath the unctuous rind 2.394. Down on the forest, and a driving wind 2.467. Hedges too must be woven and all beast 2.513. Twice doth the thickening shade beset the vine 2.514. Twice weeds with stifling briers o'ergrow the crop; 2.515. And each a toilsome labour. Do thou praise 2.532. Apples, moreover, soon as first they feel 2.533. Their stems wax lusty, and have found their strength 2.534. To heaven climb swiftly, self-impelled, nor crave 2.535. Our succour. All the grove meanwhile no le 2.536. With fruit is swelling, and the wild haunts of bird 2.537. Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu 2.541. To plant, nor lavish of their pains? Why trace 2.542. Things mightier? Willows even and lowly broom 3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.115. The heights of 3.116. Even him, when sore disease or sluggish eld 3.117. Now saps his strength, pen fast at home, and spare 3.258. Whether on steed or steer thy choice be set. 3.259. Ay, therefore 'tis they banish bulls afar 3.260. To solitary pastures, or behind 3.261. Some mountain-barrier, or broad streams beyond 3.262. Or else in plenteous stalls pen fast at home. 3.263. For, even through sight of her, the female waste 3.266. With her sweet charms can lovers proud compel 3.267. To battle for the conquest horn to horn. 3.268. In Sila's forest feeds the heifer fair 3.299. Never than then more fiercely o'er the plain 3.306. If but a waft the well-known gust conveys? 3.307. Nor curb can check them then, nor lash severe 3.313. Hardens each wallowing shoulder to the wound. 3.525. Lie stretched along the grass, when, slipped his slough 3.526. To glittering youth transformed he winds his spires 3.527. And eggs or younglings leaving in his lair 3.528. Towers sunward, lightening with three-forked tongue. 3.529. of sickness, too, the causes and the sign 3.530. I'll teach thee. Loathly scab assails the sheep 4.6. Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans 4.106. Steadfast no inch to yield till these or those 4.149. Makes the trim garden smile; of placeName key= 4.150. Whose roses bloom and fade and bloom again; 4.151. How endives glory in the streams they drink 4.152. And green banks in their parsley, and how the gourd 4.170. With unbought plenty heaped his board on high. 4.171. He was the first to cull the rose in spring 4.172. He the ripe fruits in autumn; and ere yet 4.173. Winter had ceased in sullen ire to rive 4.174. The rocks with frost, and with her icy bit 4.175. Curb in the running waters, there was he 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing
20. Columella, De Re Rustica, 3.21.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21.4. Sed haec quamvis plurimum delectent, note target= 3.21.4.  But though all these give the greatest delight, still profit prevails over pleasure. For the head of the household comes down the more willingly to feast his eyes upon his wealth in proportion to its splendour; and, as the poet says of the sacred deity, Wheresoever the god has turned his goodly head, truly, whatever the person and eyes of the master are frequent visitors, there the fruit abounds in richer measure. But, dismissing this statement, which is applicable also to vines not grouped according to their kinds, I shall proceed with those matters which are most deserving of notice.
21. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.6.32-1.6.36, 1.24.1-1.24.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 90.7-90.14, 90.16, 90.18-90.19, 90.22, 90.24-90.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1.6. But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak. Some people have followed this diet so closely since the time of Pelasgus that even the Pythian priestess, when she forbade the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians, uttered the following verses:— In Arcadia are many men who eat acorns, Who will prevent you; though I do not grudge it you. It is said that it was in the reign of Pelasgus that the land was called Pelasgia.
24. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.2. 2.But we shall begin from the abstinence of certain nations, in the narration of which, what is asserted of the Greeks will first claim our attention, as being the most allied to us, and the most appropriate of all the witnesses that can be adduced. Among those, therefore, that have concisely, and at the same time accurately collected an account of the affairs of the Greeks, is the Peripatetic Dicaearchus 1, who, in narrating the pristine life of the Greeks, says, the ancients, being generated with an alliance to the Gods, were naturally most excellent, and led the best life; so that, when compared to us of the present day, who consist of an adulterated and most vile matter, they were thought to be a golden race; and they slew no animal whatever. The truth of this, he also says, is testified by the poets, who denominate these ancients the golden race, and assert that every good was present with them. The fertile earth for them spontaneous bore of fruits a copious and unenvy'd store; In blissful quiet then, unknown to strife, The worthy with the worthy passed their life 2. |111 Which assertions, indeed Dicaearchus explaining, says, that a life of this kind was under Saturn; if it is proper to consider it as a thing that once existed, and that it is a life which has not been celebrated in vain, and if, laying aside what is extremely fabulous, we may refer it to a physical narration. All things, therefore, are very properly said to have been then spontaneously produced; for men did not procure any thing by labour, because they were unacquainted with the agricultural art, and, in short, had no knowledge of any other art. This very thing, likewise, was the cause of their leading a life of leisure, free from labours and care; and if it is proper to assent to the decision of the most skilful and elegant of physicians, it was also the cause of their being liberated from disease. For there is not any precept of physicians which more contributes to health, than that which exhorts us not to make an abundance of excrement, from which those pristine Greeks always preserved their bodies pure. For they neither assumed such food as was stronger than the nature of the body could bear, but such as could be vanquished by the corporeal nature, nor more than was moderate, on account of the facility of procuring it, but for the most part less than was sufficient, on account of its paucity. Moreover, there were neither any wars among them, nor seditions with each other. For no reward of contention worth mentioning was proposed as an incentive, for the sake of which some one might be induced to engage in such dissensions. So that the principal thing in that life was leisure and rest from necessary occupations, together with health, peace, and friendship. But to those in after times, who, through aspiring after things which greatly exceeded mediocrity, fell into many evils, this pristine life became, as it was reasonable to suppose it would, desirable. The slender and extemporaneous food, however, of these first men, is manifested by the saying which was afterwards proverbially used, enough of the oak; this adage being probably introduced by him who first changed the ancient mode of living. A pastoral life succeeded to this, in which men procured for themselves superfluous possessions, and meddled with animals. For, perceiving that some of them were innoxious, but others malefic and savage, they tamed the former, but attacked the latter. At the same time, together with this life, war was introduced. And these things, says Dicaearchus, are not asserted by us, but by those who have historically discussed a multitude of particulars. For, as possessions were now of such a magnitude as to merit attention, some ambitiously endeavoured to obtain them, by collecting them [for their own use], and calling on others to do the same, but others directed their attention to the preservation of them when collected. Time, therefore, thus gradually proceeding, and men always directing their attention to what |112 appeared to be useful, they at length became conversant with the third, and agricultural form of life. And this is what is said by Dicaearchus, in his narration of the manners of the ancient Greeks, and the blessed life which they then led, to which abstinence from animal food contributed, no less than other things. Hence, at that period there was no war, because injustice was exterminated. But afterwards, together with injustice towards animals, war was introduced among men, and the endeavour to surpass each other in amplitude of possessions. On which account also, the audacity of those is wonderful, who say that abstinence from animals is the mother of injustice, since both history and experience testify, that together with the slaughter of animals, war and injustice were introduced. SPAN
25. Servius, In Vergilii Georgicon Libros, 1.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

26. Bacchylides, Odes, 5.177

27. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

28. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

29. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.61



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adynata Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
aetiology Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 108, 206
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 159, 252
agriculture Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
allegory Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
ambition Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
amor, and metamorphosis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
amor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
animals, sacrificial Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 108
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 108, 124
apollo Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
aristaeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 108
aristaeus and orpheus Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
ars Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
beasley, megan Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173
bees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
caesar, octavian, and maecenas Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
caesar, octavian, as reader Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
callimachus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
cato Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49; Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
cattle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 108
catullus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
centaurs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
cereal crops Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 252
ceres Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
ceres in lucretius, vergil, and ovid Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
columella Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
cura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
cynthia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
deification, of octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, love/philia and strife/neikos Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173
empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
empedocles Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
ennius Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
epic Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188, 252
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
eris Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 66
farmer Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
finales, book 1 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
finales, book 2 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67, 188, 252
furor Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
gallus, cornelius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
giants Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 86, 206, 252
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 108, 124, 206; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
grafting Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 252
hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
heuretai Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67, 108, 124
home Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
homer Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
iacchus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
imagery, chariots Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 86, 206; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 174
labor, in hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
labor, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 188, 206, 252
labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
liber Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 64, 65, 66, 86, 206
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 66, 86
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
lucretius, laws of nature in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 86, 206
lucretius, myth in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
lucretius, natura in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66, 86
lucretius, religion in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63
lucretius Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
maecenas and caesar, as reader of the poem Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
maecenas and caesar Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 30
metamorphoses, calliope Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
metamorphoses, pierides contest with muses Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
metamorphoses, venus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173
metamorphosis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
milanion Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
monsters Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
muses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
mysteries Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
myth, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
myth, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124, 206
myth of ages/golden age Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
natura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 86
nelis, damien Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 174
neptune Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 252
orpheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
ovid, and empedocles Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173, 174
ovid Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 108; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
pastoral, tasks Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
piety Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
pindar Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 188
politics, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
praeceptor amoris Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
prayer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67
primitivism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 62
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
prometheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
propertius, monobiblos Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
propertius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
proserpina Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173
providentialism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 65, 66, 86, 206
pythagoras Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 108
religion, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 67
religion, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67, 108, 206
republic/republicanism' Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
rome/roman Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
saturn Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
scha¨fer, s. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67, 86
scythia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
seruitium amoris Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
servius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 124
sphragis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62, 65, 66
tibullus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
tomis Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 225
trees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 86, 159
triptolemus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
underworld Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
varro Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
vergil, georgics Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 58
vergil, octavian in georgics Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 173
virgil, and aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 252
virgil, and octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
virgil, reception of lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 124
virgil Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 49
war, and agriculture Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
war, octavian as warrior Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
weather signs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 206
zeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
zoogony Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29