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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11094
Vergil, Georgics, 1.118-1.160


Nec tamen, haec cum sint hominumque boumque laboresHales o'er them; from the far Olympian height


versando terram experti, nihil inprobus anserHim golden Ceres not in vain regards;


Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intiba fibrisAnd he, who having ploughed the fallow plain


officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendiAnd heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more


haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artemCross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke


movit agros curis acuens mortalia cordaThe earth assails, and makes the field his thrall.


nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.Pray for wet summers and for winters fine


Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni;Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop


ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campumExceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy;


fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellusNo tilth makes


omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat.Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire.


Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atrisWhy tell of him, who, having launched his seed


praedarique lupos iussit pontumque moveriSets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth


mellaque decussit foliis ignemque removitThe dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn


et passim rivis currentia vina repressitLets in the flood, whose waters follow fain;


ut varias usus meditando extunderet artisAnd when the parched field quivers, and all the blade


paulatim et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam.Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed


Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls


Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas;Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones


navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecitAnd with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields?


Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton;Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear


tum laqueis captare feras et fallere viscoO'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade


inventum et magnos canibus circumdare saltus;Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth


atque alius latum funda iam verberat amnemFirst tops the furrows? Why of him who drain


alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina;The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand


tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae,—Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream


nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignumGoes out in spate, and with its coat of slime


tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicitHolds all the country, whence the hollow dyke


inprobus et duris urgens in rebus egestas.Sweat steaming vapour?


Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terramBut no whit the more


instituit, cum iam glandes atque arbuta sacraeFor all expedients tried and travail borne


deficerent silvae et victum Dodona negaret.By man and beast in turning oft the soil


Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmosDo greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane


esset robigo segnisque horreret in arvisAnd succory's bitter fibres cease to harm


carduus; intereunt segetes, subit aspera silvaOr shade not injure. The great Sire himself


lappaeque tribolique, interque nitentia cultaNo easy road to husbandry assigned


infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae.And first was he by human skill to rouse


Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastrisThe slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men


et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaciWith care on care, nor suffering realm of hi


falce premes umbras votisque vocaveris imbremIn drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove


heu magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervumFields knew no taming hand of husbandmen;


concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu.To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line—


Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus armaEven this was impious; for the common stock


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 11, 110-119, 12, 120, 13-20, 202-209, 21, 210-212, 22-26, 299-301, 311, 42-46, 465-478, 50, 109 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

109. Filling both land and sea, while every day
2. Homer, Iliad, 21.257-21.262 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

21.257. /the bronze rang terribly, while he swerved from beneath the flood and fled ever onward, and the River followed after, flowing with a mighty roar. As when a man that guideth its flow leadeth from a dusky spring a stream of water amid his plants and garden-lots a mattock in his hands and cleareth away the dams from the channel— 21.258. /the bronze rang terribly, while he swerved from beneath the flood and fled ever onward, and the River followed after, flowing with a mighty roar. As when a man that guideth its flow leadeth from a dusky spring a stream of water amid his plants and garden-lots a mattock in his hands and cleareth away the dams from the channel— 21.259. /the bronze rang terribly, while he swerved from beneath the flood and fled ever onward, and the River followed after, flowing with a mighty roar. As when a man that guideth its flow leadeth from a dusky spring a stream of water amid his plants and garden-lots a mattock in his hands and cleareth away the dams from the channel— 21.260. /and as it floweth all the pebbles beneath are swept along therewith, and it glideth swiftly onward with murmuring sound down a sloping place and outstrippeth even him that guideth it;—even thus did the flood of the River 21.261. /and as it floweth all the pebbles beneath are swept along therewith, and it glideth swiftly onward with murmuring sound down a sloping place and outstrippeth even him that guideth it;—even thus did the flood of the River 21.262. /and as it floweth all the pebbles beneath are swept along therewith, and it glideth swiftly onward with murmuring sound down a sloping place and outstrippeth even him that guideth it;—even thus did the flood of the River
3. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 1024 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1024. φρένες δύσαρκτοι· πρὸς δὲ καρδίᾳ φόβος
4. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 10.65 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and
6. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

272b. That, Socrates, was the life of men in the reign of Cronus; but the life of the present age, which is said to be the age of Zeus, you know by your own experience. Would you be able and willing to decide which of them is the more blessed? Y. Soc. Certainly not. Str. Shall I, then, make some sort of a judgement for you? Y. Soc. Do so, by all means. Str. Well, then, if the foster children of Cronus, having all this leisure and the ability to converse not only with human beings but also with beasts
7. Callimachus, Aetia, 1.25-1.28 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.445 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.445. σχέτλιʼ Ἔρως, μέγα πῆμα, μέγα στύγος ἀνθρώποισιν
9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.87, 2.161 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.87. Let someone therefore prove that it could have been better. But no one will ever prove this, and anyone who essays to improve some detail will either make it worse or will be demanding an improvement impossible in the nature of things. "But if the structure of the world in all its parts is such that it could not have been better whether in point of utility or beauty, let us consider js is the result of chance, or whether on the contrary the parts of the world are in such a condition that they could not possibly have cohered together if they were not controlled by intelligence and by divine providence. If then that produces of nature are better than those of art, and if art produces nothing without reason, nature too cannot be deemed to be without reason. When you see a statue or a painting, you recognize the exercise of art; when you observe from a distance the course of a ship, you do not hesitate to assume that its motion is guided by reason and by art; when you look at a sun‑dial or a water-clock, you infer that it tells the time by art and not by chance; how then can it be consistent to suppose that the world, which includes both the works of art in question, the craftsmen who made them, and everything else besides, can be devoid of purpose and of reason? 2.161. The great beasts of the forest again we take by hunting, both for food and in order to exercise ourselves in the mimic warfare of the chase, and also, as in the case of elephants, to train and discipline them for our employment, and to procure from their busy a variety of medicines for diseases and wounds, as also we do from certain roots and herbs whose values we have learnt by long-continued use and trial. Let the mind's eye survey the whole earth and all the seas, and you will behold now fruitful plains of measureless extent and mountains thickly clad with forests and pastures filled with flocks, now vessels sailing with marvellous swiftness across the sea.
10. Cicero, On Duties, 1.11-1.13, 2.16-2.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.11. Principio generi animantium omni est a natura tributum, ut se, vitam corpusque tueatur, declinet ea, quae nocitura videantur, omniaque, quae sint ad vivendum necessaria, anquirat et paret, ut pastum, ut latibula, ut alia generis eiusdem. Commune item animantium omnium est coniunctionis adpetitus procreandi causa et cura quaedam eorum, quae procreata sint; sed inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur, ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat paulum admodum sentiens praeteritum aut futurum; homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat rebusque praesentibus adiungit atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitae cursum videt ad eamque degendam praeparat res necessarias. 1.12. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem ingeneratque in primis praecipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quae suppeditent ad cultum et ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis ceterisque, quos caros habeat tuerique debeat; quae cura exsuscitat etiam animos et maiores ad rem gerendam facit. 1.13. In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque investigatio. Itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum aut admirabilium ad beate vivendum necessariam ducimus. Ex quo intellegitur, quod verum, simplex sincerumque sit, id esse naturae hominis aptissimum. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ut nemini parere animus bene informatus a natura velit nisi praecipienti aut docenti aut utilitatis causa iuste et legitime imperanti; ex quo magnitudo animi exsistit humanarumque rerum contemptio. 2.16. Longiores hoc loco sumus, quam necesse est. Quis est enim, cui non perspicua sint illa, quae pluribus verbis a Panaetio commemorantur, neminem neque ducem bello nec principem domi magnas res et salutares sine hominum studiis gerere potuisse? Commemoratur ab eo Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, quos negat sine adiumentis hominum tantas res efficere potuisse. Utitur in re non dubia testibus non necessariis. Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur conspiratione hominum atque consensu, sic nulla tam detestabilis pestis est, quae non homini ab homine nascatur. Est Dicaearchi liber de interitu hominum, Peripatetici magni et copiosi, qui collectis ceteris causis eluvionis, pestilentiae, vastitatis, beluarum etiam repentinae multitudinis, quarum impetu docet quaedam hominum genera esse consumpta, deinde comparat, quanto plures deleti sint homines hominum impetu, id est bellis aut seditionibus, quam omni reliqua calamitate. 2.17. Cum igitur hie locus nihil habeat dubitationis, quin homines plurimum hominibus et prosint et obsint, proprium hoc statuo esse virtutis, conciliare animos hominum et ad usus suos adiungere. Itaque, quae in rebus iimis quaeque in usu et tractatione beluarum fiunt utiliter ad hominum vitam, artibus ea tribuuntur operosis, hominum autem studia ad amplificationem nostrarum rerum prompta ac parata virorum praestantium sapientia et virtute excitantur. 2.16.  I have dwelt longer on this point than was necessary. For who is there to whom those facts which Panaetius narrates at great length are not self-evident — namely, that no one, either as a general in war or as a statesman at home, could have accomplished great things for the benefit of the state, without the hearty co‑operation of other men? He cites the deeds of Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, who, he says, could not have achieved so great success without the support of other men. He calls in witnesses, whom he does not need, to prove a fact that no one questions. And yet, as, on the one hand, we secure great advantages through the sympathetic cooperation of our fellow-men; so, on the other, there is no curse so terrible but it is brought down by man upon man. There is a book by Dicaearchus on "The Destruction of Human Life." He was a famous and eloquent Peripatetic, and he gathered together all the other causes of destruction — floods, epidemics, famines, and sudden incursions of wild animals in myriads, by whose assaults, he informs us, whole tribes of men have been wiped out. And then he proceeds to show by way of comparison how many more men have been destroyed by the assaults of men — that is, by wars or revolutions — than by any and all other sorts of calamity. 2.17.  Since, therefore, there can be no doubt on this point, that man is the source of both the greatest help and the greatest harm to man, I set it down as the peculiar function of virtue to win the hearts of men and to attach them to one's own service. And so those benefits that human life derives from iimate objects and from the employment and use of animals are ascribed to the industrial arts; the cooperation of men, on the other hand, prompt and ready for the advancement of our interests, is secured through wisdom and virtue [in men of superior ability].
11. Cicero, Republic, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. Non. 301M Est igitur quiddam turbulentum in hominibus singulis, quod vel exultat voluptate vel molestia frangitur.
12. Varro, On Agriculture, 1.18.7-1.18.8, 2.10.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Horace, Sermones, 1.1.115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.10-1.11, 1.67, 1.71, 1.111, 1.159-1.214, 1.250-1.261, 1.313-1.314, 1.932, 2.2, 2.7-2.8, 2.24-2.29, 2.48-2.49, 2.56-2.58, 2.621, 2.629-2.630, 2.1150-2.1174, 3.1-3.2, 3.9, 3.18, 3.25-3.27, 3.41, 3.59-3.78, 3.88-3.90, 3.461, 3.866, 4.7, 4.1099, 5.9-5.12, 5.14-5.21, 5.45-5.46, 5.114, 5.142, 5.206-5.217, 5.233-5.234, 5.917, 5.923-5.926, 5.934, 5.939-5.942, 5.965, 5.1006, 5.1091-5.1104, 5.1165-5.1167, 5.1250-5.1251, 5.1266-5.1268, 5.1281-5.1349, 5.1361-5.1378, 5.1416, 5.1430, 5.1436-5.1442, 5.1452-5.1457, 6.36-6.38, 6.47, 6.396 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Propertius, Elegies, 3.1.9-3.1.12 (1st cent. BCE

16. Strabo, Geography, 15.1.64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.1.64. He conversed with Calanus, one of these sophists, who accompanied the king to Persia, and died after the custom of his country, being placed on a pile of [burning] wood. When Onesicritus came, he was lying upon stones. Onesicritus approached, accosted him, and told him that he had been sent by the king, who had heard the fame of his wisdom, and that he was to give an account of his interview, if there were no objection, he was ready to listen to his discourse. When Calanus saw his mantle, head-covering, and shoes, he laughed, and said, 'Formerly, there was abundance everywhere of corn and barley, as there is now of dust; fountains then flowed with water, milk, honey, wine, and oil, but mankind by repletion and luxury became proud and insolent. Jupiter, indigt at this state of things, destroyed all, and appointed for man a life of toil. On the reappearance of temperance and other virtues, there was again an abundance of good things. But at present the condition of mankind approaches satiety and insolence, and there is danger lest the things which now exist should disappear.'When he had finished, he proposed to Onesicritus, if he wished to hear his discourse, to strip off his clothes, to lie down naked by him on the same stones, and in that manner to listen to him; while he was hesitating what to do, Mandanis, who was the oldest and wisest of the sophists, reproached Calanus for his insolence, although he censured such insolence himself. Mandanis called Onesicritus to him, and said, I commend the king, because, although he governs so large an empire, he is yet desirous of acquiring wisdom, for he is the only philosopher in arms that I ever saw; it would be of the greatest advantage, if those were philosophers who have the power of persuading the willing and of compelling the unwilling to learn temperance; but I am entitled to indulgence, if, when conversing by means of three interpreters, who, except the language, know no more than the vulgar, I am not able to demonstrate the utility of philosophy. To attempt it is to expect water to flow pure through mud.
17. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.33, 1.205, 4.386, 4.412, 6.277, 7.46, 7.181-7.186, 7.601-7.623, 8.55, 8.325, 9.62, 10.727, 12.250, 12.261 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.33. the Fatal Sisters spun. Such was the fear 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 4.386. me bear on winged winds his high decree. 4.412. but carefully dissembling what emprise 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 7.46. Hail, Erato! while olden kings and thrones 7.181. news of the day at hand when they should build 7.182. their destined walls. So, with rejoicing heart 7.183. at such vast omen, they set forth a feast 7.184. with zealous emulation, ranging well 7.186. Soon as the morrow with the lamp of dawn 7.601. from where my sister-furies dwell! My hands 7.602. bring bloody death and war.” She spoke, and hurled 7.603. her firebrand at the hero, thrusting deep 7.604. beneath his heart her darkly smouldering flame. 7.605. Then horror broke his sleep, and fearful sweat 7.606. dripped from his every limb. He shrieked aloud 7.607. for arms; and seized the ready arms that lay 7.608. around his couch and hall. Then o'er his soul 7.609. the lust of battle and wild curse of war 7.610. broke forth in angry power, as when the flames 7.611. of faggots round the bubbling cauldron sing 7.612. and up the waters leap; the close-kept flood 7.613. brims over, streaming, foaming, breaking bound 7.614. and flings thick clouds in air. He, summoning 7.615. his chieftains, bade them on Latinus move 7.616. break peace, take arms, and, over Italy 7.617. their shields extending, to thrust forth her foe: 7.618. himself for Teucrian with Latin joined 7.619. was more than match. He called upon the gods 7.620. in witness of his vows: while, nothing loth 7.621. Rutulia's warriors rushed into array; 7.622. ome by his youth and noble beauty moved 8.55. has stilled its swollen wave. A sign I tell: 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 9.62. dappled with white he rode; a crimson plume 10.727. in shining vesture he, and glittering arms. 12.250. Father omnipotent, I call; on thee 12.261. unto Evander's city! From these plains
18. Vergil, Eclogues, 1.24-1.25, 4.32-4.33, 10.75-10.76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.24. from hollow trunk the raven's ominous cry. 1.25. But who this god of yours? Come, Tityrus, tell. TITYRUS 4.32. die shall the treacherous poison-plant, and far 4.33. and wide Assyrian spices spring. But soon 10.75. Cydonian arrows from a Parthian bow.— 10.76. as if my madness could find healing thus
19. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.23, 1.47, 1.50-1.53, 1.60-1.63, 1.74, 1.79, 1.84-1.93, 1.100, 1.104-1.106, 1.112-1.113, 1.119-1.168, 1.176-1.186, 1.197-1.207, 1.218, 1.229, 1.233-1.249, 1.257, 1.270, 1.273-1.283, 1.291-1.294, 1.299, 1.316-1.334, 1.337-1.351, 1.353, 1.415-1.423, 1.439, 1.493-1.497, 1.502, 1.508, 1.512-1.514, 2.39, 2.47-2.72, 2.114, 2.155-2.157, 2.211, 2.397, 2.405-2.406, 2.412, 2.417, 2.420, 2.458-2.494, 2.510, 2.514-2.516, 2.533, 2.537, 2.541-2.542, 3.339-3.348, 4.3-4.6, 4.13, 4.43, 4.106, 4.149-4.152, 4.154-4.155, 4.177-4.178, 4.184-4.185, 4.205, 4.242, 4.251 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.47. For neither Tartarus hopes to call thee king 1.50. Elysium's fields, and Proserpine not heed 1.51. Her mother's voice entreating to return— 1.52. Vouchsafe a prosperous voyage, and smile on thi 1.53. My bold endeavour, and pitying, even as I 1.60. And teach the furrow-burnished share to shine. 1.61. That land the craving farmer's prayer fulfils 1.62. Which twice the sunshine, twice the frost has felt; 1.63. Ay, that's the land whose boundless harvest-crop 1.74. Iron from the naked Chalybs, castor rank 1.79. When old Deucalion on the unpeopled earth 1.84. By the ripe suns of summer; but if the earth 1.85. Less fruitful just ere Arcturus rise 1.86. With shallower trench uptilt it—'twill suffice; 1.87. There, lest weeds choke the crop's luxuriance, here 1.88. Lest the scant moisture fail the barren sand. 1.89. Then thou shalt suffer in alternate year 1.90. The new-reaped fields to rest, and on the plain 1.91. A crust of sloth to harden; or, when star 1.92. Are changed in heaven, there sow the golden grain 1.93. Where erst, luxuriant with its quivering pod 1.100. With refuse rich to soak the thirsty soil 1.104. oft, too, 'twill boot to fire the naked fields 1.105. And the light stubble burn with crackling flames; 1.106. Whether that earth therefrom some hidden strength 1.112. Or that it hardens more and helps to bind 1.113. The gaping veins, lest penetrating showers 1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones 1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear 1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade 1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth 1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain 1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand 1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146. Sweat steaming vapour? 1.147. But no whit the more 1.148. For all expedients tried and travail borne 1.149. By man and beast in turning oft the soil 1.150. Do greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane 1.151. And succory's bitter fibres cease to harm 1.152. Or shade not injure. The great Sire himself 1.153. No easy road to husbandry assigned 1.154. And first was he by human skill to rouse 1.155. The slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men 1.156. With care on care, nor suffering realm of hi 1.157. In drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove 1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen; 1.159. To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line— 1.160. Even this was impious; for the common stock 1.161. They gathered, and the earth of her own will 1.162. All things more freely, no man bidding, bore. 1.163. He to black serpents gave their venom-bane 1.164. And bade the wolf go prowl, and ocean toss; 1.165. Shooed from the leaves their honey, put fire away 1.166. And curbed the random rivers running wine 1.167. That use by gradual dint of thought on thought 1.168. Might forge the various arts, with furrow's help 1.176. And hem with hounds the mighty forest-glades. 1.177. Soon one with hand-net scourges the broad stream 1.178. Probing its depths, one drags his dripping toil 1.179. Along the main; then iron's unbending might 1.180. And shrieking saw-blade,—for the men of old 1.181. With wedges wont to cleave the splintering log;— 1.182. Then divers arts arose; toil conquered all 1.183. Remorseless toil, and poverty's shrewd push 1.184. In times of hardship. Ceres was the first 1.185. Set mortals on with tools to turn the sod 1.186. When now the awful groves 'gan fail to bear 1.197. Prune with thy hook the dark field's matted shade 1.198. Pray down the showers, all vainly thou shalt eye 1.199. Alack! thy neighbour's heaped-up harvest-mow 1.200. And in the greenwood from a shaken oak 1.201. Seek solace for thine hunger. 1.202. Now to tell 1.203. The sturdy rustics' weapons, what they are 1.204. Without which, neither can be sown nor reared 1.205. The fruits of harvest; first the bent plough's share 1.206. And heavy timber, and slow-lumbering wain 1.207. of the Eleusinian mother, threshing-sleigh 1.218. And share-beam with its double back they fix. 1.229. Lest weeds arise, or dust a passage win 1.233. Or burrow for their bed the purblind moles 1.234. Or toad is found in hollows, and all the swarm 1.235. of earth's unsightly creatures; or a huge 1.236. Corn-heap the weevil plunders, and the ant 1.237. Fearful of coming age and penury. 1.238. Mark too, what time the walnut in the wood 1.239. With ample bloom shall clothe her, and bow down 1.240. Her odorous branches, if the fruit prevail 1.241. Like store of grain will follow, and there shall come 1.242. A mighty winnowing-time with mighty heat; 1.243. But if the shade with wealth of leaves abound 1.244. Vainly your threshing-floor will bruise the stalk 1.245. Rich but in chaff. Many myself have seen 1.246. Steep, as they sow, their pulse-seeds, drenching them 1.247. With nitre and black oil-lees, that the fruit 1.248. Might swell within the treacherous pods, and they 1.249. Make speed to boil at howso small a fire. 1.257. His arms to slacken, lo! with headlong force 1.270. Aye, more than time to bend above the plough 1.273. Thee, too, Lucerne, the crumbling furrows then 1.274. Receive, and millet's annual care returns 1.275. What time the white bull with his gilded horn 1.276. Opens the year, before whose threatening front 1.277. Routed the dog-star sinks. But if it be 1.278. For wheaten harvest and the hardy spelt 1.279. Thou tax the soil, to corn-ears wholly given 1.280. Let Atlas' daughters hide them in the dawn 1.281. The Cretan star, a crown of fire, depart 1.282. Or e'er the furrow's claim of seed thou quit 1.283. Or haste thee to entrust the whole year's hope 1.291. Pursue thy sowing till half the frosts be done. 1.292. Therefore it is the golden sun, his course 1.293. Into fixed parts dividing, rules his way 1.294. Through the twelve constellations of the world. 1.299. And black with scowling storm-clouds, and betwixt 1.316. And when the first breath of his panting steed 1.317. On us the Orient flings, that hour with them 1.318. Red Vesper 'gins to trim his 'lated fires. 1.319. Hence under doubtful skies forebode we can 1.320. The coming tempests, hence both harvest-day 1.321. And seed-time, when to smite the treacherous main 1.322. With driving oars, when launch the fair-rigged fleet 1.323. Or in ripe hour to fell the forest-pine. 1.324. Hence, too, not idly do we watch the stars— 1.325. Their rising and their setting-and the year 1.326. Four varying seasons to one law conformed. 1.327. If chilly showers e'er shut the farmer's door 1.328. Much that had soon with sunshine cried for haste 1.329. He may forestall; the ploughman batters keen 1.330. His blunted share's hard tooth, scoops from a tree 1.331. His troughs, or on the cattle stamps a brand 1.332. Or numbers on the corn-heaps; some make sharp 1.333. The stakes and two-pronged forks, and willow-band 1.334. Amerian for the bending vine prepare. 1.337. Before the fire; now bruise it with the stone. 1.338. Nay even on holy days some tasks to ply 1.339. Is right and lawful: this no ban forbids 1.340. To turn the runnel's course, fence corn-fields in 1.341. Make springes for the birds, burn up the briars 1.342. And plunge in wholesome stream the bleating flock. 1.343. oft too with oil or apples plenty-cheap 1.344. The creeping ass's ribs his driver packs 1.345. And home from town returning brings instead 1.346. A dented mill-stone or black lump of pitch. 1.347. The moon herself in various rank assign 1.348. The days for labour lucky: fly the fifth; 1.349. Then sprang pale Orcus and the Eumenides; 1.350. Earth then in awful labour brought to light 1.351. Coeus, Iapetus, and Typhoeus fell 1.353. The gates of heaven; thrice, sooth to say, they strove 1.415. Wields with red hand the levin; through all her bulk 1.416. Earth at the hurly quakes; the beasts are fled 1.417. And mortal hearts of every kindred sunk 1.418. In cowering terror; he with flaming brand 1.419. Athos , or Rhodope, or Ceraunian crag 1.420. Precipitates: then doubly raves the South 1.421. With shower on blinding shower, and woods and coast 1.422. Wail fitfully beneath the mighty blast. 1.423. This fearing, mark the months and Signs of heaven 1.439. Attend it, and with shouts bid Ceres come 1.493. Stalks on the dry sand mateless and alone. 1.494. Nor e'en the maids, that card their nightly task 1.495. Know not the storm-sign, when in blazing crock 1.496. They see the lamp-oil sputtering with a growth 1.497. of mouldy snuff-clots. 1.502. As borrowing of her brother's beams to rise 1.508. Seek more the vales, and rest upon the plain 1.512. Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock 1.513. Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing 1.514. The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable 2.39. Shrink to restore the topmost shoot to earth 2.47. Come then, and learn what tilth to each belong 2.48. According to their kinds, ye husbandmen 2.49. And tame with culture the wild fruits, lest earth 2.50. Lie idle. O blithe to make all Ismaru 2.51. One forest of the wine-god, and to clothe 2.52. With olives huge Tabernus! And be thou 2.53. At hand, and with me ply the voyage of toil 2.54. I am bound on, O my glory, O thou that art 2.55. Justly the chiefest portion of my fame 2.56. Maecenas, and on this wide ocean launched 2.57. Spread sail like wings to waft thee. Not that I 2.58. With my poor verse would comprehend the whole 2.59. Nay, though a hundred tongues, a hundred mouth 2.60. Were mine, a voice of iron; be thou at hand 2.61. Skirt but the nearer coast-line; see the shore 2.62. Is in our grasp; not now with feigned song 2.63. Through winding bouts and tedious preluding 2.64. Shall I detain thee. 2.65. Those that lift their head 2.66. Into the realms of light spontaneously 2.67. Fruitless indeed, but blithe and strenuous spring 2.68. Since Nature lurks within the soil. And yet 2.69. Even these, should one engraft them, or transplant 2.70. To well-drilled trenches, will anon put of 2.71. Their woodland temper, and, by frequent tilth 2.72. To whatso craft thou summon them, make speed 2.114. Fat olives, orchades, and radii 2.155. of balsams oozing from the perfumed wood 2.156. Or berries of acanthus ever green? 2.157. of Aethiop forests hoar with downy wool 2.211. Avernian inlets pours the Tuscan tide? 2.397. Can they recover, and from the earth beneath 2.405. Comes the white bird long-bodied snakes abhor 2.406. Or on the eve of autumn's earliest frost 2.412. With quickening showers to his glad wife's embrace 2.417. Then the boon earth yields increase, and the field 2.420. Face the new suns, and safely trust them now; 2.458. Forbear their frailty, and while yet the bough 2.459. Shoots joyfully toward heaven, with loosened rein 2.460. Launched on the void, assail it not as yet 2.461. With keen-edged sickle, but let the leaves alone 2.462. Be culled with clip of fingers here and there. 2.463. But when they clasp the elms with sturdy trunk 2.464. Erect, then strip the leaves off, prune the boughs; 2.465. Sooner they shrink from steel, but then put forth 2.466. The arm of power, and stem the branchy tide. 2.467. Hedges too must be woven and all beast 2.468. Barred entrance, chiefly while the leaf is young 2.469. And witless of disaster; for therewith 2.470. Beside harsh winters and o'erpowering sun 2.471. Wild buffaloes and pestering goats for ay 2.472. Besport them, sheep and heifers glut their greed. 2.473. Nor cold by hoar-frost curdled, nor the prone 2.474. Dead weight of summer upon the parched crags 2.475. So scathe it, as the flocks with venom-bite 2.476. of their hard tooth, whose gnawing scars the stem. 2.477. For no offence but this to Bacchus bleed 2.478. The goat at every altar, and old play 2.479. Upon the stage find entrance; therefore too 2.480. The sons of Theseus through the country-side— 2.481. Hamlet and crossway—set the prize of wit 2.482. And on the smooth sward over oiled skin 2.483. Dance in their tipsy frolic. Furthermore 2.484. The Ausonian swains, a race from placeName key= 2.485. Make merry with rough rhymes and boisterous mirth 2.486. Grim masks of hollowed bark assume, invoke 2.487. Thee with glad hymns, O Bacchus, and to thee 2.488. Hang puppet-faces on tall pines to swing. 2.489. Hence every vineyard teems with mellowing fruit 2.490. Till hollow vale o'erflows, and gorge profound 2.491. Where'er the god hath turned his comely head. 2.492. Therefore to Bacchus duly will we sing 2.493. Meet honour with ancestral hymns, and cate 2.494. And dishes bear him; and the doomed goat 2.510. Be first to dig the ground up, first to clear 2.514. Twice weeds with stifling briers o'ergrow the crop; 2.515. And each a toilsome labour. Do thou praise 2.516. Broad acres, farm but few. Rough twigs beside 2.533. Their stems wax lusty, and have found their strength 2.537. Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu 2.541. To plant, nor lavish of their pains? Why trace 2.542. Things mightier? Willows even and lowly broom 3.339. Not toward thy rising, Eurus, or the sun's 3.340. But westward and north-west, or whence up-spring 3.341. Black Auster, that glooms heaven with rainy cold. 3.342. Hence from their groin slow drips a poisonous juice 3.343. By shepherds truly named hippomanes 3.344. Hippomanes, fell stepdames oft have culled 3.345. And mixed with herbs and spells of baneful bode. 3.346. Fast flies meanwhile the irreparable hour 3.347. As point to point our charmed round we trace. 3.348. Enough of herds. This second task remains 4.3. Look thou, Maecenas, with indulgent eye. 4.4. A marvellous display of puny powers 4.5. High-hearted chiefs, a nation's history 4.6. Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans 4.13. Nor sheep and butting kids tread down the flowers 4.43. For the hive's self, or stitched of hollow bark 4.106. Steadfast no inch to yield till these or those 4.149. Makes the trim garden smile; of placeName key= 4.150. Whose roses bloom and fade and bloom again; 4.151. How endives glory in the streams they drink 4.152. And green banks in their parsley, and how the gourd 4.154. Nor of Narcissus had my lips been dumb 4.155. That loiterer of the flowers, nor supple-stemmed 4.177. Summer's slow footsteps and the lagging West. 4.178. Therefore he too with earliest brooding bee 4.184. Hung there, by mellowing autumn perfected. 4.185. He too transplanted tall-grown elms a-row 4.205. By settled order ply their tasks afield; 4.242. Now bids them quit their pasturing on the plain 4.251. Safe-circling fetch them water, or essay
20. Columella, De Re Rustica, 3.21.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21.4. Sed haec quamvis plurimum delectent, note target= 3.21.4.  But though all these give the greatest delight, still profit prevails over pleasure. For the head of the household comes down the more willingly to feast his eyes upon his wealth in proportion to its splendour; and, as the poet says of the sacred deity, Wheresoever the god has turned his goodly head, truly, whatever the person and eyes of the master are frequent visitors, there the fruit abounds in richer measure. But, dismissing this statement, which is applicable also to vines not grouped according to their kinds, I shall proceed with those matters which are most deserving of notice.
21. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.6.32-1.6.36, 1.24.1-1.24.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 90.7-90.14, 90.16, 90.18-90.19, 90.22, 90.24-90.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Seneca The Younger, Medea, 339, 338 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 1.246-1.247, 1.498-1.502, 1.561-1.567, 1.597-1.607, 1.642-1.650 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1.6. But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak. Some people have followed this diet so closely since the time of Pelasgus that even the Pythian priestess, when she forbade the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians, uttered the following verses:— In Arcadia are many men who eat acorns, Who will prevent you; though I do not grudge it you. It is said that it was in the reign of Pelasgus that the land was called Pelasgia.
26. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.2. 2.But we shall begin from the abstinence of certain nations, in the narration of which, what is asserted of the Greeks will first claim our attention, as being the most allied to us, and the most appropriate of all the witnesses that can be adduced. Among those, therefore, that have concisely, and at the same time accurately collected an account of the affairs of the Greeks, is the Peripatetic Dicaearchus 1, who, in narrating the pristine life of the Greeks, says, the ancients, being generated with an alliance to the Gods, were naturally most excellent, and led the best life; so that, when compared to us of the present day, who consist of an adulterated and most vile matter, they were thought to be a golden race; and they slew no animal whatever. The truth of this, he also says, is testified by the poets, who denominate these ancients the golden race, and assert that every good was present with them. The fertile earth for them spontaneous bore of fruits a copious and unenvy'd store; In blissful quiet then, unknown to strife, The worthy with the worthy passed their life 2. |111 Which assertions, indeed Dicaearchus explaining, says, that a life of this kind was under Saturn; if it is proper to consider it as a thing that once existed, and that it is a life which has not been celebrated in vain, and if, laying aside what is extremely fabulous, we may refer it to a physical narration. All things, therefore, are very properly said to have been then spontaneously produced; for men did not procure any thing by labour, because they were unacquainted with the agricultural art, and, in short, had no knowledge of any other art. This very thing, likewise, was the cause of their leading a life of leisure, free from labours and care; and if it is proper to assent to the decision of the most skilful and elegant of physicians, it was also the cause of their being liberated from disease. For there is not any precept of physicians which more contributes to health, than that which exhorts us not to make an abundance of excrement, from which those pristine Greeks always preserved their bodies pure. For they neither assumed such food as was stronger than the nature of the body could bear, but such as could be vanquished by the corporeal nature, nor more than was moderate, on account of the facility of procuring it, but for the most part less than was sufficient, on account of its paucity. Moreover, there were neither any wars among them, nor seditions with each other. For no reward of contention worth mentioning was proposed as an incentive, for the sake of which some one might be induced to engage in such dissensions. So that the principal thing in that life was leisure and rest from necessary occupations, together with health, peace, and friendship. But to those in after times, who, through aspiring after things which greatly exceeded mediocrity, fell into many evils, this pristine life became, as it was reasonable to suppose it would, desirable. The slender and extemporaneous food, however, of these first men, is manifested by the saying which was afterwards proverbially used, enough of the oak; this adage being probably introduced by him who first changed the ancient mode of living. A pastoral life succeeded to this, in which men procured for themselves superfluous possessions, and meddled with animals. For, perceiving that some of them were innoxious, but others malefic and savage, they tamed the former, but attacked the latter. At the same time, together with this life, war was introduced. And these things, says Dicaearchus, are not asserted by us, but by those who have historically discussed a multitude of particulars. For, as possessions were now of such a magnitude as to merit attention, some ambitiously endeavoured to obtain them, by collecting them [for their own use], and calling on others to do the same, but others directed their attention to the preservation of them when collected. Time, therefore, thus gradually proceeding, and men always directing their attention to what |112 appeared to be useful, they at length became conversant with the third, and agricultural form of life. And this is what is said by Dicaearchus, in his narration of the manners of the ancient Greeks, and the blessed life which they then led, to which abstinence from animal food contributed, no less than other things. Hence, at that period there was no war, because injustice was exterminated. But afterwards, together with injustice towards animals, war was introduced among men, and the endeavour to surpass each other in amplitude of possessions. On which account also, the audacity of those is wonderful, who say that abstinence from animals is the mother of injustice, since both history and experience testify, that together with the slaughter of animals, war and injustice were introduced. SPAN
27. Servius, In Vergilii Georgicon Libros, 1.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Bacchylides, Odes, 5.177

29. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

30. Epicurus, Letters, 116, 115

31. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.61



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 254
aetiology Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 206
aetiology of labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 16, 39, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 159, 161, 162, 252, 254
allusion Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 16
amor, in georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
amor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62
animals, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 101
anthropomorphism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 101
aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39, 59, 162
ataraxia Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
bacchus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
bees, as golden age ideal Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 125
bees, in georgic Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 125
bees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
birds Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 255
callimachus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
cato Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
cattle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 101
centaurs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
cereal crops Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 161, 252, 254, 255
ceres Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67
city, as morally corrupt Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 104
city, as product of technology Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 104
columella Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 255
conte, g. b. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8
cura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 16, 101, 159, 161, 162
deification, of octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
epicureanism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188, 252
epicurus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 162, 254
eris Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 66
finales, book 1 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188, 255
finales, book 2 Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 39, 67, 101, 188, 252
finales Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8
gods, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 169, 254
gods, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 39, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 169, 206, 252
golden age, in georgic Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 104, 125
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 39, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 162, 206, 254
grafting Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
hercules Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 299
hesiod, allusions to Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 63, 161, 162, 252
hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253
heuretai Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66, 67
homer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
homeric similes Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 254
horace Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253
horses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 101
iacchus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
imagery, chariots Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
imagery, military Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 16, 101, 161, 252, 254, 255
intertextuality Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 16, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 161, 162
jove, and bees Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 125
jupiter Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 16, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 161, 162, 169, 206, 254
jupiter (see also zeus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253, 299
labor, in hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
labor, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
labor, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 161, 162, 169, 188, 206, 252
labor Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 16, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
liber Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
locus amoenus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
lucan Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 299
lucretius, agriculture in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 64, 65, 66, 161, 206, 254
lucretius, animals in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
lucretius, culture-history in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 63, 66
lucretius, gods in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 169, 254
lucretius, labor in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
lucretius, laws of nature in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 206
lucretius, natura in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 66
lucretius, politics in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
lucretius, religion in Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63
metamorphosis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8
metus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 169
monsters Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8
muses Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
mynors, r. a. b. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 169
mysteries Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
myth, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 206
natura Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 66
neptune Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
neptune (see also poseidon) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253
octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 252
olives Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 169
optimism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 161
orpheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
otium Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39, 252
pastoral Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39, 161
personification Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 255
pessimism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 254
pindar Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 188
plague Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
poetry and poetics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8, 159, 188
politics, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39
politics, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39, 188
praises of italy, as problematic Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 104
prayer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67
primitivism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29, 62
proems, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59
prometheus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62
providentialism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 65, 66, 162, 206
religion, in lucretius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 63, 67
religion, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 67, 206
saturn (see also cronus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253, 299
scha¨fer, s. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
seneca the younger Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253
servius Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29
sheep Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 101
similes Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 254
sphragis Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
stoicism Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 62, 65, 66, 162
storms Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 16, 162, 169
technology, morally ambiguous Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics (1989) 104
trees Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159
triptolemus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 67
underworld Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 8
varro Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 159, 255
vines Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 169, 255
virgil' Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 253
virgil, and aratus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 39, 59, 162
virgil, and hesiod Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 161, 162, 252
virgil, and homer Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 254
virgil, and octavian Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
virgil Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 299
war, and agriculture Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 254, 255
war, civil war Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 254, 255
war, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252, 254, 255
war, octavian as warrior Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 252
weather signs Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 59, 206
xenophanes Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 162
zeus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 61, 62, 161, 162
zoogony Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 29