Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11092
Vergil, Aeneis, 8.203-8.204


Alcides aderat taurosque hac victor agebatalike the northern and the southern sea.


ingentis, vallemque boves amnemque tenebant.Accept good faith, and give! Behold, our hearts


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hesiod, Shield, 162-167, 161 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Homer, Iliad, 18.478-18.608 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18.478. /and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim 18.479. /and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim 18.480. /threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full 18.481. /threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full 18.482. /threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full 18.483. /threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full 18.484. /threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full 18.485. /and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.486. /and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.487. /and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.488. /and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.489. /and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.490. /Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.491. /Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.492. /Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.493. /Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.494. /Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.495. /flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all 18.496. /flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all 18.497. /flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all 18.498. /flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all 18.499. /flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all 18.500. /declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle 18.501. /declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle 18.502. /declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle 18.503. /declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle 18.504. /declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle 18.505. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.506. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.507. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.508. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.509. /holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.510. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.511. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.512. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.513. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.514. /gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding 18.515. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.516. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.517. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.518. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.519. /as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.520. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.521. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.522. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.523. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.524. /But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.525. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.526. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.527. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.528. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.529. /And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. But the liers-in-wait, when they saw these coming on, rushed forth against them and speedily cut off the herds of cattle and fair flocks of white-fleeced sheep, and slew the herdsmen withal. 18.530. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.531. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.532. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.533. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.534. /But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.535. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.536. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.537. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.538. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.539. /And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.540. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field 18.541. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field 18.542. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field 18.543. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field 18.544. /and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field 18.545. /then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.546. /then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.547. /then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.548. /then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.549. /then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.550. /Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.551. /Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.552. /Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.553. /Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.554. /Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.555. /boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.556. /boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.557. /boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.558. /boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.559. /boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.560. /sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.561. /sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.562. /sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.563. /sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.564. /sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. Therein he set also a vineyard heavily laden with clusters, a vineyard fair and wrought of gold; black were the grapes, and the vines were set up throughout on silver poles. And around it he drave a trench of cyanus, and about that a fence of tin; 18.565. /and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre 18.566. /and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre 18.567. /and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre 18.568. /and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre 18.569. /and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre 18.570. /and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin 18.571. /and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin 18.572. /and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin 18.573. /and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin 18.574. /and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin 18.575. /and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.576. /and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.577. /and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.578. /and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.579. /and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.580. /were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.581. /were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.582. /were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.583. /were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.584. /were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.585. /Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.586. /Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.587. /Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.588. /Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.589. /Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.590. /Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.591. /Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.592. /Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.593. /Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.594. /Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.595. /of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.596. /of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.597. /of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.598. /of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.599. /of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.600. /exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.601. /exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.602. /exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.603. /exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.604. /exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.605. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy 18.606. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy 18.607. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy 18.608. /and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy
3. Euripides, Bacchae, 754 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

754. διέφερον· ἥρπαζον μὲν ἐκ δόμων τέκνα·
4. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.66 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.66. itaque non facile est invenire qui quod sciat ipse non tradat alteri; ita non solum ad discendum propensi sumus, verum etiam ad docendum. Atque ut tauris natura datum est ut pro vitulis contra leones summa vi impetuque contendant, sic ii, ii edd. hi qui valent opibus atque id facere possunt, ut de Hercule et de Libero accepimus, ad servandum genus hominum natura incitantur. Atque etiam Iovem cum Optimum et Maximum dicimus cumque eundem Salutarem, Hospitalem, Statorem, hoc intellegi volumus, salutem hominum in eius esse tutela. minime autem convenit, cum ipsi inter nos viles viles NV cules A eules R civiles BE neglectique simus, postulare ut diis inmortalibus cari simus et ab iis diligamur. Quem ad modum igitur membris utimur prius, quam didicimus, cuius ea causa utilitatis habeamus, sic inter nos natura ad civilem communitatem coniuncti et consociati sumus. quod ni ita se haberet, nec iustitiae ullus esset nec bonitati locus. 3.66.  Hence it would be hard to discover anyone who will not impart to another any knowledge that he may himself possess; so strong is our propensity not only to learn but also to teach. And just as bulls have a natural instinct to fight with all their strength and force in defending their calves against lions, so men of exceptional gifts and capacity for service, like Hercules and Liber in the legends, feel a natural impulse to be the protectors of the human race. Also when we confer upon Jove the titles of Most Good and Most Great, of Saviour, Lord of Guests, Rallier of Battles, what we mean to imply is that the safety of mankind lies in his keeping. But how inconsistent it would be for us to expect the immortal gods to love and cherish us, when we ourselves despise and neglect one another! Therefore just as we actually use our limbs before we have learnt for what particular useful purpose they were bestowed upon us, so we are united and allied by nature in the common society of the state. Were this not so, there would be no room either for justice or benevolence.
5. Cicero, Republic, 2.17-2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.17. Ac Romulus cum septem et triginta regnavisset annos et haec egregia duo firmamenta rei publicae peperisset, auspicia et senatum, tantum est consecutus, ut, cum subito sole obscurato non conparuisset, deorum in numero conlocatus putaretur; quam opinionem nemo umquam mortalis adsequi potuit sine eximia virtutis gloria. 2.18. Atque hoc eo magis est in Romulo admirandum, quod ceteri, qui dii ex hominibus facti esse dicuntur, minus eruditis hominum saeculis fuerunt, ut fingendi proclivis esset ratio, cum imperiti facile ad credendum inpellerentur, Romuli autem aetatem minus his sescentis annis iam inveteratis litteris atque doctrinis omnique illo antiquo ex inculta hominum vita errore sublato fuisse cernimus. Nam si, id quod Graecorum investigatur annalibus, Roma condita est secundo anno Olympiadis septumae, in id saeculum Romuli cecidit aetas, cum iam plena Graecia poetarum et musicorum esset minorque fabulis nisi de veteribus rebus haberetur fides. Nam centum et octo annis postquam Lycurgus leges scribere instituit, prima posita est Olympias, quam quidam nominis errore ab eodem Lycurgo constitutam putant; Homerum autem, qui minimum dicunt, Lycurgi aetati triginta annis anteponunt fere. 2.19. Ex quo intellegi potest permultis annis ante Homerum fuisse quam Romulum, ut iam doctis hominibus ac temporibus ipsis eruditis ad fingendum vix quicquam esset loci. Antiquitas enim recepit fabulas fictas etiam non numquam August. C.D. 22.6 incondite, haec aetas autem iam exculta praesertim eludens omne, quod fieri non potest, respuit. 2.20. us ne pos ei us, ut di xeru nt quidam, e x filia. Quo autem ille mor tuus, e odem est an no na tus Si moni des Ol ympia de se xta et quin qua gesima, ut f acilius intel legi pos sit tu m de Ro mu li inmortalitate creditum, cum iam inveterata vita hominum ac tractata esset et cognita. Sed profecto tanta fuit in eo vis ingenii atque virtutis, ut id de Romulo Proculo Iulio, homini agresti, crederetur, quod multis iam ante saeculis nullo alio de mortali homines credidissent; qui inpulsu patrum, quo illi a se invidiam interitus Romuli pellerent, in contione dixisse fertur a se visum esse in eo colle Romulum, qui nunc Quirinalis vocatur; eum sibi mandasse, ut populum rogaret, ut sibi eo in colle delubrum fieret; se deum esse et Quirinum vocari.
6. Cicero, Pro Archia, 22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

22. carus fuit Africano superiori noster Ennius, itaque etiam in sepulcro Scipionum putatur is esse constitutus ex marmore. at eis ex marmore. At iis Fascitellus : et marmoratis codd. : ex marmore; cuius Mommsen laudibus certe non solum ipse qui laudatur ipse ... laudatur GEeab2 : ipsi ... laudantur (-atur p ) cett. sed etiam populi Romani nomen ornatur. in caelum huius proavus Cato tollitur; magnus honos populi Romani rebus adiungitur. omnes denique illi maximi, Marcelli, Fulvii non sine communi omnium nostrum laude decorantur. ergo illum qui haec fecerat, Rudinum Rudinum Schol., A. Augustinus : rudem tum (tu Ee : tamen ς gp ς ) codd. hominem, maiores nostri in civitatem receperunt; nos hunc Heracliensem multis a multis Lambinus civitatibus expetitum, in hac autem legibus constitutum de nostra civitate eiciamus eiciamus G : eiecimus e : eiciemus cett. ?
7. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.39-1.44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.39. 1.  of the stories told concerning this god some are largely legend and some are nearer the truth. The legendary account of his arrival is as follows: Hercules, being commanded by Eurystheus, among other labours, to drive Geryon's cattle from Erytheia to Argos, performed the task and having passed through many parts of Italy on his way home, came also to the neighbourhood of Pallantium in the country of the Aborigines;,2.  and there, finding much excellent grass for his cattle, he let them graze, and being overcome with weariness, lay down and gave himself over to sleep. Thereupon a robber of that region, named Cacus, chanced to come upon the cattle feeding with none to guard them and longed to possess them. But seeing Hercules lying there asleep, he imagined he could not drive them all away without being discovered and at the same time he perceived that the task was no easy one, either. So he secreted a few of them in the cave hard by, in which he lived, dragging each of them thither by the tail backwards. This might have destroyed all evidence of his theft, as the direction in which the oxen had gone would be at variance with their tracks.,3.  Hercules, then, arising from sleep soon afterwards, and having counted the cattle and found some were missing, was for some time at a loss to guess where they had gone, and supposing them to have strayed from their pasture, he sought them up and down the region; then, when he failed to find them, he came to the cave, and though he was deceived by the tracks, he felt, nevertheless, that he ought to search the place. But Cacus stood before the door, and when Hercules inquired after the cattle, denied that he had seen them, and when the other desired to search his cave, would not suffer him to do so, to be called upon his neighbours for assistance, complaining of the violence offered to him by the stranger. And while Hercules was puzzled to know how he should act in the matter, he hit upon the expedient of driving the rest of the cattle to the cave. And thus, when those inside heard the lowing and perceived the smell of their companions outside, they bellowed to them in turn and thus their lowing betrayed the theft.,4.  Cacus, therefore, when his thievery was thus brought to light, put himself upon his defence and began to call out to his fellow herdsmen. But Hercules killed him by smiting him with his club and drove out the cattle; and when he saw that the place was well adapted to the harbouring of evil-doers, he demolished the cave, burying the robber under its ruins. Then, having purified himself in the river from the murder, he erected an altar near the place to Jupiter the Discoverer, which is now in Rome near the Porta Trigemina, and sacrificed a calf to the god as a thank-offering for the finding of his cattle. This sacrifice the city of Rome continued to celebrate even down to my day, observing in it all the ceremonies of the Greeks just as he instituted them. 1.40. 1.  When the Aborigines and the Arcadians who lived at Pallantium learned of the death of Cacus and saw Hercules, they thought themselves very fortunate in being rid of the former, whom they detested for his robberies, and were struck with awe at the appearance of the latter, in whom they seemed to see something divine. The poorer among them, plucking branches of laurel which grew there in great plenty, crowned both him and themselves with it; and their kings also came to invite Hercules to be their guest. But when they heard from him his name, his lineage and his achievements, they recommended both their country and themselves to his friendship.,2.  And Evander, who had even before this heard Themis relate that it was ordained by fate that Hercules, the son of Jupiter and Alcmena, changing his mortal nature, should become immortal by reason of his virtue, as soon as he learned who the stranger was, resolved to forestall all mankind by being the first to propitiate Hercules with divine honours, and he hastily erected an improvised altar and sacrificed upon it a calf that had not known the yoke, having first communicated the oracle to Hercules and asked him to perform the initial rites.,3.  And Hercules, admiring the hospitality of these men, entertained the common people with a feast, after sacrificing some of the cattle and setting apart the tithes of the rest of his booty; and to their kings he gave a large district belonging to the Ligurians and to some others of their neighbours, the rule of which they very much desired, after he had first expelled some lawless people from it. It is furthermore reported that he asked the inhabitants, since they were the first who had regarded him as a god, to perpetuate the honours they had paid him by offering up every year a calf that had not known the yoke and performing the sacrifice with Greek rites; and that he himself taught the sacrificial rites to two of the distinguished families, in order that their offerings might always be acceptable to him.,4.  Those who were then instructed in the Greek ceremony, they say, were the Potitii and the Pinarii, whose descendants continued for a long time to have the superintendence of these sacrifices, in the manner he had appointed, the Potitii presiding at the sacrifice and taking the first part of the burnt-offerings, while the Pinarii were excluded from tasting the inwards and held second rank in those ceremonies which had to be performed by both of them together. It is said that this disgrace was fixed upon them for having been late in arriving; for though they had been ordered to be present early in the morning, they did not come till the entrails had been eaten.,5.  To‑day, however, the superintendence of the sacrifices no longer devolves on these families, but slaves purchased with the public money perform them. For what reasons this custom was changed and how the god manifested himself concerning the change in his ministers, I shall relate when I come to that part of the history.,6.  The altar on which Hercules offered up the tithes is called by the Romans the Greatest Altar. It stands near the place they call the Cattle Market and no other is held in greater veneration by the inhabitants; for upon this altar oaths are taken and agreements made by those who wish to transact any business unalterably and the tithes of things are frequently offered there pursuant to vows. However, in its construction it is much inferior to its reputation. In many other places also in Italy precincts are dedicated to this god and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured. Such, then, is the legendary account that has been handed down concerning him. 1.41. 1.  But the story which comes nearer to the truth and which has been adopted by many who have narrated his deeds in the form of history is as follows: Hercules, who was the greatest commander of his age, marched at the head of a large force through all the country that lies on this side of the Ocean, destroying any despotisms that were grievous and oppressive to their subjects, or commonwealths that outraged and injured the neighbouring states, or organized bands of men who lived in the manner of savages and lawlessly put strangers to death, and in their room establishing lawful monarchies, well-ordered governments and humane and sociable modes of life. Furthermore, he mingled barbarians with Greeks, and inhabitants of the inland with dwellers on the sea coast, groups which hitherto had been distrustful and unsocial in their dealings with each other; he also built cities in desert places, turned the course of rivers that overflowed the fields, cut roads through inaccessible mountains, and contrived other means by which every land and sea might lie open to the use of all mankind.,2.  And he came into Italy not alone nor yet bringing a herd of cattle (for neither does this country lies on the road of those returning from Spain to Argos nor would he have been deemed worthy of so great an honour merely for passing through it), but at the head of a great army, after he had already conquered Spain, in order to subjugate and rule the people in this region; and he was obliged to tarry there a considerable time both because of the absence of his fleet, due to stormy weather that detained it, and because not all the nations of Italy willingly submitted to him.,3.  For, besides the other barbarians, the Ligurians, a numerous and warlike people seated in the passes of the Alps, endeavoured to prevent his entrance into Italy by force of arms, and in that place so great a battle was fought by the Greeks that all their missiles gave out in the course of the fighting. This war is mentioned by Aeschylus, among the ancient poets, in his Prometheus Unbound; for there Prometheus is represented as foretelling to Hercules in detail how everything else was to befall him on his expedition against Geryon and in particular recounting to him the difficult struggle he was to have in the war with the Ligurians. The verses are these: "And thou shalt come to Liguria's dauntless host, Where no fault shalt thou find, bold though thou art, With the fray: 'tis fated thy missiles all shall fail. 1.42. 1.  After Hercules had defeated this people and gained the passes, some delivered up their cities to him of their own accord, particularly those who were any other Greek extraction or who had no considerable forces; but the greatest part of them were reduced by war and siege.,2.  Among those who were conquered in battle, they say, was Cacus, who is celebrated in the Roman legend, an exceedingly barbarous chieftain reigning over a savage people, who had set himself to oppose Hercules; he was established in the fastnesses and on that account was a pest to his neighbours. He, when he heard that Hercules lay encamped in the plain hard by, equipped his followers like brigands and making a sudden raid while the army lay sleeping, he surrounded and drove off as much of their booty as he found unguarded.,3.  Afterwards, being besieged by the Greeks, he not only saw his forts taken by storm, but was himself slain amid his fastnesses. And when his forts had been demolished, those who had accompanied Hercules on the expedition (these were some Arcadians with Evander, and Faunus, king of the Aborigines) took over the districts round about, each group for itself. And it may be conjectured that those of the Greeks who remained there, that is, the Epeans and the Arcadians from Pheneus, as well as the Trojans, were left to guard the country.,4.  For among the various measures of Hercules that bespoke the true general none was more worthy of admiration than his practice of carrying along with him for a time on his expeditions the prisoners taken from the captured cities, and then, after they had cheerfully assisted him in his wars, settling them in the conquered regions and bestowing on them the riches he had gained from others. It was because of these deeds that Hercules gained the greatest name and renown in Italy, and not because of his passage through it, which was attended by nothing worthy of veneration. Some say that he also left sons by two women in the region now inhabited by the Romans. One of these sons was Pallas, whom he had by the daughter of Evander, whose name, they say, was Lavinia; the other, Latinus, whose mother was a certain Hyperborean girl whom he brought with him as a hostage given to him by her father and preserved for some time untouched; but while he was on his voyage to Italy, he fell in love with her and got her with child. And when he was preparing to leave for Argos, he married her to Faunus, king of the Aborigines; for which reason Latinus is generally looked upon as the son of Faunus, not of Hercules. 1.43. 2.  Pallas, they say, died before he arrived at puberty; but Latinus, upon reaching man's estate, succeeded to the kingdom of the Aborigines, and when he was killed in the battle against the neighbouring Rutulians, without leaving any male issue, the kingdom devolved on Aeneas, the son of Anchises, his son-in‑law. But these things happened at other times. 1.44. 1.  After Hercules had settled everything in Italy according to his desire and his naval force had arrived in safety from Spain, he sacrificed to the gods the tithes of his booty and built a small town named after himself in the place where his fleet lay at anchor (it is now occupied by the Romans, and lying as it does between Neapolis and Pompeii, has at all times Etruria havens); and having gained fame and glory and received divine honours from all the inhabitants of Italy, he set sail for Sicily.,2.  Those who were left behind by him as a garrison to dwell in Italy and were settled around the Saturnian hill lived for some time under an independent government; but not long afterwards they adapted their manner of life, their laws and their religious ceremonies to those of the Aborigines, even as the Arcadians and, still earlier, the Pelasgians had done, and they shared in the same government with them, so that in time they came to be looked upon as of the same nation with them. But let this suffice concerning the expedition of Hercules and concerning the Peloponnesians who remained behind in Italy.
8. Horace, Odes, 3.1.1, 3.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.14. Accordingly, he wrote these things, and sent messengers immediately to carry his letter to Jerusalem. 3.14. but Antonius, who was not unapprised of the attack they were going to make upon the city, drew out his horsemen beforehand, and being neither daunted at the multitude, nor at the courage of the enemy, received their first attacks with great bravery; and when they crowded to the very walls, he beat them off.
9. Horace, Epodes, 9.37-9.38 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Livy, History, 1.7, 1.7.4-1.7.7, 5.24.11, 34.55.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.116-1.118 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Ovid, Amores, 1.15.19-1.15.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Ovid, Fasti, 1.543-1.586, 6.473-6.572, 6.580-6.584, 6.589-6.596, 6.601-6.648 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.543. Travelling a long track through the world: 1.544. And while he is entertained in the Tegean house 1.545. The untended cattle wander the wide acres. 1.546. It was morning: woken from his sleep the Tyrinthian 1.547. Saw that two bulls were missing from the herd. 1.548. Seeking, he found no trace of the silently stolen beasts: 1.549. Fierce Cacus had dragged them backwards into his cave 1.550. Cacus the infamous terror of the Aventine woods 1.551. No slight evil to neighbours and travellers. 1.552. His aspect was grim, his body huge, with strength 1.553. To match: the monster’s father was Mulciber. 1.554. He housed in a vast cavern with deep recesses 1.555. So hidden the wild creatures could barely find it. 1.556. Over the entrance hung human arms and skulls 1.557. And the ground bristled with whitened bones. 1.558. Jupiter’s son was leaving, that part of his herd lost 1.559. When the stolen cattle lowed loudly. 1.560. ‘I am recalled” he said, and following the sound 1.561. As avenger, came through the woods to the evil cave 1.562. Cacus had blocked the entrance with a piece of the hill: 1.563. Ten yoked oxen could scarcely have moved it. 1.564. Hercules leant with his shoulders, on which the world had rested 1.565. And loosened that vast bulk with the pressure. 1.566. A crash that troubled the air followed its toppling 1.567. And the ground subsided under the falling weight. 1.568. Cacus at first fought hand to hand, and waged war 1.569. Ferociously, with logs and boulders. 1.570. When that failed, beaten, he tried his father’s trick 1.571. And vomited roaring flames from his mouth: 1.572. You’d think Typhoeus breathed at every blast 1.573. And sudden flares were hurled from Etna’s fires. 1.574. Hercules anticipated him, raised his triple-knotted club 1.575. And swung it three, then four times, in his adversary’s face. 1.576. Cacus fell, vomiting smoke mingled with blood 1.577. And beat at the ground, in dying, with his chest. 1.578. The victor offered one of the bulls to you, Jupiter 1.579. And invited Evander and his countrymen to the feast 1.580. And himself set up an altar, called Maxima, the Mightiest 1.581. Where that part of the city takes its name from an ox. 1.582. Evander’s mother did not hide that the time was near 1.583. When earth would be done with its hero, Hercules. 1.584. But the felicitous prophetess, as she lived beloved of the gods 1.585. Now a goddess herself, has this day of Janus’ month as hers. 1.586. On the Ides, in Jove’s temple, the chaste priest (the Flamen Dialis) 6.473. Now you complain, Phrygian Tithonus, abandoned by your bride 6.474. And the vigilant Morning Star leaves the Eastern waters. 6.475. Good mothers (since the Matralia is your festival) 6.476. Go, offer the Theban goddess the golden cakes she’s owed. 6.477. Near the bridges and mighty Circus is a famous square 6.478. One that takes its name from the statue of an ox: 6.479. There, on this day, they say, Servius with his own 6.480. Royal hands, consecrated a temple to Mother Matruta. 6.481. Bacchus, whose hair is twined with clustered grapes 6.482. If the goddess’ house is also yours, guide the poet’s work 6.483. Regarding who the goddess is, and why she exclude 6.484. (Since she does) female servants from the threshold 6.485. of her temple, and why she calls for toasted cakes. 6.486. Semele was burnt by Jove’s compliance: Ino 6.487. Received you as a baby, and nursed you with utmost care. 6.488. Juno swelled with rage, that Ino should raise a child 6.489. Snatched from Jove’s lover: but it was her sister’s son. 6.490. So Athamas was haunted by the Furies, and false visions 6.491. And little Learchus died by his father’s hand. 6.492. His grieving mother committed his shade to the tomb. 6.493. And paid the honours due to the sad pyre. 6.494. Then tearing her hair in sorrow, she leapt up 6.495. And snatched you from your cradle, Melicertes. 6.496. There’s a narrow headland between two seas 6.497. A single space attacked by twofold waves: 6.498. There Ino came, clutching her son in her frenzied grasp 6.499. And threw herself, with him, from a high cliff into the sea. 6.500. Panope and her hundred sisters received them unharmed 6.501. And gliding smoothly carried them through their realm. 6.502. They reached the mouth of densely eddying Tiber 6.503. Before they became Leucothea and Palaemon. 6.504. There was a grove: known either as Semele’s or Stimula’s: 6.505. Inhabited, they say, by Italian Maenads. 6.506. Ino, asking them their nation, learned they were Arcadians 6.507. And that Evander was the king of the place. 6.508. Hiding her divinity, Saturn’s daughter cleverly 6.509. Incited the Latian Bacchae with deceiving words: 6.510. ‘O too-easy-natured ones, caught by every feeling! 6.511. This stranger comes, but not as a friend, to our gathering. 6.512. She’s treacherous, and would learn our sacred rites: 6.513. But she has a child on whom we can wreak punishment.’ 6.514. She’d scarcely ended when the Thyiads, hair streaming 6.515. Over their necks, filled the air with their howling 6.516. Laid hands on Ino, and tried to snatch the boy. 6.517. She invoked gods with names as yet unknown to her: 6.518. ‘Gods, and men, of this land, help a wretched mother!’ 6.519. Her cry carried to the neighbouring Aventine. 6.520. Oetaean Hercules having driven the Iberian cattle 6.521. To the riverbank, heard and hurried towards the voice. 6.522. As he arrived, the women who’d been ready for violence 6.523. Shamefully turned their backs in cowardly flight. 6.524. ‘What are you doing here,’ said Hercules (recognising her) 6.525. ‘Sister of Bacchus’ mother? Does Juno persecute you too?’ 6.526. She told him part of her tale, suppressing the rest because of her son: 6.527. Ashamed to have been goaded to crime by the Furies. 6.528. Rumour, so swift, flew on beating wings 6.529. And your name was on many a lip, Ino. 6.530. It’s said you entered loyal Carmentis’ home 6.531. As a guest, and assuaged your great hunger: 6.532. They say the Tegean priestess quickly made cake 6.533. With her own hands, and baked them on the hearth. 6.534. Now cakes delight the goddess at the Matralia: 6.535. Country ways pleased her more than art’s attentions. 6.536. ‘Now, O prophetess,’ she said, ‘reveal my future fate 6.537. As far as is right. Add this, I beg, to your hospitality.’ 6.538. A pause ensued. Then the prophetess assumed divine powers 6.539. And her whole breast filled with the presence of the god: 6.540. You’d hardly have known her then, so much taller 6.541. And holier she’d become than a moment before. 6.542. ‘I sing good news, Ino,’ she said, ‘your trials are over 6.543. Be a blessing to your people for evermore. 6.544. You’ll be a sea goddess, and your son will inhabit ocean. 6.545. Take different names now, among your own waves: 6.546. Greeks will call you Leucothea, our people Matuta: 6.547. Your son will have complete command of harbours 6.548. We’ll call him Portunus, Palaemon in his own tongue. 6.549. Go, and both be friends, I beg you, of our country!’ 6.550. Ino nodded, and gave her promise. Their trials were over 6.551. They changed their names: he’s a god and she’s a goddess. 6.552. You ask why she forbids the approach of female servants? 6.553. She hates them: by her leave I’ll sing the reason for her hate. 6.554. Daughter of Cadmus, one of your maid 6.555. Was often embraced by your husband. 6.556. Faithless Athamas secretly enjoyed her: he learned 6.557. From her that you gave the farmers parched seed. 6.558. You yourself denied it, but rumour confirmed it. 6.559. That’s why you hate the service of a maid. 6.560. But let no loving mother pray to her, for her child: 6.561. She herself proved an unfortunate parent. 6.562. Better command her to help another’s child: 6.563. She was more use to Bacchus than her own. 6.564. They say she asked you, Rutilius, ‘Where are you rushing? 6.565. As consul you’ll fall to the Marsian enemy on my day.’ 6.566. Her words were fulfilled, the Tolenu 6.567. Flowed purple, its waters mixed with blood. 6.568. The following year, Didius, killed on the same 6.569. Day, doubled the enemy’s strength. 6.570. Fortuna, the same day is yours, your temple 6.571. Founded by the same king, in the same place. 6.572. And whose is that statue hidden under draped robes? 6.580. So that the gate bears the name Fenestella. 6.581. She’s still ashamed, and hides the beloved feature 6.582. Under cloth: the king’s face being covered by a robe. 6.583. Or is it rather that, after his murder, the people 6.584. Were bewildered by their gentle leader’s death 6.589. Having secured her marriage by crime, Tullia 6.590. Used to incite her husband with words like these: 6.591. ‘What use if we’re equally matched, you by my sister’ 6.592. Murder, I by your brother’s, in leading a virtuous life? 6.593. Better that my husband and your wife had lived 6.594. Than that we shrink from greater achievement. 6.595. I offer my father’s life and realm as my dower: 6.596. If you’re a man, go take the dower I speak of. 6.601. With blood and slaughter the weak old man was defeated: 6.602. Tarquin the Proud snatched his father-in-law’s sceptre. 6.603. Servius himself fell bleeding to the hard earth 6.604. At the foot of the Esquiline, site of his palace. 6.605. His daughter, driving to her father’s home 6.606. Rode through the streets, erect and haughty. 6.607. When her driver saw the king’s body, he halted 6.608. In tears. She reproved him in these terms: 6.609. ‘Go on, or do you seek the bitter fruits of virtue? 6.610. Drive the unwilling wheels, I say, over his face.’ 6.611. A certain proof of this is Evil Street, named 6.612. After her, while eternal infamy marks the deed. 6.613. Yet she still dared to visit her father’s temple 6.614. His monument: what I tell is strange but true. 6.615. There was a statue enthroned, an image of Servius: 6.616. They say it put a hand to its eyes 6.617. And a voice was heard: ‘Hide my face 6.618. Lest it view my own wicked daughter.’ 6.619. It was veiled by cloth, Fortune refused to let the robe 6.620. Be removed, and she herself spoke from her temple: 6.621. ‘The day when Servius’ face is next revealed 6.622. Will be a day when shame is cast aside.’ 6.623. Women, beware of touching the forbidden cloth 6.624. (It’s sufficient to utter prayers in solemn tones) 6.625. And let him who was the City’s seventh king 6.626. Keep his head covered, forever, by this veil. 6.627. The temple once burned: but the fire spared 6.628. The statue: Mulciber himself preserved his son. 6.629. For Servius’ father was Vulcan, and the lovely 6.630. Ocresia of Corniculum his mother. 6.631. Once, performing sacred rites with her in the due manner 6.632. Tanaquil ordered her to pour wine on the garlanded hearth: 6.633. There was, or seemed to be, the form of a male organ 6.634. In the ashes: the shape was really there in fact. 6.635. The captive girl sat on the hearth, as commanded: 6.636. She conceived Servius, born of divine seed. 6.637. His father showed his paternity by touching the child’ 6.638. Head with fire, and a cap of flames glowed on his hair. 6.639. And Livia, this day dedicated a magnificent shrine to you 6.640. Concordia, that she offered to her dear husband. 6.641. Learn this, you age to come: where Livia’s Colonnade 6.642. Now stands, there was once a vast palace. 6.643. A site that was like a city: it occupied a space 6.644. Larger than that of many a walled town. 6.645. It was levelled to the soil, not because of its owner’s treason 6.646. But because its excess was considered harmful. 6.647. Caesar counteced the demolition of such a mass 6.648. Destroying its great wealth to which he was heir.
14. Propertius, Elegies, 4.9, 4.9.37-4.9.50 (1st cent. BCE

15. Sallust, Historiae, 1.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.278-1.285, 2.351-2.352, 3.280, 3.588-3.654, 4.487-4.493, 4.556-4.557, 5.46, 5.362-5.484, 6.35-6.155, 6.234-6.235, 6.713-6.751, 6.847-6.853, 8.1-8.202, 8.204-8.369, 8.520-8.526, 8.529, 8.531-8.533, 8.535-8.540, 8.626-8.728, 12.697-12.703, 12.715-12.724, 12.731, 12.742, 12.749-12.757, 12.766-12.771, 12.776-12.886, 12.894-12.895, 12.898, 12.906, 12.908-12.914, 12.919-12.952 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 2.351. on to the well-known strand. The King displayed 2.352. torch from his own ship, and Sinon then 3.280. When from the deep the shores had faded far 3.588. the monster waves, and ever and anon 3.589. flings them at heaven, to lash the tranquil stars. 3.590. But Scylla, prisoned in her eyeless cave 3.591. thrusts forth her face, and pulls upon the rocks 3.592. hip after ship; the parts that first be seen 3.593. are human; a fair-breasted virgin she 3.594. down to the womb; but all that lurks below 3.595. is a huge-membered fish, where strangely join 3.596. the flukes of dolphins and the paunch of wolves. 3.597. Better by far to round the distant goal 3.598. of the Trinacrian headlands, veering wide 3.599. from thy true course, than ever thou shouldst see 3.600. that shapeless Scylla in her vaulted cave 3.601. where grim rocks echo her dark sea-dogs' roar. 3.602. Yea, more, if aught of prescience be bestowed 3.603. on Helenus, if trusted prophet he 3.604. and Phoebus to his heart true voice have given 3.605. o goddess-born, one counsel chief of all 3.606. I tell thee oft, and urge it o'er and o'er. 3.607. To Juno's godhead lift thy Ioudest prayer; 3.608. to Juno chant a fervent votive song 3.609. and with obedient offering persuade 3.610. that potent Queen. So shalt thou, triumphing 3.611. to Italy be sped, and leave behind 3.612. Trinacria . When wafted to that shore 3.613. repair to Cumae 's hill, and to the Lake 3.614. Avernus with its whispering grove divine. 3.615. There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess 3.616. who from beneath the hollow scarped crag 3.617. ings oracles, or characters on leaves 3.618. mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes 3.619. on leaves inscribing the portentous song 3.620. he sets in order, and conceals them well 3.621. in her deep cave, where they abide unchanged 3.622. in due array. Yet not a care has she 3.623. if with some swinging hinge a breeze sweeps in 3.624. to catch them as they whirl: if open door 3.625. disperse them flutterlig through the hollow rock 3.626. he will not link their shifted sense anew 3.627. nor re-invent her fragmentary song. 3.628. oft her uswered votaries depart 3.629. corning the Sibyl's shrine. But deem not thou 3.630. thy tarrying too Iong, whate'er thy stay. 3.631. Though thy companions chide, though winds of power 3.632. invite thy ship to sea, and well would speed 3.633. the swelling sail, yet to that Sibyl go. 3.634. Pray that her own lips may sing forth for thee 3.635. the oracles, uplifting her dread voice 3.636. in willing prophecy. Her rede shall tell 3.637. of Italy, its wars and tribes to be 3.638. and of what way each burden and each woe 3.639. may be escaped, or borne. Her favoring aid 3.640. will grant swift, happy voyages to thy prayer. 3.641. Such counsels Heaven to my lips allows. 3.642. arise, begone! and by thy glorious deeds 3.644. So spake the prophet with benigt voice. 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 3.649. of brazen cauldrons; a cuirass he gave 3.650. of linked gold enwrought and triple chain; 3.651. a noble helmet, too, with flaming crest 3.652. and lofty cone, th' accoutrement erewhile 3.653. of Neoptolemus. My father too 3.654. had fit gifts from the King; whose bounty then 4.487. are loud for Italy. My heart is there 4.488. and there my fatherland. If now the towers 4.489. of Carthage and thy Libyan colony 4.490. delight thy Tyrian eyes; wilt thou refuse 4.491. to Trojan exiles their Ausonian shore? 4.492. I too by Fate was driven, not less than thou 4.493. to wander far a foreign throne to find. 4.556. was weak because of love, while many a groan 4.557. rose from his bosom, yet no whit did fail 5.46. good King Acestes ran to bid them hail. 5.362. bound with a purple fillet. But behold! 5.363. Sergestus, from the grim rock just dragged off 5.364. by cunning toil, one halting rank of oars 5.365. left of his many lost, comes crawling in 5.366. with vanquished ship, a mockery to all. 5.367. As when a serpent, on the highway caught 5.368. ome brazen wheel has crushed, or traveller 5.369. with heavy-smiting blow left half alive 5.370. and mangled by a stone; in vain he moves 5.371. in writhing flight; a part is lifted high 5.372. with hissing throat and angry, glittering eyes; 5.373. but by the wounded part a captive still 5.374. he knots him fold on fold: with such a track 5.375. the maimed ship labored slow; but by her sails 5.376. he still made way, and with full canvas on 5.377. arrived at land. Aeneas then bestowed 5.378. a boon upon Sergestus, as was meet 5.379. for reward of the ship in safety brought 5.380. with all its men; a fair slave was the prize 5.381. the Cretan Pholoe, well taught to weave 5.383. Then good Aeneas, the ship-contest o'er 5.384. turned to a wide green valley, circled round 5.385. with clasp of wood-clad hills, wherein was made 5.386. an amphitheatre; entering with a throng 5.387. of followers, the hero took his seat 5.388. in mid-arena on a lofty mound. 5.389. For the fleet foot-race, now, his summons flies, — 5.390. he offers gifts, and shows the rewards due. 5.391. The mingling youth of Troy and Sicily 5.392. hastened from far. Among the foremost came 5.393. the comrades Nisus and Euryalus 5.394. Euryalus for beauty's bloom renowned 5.395. Nisus for loyal love; close-following these 5.396. Diores strode, a prince of Priam's line; 5.397. then Salius and Patron, who were bred 5.398. in Acaria and Arcady; 5.399. then two Sicilian warriors, Helymus 5.400. and Panopes, both sylvan bred and born 5.401. comrades of King Acestes; after these 5.402. the multitude whom Fame forgets to tell. 5.403. Aeneas, so surrounded, thus spake forth: 5.404. “Hear what I purpose, and with joy receive! 5.405. of all your company, not one departs 5.406. with empty hand. The Cretan javelins 5.407. bright-tipped with burnished steel, and battle-axe 5.408. adorned with graven silver, these shall be 5.409. the meed of all. The three first at the goal 5.410. hall bind their foreheads with fair olive green 5.411. and win the rewards due. The first shall lead 5.412. victorious, yon rich-bridled steed away; 5.413. this Amazonian quiver, the next prize 5.414. well-stocked with Thracian arrows; round it goes 5.415. a baldrick broad and golden,—in its clasp 5.416. a lustrous gem. The third man goes away 5.418. They heard, and took their places. The loud horn 5.419. gave signal, and impetuous from the line 5.420. wift as a bursting storm they sped away 5.421. eyes fixed upon the goal. Far in advance 5.422. Nisus shot forward, swifter than the winds 5.423. or winged thunderbolt; the next in course 5.424. next, but out-rivalled far, was Salius 5.425. and after him a space, Euryalus 5.426. came third; him Helymus was hard upon; 5.427. and, look! Diores follows, heel on heel 5.428. close at his shoulder—if the race be long 5.429. he sure must win, or claim a doubtful prize. 5.430. Now at the last stretch, spent and panting, all 5.431. pressed to the goal, when in a slime of blood 5.432. Nisus, hard fate! slipped down, where late the death 5.433. of victims slain had drenched the turf below. 5.434. Here the young victor, with his triumph flushed 5.435. lost foothold on the yielding ground, and plunged 5.436. face forward in the pool of filth and gore; 5.437. but not of dear Euryalus was he 5.438. forgetful then, nor heedless of his friend; 5.439. but rising from the mire he hurled himself 5.440. in Salius' way; so he in equal plight 5.441. rolled in the filthy slough. Euryalus 5.442. leaped forth, the winner of the race by gift 5.443. of his true friend, and flying to the goal 5.444. tood first, by many a favoring shout acclaimed. 5.445. Next Helymus ran in; and, for the third, last prize 5.446. Diores. But the multitude now heard 5.447. the hollowed hill-side ringing with wild wrath 5.448. from Salius, clamoring where the chieftains sate 5.449. for restitution of his stolen prize 5.450. lost by a cheat. But general favor smiles 5.451. upon Euryalus, whose beauteous tears 5.452. commend him much, and nobler seems the worth 5.453. of valor clothed in youthful shape so fair. 5.454. Diores, too, assists the victor's claim 5.455. with loud appeal—he too has won a prize 5.456. and vainly holds his last place, if the first 5.457. to Salius fall. Aeneas then replied: 5.458. “Your gifts, my gallant youths, remain secure. 5.459. None can re-judge the prize. But to console 5.460. the misadventure of a blameless friend 5.461. is in my power.” Therewith to Salius 5.462. an Afric lion's monstrous pelt he gave 5.463. with ponderous mane, the claws o'erlaid with gold. 5.464. But Nisus cried: “If such a gift be found 5.465. for less than victory, and men who fall 5.466. are worthy so much sorrow, pray, what prize 5.467. hall Nisus have? For surely I had won 5.468. the proudest of the garlands, if one stroke 5.469. of inauspicious fortune had not fallen 5.470. on Salius and me.” So saying, he showed 5.471. his smeared face and his sorry limbs befouled 5.472. with mire and slime. Then laughed the gracious sire 5.473. and bade a shield be brought, the cunning work 5.474. of Didymaon, which the Greeks tore down 5.475. from Neptune's temple; with this noble gift 5.477. The foot-race over and the gifts disbursed 5.478. “Come forth!” he cries, “if any in his heart 5.479. have strength and valor, let him now pull on 5.480. the gauntlets and uplift his thong-bound arms 5.481. in challenge.” For the reward of this fight 5.482. a two-fold gift he showed: the victor's meed 5.483. a bullock decked and gilded; but a sword 5.484. and glittering helmet to console the fallen. 6.35. And Queen Pasiphae's brute-human son 6.36. The Minotaur—of monstrous loves the sign. 6.37. Here was the toilsome, labyrinthine maze 6.38. Where, pitying love-lorn Ariadne's tears 6.39. The crafty Daedalus himself betrayed 6.40. The secret of his work; and gave the clue 6.41. To guide the path of Theseus through the gloom. 6.42. 0 Icarus, in such well-graven scene 6.43. How proud thy place should be! but grief forbade: 6.44. Twice in pure gold a father's fingers strove 6.45. To shape thy fall, and twice they strove in vain. 6.46. Aeneas long the various work would scan; 6.47. But now Achates comes, and by his side 6.48. Deiphobe, the Sibyl, Glaucus' child. 6.49. Thus to the prince she spoke : 6.50. “Is this thine hour 6.51. To stand and wonder? Rather go obtain 6.52. From young unbroken herd the bullocks seven 6.53. And seven yearling ewes, our wonted way.” 6.54. Thus to Aeneas; his attendants haste 6.55. To work her will; the priestess, calling loud 6.57. Deep in the face of that Euboean crag 6.58. A cavern vast is hollowed out amain 6.59. With hundred openings, a hundred mouths 6.60. Whence voices flow, the Sibyl's answering songs. 6.61. While at the door they paused, the virgin cried : 6.62. “Ask now thy doom!—the god! the god is nigh!” 6.63. So saying, from her face its color flew 6.64. Her twisted locks flowed free, the heaving breast 6.65. Swelled with her heart's wild blood; her stature seemed 6.66. Vaster, her accent more than mortal man 6.67. As all th' oncoming god around her breathed : 6.68. “On with thy vows and prayers, 0 Trojan, on! 6.69. For only unto prayer this haunted cave 6.70. May its vast lips unclose.” She spake no more. 6.71. An icy shudder through the marrow ran 6.72. of the bold Trojans; while their sacred King 6.73. Poured from his inmost soul this plaint and prayer : 6.74. “Phoebus, who ever for the woes of Troy 6.75. Hadst pitying eyes! who gavest deadly aim 6.76. To Paris when his Dardan shaft he hurled 6.77. On great Achilles! Thou hast guided me 6.78. Through many an unknown water, where the seas 6.79. Break upon kingdoms vast, and to the tribes 6.80. of the remote Massyli, whose wild land 6.81. To Syrtes spreads. But now; because at last 6.82. I touch Hesperia's ever-fleeting bound 6.83. May Troy 's ill fate forsake me from this day! 6.84. 0 gods and goddesses, beneath whose wrath 6.85. Dardania's glory and great Ilium stood 6.86. Spare, for ye may, the remt of my race! 6.87. And thou, most holy prophetess, whose soul 6.88. Foreknows events to come, grant to my prayer 6.89. (Which asks no kingdom save what Fate decrees) 6.90. That I may stablish in the Latin land 6.91. My Trojans, my far-wandering household-gods 6.92. And storm-tossed deities of fallen Troy . 6.93. Then unto Phoebus and his sister pale 6.94. A temple all of marble shall be given 6.95. And festal days to Phoebus evermore. 6.96. Thee also in my realms a spacious shrine 6.97. Shall honor; thy dark books and holy songs 6.98. I there will keep, to be my people's law; 6.99. And thee, benigt Sibyl for all time 6.100. A company of chosen priests shall serve. 6.101. O, not on leaves, light leaves, inscribe thy songs! 6.102. Lest, playthings of each breeze, they fly afar 6.103. In swift confusion! Sing thyself, I pray.” 6.104. So ceased his voice; the virgin through the cave 6.105. Scarce bridled yet by Phoebus' hand divine 6.106. Ecstatic swept along, and vainly stove 6.107. To fing its potent master from her breast; 6.108. But he more strongly plied his rein and curb 6.109. Upon her frenzied lips, and soon subdued 6.110. Her spirit fierce, and swayed her at his will. 6.111. Free and self-moved the cavern's hundred adoors 6.112. Swung open wide, and uttered to the air 6.113. The oracles the virgin-priestess sung : 6.114. “Thy long sea-perils thou hast safely passed; 6.115. But heavier woes await thee on the land. 6.116. Truly thy Trojans to Lavinian shore 6.117. Shall come—vex not thyself thereon—but, oh! 6.118. Shall rue their coming thither! war, red war! 6.119. And Tiber stained with bloody foam I see. 6.120. Simois, Xanthus, and the Dorian horde 6.121. Thou shalt behold; a new Achilles now 6.122. In Latium breathes,—he, too, of goddess born; 6.123. And Juno, burden of the sons of Troy 6.124. Will vex them ever; while thyself shalt sue 6.125. In dire distress to many a town and tribe 6.126. Through Italy ; the cause of so much ill 6.127. Again shall be a hostess-queen, again 6.128. A marriage-chamber for an alien bride. 6.129. Oh! yield not to thy woe, but front it ever 6.130. And follow boldly whither Fortune calls. 6.131. Thy way of safety, as thou least couldst dream 6.133. Thus from her shrine Cumaea's prophetess 6.134. Chanted the dark decrees; the dreadful sound 6.135. Reverberated through the bellowing cave 6.136. Commingling truth with ecstasies obscure. 6.137. Apollo, as she raged, flung loosened rein 6.138. And thrust beneath her heart a quickening spur. 6.139. When first her madness ceased, and her wild lips 6.140. Were still at last, the hero thus began : 6.141. “No tribulations new, 0 Sibyl blest 6.142. Can now confront me; every future pain 6.143. I have foretasted; my prophetic soul 6.144. Endured each stroke of fate before it fell. 6.145. One boon I ask. If of th' infernal King 6.146. This be the portal where the murky wave 6.147. of swollen Acheron o'erflows its bound 6.148. Here let me enter and behold the face 6.149. of my loved sire. Thy hand may point the way; 6.150. Thy word will open wide yon holy doors. 6.151. My father through the flames and falling spears 6.152. Straight through the centre of our foes, I bore 6.153. Upon these shoulders. My long flight he shared 6.154. From sea to sea, and suffered at my side 6.155. The anger of rude waters and dark skies,— 6.234. Till jealous Triton, if the tale be true 6.235. Grasped the rash mortal, and out-flung him far 6.713. Loud-thundering rocks. A mighty gate is there 6.714. Columned in adamant; no human power 6.715. Nor even the gods, against this gate prevail. 6.716. Tall tower of steel it has; and seated there 6.717. Tisiphone, in blood-flecked pall arrayed 6.718. Sleepless forever, guards the entering way. 6.719. Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge 6.720. Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721. Aeneas motionless with horror stood 6.722. o'erwhelmed at such uproar. “0 virgin, say 6.723. What shapes of guilt are these? What penal woe 6.724. Harries them thus? What wailing smites the air?” 6.725. To whom the Sibyl, “Far-famed prince of Troy 6.726. The feet of innocence may never pass 6.727. Into this house of sin. But Hecate 6.728. When o'er th' Avernian groves she gave me power 6.729. Taught me what penalties the gods decree 6.730. And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731. His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732. Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733. of mortals who, exulting in vain guile 6.734. Elude till death, their expiation due. 6.735. There, armed forever with her vengeful scourge 6.736. Tisiphone, with menace and affront 6.737. The guilty swarm pursues; in her left hand 6.738. She lifts her angered serpents, while she calls 6.739. A troop of sister-furies fierce as she. 6.740. Then, grating loud on hinge of sickening sound 6.741. Hell's portals open wide. 0, dost thou see 6.742. What sentinel upon that threshold sits 6.744. Far, far within the dragon Hydra broods 6.745. With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black; 6.746. And Tartarus slopes downward to the dark 6.747. Twice the whole space that in the realms of light 6.748. Th' Olympian heaven above our earth aspires. — 6.749. Here Earth's first offspring, the Titanic brood 6.750. Roll lightning-blasted in the gulf profound; 6.751. The twin Aloidae Aloïdae , colossal shades 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 8.1. When Turnus from Laurentum's bastion proud 8.2. published the war, and roused the dreadful note 8.3. of the harsh trumpet's song; when on swift steeds 8.4. the lash he laid and clashed his sounding arms; 8.5. then woke each warrior soul; all Latium stirred 8.6. with tumult and alarm; and martial rage 8.7. enkindled youth's hot blood. The chieftains proud 8.8. Messapus, Ufens, and that foe of Heaven 8.9. Mezentius, compel from far and wide 8.10. their loyal hosts, and strip the field and farm 8.11. of husbandmen. To seek auxiliar arms 8.12. they send to glorious Diomed's domain 8.13. the herald Venulus, and bid him cry: 8.14. “ Troy is to Latium come; Aeneas' fleet 8.15. has come to land. He brings his vanquished gods 8.16. and gives himself to be our destined King. 8.17. Cities not few accept him, and his name 8.18. through Latium waxes large. But what the foe 8.19. by such attempt intends, what victory 8.20. is his presumptuous hope, if Fortune smile 8.21. Aetolia 's lord will not less wisely fear 8.23. Thus Latium 's cause moved on. Meanwhile the heir 8.24. of great Laomedon, who knew full well 8.25. the whole wide land astir, was vexed and tossed 8.26. in troubled seas of care. This way and that 8.27. his swift thoughts flew, and scanned with like dismay 8.28. each partial peril or the general storm. 8.29. Thus the vexed waters at a fountain's brim 8.30. mitten by sunshine or the silver sphere 8.31. of a reflected moon, send forth a beam 8.32. of flickering light that leaps from wall to wall 8.33. or, skyward lifted in ethereal flight 8.34. glances along some rich-wrought, vaulted dome. 8.35. Now night had fallen, and all weary things 8.36. all shapes of beast or bird, the wide world o'er 8.37. lay deep in slumber. So beneath the arch 8.38. of a cold sky Aeneas laid him down 8.39. upon the river-bank, his heart sore tried 8.40. by so much war and sorrow, and gave o'er 8.41. his body to its Iong-delayed repose. 8.42. There, 'twixt the poplars by the gentle stream 8.43. the River-Father, genius of that place 8.44. old Tiberinus visibly uprose; 8.45. a cloak of gray-green lawn he wore, his hair 8.46. o'erhung with wreath of reeds. In soothing words 8.48. “Seed of the gods! who bringest to my shore 8.49. thy Trojan city wrested from her foe 8.50. a stronghold everlasting, Latium 's plain 8.51. and fair Laurentum long have looked for thee. 8.52. Here truly is thy home. Turn not away. 8.53. Here the true guardians of thy hearth shall be. 8.54. Fear not the gathering war. The wrath of Heaven 8.55. has stilled its swollen wave. A sign I tell: 8.56. Lest thou shouldst deem this message of thy sleep 8.57. a vain, deluding dream, thou soon shalt find 8.58. in the oak-copses on my margent green 8.59. a huge sow, with her newly-littered brood 8.60. of thirty young; along the ground she lies 8.61. now-white, and round her udders her white young. 8.62. There shall thy city stand, and there thy toil 8.63. hall find untroubled rest. After the lapse 8.64. of thrice ten rolling years, Ascanius 8.65. hall found a city there of noble name 8.66. White-City, Alba; 't is no dream I sing! 8.67. But I instruct thee now by what wise way 8.68. th' impending wars may bring thee victory: 8.69. receive the counsel, though the words be few: 8.70. within this land are men of Arcady 8.71. of Pallas' line, who, following in the train 8.72. of King Evander and his men-at-arms 8.73. built them a city in the hills, and chose 8.74. (honoring Pallas, their Pelasgian sire) 8.75. the name of Pallanteum. They make war 8.76. incessant with the Latins. Therefore call 8.77. this people to thy side and bind them close 8.78. in federated power. My channel fair 8.79. and shaded shore shall guide thee where they dwell 8.80. and thy strong oarsmen on my waters borne 8.81. hall mount my falling stream. Rise, goddess-born 8.82. and ere the starlight fade give honor due 8.83. to Juno, and with supplicating vow 8.84. avert her wrath and frown. But unto me 8.85. make offering in thy victorious hour 8.86. in time to come. I am the copious flood 8.87. which thou beholdest chafing at yon shores 8.88. and parting fruitful fields: cerulean stream 8.89. of Tiber, favored greatly of high Heaven. 8.90. here shall arise my house magnificent 8.92. So spake the river-god, and sank from view 8.93. down to his deepest cave; then night and sleep 8.94. together from Aeneas fled away. 8.95. He rose, and to the orient beams of morn 8.96. his forehead gave; in both his hollowed palms 8.97. he held the sacred waters of the stream 8.98. and called aloud: “O ye Laurentian nymphs 8.99. whence flowing rills be born, and chiefly thou 8.100. O Father Tiber, worshipped stream divine 8.101. accept Aeneas, and from peril save! 8.102. If in some hallowed lake or haunted spring 8.103. thy power, pitying my woes, abides 8.104. or wheresoe'er the blessed place be found 8.105. whence first thy beauty flows, there evermore 8.106. my hands shall bring thee gift and sacrifice. 8.107. O chief and sovereign of Hesperian streams 8.108. O river-god that hold'st the plenteous horn 8.109. protect us, and confirm thy words divine!” 8.110. He spoke; then chose twin biremes from the fleet 8.112. But, lo! a sudden wonder met his eyes: 8.113. white gleaming through the grove, with all her brood 8.114. white like herself, on the green bank the Sow 8.115. tretched prone. The good Aeneas slew her there 8.116. Great Juno, for a sacrifice to thee 8.117. himself the priest, and with the sucklings all 8.118. beside shine altar stood. So that whole night 8.119. the god of Tiber calmed his swollen wave 8.120. ebbing or lingering in silent flow 8.121. till like some gentle lake or sleeping pool 8.122. his even waters lay, and strove no more 8.123. against the oarsmen's toil. Upon their way 8.124. they speed with joyful sound; the well-oiled wood 8.125. lips through the watery floor; the wondering waves 8.126. and all the virgin forests wondering 8.127. behold the warriors in far-shining arms 8.128. their painted galleys up the current drive. 8.129. O'er the long reaches of the winding flood 8.130. their sturdy oars outweary the slow course 8.131. of night and day. Fair groves of changeful green 8.132. arch o'er their passage, and they seem to cleave 8.133. green forests in the tranquil wave below. 8.134. Now had the flaming sun attained his way 8.135. to the mid-sphere of heaven, when they discerned 8.136. walls and a citadel in distant view 8.137. with houses few and far between; 't was there 8.138. where sovran Rome to-day has rivalled Heaven 8.139. Evander's realm its slender strength displayed: 8.141. It chanced th' Arcadian King had come that day 8.142. to honor Hercules, Amphitryon's son 8.143. and to the powers divine pay worship due 8.144. in groves outside the wall. Beside him stood 8.145. Pallas his son, his noblest men-at-arms 8.146. and frugal senators, who at the shrines 8.147. burnt incense, while warm blood of victims flowed. 8.148. But when they saw the tall ships in the shade 8.149. of that dark forest plying noiseless oars 8.150. the sudden sight alarmed, and all the throng 8.151. prang to its feet and left the feast divine. 8.152. But dauntless Pallas bade them give not o'er 8.153. the sacred festival, and spear in hand 8.154. flew forward to a bit of rising ground 8.155. and cried from far: “Hail, warriors! what cause 8.156. drives you to lands unknown, and whither bound? 8.157. Your kin, your country? Bring ye peace or war?” 8.158. Father Aeneas then held forth a bough 8.159. of peaceful olive from the lofty ship 8.160. thus answering : “Men Trojan-born are we 8.161. foes of the Latins, who have driven us forth 8.162. with insolent assault. We fain would see 8.163. Evander. Pray, deliver this, and say 8.164. that chosen princes of Dardania 8.165. ue for his help in arms.” So wonder fell 8.166. on Pallas, awestruck at such mighty name. 8.167. O, come, whoe'er thou art,” he said, “and speak 8.168. in presence of my father. Enter here 8.169. guest of our hearth and altar.” He put forth 8.170. his right hand in true welcome, and they stood 8.171. with lingering clasp; then hand in hand advanced 8.173. Aeneas to Evander speaking fair 8.174. these words essayed: “O best of Grecian-born! 8.175. whom Fortune's power now bids me seek and sue 8.176. lifting this olive-branch with fillets bound 8.177. I have not feared thee, though I know thou art 8.178. a Greek, and an Arcadian king, allied 8.179. to the two sons of Atreus. For behold 8.180. my conscious worth, great oracles from Heaven 8.181. the kinship of our sires, thy own renown 8.182. pread through the world—all knit my cause with thine 8.183. all make me glad my fates have so decreed. 8.184. The sire and builder of the Trojan town 8.185. was Dardanus; but he, Electra's child 8.186. came over sea to Teucria; the sire 8.187. of fair Electra was great Atlas, he 8.188. whose shoulder carries the vast orb of heaven. 8.189. But thy progenitor was Mercury 8.190. and him conceiving, Maia, that white maid 8.191. on hoar Cyllene's frosty summit bore. 8.192. But Maia's sire, if aught of truth be told 8.193. was Atlas also, Atlas who sustains 8.194. the weight of starry skies. Thus both our tribes 8.195. are one divided stem. Secure in this 8.196. no envoys have I sent, nor tried thy mind 8.197. with artful first approaches, but myself 8.198. risking my person and my life, have come 8.199. a suppliant here. For both on me and thee 8.200. the house of Daunus hurls insulting war. 8.201. If us they quell, they doubt not to obtain 8.202. lordship of all Hesperia, and subdue 8.204. Accept good faith, and give! Behold, our hearts 8.205. quail not in battle; souls of fire are we 8.207. Aeneas ceased. The other long had scanned 8.208. the hero's face, his eyes, and wondering viewed 8.209. his form and mien divine; in answer now 8.210. he briefly spoke: “With hospitable heart 8.211. O bravest warrior of all Trojan-born 8.212. I know and welcome thee. I well recall 8.213. thy sire Anchises, how he looked and spake. 8.214. For I remember Priam, when he came 8.215. to greet his sister, Queen Hesione 8.216. in Salamis, and thence pursued his way 8.217. to our cool uplands of Arcadia . 8.218. The bloom of tender boyhood then was mine 8.219. and with a wide-eyed wonder I did view 8.220. those Teucrian lords, Laomedon's great heir 8.221. and, towering highest in their goodly throng 8.222. Anchises, whom my warm young heart desired 8.223. to speak with and to clasp his hand in mine. 8.224. So I approached, and joyful led him home 8.225. to Pheneus' olden wall. He gave me gifts 8.226. the day he bade adieu; a quiver rare 8.227. filled with good Lycian arrows, a rich cloak 8.228. inwove with thread of gold, and bridle reins 8.229. all golden, now to youthful Pallas given. 8.230. Therefore thy plea is granted, and my hand 8.231. here clasps in loyal amity with thine. 8.232. To-morrow at the sunrise thou shalt have 8.233. my tribute for the war, and go thy way 8.234. my glad ally. But now this festival 8.235. whose solemn rite 't were impious to delay 8.236. I pray thee celebrate, and bring with thee 8.237. well-omened looks and words. Allies we are! 8.239. So saying, he bade his followers renew 8.240. th' abandoned feast and wine; and placed each guest 8.241. on turf-built couch of green, most honoring 8.242. Aeneas by a throne of maple fair 8.243. decked with a lion's pelt and flowing mane. 8.244. Then high-born pages, with the altar's priest 8.245. bring on the roasted beeves and load the board 8.246. with baskets of fine bread; and wine they bring — 8.247. of Ceres and of Bacchus gift and toil. 8.248. While good Aeneas and his Trojans share 8.250. When hunger and its eager edge were gone 8.251. Evander spoke: “This votive holiday 8.252. yon tables spread and altar so divine 8.253. are not some superstition dark and vain 8.254. that knows not the old gods, O Trojan King! 8.255. But as men saved from danger and great fear 8.256. this thankful sacrifice we pay. Behold 8.257. yon huge rock, beetling from the mountain wall 8.258. hung from the cliff above. How lone and bare 8.259. the hollowed mountain looks! How crag on crag 8.260. tumbled and tossed in huge confusion lie! 8.261. A cavern once it was, which ran deep down 8.262. into the darkness. There th' half-human shape 8.263. of Cacus made its hideous den, concealed 8.264. from sunlight and the day. The ground was wet 8.265. at all times with fresh gore; the portal grim 8.266. was hung about with heads of slaughtered men 8.267. bloody and pale—a fearsome sight to see. 8.268. Vulcan begat this monster, which spewed forth 8.269. dark-fuming flames from his infernal throat 8.270. and vast his stature seemed. But time and tide 8.271. brought to our prayers the advent of a god 8.272. to help us at our need. For Hercules 8.273. divine avenger, came from laying low 8.274. three-bodied Geryon, whose spoils he wore 8.275. exultant, and with hands victorious drove 8.276. the herd of monster bulls, which pastured free 8.277. along our river-valley. Cacus gazed 8.278. in a brute frenzy, and left not untried 8.279. aught of bold crime or stratagem, but stole 8.280. four fine bulls as they fed, and heifers four 8.281. all matchless; but, lest hoof-tracks point his way 8.282. he dragged them cave-wards by the tails, confusing 8.283. the natural trail, and hid the stolen herd 8.284. in his dark den; and not a mark or sign 8.285. could guide the herdsmen to that cavern-door. 8.286. But after, when Amphitryon's famous son 8.287. preparing to depart, would from the meads 8.288. goad forth the full-fed herd, his lingering bulls 8.289. roared loud, and by their lamentable cry 8.290. filled grove and hills with clamor of farewell: 8.291. one heifer from the mountain-cave lowed back 8.292. in answer, so from her close-guarded stall 8.293. foiling the monster's will. Then hadst thou seen 8.294. the wrath of Hercules in frenzy blaze 8.295. from his exasperate heart. His arms he seized 8.296. his club of knotted oak, and climbed full-speed 8.297. the wind-swept hill. Now first our people saw 8.298. Cacus in fear, with panic in his eyes. 8.299. Swift to the black cave like a gale he flew 8.300. his feet by terror winged. Scarce had he passed 8.301. the cavern door, and broken the big chains 8.302. and dropped the huge rock which was pendent there 8.303. by Vulcan's well-wrought steel; scarce blocked and barred 8.304. the guarded gate: when there Tirynthius stood 8.305. with heart aflame, surveying each approach 8.306. rolling this way and that his wrathful eyes 8.307. gnashing his teeth. Three times his ire surveyed 8.308. the slope of Aventine ; three times he stormed 8.309. the rock-built gate in vain; and thrice withdrew 8.310. to rest him in the vale. But high above 8.311. a pointed peak arose, sheer face of rock 8.312. on every side, which towered into view 8.313. from the long ridge above the vaulted cave 8.314. fit haunt for birds of evil-boding wing. 8.315. This peak, which leftward toward the river leaned 8.316. he smote upon its right—his utmost blow — 8.317. breaking its bases Ioose; then suddenly 8.318. thrust at it: as he thrust, the thunder-sound 8.319. filled all the arching sky, the river's banks 8.320. asunder leaped, and Tiber in alarm 8.321. reversed his flowing wave. So Cacus' lair 8.322. lay shelterless, and naked to the day 8.323. the gloomy caverns of his vast abode 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.326. th' infernal world and fearful kingdoms pale 8.327. which gods abhor; and to the realms on high 8.328. the measureless abyss should be laid bare 8.329. and pale ghosts shrink before the entering sun. 8.330. Now upon Cacus, startled by the glare 8.331. caged in the rocks and howling horribly 8.332. Alcides hurled his weapons, raining down 8.333. all sorts of deadly missiles—trunks of trees 8.334. and monstrous boulders from the mountain torn. 8.335. But when the giant from his mortal strait 8.336. no refuge knew, he blew from his foul jaws 8.337. a storm of smoke—incredible to tell — 8.338. and with thick darkness blinding every eye 8.339. concealed his cave, uprolling from below 8.340. one pitch-black night of mingled gloom and fire. 8.341. This would Alcides not endure, but leaped 8.342. headlong across the flames, where densest hung 8.343. the rolling smoke, and through the cavern surged 8.344. a drifting and impenetrable cloud. 8.345. With Cacus, who breathed unavailing flame 8.346. he grappled in the dark, locked limb with limb 8.347. and strangled him, till o'er the bloodless throat 8.348. the starting eyeballs stared. Then Hercules 8.349. burst wide the doorway of the sooty den 8.350. and unto Heaven and all the people showed 8.351. the stolen cattle and the robber's crimes 8.352. and dragged forth by the feet the shapeless corpse 8.353. of the foul monster slain. The people gazed 8.354. insatiate on the grewsome eyes, the breast 8.355. of bristling shag, the face both beast and man 8.356. and that fire-blasted throat whence breathed no more 8.357. the extinguished flame. 'T is since that famous day 8.358. we celebrate this feast, and glad of heart 8.359. each generation keeps the holy time. 8.360. Potitius began the worship due 8.361. and our Pinarian house is vowed to guard 8.362. the rites of Hercules. An altar fair 8.363. within this wood they raised; 't is called ‘the Great,’ 8.364. and Ara Maxima its name shall be. 8.365. Come now, my warriors, and bind your brows 8.366. with garlands worthy of the gift of Heaven. 8.367. Lift high the cup in every thankful hand 8.368. and praise our people's god with plenteous wine.” 8.369. He spoke; and of the poplar's changeful sheen 8.520. its wonted ardor unresisted ran 8.521. wift as the glittering shaft of thunder cleaves 8.522. the darkened air and on from cloud to cloud 8.523. the rift of lightning runs. She, joyful wife; 8.524. felt what her beauty and her guile could do; 8.525. as, thralled by love unquenchable, her spouse 8.526. thus answered fair: “Why wilt thou labor so 8.529. I could have armed the Teucrians. Neither Jove 8.531. of life to Troy and Priam. If to-day 8.532. thou hast a war in hand, and if thy heart 8.533. determine so, I willingly engage 8.535. molten alloy or welded iron can 8.536. whate'er my roaring forge and flames achieve 8.537. I offer thee. No more in anxious prayer 8.538. distrust thy beauty's power.” So saying, he gave 8.539. embrace of mutual desire, and found 8.626. in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627. vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628. my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629. Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630. Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631. with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632. to league with thee a numerous array 8.633. of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634. now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635. because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636. a city on an ancient rock is seen 8.637. Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638. built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639. for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640. of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641. his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642. and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643. May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644. and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645. dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646. and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647. Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace 8.648. a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649. his people rose in furious despair 8.650. and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651. his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652. and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while 8.653. escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654. to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655. in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656. Etruria, to righteous anger stirred 8.657. demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658. To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662. are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663. of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664. their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665. of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666. the bloom and glory of an ancient race 8.667. whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668. enflame against Mezentius your foe 8.669. it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670. hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me 8.714. Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715. long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716. if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths 8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! 8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721. to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722. what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723. hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725. He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726. Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727. acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods 12.716. Behold Murranus, boasting his high birth 12.717. from far-descended sires of storied name 12.718. the line of Latium 's kings! Aeneas now 12.719. with mountain-boulder lays him low in dust 12.720. mitten with whirlwind of the monster stone; 12.721. and o'er him fallen under yoke and rein 12.722. roll his own chariot wheels, while with swift tread 12.723. the mad hoofs of his horses stamp him down 12.724. not knowing him their lord. But Turnus found 12.731. against Aeneas, but his breast he gave 12.777. Bring flames; avenge the broken oath with fire!” 12.778. Scarce had he said, when with consenting souls 12.779. they speed them to the walls in dense array 12.786. Aeneas, calling on the gods to hear 12.791. dissension 'twixt the frighted citizens: 12.792. ome would give o'er the city and fling wide 12.793. its portals to the Trojan, or drag forth 12.794. the King himself to parley; others fly 12.795. to arms, and at the rampart make a stand. 12.796. 'T is thus some shepherd from a caverned crag 12.797. tirs up the nested bees with plenteous fume 12.798. of bitter smoke; they, posting to and fro 12.799. fly desperate round the waxen citadel 12.800. and whet their buzzing fury; through their halls 12.801. the stench and blackness rolls; within the caves 12.802. noise and confusion ring; the fatal cloud 12.804. But now a new adversity befell 12.805. the weary Latins, which with common woe 12.806. hook the whole city to its heart. The Queen 12.807. when at her hearth she saw the close assault 12.808. of enemies, the walls beset, and fire 12.809. preading from roof to roof, but no defence 12.810. from the Rutulian arms, nor front of war 12.811. with Turnus leading,—she, poor soul, believed 12.812. her youthful champion in the conflict slain; 12.813. and, mad with sudden sorrow, shrieked aloud 12.814. against herself, the guilty chief and cause 12.815. of all this ill; and, babbling her wild woe 12.816. in endless words, she rent her purple pall 12.817. and with her own hand from the rafter swung 12.818. a noose for her foul death. The tidings dire 12.819. among the moaning wives of Latium spread 12.820. and young Lavinia's frantic fingers tore 12.821. her rose-red cheek and hyacinthine hair. 12.822. Then all her company of women shrieked 12.823. in anguish, and the wailing echoed far 12.824. along the royal seat; from whence the tale 12.825. of sorrow through the peopled city flew; 12.826. hearts sank; Latinus rent his robes, appalled 12.827. to see his consort's doom, his falling throne; 12.829. Meanwhile the warrior Turnus far afield 12.830. pursued a scattered few; but less his speed 12.831. for less and less his worn steeds worked his will; 12.832. and now wind-wafted to his straining ear 12.833. a nameless horror came, a dull, wild roar 12.834. the city's tumult and distressful cry. 12.835. “Alack,” he cried, “what stirs in yonder walls 12.836. uch anguish? Or why rings from side to side 12.837. uch wailing through the city?” Asking so 12.838. he tightened frantic grasp upon the rein. 12.839. To him his sister, counterfeiting still 12.840. the charioteer Metiscus, while she swayed 12.841. rein, steeds, and chariot, this answer made: 12.842. “Hither, my Turnus, let our arms pursue 12.843. the sons of Troy . Here lies the nearest way 12.844. to speedy triumph. There be other swords 12.845. to keep yon city safe. Aeneas now 12.846. torms against Italy in active war; 12.847. we also on this Trojan host may hurl 12.848. grim havoc. Nor shalt thou the strife give o'er 12.849. in glory second, nor in tale of slain.” 12.850. Turnus replied, “O sister, Iong ago 12.851. I knew thee what thou wert, when guilefully 12.852. thou didst confound their treaty, and enlist 12.853. thy whole heart in this war. No Ionger now 12.854. thy craft divine deceives me. But what god 12.855. compelled thee, from Olympus fallen so far 12.856. to bear these cruel burdens? Wouldst thou see 12.857. thy wretched brother slaughtered? For what else 12.858. is in my power? What flattering hazard still 12.859. holds forth deliverance? My own eyes have seen 12.860. Murranus (more than any now on earth 12.861. my chosen friend) who, calling on my name 12.862. died like a hero by a hero's sword. 12.863. Ill-fated Ufens fell, enduring not 12.864. to Iook upon my shame; the Teucrians 12.865. divide his arms for spoil and keep his bones. 12.866. Shall I stand tamely, till my hearth and home 12.867. are levelled with the ground? For this would be 12.868. the only blow not fallen. Shall my sword 12.869. not give the lie to Drances' insolence? 12.870. Shall I take flight and let my country see 12.871. her Turnus renegade? Is death a thing 12.872. o much to weep for? O propitious dead 12.873. O spirits of the dark, receive and bless 12.874. me whom yon gods of light have cast away! 12.875. Sacred and guiltless shall my soul descend 12.876. to join your company; I have not been 12.878. Scarce had he said, when through the foeman's line 12.879. Saces dashed forth upon a foaming steed 12.880. his face gashed by an arrow. He cried loud 12.881. on Turnus' name: “O Turnus, but in thee 12.882. our last hope lies. Have pity on the woe 12.883. of all thy friends and kin! Aeneas hurls 12.884. his thunderbolt of war, and menaces 12.885. to crush the strongholds of all Italy 12.886. and lay them low; already where we dwell 12.894. Messapus only and Atinas bear 12.895. the brunt of battle; round us closely draw 12.898. peed in thy chariot o'er this empty plain?” 12.906. he strained his flaming eyeballs to behold 12.908. in wonder at the lordly citadel. 12.909. For, lo, a pointed peak of flame uprolled 12.910. from tier to tier, and surging skyward seized 12.911. a tower—the very tower his own proud hands 12.912. had built of firm-set beams and wheeled in place 12.913. and slung its Iofty bridges high in air. 12.914. “Fate is too strong, my sister! Seek no more 12.919. O sister, thou shalt look upon my shame 12.920. no longer. But first grant a madman's will!” 12.921. He spoke; and leaping from his chariot, sped 12.922. through foes and foemen's spears, not seeing now 12.923. his sister's sorrow, as in swift career 12.924. he burst from line to line. Thus headlong falls 12.925. a mountain-boulder by a whirlwind flung 12.926. from lofty peak, or loosened by much rain 12.927. or by insidious lapse of seasons gone; 12.928. the huge, resistless crag goes plunging down 12.929. by leaps and bounds, o'erwhelming as it flies 12.930. tall forests, Bocks and herds, and mortal men: 12.931. o through the scattered legions Turnus ran 12.932. traight to the city walls, where all the ground 12.933. was drenched with blood, and every passing air 12.934. hrieked with the noise of spears. His lifted hand 12.935. made sign of silence as he loudly called: 12.936. “Refrain, Rutulians! O ye Latins all 12.937. your spears withhold! The issue of the fray 12.938. is all my own. I only can repair 12.939. our broken truce by judgment of the sword.” 12.941. But Sire Aeneas, hearing Turnus' name 12.942. down the steep rampart from the citadel 12.943. unlingering tried, all lesser task laid by 12.944. with joy exultant and dread-thundering arms. 12.945. Like Athos ' crest he loomed, or soaring top 12.946. of Eryx, when the nodding oaks resound 12.947. or sovereign Apennine that lifts in air 12.948. his forehead of triumphant snow. All eyes 12.949. of Troy, Rutulia, and Italy 12.950. were fixed his way; and all who kept a guard 12.951. on lofty rampart, or in siege below 12.952. were battering the foundations, now laid by
17. Vergil, Eclogues, 3.60, 8.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.60. have I set lip to them, but lay them by. 8.70. bloom with narcissus-flower, the tamarisk
18. Vergil, Georgics, 3.325-3.326, 4.221-4.222 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.325. O'er all conspicuous is the rage of mares 3.326. By Venus' self inspired of old, what time 4.221. From the slow-yielding ore the thunderbolts 4.222. Some from the bull's-hide bellows in and out
19. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.7.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.7.7. διεξιὼν δὲ Ἡρακλῆς τὴν Δρυόπων χώραν, ἀπορῶν τροφῆς, 6 -- ἀπαντήσαντος 7 -- Θειοδάμαντος βοηλατοῦντος τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ταύρων λύσας καὶ σφάξας 1 -- εὐωχήσατο. 2 -- ὡς δὲ ἦλθεν 3 -- εἰς Τραχῖνα πρὸς Κήυκα, ὑποδεχθεὶς ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ Δρύοπας κατεπολέμησεν. αὖθις δὲ ἐκεῖθεν ὁρμηθεὶς Αἰγιμίῳ βασιλεῖ Δωριέων συνεμάχησε· Λαπίθαι γὰρ περὶ γῆς ὅρων ἐπολέμουν αὐτῷ Κορώνου στρατηγοῦντος, ὁ δὲ πολιορκούμενος ἐπεκαλέσατο τὸν Ἡρακλέα βοηθὸν ἐπὶ μέρει τῆς γῆς. βοηθήσας δὲ Ἡρακλῆς ἀπέκτεινε Κόρωνον μετὰ καὶ ἄλλων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ἅπασαν παρέδωκεν ἐλευθέραν αὐτῷ. ἀπέκτεινε δὲ καὶ Λαογόραν 4 -- μετὰ τῶν τέκνων, βασιλέα Δρυόπων, ἐν Ἀπόλλωνος τεμένει δαινύμενον, ὑβριστὴν ὄντα καὶ Λαπιθῶν σύμμαχον. παριόντα δὲ Ἴτωνον 5 -- εἰς μονομαχίαν προεκαλέσατο αὐτὸν Κύκνος Ἄρεος καὶ Πελοπίας· συστὰς δὲ καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. ὡς δὲ εἰς Ὀρμένιον 1 -- ἧκεν, Ἀμύντωρ αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς μεθʼ ὅπλων 2 -- οὐκ εἴα διέρχεσθαι· κωλυόμενος δὲ παριέναι καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. ἀφικόμενος δὲ εἰς Τραχῖνα στρατιὰν ἐπʼ Οἰχαλίαν συνήθροισεν, 3 -- Εὔρυτον τιμωρήσασθαι θέλων. συμμαχούντων δὲ αὐτῷ Ἀρκάδων καὶ Μηλιέων 4 -- τῶν ἐκ Τραχῖνος καὶ Λοκρῶν τῶν Ἐπικνημιδίων, κτείνας μετὰ τῶν παίδων Εὔρυτον αἱρεῖ τὴν πόλιν. καὶ θάψας τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ στρατευσαμένων 1 -- τοὺς ἀποθανόντας, Ἵππασόν τε τὸν Κήυκος καὶ Ἀργεῖον καὶ Μέλανα τοὺς Λικυμνίου παῖδας, καὶ λαφυραγωγήσας τὴν πόλιν, ἦγεν Ἰόλην αἰχμάλωτον. καὶ προσορμισθεὶς 2 -- Κηναίῳ τῆς Εὐβοίας ἀκρωτηρίῳ 3 -- Διὸς Κηναίου βωμὸν ἱδρύσατο. μέλλων δὲ ἱερουργεῖν εἰς Τραχῖνα Λίχαν τὸν κήρυκα 4 -- ἔπεμψε λαμπρὰν ἐσθῆτα οἴσοντα. παρὰ δὲ τούτου τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἰόλην Δηιάνειρα πυθομένη, 1 -- καὶ δείσασα μὴ ἐκείνην μᾶλλον ἀγαπήσῃ, 2 -- νομίσασα ταῖς ἀληθείαις 3 -- φίλτρον εἶναι τὸ ῥυὲν αἷμα Νέσσου, τούτῳ τὸν χιτῶνα ἔχρισεν. ἐνδὺς δὲ Ἡρακλῆς ἔθυεν. ὡς δὲ θερμανθέντος τοῦ χιτῶνος ὁ τῆς ὕδρας ἰὸς τὸν χρῶτα ἔσηπε, τὸν μὲν Λίχαν τῶν ποδῶν ἀράμενος κατηκόντισεν ἀπὸ τῆς †Βοιωτίας, 4 -- τὸν δὲ χιτῶνα ἀπέσπα προσπεφυκότα τῷ σώματι· συναπεσπῶντο δὲ καὶ αἱ σάρκες αὐτοῦ. τοιαύτῃ συμφορᾷ κατασχεθεὶς εἰς Τραχῖνα ἐπὶ νεὼς κομίζεται. Δηιάνειρα δὲ αἰσθομένη τὸ γεγονὸς ἑαυτὴν ἀνήρτησεν. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ἐντειλάμενος Ὕλλῳ, ὃς ἐκ Δηιανείρας ἦν αὐτῷ παῖς πρεσβύτερος, Ἰόλην ἀνδρωθέντα γῆμαι, παραγενόμενος εἰς Οἴτην ὄρος (ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο Τραχινίων), ἐκεῖ πυρὰν ποιήσας ἐκέλευσεν 1 -- ἐπιβὰς 2 -- ὑφάπτειν. μηδενὸς δὲ τοῦτο πράττειν ἐθέλοντος, Ποίας παριὼν κατὰ ζήτησιν ποιμνίων ὑφῆψε. τούτῳ καὶ τὰ τόξα ἐδωρήσατο Ἡρακλῆς. καιομένης δὲ τῆς πυρᾶς λέγεται νέφος ὑποστὰν μετὰ βροντῆς αὐτὸν εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀναπέμψαι. ἐκεῖθεν 3 -- δὲ τυχὼν ἀθανασίας καὶ διαλλαγεὶς Ἥρᾳ τὴν ἐκείνης θυγατέρα Ἥβην ἔγημεν, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖδες Ἀλεξιάρης καὶ Ἀνίκητος ἐγένοντο.
20. Lucan, Pharsalia, 6.193, 6.536, 8.755 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 3.7.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7.26.  Cities are praised after the same fashion as men. The founder takes the place of the parent, and antiquity carries great authority, as for instance in the case of those whose inhabitants are said to be sprung from the soil. The virtues and vices revealed by their deeds are the same as in private individuals. The advantages arising from site or fortifications are however peculiar to cities. Their citizens enhance their fame just as children bring honour to their parents.
22. Seneca The Younger, Hercules Oetaeus, 1377-1380, 707-710, 1222 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 4.25-4.37, 5.154-5.176, 7.81-7.86, 7.92-7.95, 8.228-8.231 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 53.25-53.27 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53.25. 1.  In this same year Polemon, the king of Pontus, was enrolled among the friends and allies of the Roman people; and the privilege was granted the senators of occupying the front seats in all the theatres of his realm.,2.  Augustus was planning an expedition into Britain, since the people there would not come to terms, but he was detained by the revolt of the Salassi and by the hostility of the Cantabri and Astures. The former dwell at the foot of the Alps, as I have stated, whereas both the other tribes occupy the strongest part of the Pyrenees on the side of Spain, together with the plain which lies below.,3.  For these reasons Augustus, who was now consul for the ninth time, with Marcus Silanus as colleague, sent Terentius Varro against the Salassi. Varro invaded their country at many points at the same time, in order that they might not join forces and so be more difficult to subdue; and he conquered them very easily, inasmuch as they attacked his divisions only in small groups.,4.  After forcing them to come to terms he demanded a stated sum of money, as if he were going to impose no other punishment; then, sending soldiers everywhere ostensibly to collect the money, he arrested those who were of military age and sold them, on the understanding that none of them should be liberated within twenty years.,5.  The best of their land was given to some of the Pretorians, and later on received the city called (Opens in another window)')" onMouseOut="nd();" Augusta Praetoria. Augustus himself waged war upon the Astures and upon the Cantabri at one and the same time. But these peoples would neither yield to him, because they were confident on account of their strongholds,,6.  nor would they come to close quarters, owing to their inferior numbers and the circumstance that most of them were javelin-throwers, and, besides, they kept causing him a great deal of annoyance, always forestalling him by seizing the higher ground whenever a manoeuvre was attempted, and lying in ambush for him in the valleys and woods.,7.  Accordingly Augustus found himself in very great embarrassment, and having fallen ill from over-exertion and anxiety, he retired to Tarraco and there remained in poor health. Meanwhile Gaius Antistius fought against them and accomplished a good deal, not because he was a better general than Augustus,,8.  but because the barbarians felt contempt for him and so joined battle with the Romans and were defeated. In this way he captured a few places, and afterwards Titus Carisius took Lancia, the principal fortress of the Astures, after it had been abandoned, and also won over many other places. 53.26. 1.  Upon the conclusion of this war Augustus discharged the more aged of his soldiers and allowed them to found a city in Lusitania, called (Opens in another window)')" onMouseOut="nd();" Augusta Emerita. For those who were still of military age he arranged some exhibitions in the very camps, under the direction of Tiberius and Marcellus, since they were aediles.,2.  To Juba he gave portions of Gaetulia in return for the prince's hereditary domain, the most of whose inhabitants had been enrolled in the Roman state, and also the possessions of Bocchus and Bogud.,3.  On the death of Amyntas he did not entrust his kingdom to the sons of the deceased, but made it a part of the subject territory. Thus Galatia together with Lycaonia obtained a Roman governor, and the portions of Pamphylia formerly assigned to Amyntas were restored to their own district.,4.  About this same time Marcus Vinicius took vengeance upon some of the Germans because they had arrested and slain Romans who entered their country to trade with them; and thus he, too, caused the title of imperator to be bestowed upon Augustus.,5.  For this and his other exploits of this period a triumph, as well as the title, was voted to Augustus; but as he did not care to celebrate it, a triumphal arch was erected in the Alps in his honour and he was granted the right always to wear both the crown and the triumphal garb on the first day of the year. After these achievements in the wars Augustus closed the precinct of Janus, which had been opened because of these wars. 53.27. 1.  Meanwhile Agrippa beautified the city at his own expense. First, in honour of the naval victories he completed the building called the Basilica of Neptune and lent it added brilliance by the painting representing the Argonauts. Next he constructed the Laconian sudatorium. He gave the name "Laconian" to the gymnasium because the Lacedaemonians had a greater reputation at that time than anybody else for stripping and exercising after anointing themselves with oil.,2.  Also he completed the building called the (Opens in another window)')" onMouseOut="nd();" Pantheon. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens.,3.  Agrippa, for his part, wished to place a statue of Augustus there also and to bestow upon him the honour of having the structure named after him; but when the emperor wouldn't accept either honour, he placed in the temple itself a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room statues of Augustus and himself.,4.  This was done, not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa's part to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the public good; hence Augustus, so far from censuring him for it, honoured them the more.,5.  For example, when he himself was prevented by illness from being in Rome at that time and celebrating there the marriage of his daughter Julia and his nephew Marcellus, he commissioned Agrippa to hold the festival in his absence; and when the house on the Palatine Mount which had formerly belonged to Antony but had later been given to Agrippa and Messalla was burned down, he presented money to Messalla, but made Agrippa share his own house.,6.  Agrippa not unnaturally took great pride in these honours. And one Gaius Toranius also acquired a good reputation because while tribune he brought his father, although a freedman of somebody or other, into the theatre and made him sit beside him upon the tribunes' bench. Publius Servilius, too, made a name for himself because while praetor he caused to be slain at a festival three hundred bears and other African wild beasts equal in number.
25. Claudianus, De Consulatu Stilichonis, 3.20 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaemenides Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
achilles, princely instruction of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
achilles, shield of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
achilles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
aeetes Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
aeneas, intertextual identities, heracles/hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
aeneas, narrator Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152
aeneas Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 164; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65, 324; Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196
aeneid (vergil), time-frame Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 169
aeneid (vergil) Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 169
aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 178
aeolian, aeolic, aeolism Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
aeschylus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
ajax Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
alcmene Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
altars Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
amphitryon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
angels O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
apollo Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
apollonius of rhodes, argonautica, intertextual aspects, odyssean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152
apollonius rhodius Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
apotheosis Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
ara maxima Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
argos Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
arkadia (arcadia) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
audience Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
augustus, as triumphator Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
augustus (emperor) Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
bacchic rites, matralia and cult of mater matuta in ovids fasti Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190, 191, 196
bacchus/dionysus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190
body, peace of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 232
body, resurrection of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
cacus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89; Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152, 162, 164; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65, 324; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
caesar, julius\u2003 Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
cantabrian campaign Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
carmenta (see carmentis) Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
carmentis Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 201
civil wars in rome O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
crete Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
cyclic epics Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 178
cyclops Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
death O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
deified heroes, canon or catalogue of Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
demons O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
devil O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
diomedes the grammarian Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
dionysius of halicarnassus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
dymas Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
emotions, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162, 164
emotions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162, 164
enjoyment and use O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 232
ennius, standing in antiquity Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
ethical qualities, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162, 164
ethical qualities, cleverness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethical qualities, craftiness, deceit, deception, disguise, feigning, guile, sleight of hand, trickery (dolus, dolos) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethical qualities, endurance Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
ethical qualities, foresight, prudence Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethical qualities, stealth Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethical qualities, thievery Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethical qualities, wiliness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
ethics, iliadic or achillean v. odyssean ethics Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
euander Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
euryalus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
evander, narrator Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152
evander Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
fabius maximus, intertextual characterization of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
fama/rumor Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 201
forum boarium, rome Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196
friendship O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
games Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 178
gaul or gallic Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
germania Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
gerunium, battle of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
geryon, cattle of Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
geryon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
gluttony Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162
golden age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
greek literature and practice, bacchic rites Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190
greek literature and practice, ino story, romanization of Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 191
greek literature and practice, juno, victims of Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196
hannibal, intertextual characterization of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
happiness O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
hellanicus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
heracles, compared to achilles and odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
heracles, in callimachus aetia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
heracles, in the argonautica Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 164
herakles (hercules) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
hercules, propensity for violence Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
hercules Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89; Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162, 164; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65, 324; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196, 201; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
hermes Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162, 164
hesiod Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
hierarchies O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
homer, doloneia in Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
homer, iliad Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
homer, standing in rome Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
hopleus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
hylas Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
hyperbole Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162
incompatibility Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
intertextuality, allusion, two-tier intertextuality, model Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 164
intertextuality, combination (contaminatio) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
italy Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
iuppiter, iuppiter inuentor Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
jason Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
jerusalem, as vision of peace O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
juno/hera Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190, 196
juno (see also hera) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
jupiter (see also zeus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
just war theory O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
latin as international language O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
laws of nature O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
livius andronicus Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
lucan, his other works, catachthonion Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
lucan, his other works, iliacon Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
lucan Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
lucretius Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
madness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
matralia and cult of mater matuta, bacchic rites in Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190, 191, 196
matralia and cult of mater matuta, foundational agenda of Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 201
matralia and cult of mater matuta, hercules protection of ino in Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196, 201
matralia and cult of mater matuta, model wife and mother, ino as Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 191
matralia and cult of mater matuta, romanizatin of ino story Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 191
matralia and cult of mater matuta, vergils aeneid, as alternative foundation narrative to Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196, 201
matralia and cult of mater matuta Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 190, 191, 196, 201
maximian Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
memory Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
menoetius Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
military Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
mise en abyme Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
mount erymanthos (erymanthus) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
mount ida (asia minor) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
mount ida (crete) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
muses Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149, 150
myth Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160; Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
myths' Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
naevius Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
naples Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
nature Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
neptune (see also poseidon) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
nisus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
odysseus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
oileus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
order O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
ovid Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
panegyric Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
panegyrists Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
parricide Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
patroclus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
peace, universal desire for O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
peleus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
pelias Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
pollux Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
pompilius Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 16
pride O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
prometheus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
protest Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162
pulp aesthetic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
punic wars, second Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
quirinus Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
remus Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
returns (noatoi) Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 178
rhetoric Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
rites, sacrificium Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
roman topography, forum boarium Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
rome Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324; Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
romulus Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89; Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 150
rumor/fama Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 201
sallust O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 278
seneca the younger Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
servius Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 89
sibyl of cumae Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196
silius italicus, and homer Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
silius italicus, and virgil Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
silius italicus, as pro-domitianic poet Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
silius italicus, window references to other poets in Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
simile Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
similes Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
social war Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 150
sophocles Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
spartacus Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 150
story Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 164
strabo Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
sublime, the Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
supplicatio Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 150
symmachus, quintus aurelius, teleology O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231, 232
t. tatius Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
telamon Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
temples, shrines, and altars, ara maxima (forum boarium) Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
thebes Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
thetis Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65
third ways Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152, 160, 162, 164
tragedy Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 324
triumphus, augustus triple triumph Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 149
turnus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65; Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
uirgil Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 62
variability Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
variety ( poikilia) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, argonautic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, heraclean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152, 160, 162, 164
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, iliadic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 160, 162, 164
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, odyssean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 152
vergil, aeneid, matralia as alternative foundation narrative to Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 196, 201
virgil, aeneid Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
virgil, platonist interpretation of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 279
virgil Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 65, 324; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 278, 279
virtue O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 231
volcanoes Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 151
vulcan Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 260
war, warfare Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 164
words Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 162