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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Vergil, Aeneis, 7.389-7.390

Euhoe Bacche, fremens, solum te virgine dignumwith ocean's power and heaven's. But what availed

vociferans, etenim mollis tibi sumere thyrsosSyrtes, or Scylla, or Charybdis' waves?

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 7.311-7.314 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Alcman, Poems, 1 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3. Euripides, Bacchae, 52, 762-764, 821-845, 929, 51 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51. ὀργῇ σὺν ὅπλοις ἐξ ὄρους βάκχας ἄγειν
4. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 823-874, 822 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

822. Courage, old men! she, whom you see, is Madness, daughter of Night, and I am Iris, the handmaid of the gods. We have not come to do your city any hurt
5. Ovid, Fasti, 6.473-6.572, 6.580-6.584, 6.589-6.596, 6.601-6.648 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6.473. Now you complain, Phrygian Tithonus, abandoned by your bride 6.474. And the vigilant Morning Star leaves the Eastern waters. 6.475. Good mothers (since the Matralia is your festival) 6.476. Go, offer the Theban goddess the golden cakes she’s owed. 6.477. Near the bridges and mighty Circus is a famous square 6.478. One that takes its name from the statue of an ox: 6.479. There, on this day, they say, Servius with his own 6.480. Royal hands, consecrated a temple to Mother Matruta. 6.481. Bacchus, whose hair is twined with clustered grapes 6.482. If the goddess’ house is also yours, guide the poet’s work 6.483. Regarding who the goddess is, and why she exclude 6.484. (Since she does) female servants from the threshold 6.485. of her temple, and why she calls for toasted cakes. 6.486. Semele was burnt by Jove’s compliance: Ino 6.487. Received you as a baby, and nursed you with utmost care. 6.488. Juno swelled with rage, that Ino should raise a child 6.489. Snatched from Jove’s lover: but it was her sister’s son. 6.490. So Athamas was haunted by the Furies, and false visions 6.491. And little Learchus died by his father’s hand. 6.492. His grieving mother committed his shade to the tomb. 6.493. And paid the honours due to the sad pyre. 6.494. Then tearing her hair in sorrow, she leapt up 6.495. And snatched you from your cradle, Melicertes. 6.496. There’s a narrow headland between two seas 6.497. A single space attacked by twofold waves: 6.498. There Ino came, clutching her son in her frenzied grasp 6.499. And threw herself, with him, from a high cliff into the sea. 6.500. Panope and her hundred sisters received them unharmed 6.501. And gliding smoothly carried them through their realm. 6.502. They reached the mouth of densely eddying Tiber 6.503. Before they became Leucothea and Palaemon. 6.504. There was a grove: known either as Semele’s or Stimula’s: 6.505. Inhabited, they say, by Italian Maenads. 6.506. Ino, asking them their nation, learned they were Arcadians 6.507. And that Evander was the king of the place. 6.508. Hiding her divinity, Saturn’s daughter cleverly 6.509. Incited the Latian Bacchae with deceiving words: 6.510. ‘O too-easy-natured ones, caught by every feeling! 6.511. This stranger comes, but not as a friend, to our gathering. 6.512. She’s treacherous, and would learn our sacred rites: 6.513. But she has a child on whom we can wreak punishment.’ 6.514. She’d scarcely ended when the Thyiads, hair streaming 6.515. Over their necks, filled the air with their howling 6.516. Laid hands on Ino, and tried to snatch the boy. 6.517. She invoked gods with names as yet unknown to her: 6.518. ‘Gods, and men, of this land, help a wretched mother!’ 6.519. Her cry carried to the neighbouring Aventine. 6.520. Oetaean Hercules having driven the Iberian cattle 6.521. To the riverbank, heard and hurried towards the voice. 6.522. As he arrived, the women who’d been ready for violence 6.523. Shamefully turned their backs in cowardly flight. 6.524. ‘What are you doing here,’ said Hercules (recognising her) 6.525. ‘Sister of Bacchus’ mother? Does Juno persecute you too?’ 6.526. She told him part of her tale, suppressing the rest because of her son: 6.527. Ashamed to have been goaded to crime by the Furies. 6.528. Rumour, so swift, flew on beating wings 6.529. And your name was on many a lip, Ino. 6.530. It’s said you entered loyal Carmentis’ home 6.531. As a guest, and assuaged your great hunger: 6.532. They say the Tegean priestess quickly made cake 6.533. With her own hands, and baked them on the hearth. 6.534. Now cakes delight the goddess at the Matralia: 6.535. Country ways pleased her more than art’s attentions. 6.536. ‘Now, O prophetess,’ she said, ‘reveal my future fate 6.537. As far as is right. Add this, I beg, to your hospitality.’ 6.538. A pause ensued. Then the prophetess assumed divine powers 6.539. And her whole breast filled with the presence of the god: 6.540. You’d hardly have known her then, so much taller 6.541. And holier she’d become than a moment before. 6.542. ‘I sing good news, Ino,’ she said, ‘your trials are over 6.543. Be a blessing to your people for evermore. 6.544. You’ll be a sea goddess, and your son will inhabit ocean. 6.545. Take different names now, among your own waves: 6.546. Greeks will call you Leucothea, our people Matuta: 6.547. Your son will have complete command of harbours 6.548. We’ll call him Portunus, Palaemon in his own tongue. 6.549. Go, and both be friends, I beg you, of our country!’ 6.550. Ino nodded, and gave her promise. Their trials were over 6.551. They changed their names: he’s a god and she’s a goddess. 6.552. You ask why she forbids the approach of female servants? 6.553. She hates them: by her leave I’ll sing the reason for her hate. 6.554. Daughter of Cadmus, one of your maid 6.555. Was often embraced by your husband. 6.556. Faithless Athamas secretly enjoyed her: he learned 6.557. From her that you gave the farmers parched seed. 6.558. You yourself denied it, but rumour confirmed it. 6.559. That’s why you hate the service of a maid. 6.560. But let no loving mother pray to her, for her child: 6.561. She herself proved an unfortunate parent. 6.562. Better command her to help another’s child: 6.563. She was more use to Bacchus than her own. 6.564. They say she asked you, Rutilius, ‘Where are you rushing? 6.565. As consul you’ll fall to the Marsian enemy on my day.’ 6.566. Her words were fulfilled, the Tolenu 6.567. Flowed purple, its waters mixed with blood. 6.568. The following year, Didius, killed on the same 6.569. Day, doubled the enemy’s strength. 6.570. Fortuna, the same day is yours, your temple 6.571. Founded by the same king, in the same place. 6.572. And whose is that statue hidden under draped robes? 6.580. So that the gate bears the name Fenestella. 6.581. She’s still ashamed, and hides the beloved feature 6.582. Under cloth: the king’s face being covered by a robe. 6.583. Or is it rather that, after his murder, the people 6.584. Were bewildered by their gentle leader’s death 6.589. Having secured her marriage by crime, Tullia 6.590. Used to incite her husband with words like these: 6.591. ‘What use if we’re equally matched, you by my sister’ 6.592. Murder, I by your brother’s, in leading a virtuous life? 6.593. Better that my husband and your wife had lived 6.594. Than that we shrink from greater achievement. 6.595. I offer my father’s life and realm as my dower: 6.596. If you’re a man, go take the dower I speak of. 6.601. With blood and slaughter the weak old man was defeated: 6.602. Tarquin the Proud snatched his father-in-law’s sceptre. 6.603. Servius himself fell bleeding to the hard earth 6.604. At the foot of the Esquiline, site of his palace. 6.605. His daughter, driving to her father’s home 6.606. Rode through the streets, erect and haughty. 6.607. When her driver saw the king’s body, he halted 6.608. In tears. She reproved him in these terms: 6.609. ‘Go on, or do you seek the bitter fruits of virtue? 6.610. Drive the unwilling wheels, I say, over his face.’ 6.611. A certain proof of this is Evil Street, named 6.612. After her, while eternal infamy marks the deed. 6.613. Yet she still dared to visit her father’s temple 6.614. His monument: what I tell is strange but true. 6.615. There was a statue enthroned, an image of Servius: 6.616. They say it put a hand to its eyes 6.617. And a voice was heard: ‘Hide my face 6.618. Lest it view my own wicked daughter.’ 6.619. It was veiled by cloth, Fortune refused to let the robe 6.620. Be removed, and she herself spoke from her temple: 6.621. ‘The day when Servius’ face is next revealed 6.622. Will be a day when shame is cast aside.’ 6.623. Women, beware of touching the forbidden cloth 6.624. (It’s sufficient to utter prayers in solemn tones) 6.625. And let him who was the City’s seventh king 6.626. Keep his head covered, forever, by this veil. 6.627. The temple once burned: but the fire spared 6.628. The statue: Mulciber himself preserved his son. 6.629. For Servius’ father was Vulcan, and the lovely 6.630. Ocresia of Corniculum his mother. 6.631. Once, performing sacred rites with her in the due manner 6.632. Tanaquil ordered her to pour wine on the garlanded hearth: 6.633. There was, or seemed to be, the form of a male organ 6.634. In the ashes: the shape was really there in fact. 6.635. The captive girl sat on the hearth, as commanded: 6.636. She conceived Servius, born of divine seed. 6.637. His father showed his paternity by touching the child’ 6.638. Head with fire, and a cap of flames glowed on his hair. 6.639. And Livia, this day dedicated a magnificent shrine to you 6.640. Concordia, that she offered to her dear husband. 6.641. Learn this, you age to come: where Livia’s Colonnade 6.642. Now stands, there was once a vast palace. 6.643. A site that was like a city: it occupied a space 6.644. Larger than that of many a walled town. 6.645. It was levelled to the soil, not because of its owner’s treason 6.646. But because its excess was considered harmful. 6.647. Caesar counteced the demolition of such a mass 6.648. Destroying its great wealth to which he was heir.
6. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 6.648 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.682-2.686, 2.692-2.698, 4.166, 4.173-4.197, 4.590, 5.75, 5.604-5.699, 6.89, 6.264-6.269, 6.273-6.281, 6.285-6.289, 6.292-6.294, 6.296, 6.302-6.304, 6.309-6.310, 6.321, 6.333-6.556, 6.585-6.600, 6.608-6.625, 6.628-6.629, 6.637-6.679, 6.681, 6.687-6.689, 6.692-6.693, 6.695-6.901, 7.1-7.161, 7.170-7.191, 7.203-7.211, 7.219-7.221, 7.234-7.235, 7.237, 7.240-7.242, 7.249-7.258, 7.266-7.268, 7.270, 7.280-7.281, 7.286-7.388, 7.390-7.571, 8.36-8.65, 10.2-10.3, 11.234-11.235, 11.480, 12.64-12.65, 12.69, 12.604-12.606, 12.946-12.947 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.682. th' exulting foe, the aged King did bind 2.683. his rusted armor to his trembling thews,— 2.684. all vainly,— and a useless blade of steel 2.685. he girded on; then charged, resolved to die 2.686. encircled by the foe. Within his walls 2.692. took refuge vain within the place of prayer. 2.693. Like panic-stricken doves in some dark storm 2.694. close-gathering they sate, and in despair 2.695. embraced their graven gods. But when the Queen 2.696. aw Priam with his youthful harness on 2.697. “What frenzy, O my wretched lord,” she cried 2.698. “Arrayed thee in such arms? O, whither now? 4.166. But in what wise our urgent task and grave 4.173. black storm-clouds with a burst of heavy hail 4.174. along their way; and as the huntsmen speed 4.175. to hem the wood with snares, I will arouse 4.176. all heaven with thunder. The attending train 4.177. hall scatter and be veiled in blinding dark 4.178. while Dido and her hero out of Troy 4.179. to the same cavern fly. My auspices 4.180. I will declare—if thou alike wilt bless; 4.181. and yield her in true wedlock for his bride. 4.182. Such shall their spousal be!” To Juno's will 4.183. Cythera's Queen inclined assenting brow 4.184. and laughed such guile to see. Aurora rose 4.185. and left the ocean's rim. The city's gates 4.186. pour forth to greet the morn a gallant train 4.187. of huntsmen, bearing many a woven snare 4.188. and steel-tipped javelin; while to and fro 4.189. run the keen-scented dogs and Libyan squires. 4.190. The Queen still keeps her chamber; at her doors 4.191. the Punic lords await; her palfrey, brave 4.192. in gold and purple housing, paws the ground 4.193. and fiercely champs the foam-flecked bridle-rein. 4.194. At last, with numerous escort, forth she shines: 4.195. her Tyrian pall is bordered in bright hues 4.196. her quiver, gold; her tresses are confined 4.197. only with gold; her robes of purple rare 4.590. my sorrow asks thee, Anna! Since of thee 5.75. without divine intent and heavenly power 5.604. in soothing words: “Ill-starred! What mad attempt 5.605. is in thy mind? Will not thy heart confess 5.606. thy strength surpassed, and auspices averse? 5.607. Submit, for Heaven decrees!” With such wise words 5.608. he sundered the fell strife. But trusty friends 5.609. bore Dares off: his spent limbs helpless trailed 5.610. his head he could not lift, and from his lips 5.611. came blood and broken teeth. So to the ship 5.612. they bore him, taking, at Aeneas' word 5.613. the helmet and the sword—but left behind 5.614. Entellus' prize of victory, the bull. 5.615. He, then, elate and glorying, spoke forth: 5.616. “See, goddess-born, and all ye Teucrians, see 5.617. what strength was mine in youth, and from what death 5.618. ye have clelivered Dares.” Saying so 5.619. he turned him full front to the bull, who stood 5.620. for reward of the fight, and, drawing back 5.621. his right hand, poising the dread gauntlet high 5.622. wung sheer between the horns and crushed the skull; 5.623. a trembling, lifeless creature, to the ground 5.624. the bull dropped forward dead. Above the fallen 5.625. Entellus cried aloud, “This victim due 5.626. I give thee, Eryx, more acceptable 5.627. than Dares' death to thy benigt shade. 5.628. For this last victory and joyful day 5.630. Forthwith Aeneas summons all who will 5.631. to contest of swift arrows, and displays 5.632. reward and prize. With mighty hand he rears 5.633. a mast within th' arena, from the ship 5.634. of good Sergestus taken; and thereto 5.635. a fluttering dove by winding cord is bound 5.636. for target of their shafts. Soon to the match 5.637. the rival bowmen came and cast the lots 5.638. into a brazen helmet. First came forth 5.639. Hippocoon's number, son of Hyrtacus 5.640. by cheers applauded; Mnestheus was the next 5.641. late victor in the ship-race, Mnestheus crowned 5.642. with olive-garland; next Eurytion 5.643. brother of thee, O bowman most renowned 5.644. Pandarus, breaker of the truce, who hurled 5.645. his shaft upon the Achaeans, at the word 5.646. the goddess gave. Acestes' Iot and name 5.647. came from the helmet last, whose royal hand 5.648. the deeds of youth dared even yet to try. 5.649. Each then with strong arm bends his pliant bow 5.650. each from the quiver plucks a chosen shaft. 5.651. First, with loud arrow whizzing from the string 5.652. the young Hippocoon with skyward aim 5.653. cuts through the yielding air; and lo! his barb 5.654. pierces the very wood, and makes the mast 5.655. tremble; while with a fluttering, frighted wing 5.656. the bird tugs hard,—and plaudits fill the sky. 5.657. Boldly rose Mnestheus, and with bow full-drawn 5.658. aimed both his eye and shaft aloft; but he 5.659. failing, unhappy man, to bring his barb 5.660. up to the dove herself, just cut the cord 5.661. and broke the hempen bond, whereby her feet 5.662. were captive to the tree: she, taking flight 5.663. clove through the shadowing clouds her path of air. 5.664. But swiftly—for upon his waiting bow 5.665. he held a shaft in rest—Eurytion 5.666. invoked his brother's shade, and, marking well 5.667. the dove, whose happy pinions fluttered free 5.668. in vacant sky, pierced her, hard by a cloud; 5.669. lifeless she fell, and left in light of heaven 5.670. her spark of life, as, floating down, she bore 5.671. the arrow back to earth. Acestes now 5.672. remained, last rival, though the victor's palm 5.673. to him was Iost; yet did the aged sire 5.674. to show his prowess and resounding bow 5.675. hurl forth one shaft in air; then suddenly 5.676. all eyes beheld such wonder as portends 5.677. events to be (but when fulfilment came 5.678. too late the fearful seers its warning sung): 5.679. for, soaring through the stream of cloud, his shaft 5.680. took fire, tracing its bright path in flame 5.681. then vanished on the wind,—as oft a star 5.682. will fall unfastened from the firmament 5.683. while far behind its blazing tresses flow. 5.684. Awe-struck both Trojan and Trinacrian stood 5.685. calling upon the gods. Nor came the sign 5.686. in vain to great Aeneas. But his arms 5.687. folded the blest Acestes to his heart 5.688. and, Ioading him with noble gifts, he cried: 5.689. “Receive them, sire! The great Olympian King 5.690. ome peerless honor to thy name decrees 5.691. by such an omen given. I offer thee 5.692. this bowl with figures graven, which my sire 5.693. good gray Anchises, for proud gift received 5.694. of Thracian Cisseus, for their friendship's pledge 5.695. and memory evermore.” Thereon he crowned 5.696. his brows with garland of the laurel green 5.697. and named Acestes victor over all. 5.698. Nor could Eurytion, noble youth, think ill 5.699. of honor which his own surpassed, though he 6.89. (Which asks no kingdom save what Fate decrees) 6.264. The lightly-feeding doves flit on and on 6.265. Ever in easy ken of following eyes 6.266. Till over foul Avernus' sulphurous throat 6.267. Swiftly they lift them through the liquid air 6.268. In silent flight, and find a wished-for rest 6.269. On a twy-natured tree, where through green boughs 6.273. Whose seed is never from the parent tree 6.274. O'er whose round limbs its tawny tendrils twine,— 6.275. So shone th' out-leafing gold within the shade 6.276. of dark holm-oak, and so its tinsel-bract 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 6.278. The lingering bough, broke it in eager haste 6.280. Meanwhile the Trojans on the doleful shore 6.281. Bewailed Misenus, and brought tribute there 6.285. Around it wreathe, and in fair order range 6.286. Funereal cypress; glittering arms are piled 6.287. High over all; on blazing coals they lift 6.288. Cauldrons of brass brimmed o'er with waters pure; 6.289. And that cold, lifeless clay lave and anoint 6.292. With purple vesture and familiar pall. 6.293. Then in sad ministry the chosen few 6.294. With eyes averted, as our sires did use 6.296. They gather up and burn the gifts of myrrh 6.302. With blessed olive branch and sprinkling dew 6.303. Purges the people with ablution cold 6.304. In lustral rite; oft chanting, “Hail! Farewell!” 6.310. After these toils, they hasten to fulfil 6.321. The priestess sprinkled wine; 'twixt the two horns 6.333. An altar dark, and piled upon the flames 6.334. The ponderous entrails of the bulls, and poured 6.335. Free o'er the burning flesh the goodly oil. 6.336. Then lo! at dawn's dim, earliest beam began 6.337. Beneath their feet a groaning of the ground : 6.338. The wooded hill-tops shook, and, as it seemed 6.339. She-hounds of hell howled viewless through the shade 6.340. To hail their Queen. “Away, 0 souls profane! 6.341. Stand far away!” the priestess shrieked, “nor dare 6.342. Unto this grove come near! Aeneas, on! 6.343. Begin thy journey! Draw thy sheathed blade! 6.344. Now, all thy courage! now, th' unshaken soul!” 6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.346. With frenzied step; he follows where she leads 6.348. Ye gods! who rule the spirits of the dead! 6.349. Ye voiceless shades and silent lands of night! 6.350. 0 Phlegethon! 0 Chaos! let my song 6.351. If it be lawful, in fit words declare 6.352. What I have heard; and by your help divine 6.353. Unfold what hidden things enshrouded lie 6.355. They walked exploring the unpeopled night 6.356. Through Pluto's vacuous realms, and regions void 6.357. As when one's path in dreary woodlands winds 6.358. Beneath a misty moon's deceiving ray 6.359. When Jove has mantled all his heaven in shade 6.360. And night seals up the beauty of the world. 6.361. In the first courts and entrances of Hell 6.362. Sorrows and vengeful Cares on couches lie : 6.363. There sad Old Age abides, Diseases pale 6.364. And Fear, and Hunger, temptress to all crime; 6.365. Want, base and vile, and, two dread shapes to see 6.366. Bondage and Death : then Sleep, Death's next of kin; 6.367. And dreams of guilty joy. Death-dealing War 6.368. Is ever at the doors, and hard thereby 6.369. The Furies' beds of steel, where wild-eyed Strife 6.371. There in the middle court a shadowy elm 6.372. Its ancient branches spreads, and in its leaves 6.373. Deluding visions ever haunt and cling. 6.374. Then come strange prodigies of bestial kind : 6.375. Centaurs are stabled there, and double shapes 6.376. Like Scylla, or the dragon Lerna bred 6.377. With hideous scream; Briareus clutching far 6.378. His hundred hands, Chimaera girt with flame 6.379. A crowd of Gorgons, Harpies of foul wing 6.380. And giant Geryon's triple-monstered shade. 6.381. Aeneas, shuddering with sudden fear 6.382. Drew sword and fronted them with naked steel; 6.383. And, save his sage conductress bade him know 6.384. These were but shapes and shadows sweeping by 6.386. Hence the way leads to that Tartarean stream 6.387. of Acheron, whose torrent fierce and foul 6.388. Disgorges in Cocytus all its sands. 6.389. A ferryman of gruesome guise keeps ward 6.390. Upon these waters,—Charon, foully garbed 6.391. With unkempt, thick gray beard upon his chin 6.392. And staring eyes of flame; a mantle coarse 6.393. All stained and knotted, from his shoulder falls 6.394. As with a pole he guides his craft, tends sail 6.395. And in the black boat ferries o'er his dead;— 6.396. Old, but a god's old age looks fresh and strong. 6.397. To those dim shores the multitude streams on— 6.398. Husbands and wives, and pale, unbreathing forms 6.399. of high-souled heroes, boys and virgins fair 6.400. And strong youth at whose graves fond parents mourned. 6.401. As numberless the throng as leaves that fall 6.402. When autumn's early frost is on the grove; 6.403. Or like vast flocks of birds by winter's chill 6.404. Sent flying o'er wide seas to lands of flowers. 6.405. All stood beseeching to begin their voyage 6.406. Across that river, and reached out pale hands 6.407. In passionate yearning for its distant shore. 6.408. But the grim boatman takes now these, now those 6.409. Or thrusts unpitying from the stream away. 6.410. Aeneas, moved to wonder and deep awe 6.411. Beheld the tumult; “Virgin seer!” he cried, . 6.412. “Why move the thronging ghosts toward yonder stream? 6.413. What seek they there? Or what election holds 6.414. That these unwilling linger, while their peers 6.415. Sweep forward yonder o'er the leaden waves?” 6.416. To him, in few, the aged Sibyl spoke : 6.417. “Son of Anchises, offspring of the gods 6.418. Yon are Cocytus and the Stygian stream 6.419. By whose dread power the gods themselves do fear 6.420. To take an oath in vain. Here far and wide 6.421. Thou seest the hapless throng that hath no grave. 6.422. That boatman Charon bears across the deep 6.423. Such as be sepulchred with holy care. 6.424. But over that loud flood and dreadful shore 6.425. No trav'ler may be borne, until in peace 6.426. His gathered ashes rest. A hundred years 6.427. Round this dark borderland some haunt and roam 6.428. Then win late passage o'er the longed-for wave.” 6.429. Aeneas lingered for a little space 6.430. Revolving in his soul with pitying prayer 6.431. Fate's partial way. But presently he sees 6.432. Leucaspis and the Lycian navy's lord 6.433. Orontes; both of melancholy brow 6.434. Both hapless and unhonored after death 6.435. Whom, while from Troy they crossed the wind-swept seas 6.437. There, too, the helmsman Palinurus strayed : 6.438. Who, as he whilom watched the Libyan stars 6.439. Had fallen, plunging from his lofty seat 6.440. Into the billowy deep. Aeneas now 6.441. Discerned his sad face through the blinding gloom 6.442. And hailed him thus : “0 Palinurus, tell 6.443. What god was he who ravished thee away 6.444. From me and mine, beneath the o'crwhelming wave? 6.445. Speak on! for he who ne'er had spoke untrue 6.446. Apollo's self, did mock my listening mind 6.447. And chanted me a faithful oracle 6.448. That thou shouldst ride the seas unharmed, and touch 6.449. Ausonian shores. Is this the pledge divine?” 6.450. Then he, “0 chieftain of Anchises' race 6.451. Apollo's tripod told thee not untrue. 6.452. No god did thrust me down beneath the wave 6.453. For that strong rudder unto which I clung 6.454. My charge and duty, and my ship's sole guide 6.455. Wrenched from its place, dropped with me as I fell. 6.456. Not for myself—by the rude seas I swear— 6.457. Did I have terror, but lest thy good ship 6.458. Stripped of her gear, and her poor pilot lost 6.459. Should fail and founder in that rising flood. 6.460. Three wintry nights across the boundless main 6.461. The south wind buffeted and bore me on; 6.462. At the fourth daybreak, lifted from the surge 6.463. I looked at last on Italy, and swam 6.464. With weary stroke on stroke unto the land. 6.465. Safe was I then. Alas! but as I climbed 6.466. With garments wet and heavy, my clenched hand 6.467. Grasping the steep rock, came a cruel horde 6.468. Upon me with drawn blades, accounting me— 6.469. So blind they were!—a wrecker's prize and spoil. 6.470. Now are the waves my tomb; and wandering winds 6.471. Toss me along the coast. 0, I implore 6.472. By heaven's sweet light, by yonder upper air 6.473. By thy lost father, by lulus dear 6.474. Thy rising hope and joy, that from these woes 6.475. Unconquered chieftain, thou wilt set me free! 6.476. Give me a grave where Velia 's haven lies 6.477. For thou hast power! Or if some path there be 6.478. If thy celestial mother guide thee here 6.479. (For not, I ween, without the grace of gods 6.480. Wilt cross yon rivers vast, you Stygian pool) 6.481. Reach me a hand! and bear with thee along! 6.482. Until (least gift!) death bring me peace and calm.” 6.483. Such words he spoke: the priestess thus replied: 6.484. “Why, Palinurus, these unblest desires? 6.485. Wouldst thou, unsepulchred, behold the wave 6.486. of Styx, stern river of th' Eumenides? 6.487. Wouldst thou, unbidden, tread its fearful strand? 6.488. Hope not by prayer to change the laws of Heaven! 6.489. But heed my words, and in thy memory 6.490. Cherish and keep, to cheer this evil time. 6.491. Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven 6.492. Thy countrymen from many a templed town 6.493. Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb 6.494. A tomb with annual feasts and votive flowers 6.495. To Palinurus a perpetual fame!” 6.496. Thus was his anguish stayed, from his sad heart 6.497. Grief ebbed awhile, and even to this day 6.499. The twain continue now their destined way 6.500. Unto the river's edge. The Ferryman 6.501. Who watched them through still groves approach his shore 6.502. Hailed them, at distance, from the Stygian wave 6.503. And with reproachful summons thus began: 6.504. “Whoe'er thou art that in this warrior guise 6.505. Unto my river comest,—quickly tell 6.506. Thine errand! Stay thee where thou standest now! 6.507. This is ghosts' land, for sleep and slumbrous dark. 6.508. That flesh and blood my Stygian ship should bear 6.509. Were lawless wrong. Unwillingly I took 6.510. Alcides, Theseus, and Pirithous 6.511. Though sons of gods, too mighty to be quelled. 6.512. One bound in chains yon warder of Hell's door 6.513. And dragged him trembling from our monarch's throne: 6.514. The others, impious, would steal away 6.515. Out of her bride-bed Pluto's ravished Queen.” 6.516. Briefly th' Amphrysian priestess made reply: 6.517. “Not ours, such guile: Fear not! This warrior's arms 6.518. Are innocent. Let Cerberus from his cave 6.519. Bay ceaselessly, the bloodless shades to scare; 6.520. Let Proserpine immaculately keep 6.521. The house and honor of her kinsman King. 6.522. Trojan Aeneas, famed for faithful prayer 6.523. And victory in arms, descends to seek 6.524. His father in this gloomy deep of death. 6.525. If loyal goodness move not such as thee 6.526. This branch at least” (she drew it from her breast) 6.527. “Thou knowest well.” 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 6.530. Upon that fateful, venerable wand 6.531. Seen only once an age. Shoreward he turned 6.532. And pushed their way his boat of leaden hue. 6.533. The rows of crouching ghosts along the thwarts 6.534. He scattered, cleared a passage, and gave room 6.535. To great Aeneas. The light shallop groaned 6.536. Beneath his weight, and, straining at each seam 6.537. Took in the foul flood with unstinted flow. 6.538. At last the hero and his priestess-guide 6.539. Came safe across the river, and were moored 6.541. Here Cerberus, with triple-throated roar 6.542. Made all the region ring, as there he lay 6.543. At vast length in his cave. The Sibyl then 6.544. Seeing the serpents writhe around his neck 6.545. Threw down a loaf with honeyed herbs imbued 6.546. And drowsy essences: he, ravenous 6.547. Gaped wide his three fierce mouths and snatched the bait 6.548. Crouched with his large backs loose upon the ground 6.549. And filled his cavern floor from end to end. 6.550. Aeneas through hell's portal moved, while sleep 6.551. Its warder buried; then he fled that shore 6.553. Now hears he sobs, and piteous, lisping cries 6.554. of souls of babes upon the threshold plaining; 6.555. Whom, ere they took their portion of sweet life 6.556. Dark Fate from nursing bosoms tore, and plunged 6.585. Roamed through a mighty wood. The Trojan's eyes 6.586. Beheld her near him through the murky gloom 6.587. As when, in her young month and crescent pale 6.588. One sees th' o'er-clouded moon, or thinks he sees. 6.589. Down dropped his tears, and thus he fondly spoke: 6.590. “0 suffering Dido! Were those tidings true 6.591. That thou didst fling thee on the fatal steel? 6.592. Thy death, ah me! I dealt it. But I swear 6.593. By stars above us, by the powers in Heaven 6.594. Or whatsoever oath ye dead believe 6.595. That not by choice I fled thy shores, 0 Queen! 6.596. Divine decrees compelled me, even as now 6.597. Among these ghosts I pass, and thread my way 6.598. Along this gulf of night and loathsome land. 6.599. How could I deem my cruel taking leave 6.600. Would bring thee at the last to all this woe? 6.608. Were changeless flint or carved in Parian stone. 6.609. Then, after pause, away in wrath she fled 6.610. And refuge took within the cool, dark grove 6.611. Where her first spouse, Sichaeus, with her tears 6.612. Mingled his own in mutual love and true. 6.613. Aeneas, none the less, her guiltless woe 6.614. With anguish knew, watched with dimmed eyes her way 6.616. But now his destined way he must be gone; 6.617. Now the last regions round the travellers lie 6.618. Where famous warriors in the darkness dwell: 6.619. Here Tydeus comes in view, with far-renowned 6.620. Parthenopaeus and Adrastus pale; 6.621. Here mourned in upper air with many a moan 6.622. In battle fallen, the Dardanidae 6.623. Whose long defile Aeneas groans to see: 6.624. Glaucus and Medon and Thersilochus 6.625. Antenor's children three, and Ceres' priest 6.628. Around him left and right the crowding shades 6.629. Not only once would see, but clutch and cling 6.637. A feeble shout, or vainly opened wide 6.639. Here Priam's son, with body rent and torn 6.640. Deiphobus Deïphobus is seen,—his mangled face 6.641. His face and bloody hands, his wounded head 6.642. of ears and nostrils infamously shorn. 6.643. Scarce could Aeneas know the shuddering shade 6.644. That strove to hide its face and shameful scar; 6.645. But, speaking first, he said, in their own tongue: 6.646. “Deiphobus, strong warrior, nobly born 6.647. of Teucer's royal stem, what ruthless foe 6.648. Could wish to wreak on thee this dire revenge? 6.649. Who ventured, unopposed, so vast a wrong? 6.650. The rumor reached me how, that deadly night 6.651. Wearied with slaying Greeks, thyself didst fall 6.652. Prone on a mingled heap of friends and foes. 6.653. Then my own hands did for thy honor build 6.654. An empty tomb upon the Trojan shore 6.655. And thrice with echoing voice I called thy shade. 6.656. Thy name and arms are there. But, 0 my friend 6.657. Thee could I nowhere find, but launched away 6.658. Nor o'er thy bones their native earth could fling.” 6.659. To him the son of Priam thus replied: 6.660. “Nay, friend, no hallowed rite was left undone 6.661. But every debt to death and pity due 6.662. The shades of thy Deiphobus received. 6.663. My fate it was, and Helen's murderous wrong 6.664. Wrought me this woe; of her these tokens tell. 6.665. For how that last night in false hope we passed 6.666. Thou knowest,—ah, too well we both recall! 6.667. When up the steep of Troy the fateful horse 6.668. Came climbing, pregt with fierce men-at-arms 6.669. 't was she, accurst, who led the Phrygian dames 6.670. In choric dance and false bacchantic song 6.671. And, waving from the midst a lofty brand 6.672. Signalled the Greeks from Ilium 's central tower 6.673. In that same hour on my sad couch I lay 6.674. Exhausted by long care and sunk in sleep 6.675. That sweet, deep sleep, so close to tranquil death. 6.676. But my illustrious bride from all the house 6.677. Had stolen all arms; from 'neath my pillowed head 6.678. She stealthily bore off my trusty sword; 6.679. Then loud on Menelaus did she call 6.681. Such gift to her fond lord she fain would send 6.687. If with clean lips upon your wrath I call! 6.688. But, friend, what fortunes have thy life befallen? 6.689. Tell point by point. Did waves of wandering seas 6.693. While thus they talked, the crimsoned car of Morn 6.695. On her ethereal road. The princely pair 6.696. Had wasted thus the whole brief gift of hours; 6.697. But Sibyl spoke the warning: “Night speeds by 6.698. And we, Aeneas, lose it in lamenting. 6.699. Here comes the place where cleaves our way in twain. 6.700. Thy road, the right, toward Pluto's dwelling goes 6.701. And leads us to Elysium. But the left 6.702. Speeds sinful souls to doom, and is their path 6.703. To Tartarus th' accurst.” Deiphobus Deïphobus 6.704. Cried out: “0 priestess, be not wroth with us! 6.705. Back to the ranks with yonder ghosts I go. 6.706. 0 glory of my race, pass on! Thy lot 6.708. Aeneas straightway by the leftward cliff 6.709. Beheld a spreading rampart, high begirt 6.710. With triple wall, and circling round it ran 6.711. A raging river of swift floods of flame 6.712. Infernal Phlegethon, which whirls along 6.713. Loud-thundering rocks. A mighty gate is there 6.714. Columned in adamant; no human power 6.715. Nor even the gods, against this gate prevail. 6.716. Tall tower of steel it has; and seated there 6.717. Tisiphone, in blood-flecked pall arrayed 6.718. Sleepless forever, guards the entering way. 6.719. Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge 6.720. Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721. Aeneas motionless with horror stood 6.722. o'erwhelmed at such uproar. “0 virgin, say 6.723. What shapes of guilt are these? What penal woe 6.724. Harries them thus? What wailing smites the air?” 6.725. To whom the Sibyl, “Far-famed prince of Troy 6.726. The feet of innocence may never pass 6.727. Into this house of sin. But Hecate 6.728. When o'er th' Avernian groves she gave me power 6.729. Taught me what penalties the gods decree 6.730. And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731. His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732. Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733. of mortals who, exulting in vain guile 6.734. Elude till death, their expiation due. 6.735. There, armed forever with her vengeful scourge 6.736. Tisiphone, with menace and affront 6.737. The guilty swarm pursues; in her left hand 6.738. She lifts her angered serpents, while she calls 6.739. A troop of sister-furies fierce as she. 6.740. Then, grating loud on hinge of sickening sound 6.741. Hell's portals open wide. 0, dost thou see 6.742. What sentinel upon that threshold sits 6.744. Far, far within the dragon Hydra broods 6.745. With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black; 6.746. And Tartarus slopes downward to the dark 6.747. Twice the whole space that in the realms of light 6.748. Th' Olympian heaven above our earth aspires. — 6.749. Here Earth's first offspring, the Titanic brood 6.750. Roll lightning-blasted in the gulf profound; 6.751. The twin Aloidae Aloïdae , colossal shades 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 6.893. Thy kindred accent mingling with my own? 6.894. I cherished long this hope. My prophet-soul 6.895. Numbered the lapse of days, nor did my thought 6.896. Deceive. 0, o'er what lands and seas wast driven 6.897. To this embrace! What perils manifold 6.898. Assailed thee, 0 my son, on every side! 6.899. How long I trembled, lest that Libyan throne 6.900. Should work thee woe!” 6.901. Aeneas thus replied: 7.1. One more immortal name thy death bequeathed 7.2. Nurse of Aeneas, to Italian shores 7.3. Caieta ; there thy honor hath a home; 7.4. Thy bones a name: and on Hesperia's breast 7.5. Their proper glory. When Aeneas now 7.6. The tribute of sepulchral vows had paid 7.7. Beside the funeral mound, and o'er the seas 7.8. Stillness had fallen, he flung forth his sails 7.9. And leaving port pursued his destined way. 7.10. Freshly the night-winds breathe; the cloudless moon 7.11. Outpours upon his path unstinted beam 7.12. And with far-trembling glory smites the sea. 7.13. Close to the lands of Circe soon they fare 7.14. Where the Sun's golden daughter in far groves 7.15. Sounds forth her ceaseless song; her lofty hall 7.16. Is fragrant every night with flaring brands 7.17. of cedar, giving light the while she weaves 7.18. With shrill-voiced shuttle at her linens fine. 7.19. From hence are heard the loud lament and wrath 7.20. of lions, rebels to their linked chains 7.21. And roaring all night long; great bristly boars 7.22. And herded bears, in pinfold closely kept 7.23. Rage horribly, and monster-wolves make moan; 7.24. Whom the dread goddess with foul juices strong 7.25. From forms of men drove forth, and bade to wear 7.26. the mouths and maws of beasts in Circe's thrall. 7.27. But lest the sacred Trojans should endure 7.28. uch prodigy of doom, or anchor there 7.29. on that destroying shore, kind Neptune filled 7.30. their sails with winds of power, and sped them on 7.32. Now morning flushed the wave, and saffron-garbed 7.33. Aurora from her rose-red chariot beamed 7.34. in highest heaven; the sea-winds ceased to stir; 7.35. a sudden calm possessed the air, and tides 7.36. of marble smoothness met the laboring oar. 7.37. Then, gazing from the deep, Aeneas saw 7.38. a stretch of groves, whence Tiber 's smiling stream 7.39. its tumbling current rich with yellow sands 7.40. burst seaward forth: around it and above 7.41. hore-haunting birds of varied voice and plume 7.42. flattered the sky with song, and, circling far 7.43. o'er river-bed and grove, took joyful wing. 7.44. Thither to landward now his ships he steered 7.46. Hail, Erato! while olden kings and thrones 7.47. and all their sequent story I unfold! 7.48. How Latium 's honor stood, when alien ships 7.49. brought war to Italy, and from what cause 7.50. the primal conflict sprang, O goddess, breathe 7.51. upon thy bard in song. Dread wars I tell 7.52. array of battle, and high-hearted kings 7.53. thrust forth to perish, when Etruria's host 7.54. and all Hesperia gathered to the fray. 7.55. Events of grander march impel my song 7.56. and loftier task I try. Latinus, then 7.57. an aged king, held long-accepted sway 7.58. o'er tranquil vales and towns. He was the son 7.59. of Faunus, so the legend tells, who wed 7.60. the nymph Marica of Laurentian stem. 7.61. Picus was Faunus' father, whence the line 7.62. to Saturn's Ioins ascends. O heavenly sire 7.63. from thee the stem began! But Fate had given 7.64. to King Latinus' body no heirs male: 7.65. for taken in the dawning of his day 7.66. his only son had been; and now his home 7.67. and spacious palace one sole daughter kept 7.68. who was grown ripe to wed and of full age 7.69. to take a husband. Many suitors tried 7.70. from all Ausonia and Latium 's bounds; 7.71. but comeliest in all their princely throng 7.72. came Turnus, of a line of mighty sires. 7.73. Him the queen mother chiefly loved, and yearned 7.74. to call him soon her son. But omens dire 7.75. and menaces from Heaven withstood her will. 7.76. A laurel-tree grew in the royal close 7.77. of sacred leaf and venerated age 7.78. which, when he builded there his wall and tower 7.79. Father Latinus found, and hallowed it 7.80. to Phoebus' grace and power, wherefrom the name 7.81. Laurentian, which his realm and people bear. 7.82. Unto this tree-top, wonderful to tell 7.83. came hosts of bees, with audible acclaim 7.84. voyaging the stream of air, and seized a place 7.85. on the proud, pointing crest, where the swift swarm 7.86. with interlacement of close-clinging feet 7.87. wung from the leafy bough. “Behold, there comes,” 7.88. the prophet cried, “a husband from afar! 7.89. To the same region by the self-same path 7.90. behold an arm'd host taking lordly sway 7.91. upon our city's crown!” Soon after this 7.92. when, coming to the shrine with torches pure 7.93. Lavinia kindled at her father's side 7.94. the sacrifice, swift seemed the flame to burn 7.95. along her flowing hair—O sight of woe! 7.96. Over her broidered snood it sparkling flew 7.97. lighting her queenly tresses and her crown 7.98. of jewels rare: then, wrapt in flaming cloud 7.99. from hall to hall the fire-god's gift she flung. 7.100. This omen dread and wonder terrible 7.101. was rumored far: for prophet-voices told 7.102. bright honors on the virgin's head to fall 7.104. The King, sore troubled by these portents, sought 7.105. oracular wisdom of his sacred sire 7.106. Faunus, the fate-revealer, where the groves 7.107. tretch under high Albunea, and her stream 7.108. roars from its haunted well, exhaling through 7.109. vast, gloomful woods its pestilential air. 7.110. Here all Oenotria's tribes ask oracles 7.111. in dark and doubtful days: here, when the priest 7.112. has brought his gifts, and in the night so still 7.113. couched on spread fleeces of the offered flock 7.114. awaiting slumber lies, then wondrously 7.115. a host of flitting shapes he sees, and hears 7.116. voices that come and go: with gods he holds 7.117. high converse, or in deep Avernian gloom 7.118. parleys with Acheron. Thither drew near 7.119. Father Latinus, seeking truth divine. 7.120. Obedient to the olden rite, he slew 7.121. a hundred fleecy sheep, and pillowed lay 7.122. upon their outstretched skins. Straightway a voice 7.123. out of the lofty forest met his prayer. 7.124. “Seek not in wedlock with a Latin lord 7.125. to join thy daughter, O my son and seed! 7.126. Beware this purposed marriage! There shall come 7.127. ons from afar, whose blood shall bear our name 7.128. tarward; the children of their mighty loins 7.129. as far as eve and morn enfold the seas 7.130. hall see a subject world beneath their feet 7.131. ubmissive lie.” This admonition given 7.132. Latinus hid not. But on restless wing 7.133. rumor had spread it, when the men of Troy 7.134. along the river-bank of mounded green 7.135. their fleet made fast. Aeneas and his chiefs 7.136. with fair Iulus, under spreading boughs 7.137. of one great tree made resting-place, and set 7.138. the banquet on. Thin loaves of altar-bread 7.139. along the sward to bear their meats were laid 7.140. (such was the will of Jove), and wilding fruits 7.141. rose heaping high, with Ceres' gift below. 7.142. Soon, all things else devoured, their hunger turned 7.143. to taste the scanty bread, which they attacked 7.144. with tooth and nail audacious, and consumed 7.145. both round and square of that predestined leaven. 7.146. “Look, how we eat our tables even!” cried 7.147. Iulus, in a jest. Such was the word 7.148. which bade their burdens fall. From his boy's lip 7.149. the father caught this utterance of Fate 7.150. ilent with wonder at the ways of Heaven; 7.151. then swift he spoke: “Hail! O my destined shore 7.152. protecting deities of Ilium, hail! 7.153. Here is our home, our country here! This day 7.154. I publish the mysterious prophecy 7.155. by Sire Anchises given: ‘My son,’ said he 7.156. ‘When hunger in strange lands shall bid devour 7.157. the tables of thy banquet gone, then hope 7.158. for home, though weary, and take thought to build 7.159. a dwelling and a battlement.’ Behold! 7.160. This was our fated hunger! This last proof 7.161. will end our evil days. Up, then! For now 7.170. eldest of names divine; the Nymphs he called 7.171. and river-gods unknown; his voice invoked 7.172. the night, the omen-stars through night that roll. 7.173. Jove, Ida's child, and Phrygia 's fertile Queen: 7.174. he called his mother from Olympian skies 7.175. and sire from Erebus. Lo, o'er his head 7.176. three times unclouded Jove omnipotent 7.177. in thunder spoke, and, with effulgent ray 7.178. from his ethereal tract outreaching far 7.179. hook visibly the golden-gleaming air. 7.180. Swift, through the concourse of the Trojans, spread 7.181. news of the day at hand when they should build 7.182. their destined walls. So, with rejoicing heart 7.183. at such vast omen, they set forth a feast 7.184. with zealous emulation, ranging well 7.186. Soon as the morrow with the lamp of dawn 7.187. looked o'er the world, they took their separate ways 7.188. exploring shore and towns; here spread the pools 7.189. and fountain of Numicius; here they see 7.190. the river Tiber, where bold Latins dwell. 7.191. Anchises' son chose out from his brave band 7.204. fair youths and striplings in life's early bloom 7.205. course with swift steeds, or steer through dusty cloud 7.206. the whirling chariot, or stretch stout bows 7.207. or hurl the seasoned javelin, or strive 7.208. in boxing-bout and foot-race: one of these 7.209. made haste on horseback to the aged King 7.210. with tidings of a stranger company 7.211. in foreign garb approaching. The good King 7.219. Here kings took sceptre and the fasces proud 7.220. with omens fair; the selfsame sacred place 7.221. was senate-house and temple; here was found 7.234. along the columns: chariots of war 7.235. from foeman taken, axes of round blade 7.237. from city-gates, shields, spears, and beaks of bronze 7.240. girt in scant shift, and bearing on his left 7.241. the sacred oval shield, appeared enthroned 7.242. Picus, breaker of horses, whom his bride 7.249. with brow serene gave greeting as they came: 7.250. “O sons of Dardanus, think not unknown 7.251. your lineage and city! Rumored far 7.252. your venturous voyage has been. What seek ye here? 7.253. What cause, what quest, has brought your barks and you 7.254. o'er the blue waters to Ausonia's hills? 7.255. What way uncharted, or wild stress of storm 7.256. or what that sailors suffer in mid-sea 7.257. unto this river bank and haven bore? 7.258. Doubt not our welcome! We of Latin land 7.266. Once out of Tuscan Corythus he fared; 7.267. but now in golden house among the stars 7.268. he has a throne, and by his altars blest 7.280. boast Jove to be their sire, and our true King 7.281. is of Olympian seed. To thine abode 7.286. that lone wight hears whom earth's remotest isle 7.287. has banished to the Ocean's rim, or he 7.288. whose dwelling is the ample zone that burns 7.289. betwixt the changeful sun-god's milder realms 7.290. far severed from the world. We are the men 7.291. from war's destroying deluge safely borne 7.292. over the waters wide. We only ask 7.293. ome low-roofed dwelling for our fathers' gods 7.294. ome friendly shore, and, what to all is free 7.295. water and air. We bring no evil name 7.296. upon thy people; thy renown will be 7.297. but wider spread; nor of a deed so fair 7.298. can grateful memory die. Ye ne'er will rue 7.299. that to Ausonia's breast ye gathered Troy . 7.300. I swear thee by the favored destinies 7.301. of great Aeneas, by his strength of arm 7.302. in friendship or in war, that many a tribe 7.303. (O, scorn us not, that, bearing olive green 7.304. with suppliant words we come), that many a throne 7.305. has sued us to be friends. But Fate's decree 7.306. to this thy realm did guide. Here Dardanus 7.307. was born; and with reiterate command 7.308. this way Apollo pointed to the stream 7.309. of Tiber and Numicius' haunted spring. 7.310. Lo, these poor tributes from his greatness gone 7.311. Aeneas sends, these relics snatched away 7.312. from Ilium burning: with this golden bowl 7.313. Anchises poured libation when he prayed; 7.314. and these were Priam's splendor, when he gave 7.315. laws to his gathered states; this sceptre his 7.316. this diadem revered, and beauteous pall 7.317. handwork of Asia 's queens.” So ceased to speak 7.318. Ilioneus. But King Latinus gazed 7.319. uswering on the ground, all motionless 7.320. ave for his musing eyes. The broidered pall 7.321. of purple, and the sceptre Priam bore 7.322. moved little on his kingly heart, which now 7.323. pondered of giving to the bridal bed 7.324. his daughter dear. He argues in his mind 7.325. the oracle of Faunus:—might this be 7.326. that destined bridegroom from an alien land 7.327. to share his throne, to get a progeny 7.328. of glorious valor, which by mighty deeds 7.329. hould win the world for kingdom? So at last 7.330. with joyful brow he spoke: “Now let the gods 7.331. our purpose and their own fair promise bless! 7.332. Thou hast, O Trojan, thy desire. Thy gifts 7.333. I have not scorned; nor while Latinus reigns 7.334. hall ye lack riches in my plenteous land 7.335. not less than Trojan store. But where is he 7.336. Aeneas' self? If he our royal love 7.337. o much desire, and have such urgent mind 7.338. to be our guest and friend, let him draw near 7.339. nor turn him from well-wishing looks away! 7.340. My offering and pledge of peace shall be 7.341. to clasp your monarch's hand. Bear back, I pray 7.342. this answer to your King: my dwelling holds 7.343. a daughter, whom with husband of her blood 7.344. great signs in heaven and from my father's tomb 7.345. forbid to wed. A son from alien shores 7.346. they prophesy for Latium 's heir, whose seed 7.347. hall lift our glory to the stars divine. 7.348. I am persuaded this is none but he 7.349. that man of destiny; and if my heart 7.350. be no false prophet, I desire it so.” 7.351. Thus having said, the sire took chosen steeds 7.352. from his full herd, whereof, well-groomed and fair 7.353. three hundred stood within his ample pale. 7.354. of these to every Teucrian guest he gave 7.355. a courser swift and strong, in purple clad 7.356. and broidered housings gay; on every breast 7.357. hung chains of gold; in golden robes arrayed 7.358. they champed the red gold curb their teeth between. 7.359. For offering to Aeneas, he bade send 7.360. a chariot, with chargers twain of seed 7.361. ethereal, their nostrils breathing fire: 7.362. the famous kind which guileful Circe bred 7.363. cheating her sire, and mixed the sun-god's team 7.364. with brood-mares earthly born. The sons of Troy 7.365. uch gifts and greetings from Latinus bearing 7.367. But lo! from Argos on her voyage of air 7.368. rides the dread spouse of Jove. She, sky-enthroned 7.369. above the far Sicilian promontory 7.370. pachynus, sees Dardania's rescued fleet 7.371. and all Aeneas' joy. The prospect shows 7.372. houses a-building, lands of safe abode 7.373. and the abandoned ships. With bitter grief 7.374. he stands at gaze: then with storm-shaken brows 7.375. thus from her heart lets loose the wrathful word: 7.376. “O hated race! O Phrygian destinies — 7.377. to mine forevermore (unhappy me!) 7.378. a scandal and offense! Did no one die 7.379. on Troy 's embattled plain? Could captured slaves 7.380. not be enslaved again? Was Ilium's flame 7.381. no warrior's funeral pyre? Did they walk safe 7.382. through serried swords and congregated fires? 7.383. At last, methought, my godhead might repose 7.384. and my full-fed revenge in slumber lie. 7.385. But nay! Though flung forth from their native land 7.386. I o'er the waves, with enmity unstayed 7.387. dared give them chase, and on that exiled few 7.388. hurled the whole sea. I smote the sons of Troy 7.390. Syrtes, or Scylla, or Charybdis' waves? 7.391. The Trojans are in Tiber ; and abide 7.392. within their prayed-for land delectable 7.393. afe from the seas and me! Mars once had power 7.394. the monstrous Lapithae to slay; and Jove 7.395. to Dian's honor and revenge gave o'er 7.396. the land of Calydon. What crime so foul 7.397. was wrought by Lapithae or Calydon? 7.398. But I, Jove's wife and Queen, who in my woes 7.399. have ventured each bold stroke my power could find 7.400. and every shift essayed,—behold me now 7.401. outdone by this Aeneas! If so weak 7.402. my own prerogative of godhead be 7.403. let me seek strength in war, come whence it will! 7.404. If Heaven I may not move, on Hell I call. 7.405. To bar him from his Latin throne exceeds 7.406. my fated power. So be it! Fate has given 7.407. Lavinia for his bride. But long delays 7.408. I still can plot, and to the high event 7.409. deferment and obstruction. I can smite 7.410. the subjects of both kings. Let sire and son 7.411. buy with their people's blood this marriage-bond! 7.412. Let Teucrian and Rutulian slaughter be 7.413. thy virgin dower, and Bellona's blaze 7.414. light thee the bridal bed! Not only teemed 7.415. the womb of Hecuba with burning brand 7.416. and brought forth nuptial fires; but Venus, too 7.417. uch offspring bore, a second Paris, who 7.419. So saying, with aspect terrible she sped 7.420. earthward her way; and called from gloom of hell 7.421. Alecto, woeful power, from cloudy throne 7.422. among the Furies, where her heart is fed 7.423. with horrid wars, wrath, vengeance, treason foul 7.424. and fatal feuds. Her father Pluto loathes 7.425. the creature he engendered, and with hate 7.426. her hell-born sister-fiends the monster view. 7.427. A host of shapes she wears, and many a front 7.428. of frowning black brows viper-garlanded. 7.429. Juno to her this goading speech addressed: 7.430. “O daughter of dark Night, arouse for me 7.431. thy wonted powers and our task begin! 7.432. Lest now my glory fail, my royal name 7.433. be vanquished, while Aeneas and his crew 7.434. cheat with a wedlock bond the Latin King 7.435. and seize Italia 's fields. Thou canst thrust on 7.436. two Ioving brothers to draw sword and slay 7.437. and ruin homes with hatred, calling in 7.438. the scourge of Furies and avenging fires. 7.439. A thousand names thou bearest, and thy ways 7.440. of ruin multiply a thousand-fold. 7.441. Arouse thy fertile breast! Go, rend in twain 7.442. this plighted peace! Breed calumnies and sow 7.443. causes of battle, till yon warrior hosts 7.445. Straightway Alecto, through whose body flows 7.446. the Gorgon poison, took her viewless way 7.447. to Latium and the lofty walls and towers 7.448. of the Laurentian King. Crouching she sate 7.449. in silence on the threshold of the bower 7.450. where Queen Amata in her fevered soul 7.451. pondered, with all a woman's wrath and fear 7.452. upon the Trojans and the marriage-suit 7.453. of Turnus. From her Stygian hair the fiend 7.454. a single serpent flung, which stole its way 7.455. to the Queen's very heart, that, frenzy-driven 7.456. he might on her whole house confusion pour. 7.457. Betwixt her smooth breast and her robe it wound 7.458. unfelt, unseen, and in her wrathful mind 7.459. instilled its viper soul. Like golden chain 7.460. around her neck it twined, or stretched along 7.461. the fillets on her brow, or with her hair 7.462. enwrithing coiled; then on from limb to limb 7.463. lipped tortuous. Yet though the venom strong 7.464. thrilled with its first infection every vein 7.465. and touched her bones with fire, she knew it not 7.466. nor yielded all her soul, but made her plea 7.467. in gentle accents such as mothers use; 7.468. and many a tear she shed, about her child 7.469. her darling, destined for a Phrygian's bride: 7.470. “O father! can we give Lavinia's hand 7.471. to Trojan fugitives? why wilt thou show 7.472. no mercy on thy daughter, nor thyself; 7.473. nor unto me, whom at the first fair wind 7.474. that wretch will leave deserted, bearing far 7.475. upon his pirate ship my stolen child? 7.476. Was it not thus that Phrygian shepherd came 7.477. to Lacedaemon, ravishing away 7.478. Helen, the child of Leda, whom he bore 7.479. to those false Trojan lands? Hast thou forgot 7.480. thy plighted word? Where now thy boasted love 7.481. of kith and kin, and many a troth-plight given 7.482. unto our kinsman Turnus? If we need 7.483. an alien son, and Father Faunus' words 7.484. irrevocably o'er thy spirit brood 7.485. I tell thee every land not linked with ours 7.486. under one sceptre, but distinct and free 7.487. is alien; and 't is thus the gods intend. 7.488. Indeed, if Turnus' ancient race be told 7.489. it sprang of Inachus, Acrisius 7.490. and out of mid- Mycenae .” But she sees 7.491. her lord Latinus resolute, her words 7.492. an effort vain; and through her body spreads 7.493. the Fury's deeply venomed viper-sting. 7.494. Then, woe-begone, by dark dreams goaded on 7.495. he wanders aimless, fevered and unstrung 7.496. along the public ways; as oft one sees 7.497. beneath the twisted whips a leaping top 7.498. ped in long spirals through a palace-close 7.499. by lads at play: obedient to the thong 7.500. it weaves wide circles in the gaping view 7.501. of its small masters, who admiring see 7.502. the whirling boxwood made a living thing 7.503. under their lash. So fast and far she roved 7.504. from town to town among the clansmen wild. 7.505. Then to the wood she ran, feigning to feel 7.506. the madness Bacchus loves; for she essays 7.507. a fiercer crime, by fiercer frenzy moved. 7.508. Now in the leafy dark of mountain vales 7.509. he hides her daughter, ravished thus away 7.510. from Trojan bridegroom and the wedding-feast. 7.511. “Hail, Bacchus! Thou alone,” she shrieked and raved 7.512. “art worthy such a maid. For thee she bears 7.513. the thyrsus with soft ivy-clusters crowned 7.514. and trips ecstatic in thy beauteous choir. 7.515. For thee alone my daughter shall unbind 7.516. the glory of her virgin hair.” Swift runs 7.517. the rumor of her deed; and, frenzy-driven 7.518. the wives of Latium to the forests fly 7.519. enkindled with one rage. They leave behind 7.520. their desolated hearths, and let rude winds 7.521. o'er neck and tresses blow; their voices fill 7.522. the welkin with convulsive shriek and wail; 7.523. and, with fresh fawn-skins on their bodies bound 7.524. they brandish vine-clad spears. The Queen herself 7.525. lifts high a blazing pine tree, while she sings 7.526. a wedding-song for Turnus and her child. 7.527. With bloodshot glance and anger wild, she cries: 7.528. “Ho! all ye Latin wives, if e'er ye knew 7.529. kindness for poor Amata, if ye care 7.530. for a wronged mother's woes, O, follow me! 7.531. Cast off the matron fillet from your brows 7.532. and revel to our mad, voluptuous song.” 7.533. Thus, through the woodland haunt of creatures wild 7.534. Alecto urges on the raging Queen 7.535. with Bacchus' cruel goad. But when she deemed 7.536. the edge of wrath well whetted, and the house 7.537. of wise Latinus of all reason reft 7.538. then soared the black-winged goddess to the walls 7.539. of the bold Rutule, to the city built 7.540. (So runs the tale) by beauteous Danae 7.541. and her Acrisian people, shipwrecked there 7.542. by south wind strong. Its name was Ardea 7.543. in language of our sires, and that proud name 7.544. of Ardea still it wears, though proud no more. 7.545. Here Turnus in the gloom of midnight lay 7.546. half-sleeping in his regal hall. For him 7.547. Alecto her grim fury-guise put by 7.548. and wore an old crone's face, her baleful brow 7.549. delved deep with wrinkled age, her hoary hair 7.550. in sacred fillet bound, and garlanded 7.551. with leaf of olive: Calybe she seemed 7.552. an aged servitress ot Juno's shrine 7.553. and in this seeming thus the prince addressed:— 7.554. “O Turnus, wilt thou tamely see thy toil 7.555. lavished in vain? and thy true throne consigned 7.556. to Trojan wanderers? The King repels 7.557. thy noble wooing and thy war-won dower. 7.558. He summons him a son of alien stem 7.559. to take his kingdom. Rouse thee now, and front 7.560. corned and without reward, these perilous days. 7.561. Tread down that Tuscan host! Protect the peace 7.562. of Latium from its foe! Such is the word 7.563. which, while in night and slumber thou wert laid 7.564. Saturnia 's godhead, visibly revealed 7.565. bade me declare. Up, therefore, and array 7.566. thy warriors in arms! Swift sallying forth 7.567. from thy strong city-gates, on to the fray 7.568. exultant go! Assail the Phrygian chiefs 7.569. who tent them by thy beauteous river's marge 7.570. and burn their painted galleys! 't is the will 7.571. of gods above that speaks. Yea, even the King 8.36. all shapes of beast or bird, the wide world o'er 8.37. lay deep in slumber. So beneath the arch 8.38. of a cold sky Aeneas laid him down 8.39. upon the river-bank, his heart sore tried 8.40. by so much war and sorrow, and gave o'er 8.41. his body to its Iong-delayed repose. 8.42. There, 'twixt the poplars by the gentle stream 8.43. the River-Father, genius of that place 8.44. old Tiberinus visibly uprose; 8.45. a cloak of gray-green lawn he wore, his hair 8.46. o'erhung with wreath of reeds. In soothing words 8.48. “Seed of the gods! who bringest to my shore 8.49. thy Trojan city wrested from her foe 8.50. a stronghold everlasting, Latium 's plain 8.51. and fair Laurentum long have looked for thee. 8.52. Here truly is thy home. Turn not away. 8.53. Here the true guardians of thy hearth shall be. 8.54. Fear not the gathering war. The wrath of Heaven 8.55. has stilled its swollen wave. A sign I tell: 8.56. Lest thou shouldst deem this message of thy sleep 8.57. a vain, deluding dream, thou soon shalt find 8.58. in the oak-copses on my margent green 8.59. a huge sow, with her newly-littered brood 8.60. of thirty young; along the ground she lies 8.61. now-white, and round her udders her white young. 8.62. There shall thy city stand, and there thy toil 8.63. hall find untroubled rest. After the lapse 8.64. of thrice ten rolling years, Ascanius 8.65. hall found a city there of noble name 10.2. threw wide its portals, and in conclave fair 10.3. the Sire of gods and King of all mankind 11.234. can bid me live. Then let thy sword repay 11.235. its debt to sire and son by Turnus slain! 11.480. for peace, O Turnus! and, not less than peace 12.604. Antheus and Mnestheus moved, and all the host 12.605. from the forsaken fortress poured. The plain 12.606. was darkened with their dust; the startled earth 12.946. of Eryx, when the nodding oaks resound 12.947. or sovereign Apennine that lifts in air
8. Plutarch, Mark Antony, 25-29, 31-32, 34-35, 37, 53-54, 56-57, 60, 75, 24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Silius Italicus, Punica, 2.510-2.512, 2.618, 2.650, 2.656 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 2.1-2.5, 2.17-2.427 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Arnobius, Against The Gentiles, 5.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeetes Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
aeneas, kingship of Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195, 248
agave Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
allecto Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
amata Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 195, 248, 249
ara maxima Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
argo, as first ship Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
ascanius Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
associations, see also collegia Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
augustus/octavian Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
augustus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58
bacchic rites, in vergils aeneid Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195, 248, 249
bacchic rites, matralia and cult of mater matuta in ovids fasti Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
bacchic rites, military imagery and Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
bacchic rites, processions Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
bacchic rites, purification associated with Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
bacchus/dionysus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
burial Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
cacus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
carmentis Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
catabasis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
catullus Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
choric performance Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 165
ciconian women, lemnian women compared Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
civil war Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
closure, liberating Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
colchis Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
councils Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58
death Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
decision Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
destruction Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
diana/artemis Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
dido Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248, 249
dionysus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
euripides, alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
evander Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
fama/rumor Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
fama Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
feminization/effeminacy Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
fides Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
forum boarium, rome Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
funeral, fake/quasi-/pseudo- Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
funeral Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
furies Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
furor/μανία Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
games Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58
genre Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
golden age Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
hecuba Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
hypsipyle, crossdressing of thoas (in valerius) Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
hypsipyle, feminization/ ephebization of thoas Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
hypsipyle, hiding of thoas in bacchic temple (in valerius) Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
hypsipyle, in euripides hypsipyle Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
hypsipyle, in valerius argonautica Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
hypsipyle, jason/argonauts and Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
hypsipyle, purification rite and escape of thoas to tauris (in valerius) Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
hypsipyle, vergils aeneid and Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 248, 249
hypsipyle Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
intertextuality, hypsipyle story and Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 249
intertextuality, matralia and cult of mater matuta Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
intertextuality, of philomela and procne in ovids metamorphoses Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
intertextuality, window reference (two-tier allusion) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
intertextuality Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
iphigeneia Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
iron age Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
italy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
jason Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
jason and the argonauts Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
julian house Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 157
juno/hera Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
juno Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 157
latinus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
lavinia, characteristics, role in aeneid Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 157
lavinia, characteristics Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 163
lavinia Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 248
lemnos Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
lyric (early greek), and virgins Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 161, 163, 165
madness, furial Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, infernal Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, madness (personified) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
maenadism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
matralia and cult of mater matuta, bacchic rites in Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
matralia and cult of mater matuta, vergils aeneid, as alternative foundation narrative to Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
matralia and cult of mater matuta Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
mitra Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
mysteries Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
narrative structure of aeneid Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 58
neos dionysos Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
orestes Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
orpheus Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
pentheus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 248, 249
perses Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
philomela and procne, bacchic ritual context of Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
philomela and procne, euripidean tragedy invoked by Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
plots, comic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
plots, tragic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
polyxo Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
portents Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 157
primitivism Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
ptolemies deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
purification and bacchic rites Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
resolution Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
rites deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
roman state, hercules as model for Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
rome deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
rumor/fama Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
saguntum Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
santomobono Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
satyr drama Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
scipio (africanus) Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
seneca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
significance of characters conveyed indirectly Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 161
suicide Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
symposium Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
tereus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
third ways Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
thrace Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
tisiphone Roumpou, Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature (2023) 114
titans deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67
tragedy, and comedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragedy, as a theme Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragedy, greek Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragic, mode Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
transvestism and cross-dressing, of thoas by hypsipyle' Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
turnus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
valerius flaccus, and apollonius rhodius Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
valerius flaccus, civil war in Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
venus/aphrodite Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 249
venus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
vergil, aeneid, bacchic rites in Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195, 248, 249
vergil, aeneid, final battle between aeneas and turnus Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 248
vergil, aeneid, hypsipyle story, valerius and statius versions of Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 155, 248, 249
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, heraclean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, tragic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
vergil, aeneid, matralia as alternative foundation narrative to Panoussi, Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature (2019) 195
virgil Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
viticulture Gorain, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (2019) 106
vulcan Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 131
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 67