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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11092
Vergil, Aeneis, 6.836-6.840


Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta CorinthoOr smites with ivory point his golden lyre.


victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis.Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race


Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque MycenasGreat-hearted heroes, born in happier times


ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis AchilliIlus, Assaracus, and Dardanus


ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae.Illustrious builders of the Trojan town.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

39 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 107-201, 106 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

106. (The lid already stopped her, by the will
2. Homer, Iliad, 11.763, 16.31 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

11.763. /from Buprasium to Pylos, and all gave glory among the gods to Zeus, and to Nestor among men.of such sort was I among warriors, as sure as ever I was. But Achilles would alone have profit of his valour. Nay, verily, methinks he will bitterly lament hereafter, when the folk perisheth. 16.31. /Never upon me let such wrath lay hold, as that thou dost cherish, O thou whose valour is but a bane! Wherein shall any other even yet to be born have profit of thee, if thou ward not off shameful ruin from the Argives? Pitiless one, thy father, meseems, was not the knight Peleus, nor was Thetis thy mother, but the grey sea bare thee
3. Homer, Odyssey, 5.306, 11.487-11.491, 19.562-19.567 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Euripides, Alcestis, 176-184, 175 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

175. ister and brother mate together; the nearest and dearest stain their path with each others blood, and no law restrains such horrors. Bring not these crimes amongst us, for here we count it shame that one man should have the control of two wives, and men are content to turn their attention to one lawful love
5. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 823-874, 822 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

822. Courage, old men! she, whom you see, is Madness, daughter of Night, and I am Iris, the handmaid of the gods. We have not come to do your city any hurt
6. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 913-931, 912 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

912. crying aloud upon her own fate, and her childless existence thereafter. But when she finished this, I saw her suddenly rush into the bedchamber of Heracles. I hid in the shadows to keep my observation secret and was watching over her
7. Cicero, On Duties, 2.76 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.76. Laudat Africanum Panaetius, quod fuerit abstinens. Quidni laudet? Sed in illo alia maiora; laus abstinentiae non hominis est solum, sed etiam temporum illorum. Omni Macedonum gaza, quae fuit maxima, potitus est Paulus tantum in aerarium pecuniae invexit, ut unius imperatoris praeda finem attulerit tributorum. At hic nihil domum suam intulit praeter memoriam nominis sempiternam. Imitatus patrem Africanus nihilo locupletior Carthagine eversa. Quid? qui eius collega fuit in censura. L. Mummius, numquid copiosior, cum copiosissimam urbem funditus sustulisset? Italiam ornare quam domum suam maluit; quamquam Italia ornata domus ipsa mihi videtur ornatior. 2.76.  Panaetius praises Africanus for his integrity in public life. Why should he not? But Africanus had other and greater virtues. The boast of official integrity belongs not to that man alone but also to his times. When Paulus got possession of all the wealth of Macedon — and it was enormous — he brought into our treasury so much money that the spoils of a single general did away with the need for a tax on property in Rome for all time to come. But to his own house he brought nothing save the glory of an immortal name. Africanus emulated his father's example and was none the richer for his overthrow of Carthage. And what shall we say of Lucius Mummius, his colleague in the censorship? Was he one penny the richer when he had destroyed to its foundations the richest of cities? He preferred to adorn Italy rather than his own house. And yet by the adornment of Italy his own house was, as it seems to me, still more splendidly adorned.
8. Polybius, Histories, 39.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

39.6. 1.  The Roman general, after the general assembly had left Achaea, repaired the Isthmian course and adorned the temples at Delphi and Olympia, and on the following days visited the different cities, honoured in each of them and receiving testimonies of the gratitude due to him.,2.  It was only natural indeed that he should be treated with honour both in public and in private.,3.  For his conduct had been unexacting and unsullied and he had dealt leniently with the whole situation, though he had such great opportunities and such absolute power in Greece.,4.  If, indeed, he was thought to be guilty of any deflection from his duty I at least put it down not to his own initiative, but to the friends who lived with him.,5.  The most notable instance was that of the cavalrymen of Chalcis whom he slew. II. Affairs of Egypt
9. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.487-3.488 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.487. Roused forwards; and all Asia shall sustain 3.487. offer to God Your hecatombs of bull 3.488. An evil yoke, and her soil wet with rain 3.488. And firstling lambs and goats, as times revolve.
10. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Horace, Odes, 1.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.12. Accordingly, it appears to me that the misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared to these of the Jews, are not so considerable as they were; while the authors of them were not foreigners neither. This makes it impossible for me to contain my lamentations. But, if anyone be inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts themselves to the historical part, and the lamentations to the writer himself only. 1.12. 1. Now Hyrcanus was heir to the kingdom, and to him did his mother commit it before she died; but Aristobulus was superior to him in power and magimity; and when there was a battle between them, to decide the dispute about the kingdom, near Jericho, the greatest part deserted Hyrcanus, and went over to Aristobulus;
12. Horace, Letters, 2.1.192-2.1.193 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Livy, History, 27.25.7, 33.27.4, 40.29.2-40.29.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Livy, Per., 52 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Ovid, Fasti, 5.569-5.596 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5.569. And he sees Augustus’ name on the front of the shrine 5.570. And reading ‘Caesar’ there, the work seems greater still. 5.571. He had vowed it as a youth, when dutifully taking arms: 5.572. With such deeds a Prince begins his reign. 5.573. Loyal troops standing here, conspirators over there 5.574. He stretched his hand out, and spoke these words: 5.575. ‘If the death of my ‘father’ Julius, priest of Vesta 5.576. Gives due cause for this war, if I avenge for both 5.577. Come, Mars, and stain the sword with evil blood 5.578. And lend your favour to the better side. You’ll gain 5.579. A temple, and be called the Avenger, if I win.’ 5.580. So he vowed, and returned rejoicing from the rout. 5.581. Nor is he satisfied to have earned Mars that name 5.582. But seeks the standards lost to Parthian hands 5.583. That race protected by deserts, horses, arrows 5.584. Inaccessible, behind their encircling rivers. 5.585. The nation’s pride had been roused by the death 5.586. of the Crassi, when army, leader, standards all were lost. 5.587. The Parthians kept the Roman standards, ornament 5.588. of war, and an enemy bore the Roman eagle. 5.589. That shame would have remained, if Italy’s power 5.590. Had not been defended by Caesar’s strong weapons. 5.591. He ended the old reproach, a generation of disgrace: 5.592. The standards were regained, and knew their own. 5.593. What use now the arrows fired from behind your backs 5.594. Your deserts and your swift horses, you Parthians? 5.595. You carry the eagles home: offer your unstrung bows: 5.596. Now you no longer own the emblems of our shame.
16. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.150 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Propertius, Elegies, 3.4, 3.18.31-3.18.34 (1st cent. BCE

19. Strabo, Geography, 6.3.1, 8.6.23 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.3.1. Iapygia Now that I have traversed the regions of Old Italy as far as Metapontium, I must speak of those that border on them. And Iapygia borders on them. The Greeks call it Messapia, also, but the natives, dividing it into two parts, call one part (that about the Iapygian Cape) the country of the Salentini, and the other the country of the Calabri. Above these latter, on the north, are the Peucetii and also those people who in the Greek language are called Daunii, but the natives give the name Apulia to the whole country that comes after that of the Calabri, though some of them, particularly the Peucetii, are called Poedicli also. Messapia forms a sort of peninsula, since it is enclosed by the isthmus that extends from Brentesium as far as Taras, three hundred and ten stadia. And the voyage thither around the Iapygian Cape is, all told, about four hundred stadia. The distance from Metapontium is about two hundred and twenty stadia, and the voyage to it is towards the rising sun. But though the whole Tarantine Gulf, generally speaking, is harborless, yet at the city there is a very large and beautiful harbor, which is enclosed by a large bridge and is one hundred stadia in circumference. In that part of the harbor which lies towards the innermost recess, the harbor, with the outer sea, forms an isthmus, and therefore the city is situated on a peninsula; and since the neck of land is low-lying, the ships are easily hauled overland from either side. The ground of the city, too, is low-lying, but still it is slightly elevated where the acropolis is. The old wall has a large circuit, but at the present time the greater part of the city — the part that is near the isthmus — has been forsaken, but the part that is near the mouth of the harbor, where the acropolis is, still endures and makes up a city of noteworthy size. And it has a very beautiful gymnasium, and also a spacious market-place, in which is situated the bronze colossus of Zeus, the largest in the world except the one that belongs to the Rhodians. Between the marketplace and the mouth of the harbor is the acropolis, which has but few remts of the dedicated objects that in early times adorned it, for most of them were either destroyed by the Carthaginians when they took the city or carried off as booty by the Romans when they took the place by storm. Among this booty is the Heracles in the Capitol, a colossal bronze statue, the work of Lysippus, dedicated by Maximus Fabius, who captured the city. 8.6.23. The Corinthians, when they were subject to Philip, not only sided with him in his quarrel with the Romans, but individually behaved so contemptuously towards the Romans that certain persons ventured to pour down filth upon the Roman ambassadors when passing by their house. For this and other offences, however, they soon paid the penalty, for a considerable army was sent thither, and the city itself was razed to the ground by Leucius Mummius; and the other countries as far as Macedonia became subject to the Romans, different commanders being sent into different countries; but the Sikyonians obtained most of the Corinthian country. Polybius, who speaks in a tone of pity of the events connected with the capture of Corinth, goes on to speak of the disregard shown by the army for the works of art and votive offerings; for he says that he was present and saw paintings that had been flung to the ground and saw the soldiers playing dice on these. Among the paintings he names that of Dionysus by Aristeides, to which, according to some writers, the saying, Nothing in comparison with the Dionysus, referred; and also the painting of Heracles in torture in the robe of Deianeira. Now I have not seen the latter, but I saw the Dionysus, a most beautiful work, on the walls of the sanctuary of Ceres in Rome; but when recently the temple was burned, the painting perished with it. And I may almost say that the most and best of the other dedicatory offerings at Rome came from there; and the cities in the neighborhood of Rome also obtained some; for Mummius, being magimous rather than fond of art, as they say, readily shared with those who asked. And when Lucullus built the sanctuary of Good Fortune and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of the statues which he had, saying that he would adorn the sanctuary with them until the dedication and then give them back. However, he did not give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, and then bade Mummius to take them away if he wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared nothing about them, so that he gained more repute than the man who dedicated them. Now after Corinth had remained deserted for a long time, it was restored again, because of its favorable position, by the deified Caesar, who colonized it with people that belonged for the most part to the freedmen class. And when these were removing the ruins and at the same time digging open the graves, they found numbers of terra-cotta reliefs, and also many bronze vessels. And since they admired the workmanship they left no grave unransacked; so that, well supplied with such things and disposing of them at a high price, they filled Rome with Corinthian mortuaries, for thus they called the things taken from the graves, and in particular the earthenware. Now at the outset the earthenware was very highly prized, like the bronzes of Corinthian workmanship, but later they ceased to care much for them, since the supply of earthen vessels failed and most of them were not even well executed. The city of the Corinthians, then, was always great and wealthy, and it was well equipped with men skilled both in the affairs of state and in the craftsman's arts; for both here and in Sikyon the arts of painting and modelling and all such arts of the craftsman flourished most. The city had territory, however, that was not very fertile, but rifted and rough; and from this fact all have called Corinth beetling, and use the proverb, Corinth is both beetle-browed and full of hollows.
20. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.94-1.95, 1.148-1.154, 1.262-1.304, 1.321-1.411, 1.450-1.490, 1.588-1.593, 1.613, 2.40-2.56, 2.192-2.194, 2.199-2.249, 2.320, 2.428, 3.493-3.494, 3.588-3.691, 4.188, 4.265-4.276, 4.333-4.361, 4.445-4.465, 4.622-4.629, 5.116-5.123, 5.348-5.361, 5.553-5.603, 5.633-5.634, 5.755-5.761, 6.9, 6.14-6.41, 6.69-6.74, 6.119-6.129, 6.264-6.269, 6.273-6.281, 6.283-6.289, 6.292-6.296, 6.302-6.304, 6.309-6.310, 6.321, 6.333-6.556, 6.566-6.569, 6.582-6.600, 6.608-6.625, 6.628-6.629, 6.637-6.683, 6.687-6.689, 6.692-6.693, 6.695-6.835, 6.837-6.901, 7.37-7.106, 7.286-7.571, 8.113, 8.143, 8.151, 8.313, 8.324-8.325, 8.345-8.348, 8.608-8.731, 10.495-10.505, 11.42-11.58, 11.243-11.295, 12.64-12.70, 12.435-12.436 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.321. consoled my heart with this, and balanced oft 1.322. our destined good against our destined ill! 1.323. But the same stormful fortune still pursues 1.324. my band of heroes on their perilous way. 1.325. When shall these labors cease, O glorious King? 1.326. Antenor, though th' Achaeans pressed him sore 1.327. found his way forth, and entered unassailed 1.328. Illyria 's haven, and the guarded land 1.329. of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed 1.330. where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 1.331. a nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 1.332. and whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 1.333. He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes 1.334. for Troy 's far-exiled sons; he gave a name 1.335. to a new land and race; the Trojan arms 1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby 1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. 1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass 1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. 1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called 1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood) 1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build 1.370. Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 1.371. have kingly power; till a priestess queen 1.372. by Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 1.374. in tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 1.375. the sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 1.376. and on his Romans his own name bestow. 1.377. To these I give no bounded times or power 1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea 1.380. with her dread frown, will find a wiser way 1.381. and at my sovereign side protect and bless 1.382. the Romans, masters of the whole round world 1.383. who, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind. 1.384. Such my decree! In lapse of seasons due 1.385. the heirs of Ilium 's kings shall bind in chains 1.386. Mycenae 's glory and Achilles' towers 1.387. and over prostrate Argos sit supreme. 1.388. of Trojan stock illustriously sprung 1.389. lo, Caesar comes! whose power the ocean bounds 1.390. whose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name 1.391. Iulus nobly bore, great Julius, he. 1.392. Him to the skies, in Orient trophies dress 1.393. thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, like us 1.394. hall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow. 1.395. Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound 1.396. will be forgot; for olden Honor then 1.397. with spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain 1.398. Remus and Romulus, at strife no more 1.399. will publish sacred laws. The dreadful gates 1.400. whence issueth war, shall with close-jointed steel 1.401. be barred impregnably; and prisoned there 1.402. the heaven-offending Fury, throned on swords 1.403. and fettered by a hundred brazen chains 1.405. These words he gave, and summoned Maia's son 1.406. the herald Mercury, who earthward flying 1.407. hould bid the Tyrian realms and new-built towers 1.408. welcome the Trojan waifs; lest Dido, blind 1.409. to Fate's decree, should thrust them from the land. 1.410. He takes his flight, with rhythmic stroke of wing 1.411. across th' abyss of air, and soon draws near 1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess 1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph 1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art 1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies 1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! 1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand 1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold 1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell 1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there 1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity 1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; 1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed 1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love 1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly 1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul 1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept 1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came 1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.588. the bastioned gates; the uproar of the throng. 1.589. The Tyrians toil unwearied; some up-raise 1.590. a wall or citadel, from far below 1.591. lifting the ponderous stone; or with due care 1.592. choose where to build, and close the space around 1.593. with sacred furrow; in their gathering-place 1.613. veiled in the wonder-cloud, whence all unseen 2.40. of fierce Achilles here; here lay the fleet; 2.41. and here the battling lines to conflict ran.” 2.42. Others, all wonder, scan the gift of doom 2.43. by virgin Pallas given, and view with awe 2.44. that horse which loomed so large. Thymoetes then 2.45. bade lead it through the gates, and set on high 2.46. within our citadel,—or traitor he 2.47. or tool of fate in Troy 's predestined fall. 2.48. But Capys, as did all of wiser heart 2.49. bade hurl into the sea the false Greek gift 2.50. or underneath it thrust a kindling flame 2.51. or pierce the hollow ambush of its womb 2.52. with probing spear. Yet did the multitude 2.54. Then from the citadel, conspicuous 2.55. Laocoon, with all his following choir 2.56. hurried indigt down; and from afar 2.192. are forfeit, when my foemen take revenge 2.193. for my escape, and slay those helpless ones 2.194. in expiation of my guilty deed. 2.199. on these long sufferings my heart hath borne. 2.201. Pity and pardon to his tears we gave 2.202. and spared his life. King Priam bade unbind 2.203. the fettered hands and loose those heavy chains 2.204. that pressed him sore; then with benigt mien 2.205. addressed him thus: “ Whate'er thy place or name 2.206. forget the people thou hast Iost, and be 2.207. henceforth our countryman. But tell me true! 2.208. What means the monstrous fabric of this horse? 2.209. Who made it? Why? What offering to Heaven 2.210. or engin'ry of conquest may it be?” 2.211. He spake; and in reply, with skilful guile 2.212. Greek that he was! the other lifted up 2.213. his hands, now freed and chainless, to the skies: 2.214. “O ever-burning and inviolate fires 2.215. witness my word! O altars and sharp steel 2.216. whose curse I fled, O fillets of the gods 2.217. which bound a victim's helpless forehead, hear! 2.218. 'T is lawful now to break the oath that gave 2.219. my troth to Greece . To execrate her kings 2.220. is now my solemn duty. Their whole plot 2.221. I publish to the world. No fatherland 2.222. and no allegiance binds me any more. 2.223. O Troy, whom I have saved, I bid thee keep 2.224. the pledge of safety by good Priam given 2.225. for my true tale shall my rich ransom be. 2.226. The Greeks' one hope, since first they opened war 2.227. was Pallas, grace and power. But from the day 2.228. when Diomed, bold scorner of the gods 2.229. and false Ulysses, author of all guile 2.230. rose up and violently bore away 2.231. Palladium, her holy shrine, hewed down 2.232. the sentinels of her acropolis 2.233. and with polluted, gory hands dared touch 2.234. the goddess, virgin fillets, white and pure,— 2.235. thenceforth, I say, the courage of the Greeks 2.236. ebbed utterly away; their strength was Iost 2.237. and favoring Pallas all her grace withdrew. 2.238. No dubious sign she gave. Scarce had they set 2.239. her statue in our camp, when glittering flame 2.240. flashed from the staring eyes; from all its limbs 2.241. alt sweat ran forth; three times (O wondrous tale!) 2.242. it gave a sudden skyward leap, and made 2.243. prodigious trembling of her lance and shield. 2.244. The prophet Calchas bade us straightway take 2.245. wift flight across the sea; for fate had willed 2.246. the Trojan citadel should never fall 2.247. by Grecian arm, till once more they obtain 2.248. new oracles at Argos, and restore 2.249. that god the round ships hurried o'er the sea. 2.320. in general acclaim. Ourselves did make 2.428. defensive gather. Frenzy and vast rage 3.493. enjoyed the friendly town; his ample halls 3.494. our royal host threw wide; full wine-cups flowed 3.588. the monster waves, and ever and anon 3.589. flings them at heaven, to lash the tranquil stars. 3.590. But Scylla, prisoned in her eyeless cave 3.591. thrusts forth her face, and pulls upon the rocks 3.592. hip after ship; the parts that first be seen 3.593. are human; a fair-breasted virgin she 3.594. down to the womb; but all that lurks below 3.595. is a huge-membered fish, where strangely join 3.596. the flukes of dolphins and the paunch of wolves. 3.597. Better by far to round the distant goal 3.598. of the Trinacrian headlands, veering wide 3.599. from thy true course, than ever thou shouldst see 3.600. that shapeless Scylla in her vaulted cave 3.601. where grim rocks echo her dark sea-dogs' roar. 3.602. Yea, more, if aught of prescience be bestowed 3.603. on Helenus, if trusted prophet he 3.604. and Phoebus to his heart true voice have given 3.605. o goddess-born, one counsel chief of all 3.606. I tell thee oft, and urge it o'er and o'er. 3.607. To Juno's godhead lift thy Ioudest prayer; 3.608. to Juno chant a fervent votive song 3.609. and with obedient offering persuade 3.610. that potent Queen. So shalt thou, triumphing 3.611. to Italy be sped, and leave behind 3.612. Trinacria . When wafted to that shore 3.613. repair to Cumae 's hill, and to the Lake 3.614. Avernus with its whispering grove divine. 3.615. There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess 3.616. who from beneath the hollow scarped crag 3.617. ings oracles, or characters on leaves 3.618. mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes 3.619. on leaves inscribing the portentous song 3.620. he sets in order, and conceals them well 3.621. in her deep cave, where they abide unchanged 3.622. in due array. Yet not a care has she 3.623. if with some swinging hinge a breeze sweeps in 3.624. to catch them as they whirl: if open door 3.625. disperse them flutterlig through the hollow rock 3.626. he will not link their shifted sense anew 3.627. nor re-invent her fragmentary song. 3.628. oft her uswered votaries depart 3.629. corning the Sibyl's shrine. But deem not thou 3.630. thy tarrying too Iong, whate'er thy stay. 3.631. Though thy companions chide, though winds of power 3.632. invite thy ship to sea, and well would speed 3.633. the swelling sail, yet to that Sibyl go. 3.634. Pray that her own lips may sing forth for thee 3.635. the oracles, uplifting her dread voice 3.636. in willing prophecy. Her rede shall tell 3.637. of Italy, its wars and tribes to be 3.638. and of what way each burden and each woe 3.639. may be escaped, or borne. Her favoring aid 3.640. will grant swift, happy voyages to thy prayer. 3.641. Such counsels Heaven to my lips allows. 3.642. arise, begone! and by thy glorious deeds 3.644. So spake the prophet with benigt voice. 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 3.649. of brazen cauldrons; a cuirass he gave 3.650. of linked gold enwrought and triple chain; 3.651. a noble helmet, too, with flaming crest 3.652. and lofty cone, th' accoutrement erewhile 3.653. of Neoptolemus. My father too 3.654. had fit gifts from the King; whose bounty then 3.655. gave steeds and riders; and new gear was sent 3.656. to every sea-worn ship, while he supplied 3.658. Anchises bade us speedily set sail 3.659. nor lose a wind so fair; and answering him 3.660. Apollo's priest made reverent adieu: 3.661. “Anchises, honored by the love sublime 3.662. of Venus, self and twice in safety borne 3.663. from falling Troy, chief care of kindly Heaven 3.664. th' Ausonian shore is thine. Sail thitherward! 3.665. For thou art pre-ordained to travel far 3.666. o'er yonder seas; far in the distance lies 3.667. that region of Ausonia, Phoebus' voice 3.668. to thee made promise of. Onward, I say 3.669. o blest in the exceeding loyal love 3.670. of thy dear son! Why keep thee longer now? 3.671. Why should my words yon gathering winds detain?” 3.672. Likewise Andromache in mournful guise 3.673. took last farewell, bringing embroidered robes 3.674. of golden woof; a princely Phrygian cloak 3.675. he gave Ascanius, vying with the King 3.676. in gifts of honor; and threw o'er the boy 3.677. the labors of her loom, with words like these: 3.678. “Accept these gifts, sweet youth, memorials 3.679. of me and my poor handicraft, to prove 3.680. th' undying friendship of Andromache 3.681. once Hector's wife. Take these last offerings 3.682. of those who are thy kin—O thou that art 3.683. of my Astyanax in all this world 3.684. the only image! His thy lovely eyes! 3.685. Thy hands, thy lips, are even what he bore 3.686. and like thy own his youthful bloom would be.” 3.687. Thus I made answer, turning to depart 3.688. with rising tears: “Live on, and be ye blessed 3.689. whose greatness is accomplished! As for me 3.690. from change to change Fate summons, and I go; 3.691. but ye have won repose. No leagues of sea 4.188. and steel-tipped javelin; while to and fro 4.265. but with the morn she takes her watchful throne 4.266. high on the housetops or on lofty towers 4.267. to terrify the nations. She can cling 4.268. to vile invention and maligt wrong 4.269. or mingle with her word some tidings true. 4.270. She now with changeful story filled men's ears 4.271. exultant, whether false or true she sung: 4.272. how, Trojan-born Aeneas having come 4.273. Dido, the lovely widow, Iooked his way 4.274. deigning to wed; how all the winter long 4.275. they passed in revel and voluptuous ease 4.276. to dalliance given o'er; naught heeding now 4.333. to his own honor speak not; can the sire 4.334. begrudge Ascanius the heritage 4.335. of the proud name of Rome ? What plans he now? 4.336. What mad hope bids him linger in the lap 4.337. of enemies, considering no more 4.338. the land Lavinian and Ausonia's sons. 4.339. Let him to sea! Be this our final word: 4.341. He spoke. The god a prompt obedience gave 4.342. to his great sire's command. He fastened first 4.343. those sandals of bright gold, which carry him 4.344. aloft o'er land or sea, with airy wings 4.345. that race the fleeting wind; then lifted he 4.346. his wand, wherewith he summons from the grave 4.347. pale-featured ghosts, or, if he will, consigns 4.348. to doleful Tartarus; or by its power 4.349. gives slumber or dispels; or quite unseals 4.350. the eyelids of the dead: on this relying 4.351. he routs the winds or cleaves th' obscurity 4.352. of stormful clouds. Soon from his flight he spied 4.353. the summit and the sides precipitous 4.354. of stubborn Atlas, whose star-pointing peak 4.355. props heaven; of Atlas, whose pine-wreathed brow 4.356. is girdled evermore with misty gloom 4.357. and lashed of wind and rain; a cloak of snow 4.358. melts on his shoulder; from his aged chin 4.359. drop rivers, and ensheathed in stiffening ice 4.360. glitters his great grim beard. Here first was stayed 4.361. the speed of Mercury's well-poising wing; 4.445. by our poor marriage of imperfect vow 4.446. if aught to me thou owest, if aught in me 4.447. ever have pleased thee—O, be merciful 4.448. to my low-fallen fortunes! I implore 4.449. if place be left for prayer, thy purpose change! 4.450. Because of thee yon Libyan savages 4.451. and nomad chiefs are grown implacable 4.452. and my own Tyrians hate me. Yes, for thee 4.453. my chastity was slain and honor fair 4.454. by which alone to glory I aspired 4.455. in former days. To whom dost thou in death 4.456. abandon me? my guest!—since but this name 4.457. is left me of a husband! Shall I wait 4.458. till fell Pygmalion, my brother, raze 4.459. my city walls? Or the Gaetulian king 4.460. Iarbas, chain me captive to his car? . 4.461. O, if, ere thou hadst fled, I might but bear 4.462. ome pledge of love to thee, and in these halls 4.463. watch some sweet babe Aeneas at his play 4.464. whose face should be the memory of thine own — 4.622. mite with alternate wrath: Ioud is the roar 4.623. and from its rocking top the broken boughs 4.624. are strewn along the ground; but to the crag 4.625. teadfast it ever clings; far as toward heaven 4.626. its giant crest uprears, so deep below 4.627. its roots reach down to Tartarus:—not less 4.628. the hero by unceasing wail and cry 4.629. is smitten sore, and in his mighty heart 5.116. of Italy, or our Ausonian stream 5.117. of Tiber—ah! but where?” He scarce had said 5.118. when from the central shrine a gliding snake 5.119. coiled seven-fold in seven spirals wide 5.120. twined round the tomb and trailed innocuous o'er 5.121. the very altars; his smooth back was flecked 5.122. with green and azure, and his changeful scales 5.123. gleamed golden, as the cloud-born rainbow flings 5.348. the second place had won, Aeneas gave 5.349. a smooth-linked golden corselet, triple-chained 5.350. of which his own victorious hand despoiled 5.351. Demoleos, by the swift, embattled stream 5.352. of Simois, under Troy,—and bade it be 5.353. a glory and defence on valor's field; 5.354. carce might the straining shoulders of two slaves 5.355. Phegeus and Sagaris, the load endure 5.356. yet oft Demoleos in this armor dressed 5.357. charged down full speed on routed hosts of Troy . 5.358. The third gift was two cauldrons of wrought brass 5.359. and bowls of beaten silver, cunningly 5.360. embossed with sculpture fair. Bearing such gifts 5.361. th' exultant victors onward moved, each brow 5.553. and towered gigantic in the midmost ring. 5.554. Anchises' son then gave two equal pairs 5.555. of gauntlets, and accoutred with like arms 5.556. both champions. Each lifted him full height 5.557. on tiptoe; each with mien unterrified 5.558. held both fists high in air, and drew his head 5.559. far back from blows assailing. Then they joined 5.560. in struggle hand to hand, and made the fray 5.561. each moment fiercer. One was light of foot 5.562. and on his youth relied; the other strong 5.563. in bulk of every limb, but tottering 5.564. on sluggish knees, while all his body shook 5.565. with labor of his breath. Without avail 5.566. they rained their blows, and on each hollow side 5.567. each sounding chest, the swift, reverberate strokes 5.568. fell without pause; around their ears and brows 5.569. came blow on blow, and with relentless shocks 5.570. the smitten jaws cracked loud. Entellus stands 5.571. unshaken, and, the self-same posture keeping 5.572. only by body-movement or quick eye 5.573. parries attack. Dares (like one in siege 5.574. against a mountain-citadel, who now will drive 5.575. with ram and engine at the craggy wall 5.576. now wait in full-armed watch beneath its towers) 5.577. tries manifold approach, most craftily 5.578. invests each point of vantage, and renews 5.579. his unsuccessful, ever various war. 5.580. Then, rising to the stroke, Entellus poised 5.581. aloft his ponderous right; but, quick of eye 5.582. the other the descending wrath foresaw 5.583. and nimbly slipped away; Entellus so 5.584. wasted his stroke on air, and, self-o'erthrown 5.585. dropped prone to earth his monstrous length along 5.586. as when on Erymanth or Ida falls 5.587. a hollowed pine from giant roots uptorn. 5.588. Alike the Teucrian and Trinacrian throng 5.589. hout wildly; while Acestes, pitying, hastes 5.590. to lift his gray companion. But, unchecked 5.591. undaunted by his fall, the champion brave 5.592. rushed fiercer to the fight, his strength now roused 5.593. by rage, while shame and courage confident 5.594. kindle his soul; impetuous he drives 5.595. Dares full speed all round the ring, with blows 5.596. redoubled right and left. No stop or stay 5.597. gives he, but like a storm of rattling hail 5.598. upon a house-top, so from each huge hand 5.600. Then Sire Aeneas willed to make a stay 5.601. to so much rage, nor let Entellus' soul 5.602. flame beyond bound, but bade the battle pause 5.603. and, rescuing weary Dares, thus he spoke 5.633. a mast within th' arena, from the ship 5.634. of good Sergestus taken; and thereto 5.755. they flee with backs defenceless to the foe; 5.756. then rally, lance in rest—or, mingling all 5.757. make common front, one legion strong and fair. 5.758. As once in Crete, the lofty mountain-isle 5.759. that-fabled labyrinthine gallery 5.760. wound on through lightless walls, with thousand paths 5.761. which baffled every clue, and led astray 6.9. To find the seed-spark hidden in its veins; 6.14. The templed hill where lofty Phoebus reigns 6.15. And that far-off, inviolable shrine 6.16. of dread Sibylla, in stupendous cave 6.17. O'er whose deep soul the god of Delos breathes 6.18. Prophetic gifts, unfolding things to come. 6.20. Here Daedalus, the ancient story tells 6.21. Escaping Minos' power, and having made 6.22. Hazard of heaven on far-mounting wings 6.23. Floated to northward, a cold, trackless way 6.24. And lightly poised, at last, o'er Cumae 's towers. 6.25. Here first to earth come down, he gave to thee 6.26. His gear of wings, Apollo! and ordained 6.27. Vast temples to thy name and altars fair. 6.28. On huge bronze doors Androgeos' death was done; 6.29. And Cecrops' children paid their debt of woe 6.30. Where, seven and seven,—0 pitiable sight!— 6.31. The youths and maidens wait the annual doom 6.32. Drawn out by lot from yonder marble urn. 6.33. Beyond, above a sea, lay carven Crete :— 6.34. The bull was there; the passion, the strange guile; 6.35. And Queen Pasiphae's brute-human son 6.36. The Minotaur—of monstrous loves the sign. 6.37. Here was the toilsome, labyrinthine maze 6.38. Where, pitying love-lorn Ariadne's tears 6.39. The crafty Daedalus himself betrayed 6.40. The secret of his work; and gave the clue 6.41. To guide the path of Theseus through the gloom. 6.69. For only unto prayer this haunted cave 6.70. May its vast lips unclose.” She spake no more. 6.71. An icy shudder through the marrow ran 6.72. of the bold Trojans; while their sacred King 6.73. Poured from his inmost soul this plaint and prayer : 6.74. “Phoebus, who ever for the woes of Troy 6.119. And Tiber stained with bloody foam I see. 6.120. Simois, Xanthus, and the Dorian horde 6.121. Thou shalt behold; a new Achilles now 6.122. In Latium breathes,—he, too, of goddess born; 6.123. And Juno, burden of the sons of Troy 6.124. Will vex them ever; while thyself shalt sue 6.125. In dire distress to many a town and tribe 6.126. Through Italy ; the cause of so much ill 6.127. Again shall be a hostess-queen, again 6.128. A marriage-chamber for an alien bride. 6.129. Oh! yield not to thy woe, but front it ever 6.264. The lightly-feeding doves flit on and on 6.265. Ever in easy ken of following eyes 6.266. Till over foul Avernus' sulphurous throat 6.267. Swiftly they lift them through the liquid air 6.268. In silent flight, and find a wished-for rest 6.269. On a twy-natured tree, where through green boughs 6.273. Whose seed is never from the parent tree 6.274. O'er whose round limbs its tawny tendrils twine,— 6.275. So shone th' out-leafing gold within the shade 6.276. of dark holm-oak, and so its tinsel-bract 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 6.278. The lingering bough, broke it in eager haste 6.280. Meanwhile the Trojans on the doleful shore 6.281. Bewailed Misenus, and brought tribute there 6.283. First, of the full-sapped pine and well-hewn oak 6.284. A lofty pyre they build; then sombre boughs 6.285. Around it wreathe, and in fair order range 6.286. Funereal cypress; glittering arms are piled 6.287. High over all; on blazing coals they lift 6.288. Cauldrons of brass brimmed o'er with waters pure; 6.289. And that cold, lifeless clay lave and anoint 6.292. With purple vesture and familiar pall. 6.293. Then in sad ministry the chosen few 6.294. With eyes averted, as our sires did use 6.295. Hold the enkindling torch beneath the pyre : 6.296. They gather up and burn the gifts of myrrh 6.302. With blessed olive branch and sprinkling dew 6.303. Purges the people with ablution cold 6.304. In lustral rite; oft chanting, “Hail! Farewell!” 6.310. After these toils, they hasten to fulfil 6.321. The priestess sprinkled wine; 'twixt the two horns 6.333. An altar dark, and piled upon the flames 6.334. The ponderous entrails of the bulls, and poured 6.335. Free o'er the burning flesh the goodly oil. 6.336. Then lo! at dawn's dim, earliest beam began 6.337. Beneath their feet a groaning of the ground : 6.338. The wooded hill-tops shook, and, as it seemed 6.339. She-hounds of hell howled viewless through the shade 6.340. To hail their Queen. “Away, 0 souls profane! 6.341. Stand far away!” the priestess shrieked, “nor dare 6.342. Unto this grove come near! Aeneas, on! 6.343. Begin thy journey! Draw thy sheathed blade! 6.344. Now, all thy courage! now, th' unshaken soul!” 6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.346. With frenzied step; he follows where she leads 6.348. Ye gods! who rule the spirits of the dead! 6.349. Ye voiceless shades and silent lands of night! 6.350. 0 Phlegethon! 0 Chaos! let my song 6.351. If it be lawful, in fit words declare 6.352. What I have heard; and by your help divine 6.353. Unfold what hidden things enshrouded lie 6.355. They walked exploring the unpeopled night 6.356. Through Pluto's vacuous realms, and regions void 6.357. As when one's path in dreary woodlands winds 6.358. Beneath a misty moon's deceiving ray 6.359. When Jove has mantled all his heaven in shade 6.360. And night seals up the beauty of the world. 6.361. In the first courts and entrances of Hell 6.362. Sorrows and vengeful Cares on couches lie : 6.363. There sad Old Age abides, Diseases pale 6.364. And Fear, and Hunger, temptress to all crime; 6.365. Want, base and vile, and, two dread shapes to see 6.366. Bondage and Death : then Sleep, Death's next of kin; 6.367. And dreams of guilty joy. Death-dealing War 6.368. Is ever at the doors, and hard thereby 6.369. The Furies' beds of steel, where wild-eyed Strife 6.371. There in the middle court a shadowy elm 6.372. Its ancient branches spreads, and in its leaves 6.373. Deluding visions ever haunt and cling. 6.374. Then come strange prodigies of bestial kind : 6.375. Centaurs are stabled there, and double shapes 6.376. Like Scylla, or the dragon Lerna bred 6.377. With hideous scream; Briareus clutching far 6.378. His hundred hands, Chimaera girt with flame 6.379. A crowd of Gorgons, Harpies of foul wing 6.380. And giant Geryon's triple-monstered shade. 6.381. Aeneas, shuddering with sudden fear 6.382. Drew sword and fronted them with naked steel; 6.383. And, save his sage conductress bade him know 6.384. These were but shapes and shadows sweeping by 6.386. Hence the way leads to that Tartarean stream 6.387. of Acheron, whose torrent fierce and foul 6.388. Disgorges in Cocytus all its sands. 6.389. A ferryman of gruesome guise keeps ward 6.390. Upon these waters,—Charon, foully garbed 6.391. With unkempt, thick gray beard upon his chin 6.392. And staring eyes of flame; a mantle coarse 6.393. All stained and knotted, from his shoulder falls 6.394. As with a pole he guides his craft, tends sail 6.395. And in the black boat ferries o'er his dead;— 6.396. Old, but a god's old age looks fresh and strong. 6.397. To those dim shores the multitude streams on— 6.398. Husbands and wives, and pale, unbreathing forms 6.399. of high-souled heroes, boys and virgins fair 6.400. And strong youth at whose graves fond parents mourned. 6.401. As numberless the throng as leaves that fall 6.402. When autumn's early frost is on the grove; 6.403. Or like vast flocks of birds by winter's chill 6.404. Sent flying o'er wide seas to lands of flowers. 6.405. All stood beseeching to begin their voyage 6.406. Across that river, and reached out pale hands 6.407. In passionate yearning for its distant shore. 6.408. But the grim boatman takes now these, now those 6.409. Or thrusts unpitying from the stream away. 6.410. Aeneas, moved to wonder and deep awe 6.411. Beheld the tumult; “Virgin seer!” he cried, . 6.412. “Why move the thronging ghosts toward yonder stream? 6.413. What seek they there? Or what election holds 6.414. That these unwilling linger, while their peers 6.415. Sweep forward yonder o'er the leaden waves?” 6.416. To him, in few, the aged Sibyl spoke : 6.417. “Son of Anchises, offspring of the gods 6.418. Yon are Cocytus and the Stygian stream 6.419. By whose dread power the gods themselves do fear 6.420. To take an oath in vain. Here far and wide 6.421. Thou seest the hapless throng that hath no grave. 6.422. That boatman Charon bears across the deep 6.423. Such as be sepulchred with holy care. 6.424. But over that loud flood and dreadful shore 6.425. No trav'ler may be borne, until in peace 6.426. His gathered ashes rest. A hundred years 6.427. Round this dark borderland some haunt and roam 6.428. Then win late passage o'er the longed-for wave.” 6.429. Aeneas lingered for a little space 6.430. Revolving in his soul with pitying prayer 6.431. Fate's partial way. But presently he sees 6.432. Leucaspis and the Lycian navy's lord 6.433. Orontes; both of melancholy brow 6.434. Both hapless and unhonored after death 6.435. Whom, while from Troy they crossed the wind-swept seas 6.437. There, too, the helmsman Palinurus strayed : 6.438. Who, as he whilom watched the Libyan stars 6.439. Had fallen, plunging from his lofty seat 6.440. Into the billowy deep. Aeneas now 6.441. Discerned his sad face through the blinding gloom 6.442. And hailed him thus : “0 Palinurus, tell 6.443. What god was he who ravished thee away 6.444. From me and mine, beneath the o'crwhelming wave? 6.445. Speak on! for he who ne'er had spoke untrue 6.446. Apollo's self, did mock my listening mind 6.447. And chanted me a faithful oracle 6.448. That thou shouldst ride the seas unharmed, and touch 6.449. Ausonian shores. Is this the pledge divine?” 6.450. Then he, “0 chieftain of Anchises' race 6.451. Apollo's tripod told thee not untrue. 6.452. No god did thrust me down beneath the wave 6.453. For that strong rudder unto which I clung 6.454. My charge and duty, and my ship's sole guide 6.455. Wrenched from its place, dropped with me as I fell. 6.456. Not for myself—by the rude seas I swear— 6.457. Did I have terror, but lest thy good ship 6.458. Stripped of her gear, and her poor pilot lost 6.459. Should fail and founder in that rising flood. 6.460. Three wintry nights across the boundless main 6.461. The south wind buffeted and bore me on; 6.462. At the fourth daybreak, lifted from the surge 6.463. I looked at last on Italy, and swam 6.464. With weary stroke on stroke unto the land. 6.465. Safe was I then. Alas! but as I climbed 6.466. With garments wet and heavy, my clenched hand 6.467. Grasping the steep rock, came a cruel horde 6.468. Upon me with drawn blades, accounting me— 6.469. So blind they were!—a wrecker's prize and spoil. 6.470. Now are the waves my tomb; and wandering winds 6.471. Toss me along the coast. 0, I implore 6.472. By heaven's sweet light, by yonder upper air 6.473. By thy lost father, by lulus dear 6.474. Thy rising hope and joy, that from these woes 6.475. Unconquered chieftain, thou wilt set me free! 6.476. Give me a grave where Velia 's haven lies 6.477. For thou hast power! Or if some path there be 6.478. If thy celestial mother guide thee here 6.479. (For not, I ween, without the grace of gods 6.480. Wilt cross yon rivers vast, you Stygian pool) 6.481. Reach me a hand! and bear with thee along! 6.482. Until (least gift!) death bring me peace and calm.” 6.483. Such words he spoke: the priestess thus replied: 6.484. “Why, Palinurus, these unblest desires? 6.485. Wouldst thou, unsepulchred, behold the wave 6.486. of Styx, stern river of th' Eumenides? 6.487. Wouldst thou, unbidden, tread its fearful strand? 6.488. Hope not by prayer to change the laws of Heaven! 6.489. But heed my words, and in thy memory 6.490. Cherish and keep, to cheer this evil time. 6.491. Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven 6.492. Thy countrymen from many a templed town 6.493. Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb 6.494. A tomb with annual feasts and votive flowers 6.495. To Palinurus a perpetual fame!” 6.496. Thus was his anguish stayed, from his sad heart 6.497. Grief ebbed awhile, and even to this day 6.499. The twain continue now their destined way 6.500. Unto the river's edge. The Ferryman 6.501. Who watched them through still groves approach his shore 6.502. Hailed them, at distance, from the Stygian wave 6.503. And with reproachful summons thus began: 6.504. “Whoe'er thou art that in this warrior guise 6.505. Unto my river comest,—quickly tell 6.506. Thine errand! Stay thee where thou standest now! 6.507. This is ghosts' land, for sleep and slumbrous dark. 6.508. That flesh and blood my Stygian ship should bear 6.509. Were lawless wrong. Unwillingly I took 6.510. Alcides, Theseus, and Pirithous 6.511. Though sons of gods, too mighty to be quelled. 6.512. One bound in chains yon warder of Hell's door 6.513. And dragged him trembling from our monarch's throne: 6.514. The others, impious, would steal away 6.515. Out of her bride-bed Pluto's ravished Queen.” 6.516. Briefly th' Amphrysian priestess made reply: 6.517. “Not ours, such guile: Fear not! This warrior's arms 6.518. Are innocent. Let Cerberus from his cave 6.519. Bay ceaselessly, the bloodless shades to scare; 6.520. Let Proserpine immaculately keep 6.521. The house and honor of her kinsman King. 6.522. Trojan Aeneas, famed for faithful prayer 6.523. And victory in arms, descends to seek 6.524. His father in this gloomy deep of death. 6.525. If loyal goodness move not such as thee 6.526. This branch at least” (she drew it from her breast) 6.527. “Thou knowest well.” 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 6.530. Upon that fateful, venerable wand 6.531. Seen only once an age. Shoreward he turned 6.532. And pushed their way his boat of leaden hue. 6.533. The rows of crouching ghosts along the thwarts 6.534. He scattered, cleared a passage, and gave room 6.535. To great Aeneas. The light shallop groaned 6.536. Beneath his weight, and, straining at each seam 6.537. Took in the foul flood with unstinted flow. 6.538. At last the hero and his priestess-guide 6.539. Came safe across the river, and were moored 6.541. Here Cerberus, with triple-throated roar 6.542. Made all the region ring, as there he lay 6.543. At vast length in his cave. The Sibyl then 6.544. Seeing the serpents writhe around his neck 6.545. Threw down a loaf with honeyed herbs imbued 6.546. And drowsy essences: he, ravenous 6.547. Gaped wide his three fierce mouths and snatched the bait 6.548. Crouched with his large backs loose upon the ground 6.549. And filled his cavern floor from end to end. 6.550. Aeneas through hell's portal moved, while sleep 6.551. Its warder buried; then he fled that shore 6.553. Now hears he sobs, and piteous, lisping cries 6.554. of souls of babes upon the threshold plaining; 6.555. Whom, ere they took their portion of sweet life 6.556. Dark Fate from nursing bosoms tore, and plunged 6.566. The vital essence. Willingly, alas! 6.567. They now would suffer need, or burdens bear 6.568. If only life were given! But Fate forbids. 6.569. Around them winds the sad, unlovely wave 6.582. And Caeneus, not a boy, but maiden now 6.583. By Fate remoulded to her native seeming. 6.584. Here Tyrian Dido, too, her wound unhealed 6.585. Roamed through a mighty wood. The Trojan's eyes 6.586. Beheld her near him through the murky gloom 6.587. As when, in her young month and crescent pale 6.588. One sees th' o'er-clouded moon, or thinks he sees. 6.589. Down dropped his tears, and thus he fondly spoke: 6.590. “0 suffering Dido! Were those tidings true 6.591. That thou didst fling thee on the fatal steel? 6.592. Thy death, ah me! I dealt it. But I swear 6.593. By stars above us, by the powers in Heaven 6.594. Or whatsoever oath ye dead believe 6.595. That not by choice I fled thy shores, 0 Queen! 6.596. Divine decrees compelled me, even as now 6.597. Among these ghosts I pass, and thread my way 6.598. Along this gulf of night and loathsome land. 6.599. How could I deem my cruel taking leave 6.600. Would bring thee at the last to all this woe? 6.608. Were changeless flint or carved in Parian stone. 6.609. Then, after pause, away in wrath she fled 6.610. And refuge took within the cool, dark grove 6.611. Where her first spouse, Sichaeus, with her tears 6.612. Mingled his own in mutual love and true. 6.613. Aeneas, none the less, her guiltless woe 6.614. With anguish knew, watched with dimmed eyes her way 6.616. But now his destined way he must be gone; 6.617. Now the last regions round the travellers lie 6.618. Where famous warriors in the darkness dwell: 6.619. Here Tydeus comes in view, with far-renowned 6.620. Parthenopaeus and Adrastus pale; 6.621. Here mourned in upper air with many a moan 6.622. In battle fallen, the Dardanidae 6.623. Whose long defile Aeneas groans to see: 6.624. Glaucus and Medon and Thersilochus 6.625. Antenor's children three, and Ceres' priest 6.628. Around him left and right the crowding shades 6.629. Not only once would see, but clutch and cling 6.637. A feeble shout, or vainly opened wide 6.639. Here Priam's son, with body rent and torn 6.640. Deiphobus Deïphobus is seen,—his mangled face 6.641. His face and bloody hands, his wounded head 6.642. of ears and nostrils infamously shorn. 6.643. Scarce could Aeneas know the shuddering shade 6.644. That strove to hide its face and shameful scar; 6.645. But, speaking first, he said, in their own tongue: 6.646. “Deiphobus, strong warrior, nobly born 6.647. of Teucer's royal stem, what ruthless foe 6.648. Could wish to wreak on thee this dire revenge? 6.649. Who ventured, unopposed, so vast a wrong? 6.650. The rumor reached me how, that deadly night 6.651. Wearied with slaying Greeks, thyself didst fall 6.652. Prone on a mingled heap of friends and foes. 6.653. Then my own hands did for thy honor build 6.654. An empty tomb upon the Trojan shore 6.655. And thrice with echoing voice I called thy shade. 6.656. Thy name and arms are there. But, 0 my friend 6.657. Thee could I nowhere find, but launched away 6.658. Nor o'er thy bones their native earth could fling.” 6.659. To him the son of Priam thus replied: 6.660. “Nay, friend, no hallowed rite was left undone 6.661. But every debt to death and pity due 6.662. The shades of thy Deiphobus received. 6.663. My fate it was, and Helen's murderous wrong 6.664. Wrought me this woe; of her these tokens tell. 6.665. For how that last night in false hope we passed 6.666. Thou knowest,—ah, too well we both recall! 6.667. When up the steep of Troy the fateful horse 6.668. Came climbing, pregt with fierce men-at-arms 6.669. 't was she, accurst, who led the Phrygian dames 6.670. In choric dance and false bacchantic song 6.671. And, waving from the midst a lofty brand 6.672. Signalled the Greeks from Ilium 's central tower 6.673. In that same hour on my sad couch I lay 6.674. Exhausted by long care and sunk in sleep 6.675. That sweet, deep sleep, so close to tranquil death. 6.676. But my illustrious bride from all the house 6.677. Had stolen all arms; from 'neath my pillowed head 6.678. She stealthily bore off my trusty sword; 6.679. Then loud on Menelaus did she call 6.680. And with her own false hand unbarred the door; 6.681. Such gift to her fond lord she fain would send 6.682. To blot the memory of his ancient wrong! 6.683. Why tell the tale, how on my couch they broke 6.687. If with clean lips upon your wrath I call! 6.688. But, friend, what fortunes have thy life befallen? 6.689. Tell point by point. Did waves of wandering seas 6.693. While thus they talked, the crimsoned car of Morn 6.695. On her ethereal road. The princely pair 6.696. Had wasted thus the whole brief gift of hours; 6.697. But Sibyl spoke the warning: “Night speeds by 6.698. And we, Aeneas, lose it in lamenting. 6.699. Here comes the place where cleaves our way in twain. 6.700. Thy road, the right, toward Pluto's dwelling goes 6.701. And leads us to Elysium. But the left 6.702. Speeds sinful souls to doom, and is their path 6.703. To Tartarus th' accurst.” Deiphobus Deïphobus 6.704. Cried out: “0 priestess, be not wroth with us! 6.705. Back to the ranks with yonder ghosts I go. 6.706. 0 glory of my race, pass on! Thy lot 6.708. Aeneas straightway by the leftward cliff 6.709. Beheld a spreading rampart, high begirt 6.710. With triple wall, and circling round it ran 6.711. A raging river of swift floods of flame 6.712. Infernal Phlegethon, which whirls along 6.713. Loud-thundering rocks. A mighty gate is there 6.714. Columned in adamant; no human power 6.715. Nor even the gods, against this gate prevail. 6.716. Tall tower of steel it has; and seated there 6.717. Tisiphone, in blood-flecked pall arrayed 6.718. Sleepless forever, guards the entering way. 6.719. Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge 6.720. Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721. Aeneas motionless with horror stood 6.722. o'erwhelmed at such uproar. “0 virgin, say 6.723. What shapes of guilt are these? What penal woe 6.724. Harries them thus? What wailing smites the air?” 6.725. To whom the Sibyl, “Far-famed prince of Troy 6.726. The feet of innocence may never pass 6.727. Into this house of sin. But Hecate 6.728. When o'er th' Avernian groves she gave me power 6.729. Taught me what penalties the gods decree 6.730. And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731. His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732. Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733. of mortals who, exulting in vain guile 6.734. Elude till death, their expiation due. 6.735. There, armed forever with her vengeful scourge 6.736. Tisiphone, with menace and affront 6.737. The guilty swarm pursues; in her left hand 6.738. She lifts her angered serpents, while she calls 6.739. A troop of sister-furies fierce as she. 6.740. Then, grating loud on hinge of sickening sound 6.741. Hell's portals open wide. 0, dost thou see 6.742. What sentinel upon that threshold sits 6.744. Far, far within the dragon Hydra broods 6.745. With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black; 6.746. And Tartarus slopes downward to the dark 6.747. Twice the whole space that in the realms of light 6.748. Th' Olympian heaven above our earth aspires. — 6.749. Here Earth's first offspring, the Titanic brood 6.750. Roll lightning-blasted in the gulf profound; 6.751. The twin Aloidae Aloïdae , colossal shades 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 6.893. Thy kindred accent mingling with my own? 6.894. I cherished long this hope. My prophet-soul 6.895. Numbered the lapse of days, nor did my thought 6.896. Deceive. 0, o'er what lands and seas wast driven 6.897. To this embrace! What perils manifold 6.898. Assailed thee, 0 my son, on every side! 6.899. How long I trembled, lest that Libyan throne 6.900. Should work thee woe!” 6.901. Aeneas thus replied: 7.37. Then, gazing from the deep, Aeneas saw 7.38. a stretch of groves, whence Tiber 's smiling stream 7.39. its tumbling current rich with yellow sands 7.40. burst seaward forth: around it and above 7.41. hore-haunting birds of varied voice and plume 7.42. flattered the sky with song, and, circling far 7.43. o'er river-bed and grove, took joyful wing. 7.44. Thither to landward now his ships he steered 7.46. Hail, Erato! while olden kings and thrones 7.47. and all their sequent story I unfold! 7.48. How Latium 's honor stood, when alien ships 7.49. brought war to Italy, and from what cause 7.50. the primal conflict sprang, O goddess, breathe 7.51. upon thy bard in song. Dread wars I tell 7.52. array of battle, and high-hearted kings 7.53. thrust forth to perish, when Etruria's host 7.54. and all Hesperia gathered to the fray. 7.55. Events of grander march impel my song 7.56. and loftier task I try. Latinus, then 7.57. an aged king, held long-accepted sway 7.58. o'er tranquil vales and towns. He was the son 7.59. of Faunus, so the legend tells, who wed 7.60. the nymph Marica of Laurentian stem. 7.61. Picus was Faunus' father, whence the line 7.62. to Saturn's Ioins ascends. O heavenly sire 7.63. from thee the stem began! But Fate had given 7.64. to King Latinus' body no heirs male: 7.65. for taken in the dawning of his day 7.66. his only son had been; and now his home 7.67. and spacious palace one sole daughter kept 7.68. who was grown ripe to wed and of full age 7.69. to take a husband. Many suitors tried 7.70. from all Ausonia and Latium 's bounds; 7.71. but comeliest in all their princely throng 7.72. came Turnus, of a line of mighty sires. 7.73. Him the queen mother chiefly loved, and yearned 7.74. to call him soon her son. But omens dire 7.75. and menaces from Heaven withstood her will. 7.76. A laurel-tree grew in the royal close 7.77. of sacred leaf and venerated age 7.78. which, when he builded there his wall and tower 7.79. Father Latinus found, and hallowed it 7.80. to Phoebus' grace and power, wherefrom the name 7.81. Laurentian, which his realm and people bear. 7.82. Unto this tree-top, wonderful to tell 7.83. came hosts of bees, with audible acclaim 7.84. voyaging the stream of air, and seized a place 7.85. on the proud, pointing crest, where the swift swarm 7.86. with interlacement of close-clinging feet 7.87. wung from the leafy bough. “Behold, there comes,” 7.88. the prophet cried, “a husband from afar! 7.89. To the same region by the self-same path 7.90. behold an arm'd host taking lordly sway 7.91. upon our city's crown!” Soon after this 7.92. when, coming to the shrine with torches pure 7.93. Lavinia kindled at her father's side 7.94. the sacrifice, swift seemed the flame to burn 7.95. along her flowing hair—O sight of woe! 7.96. Over her broidered snood it sparkling flew 7.97. lighting her queenly tresses and her crown 7.98. of jewels rare: then, wrapt in flaming cloud 7.99. from hall to hall the fire-god's gift she flung. 7.100. This omen dread and wonder terrible 7.101. was rumored far: for prophet-voices told 7.102. bright honors on the virgin's head to fall 7.104. The King, sore troubled by these portents, sought 7.105. oracular wisdom of his sacred sire 7.106. Faunus, the fate-revealer, where the groves 7.286. that lone wight hears whom earth's remotest isle 7.287. has banished to the Ocean's rim, or he 7.288. whose dwelling is the ample zone that burns 7.289. betwixt the changeful sun-god's milder realms 7.290. far severed from the world. We are the men 7.291. from war's destroying deluge safely borne 7.292. over the waters wide. We only ask 7.293. ome low-roofed dwelling for our fathers' gods 7.294. ome friendly shore, and, what to all is free 7.295. water and air. We bring no evil name 7.296. upon thy people; thy renown will be 7.297. but wider spread; nor of a deed so fair 7.298. can grateful memory die. Ye ne'er will rue 7.299. that to Ausonia's breast ye gathered Troy . 7.300. I swear thee by the favored destinies 7.301. of great Aeneas, by his strength of arm 7.302. in friendship or in war, that many a tribe 7.303. (O, scorn us not, that, bearing olive green 7.304. with suppliant words we come), that many a throne 7.305. has sued us to be friends. But Fate's decree 7.306. to this thy realm did guide. Here Dardanus 7.307. was born; and with reiterate command 7.308. this way Apollo pointed to the stream 7.309. of Tiber and Numicius' haunted spring. 7.310. Lo, these poor tributes from his greatness gone 7.311. Aeneas sends, these relics snatched away 7.312. from Ilium burning: with this golden bowl 7.313. Anchises poured libation when he prayed; 7.314. and these were Priam's splendor, when he gave 7.315. laws to his gathered states; this sceptre his 7.316. this diadem revered, and beauteous pall 7.317. handwork of Asia 's queens.” So ceased to speak 7.318. Ilioneus. But King Latinus gazed 7.319. uswering on the ground, all motionless 7.320. ave for his musing eyes. The broidered pall 7.321. of purple, and the sceptre Priam bore 7.322. moved little on his kingly heart, which now 7.323. pondered of giving to the bridal bed 7.324. his daughter dear. He argues in his mind 7.325. the oracle of Faunus:—might this be 7.326. that destined bridegroom from an alien land 7.327. to share his throne, to get a progeny 7.328. of glorious valor, which by mighty deeds 7.329. hould win the world for kingdom? So at last 7.330. with joyful brow he spoke: “Now let the gods 7.331. our purpose and their own fair promise bless! 7.332. Thou hast, O Trojan, thy desire. Thy gifts 7.333. I have not scorned; nor while Latinus reigns 7.334. hall ye lack riches in my plenteous land 7.335. not less than Trojan store. But where is he 7.336. Aeneas' self? If he our royal love 7.337. o much desire, and have such urgent mind 7.338. to be our guest and friend, let him draw near 7.339. nor turn him from well-wishing looks away! 7.340. My offering and pledge of peace shall be 7.341. to clasp your monarch's hand. Bear back, I pray 7.342. this answer to your King: my dwelling holds 7.343. a daughter, whom with husband of her blood 7.344. great signs in heaven and from my father's tomb 7.345. forbid to wed. A son from alien shores 7.346. they prophesy for Latium 's heir, whose seed 7.347. hall lift our glory to the stars divine. 7.348. I am persuaded this is none but he 7.349. that man of destiny; and if my heart 7.350. be no false prophet, I desire it so.” 7.351. Thus having said, the sire took chosen steeds 7.352. from his full herd, whereof, well-groomed and fair 7.353. three hundred stood within his ample pale. 7.354. of these to every Teucrian guest he gave 7.355. a courser swift and strong, in purple clad 7.356. and broidered housings gay; on every breast 7.357. hung chains of gold; in golden robes arrayed 7.358. they champed the red gold curb their teeth between. 7.359. For offering to Aeneas, he bade send 7.360. a chariot, with chargers twain of seed 7.361. ethereal, their nostrils breathing fire: 7.362. the famous kind which guileful Circe bred 7.363. cheating her sire, and mixed the sun-god's team 7.364. with brood-mares earthly born. The sons of Troy 7.365. uch gifts and greetings from Latinus bearing 7.367. But lo! from Argos on her voyage of air 7.368. rides the dread spouse of Jove. She, sky-enthroned 7.369. above the far Sicilian promontory 7.370. pachynus, sees Dardania's rescued fleet 7.371. and all Aeneas' joy. The prospect shows 7.372. houses a-building, lands of safe abode 7.373. and the abandoned ships. With bitter grief 7.374. he stands at gaze: then with storm-shaken brows 7.375. thus from her heart lets loose the wrathful word: 7.376. “O hated race! O Phrygian destinies — 7.377. to mine forevermore (unhappy me!) 7.378. a scandal and offense! Did no one die 7.379. on Troy 's embattled plain? Could captured slaves 7.380. not be enslaved again? Was Ilium's flame 7.381. no warrior's funeral pyre? Did they walk safe 7.382. through serried swords and congregated fires? 7.383. At last, methought, my godhead might repose 7.384. and my full-fed revenge in slumber lie. 7.385. But nay! Though flung forth from their native land 7.386. I o'er the waves, with enmity unstayed 7.387. dared give them chase, and on that exiled few 7.388. hurled the whole sea. I smote the sons of Troy 7.389. with ocean's power and heaven's. But what availed 7.390. Syrtes, or Scylla, or Charybdis' waves? 7.391. The Trojans are in Tiber ; and abide 7.392. within their prayed-for land delectable 7.393. afe from the seas and me! Mars once had power 7.394. the monstrous Lapithae to slay; and Jove 7.395. to Dian's honor and revenge gave o'er 7.396. the land of Calydon. What crime so foul 7.397. was wrought by Lapithae or Calydon? 7.398. But I, Jove's wife and Queen, who in my woes 7.399. have ventured each bold stroke my power could find 7.400. and every shift essayed,—behold me now 7.401. outdone by this Aeneas! If so weak 7.402. my own prerogative of godhead be 7.403. let me seek strength in war, come whence it will! 7.404. If Heaven I may not move, on Hell I call. 7.405. To bar him from his Latin throne exceeds 7.406. my fated power. So be it! Fate has given 7.407. Lavinia for his bride. But long delays 7.408. I still can plot, and to the high event 7.409. deferment and obstruction. I can smite 7.410. the subjects of both kings. Let sire and son 7.411. buy with their people's blood this marriage-bond! 7.412. Let Teucrian and Rutulian slaughter be 7.413. thy virgin dower, and Bellona's blaze 7.414. light thee the bridal bed! Not only teemed 7.415. the womb of Hecuba with burning brand 7.416. and brought forth nuptial fires; but Venus, too 7.417. uch offspring bore, a second Paris, who 7.419. So saying, with aspect terrible she sped 7.420. earthward her way; and called from gloom of hell 7.421. Alecto, woeful power, from cloudy throne 7.422. among the Furies, where her heart is fed 7.423. with horrid wars, wrath, vengeance, treason foul 7.424. and fatal feuds. Her father Pluto loathes 7.425. the creature he engendered, and with hate 7.426. her hell-born sister-fiends the monster view. 7.427. A host of shapes she wears, and many a front 7.428. of frowning black brows viper-garlanded. 7.429. Juno to her this goading speech addressed: 7.430. “O daughter of dark Night, arouse for me 7.431. thy wonted powers and our task begin! 7.432. Lest now my glory fail, my royal name 7.433. be vanquished, while Aeneas and his crew 7.434. cheat with a wedlock bond the Latin King 7.435. and seize Italia 's fields. Thou canst thrust on 7.436. two Ioving brothers to draw sword and slay 7.437. and ruin homes with hatred, calling in 7.438. the scourge of Furies and avenging fires. 7.439. A thousand names thou bearest, and thy ways 7.440. of ruin multiply a thousand-fold. 7.441. Arouse thy fertile breast! Go, rend in twain 7.442. this plighted peace! Breed calumnies and sow 7.443. causes of battle, till yon warrior hosts 7.445. Straightway Alecto, through whose body flows 7.446. the Gorgon poison, took her viewless way 7.447. to Latium and the lofty walls and towers 7.448. of the Laurentian King. Crouching she sate 7.449. in silence on the threshold of the bower 7.450. where Queen Amata in her fevered soul 7.451. pondered, with all a woman's wrath and fear 7.452. upon the Trojans and the marriage-suit 7.453. of Turnus. From her Stygian hair the fiend 7.454. a single serpent flung, which stole its way 7.455. to the Queen's very heart, that, frenzy-driven 7.456. he might on her whole house confusion pour. 7.457. Betwixt her smooth breast and her robe it wound 7.458. unfelt, unseen, and in her wrathful mind 7.459. instilled its viper soul. Like golden chain 7.460. around her neck it twined, or stretched along 7.461. the fillets on her brow, or with her hair 7.462. enwrithing coiled; then on from limb to limb 7.463. lipped tortuous. Yet though the venom strong 7.464. thrilled with its first infection every vein 7.465. and touched her bones with fire, she knew it not 7.466. nor yielded all her soul, but made her plea 7.467. in gentle accents such as mothers use; 7.468. and many a tear she shed, about her child 7.469. her darling, destined for a Phrygian's bride: 7.470. “O father! can we give Lavinia's hand 7.471. to Trojan fugitives? why wilt thou show 7.472. no mercy on thy daughter, nor thyself; 7.473. nor unto me, whom at the first fair wind 7.474. that wretch will leave deserted, bearing far 7.475. upon his pirate ship my stolen child? 7.476. Was it not thus that Phrygian shepherd came 7.477. to Lacedaemon, ravishing away 7.478. Helen, the child of Leda, whom he bore 7.479. to those false Trojan lands? Hast thou forgot 7.480. thy plighted word? Where now thy boasted love 7.481. of kith and kin, and many a troth-plight given 7.482. unto our kinsman Turnus? If we need 7.483. an alien son, and Father Faunus' words 7.484. irrevocably o'er thy spirit brood 7.485. I tell thee every land not linked with ours 7.486. under one sceptre, but distinct and free 7.487. is alien; and 't is thus the gods intend. 7.488. Indeed, if Turnus' ancient race be told 7.489. it sprang of Inachus, Acrisius 7.490. and out of mid- Mycenae .” But she sees 7.491. her lord Latinus resolute, her words 7.492. an effort vain; and through her body spreads 7.493. the Fury's deeply venomed viper-sting. 7.494. Then, woe-begone, by dark dreams goaded on 7.495. he wanders aimless, fevered and unstrung 7.496. along the public ways; as oft one sees 7.497. beneath the twisted whips a leaping top 7.498. ped in long spirals through a palace-close 7.499. by lads at play: obedient to the thong 7.500. it weaves wide circles in the gaping view 7.501. of its small masters, who admiring see 7.502. the whirling boxwood made a living thing 7.503. under their lash. So fast and far she roved 7.504. from town to town among the clansmen wild. 7.505. Then to the wood she ran, feigning to feel 7.506. the madness Bacchus loves; for she essays 7.507. a fiercer crime, by fiercer frenzy moved. 7.508. Now in the leafy dark of mountain vales 7.509. he hides her daughter, ravished thus away 7.510. from Trojan bridegroom and the wedding-feast. 7.511. “Hail, Bacchus! Thou alone,” she shrieked and raved 7.512. “art worthy such a maid. For thee she bears 7.513. the thyrsus with soft ivy-clusters crowned 7.514. and trips ecstatic in thy beauteous choir. 7.515. For thee alone my daughter shall unbind 7.516. the glory of her virgin hair.” Swift runs 7.517. the rumor of her deed; and, frenzy-driven 7.518. the wives of Latium to the forests fly 7.519. enkindled with one rage. They leave behind 7.520. their desolated hearths, and let rude winds 7.521. o'er neck and tresses blow; their voices fill 7.522. the welkin with convulsive shriek and wail; 7.523. and, with fresh fawn-skins on their bodies bound 7.524. they brandish vine-clad spears. The Queen herself 7.525. lifts high a blazing pine tree, while she sings 7.526. a wedding-song for Turnus and her child. 7.527. With bloodshot glance and anger wild, she cries: 7.528. “Ho! all ye Latin wives, if e'er ye knew 7.529. kindness for poor Amata, if ye care 7.530. for a wronged mother's woes, O, follow me! 7.531. Cast off the matron fillet from your brows 7.532. and revel to our mad, voluptuous song.” 7.533. Thus, through the woodland haunt of creatures wild 7.534. Alecto urges on the raging Queen 7.535. with Bacchus' cruel goad. But when she deemed 7.536. the edge of wrath well whetted, and the house 7.537. of wise Latinus of all reason reft 7.538. then soared the black-winged goddess to the walls 7.539. of the bold Rutule, to the city built 7.540. (So runs the tale) by beauteous Danae 7.541. and her Acrisian people, shipwrecked there 7.542. by south wind strong. Its name was Ardea 7.543. in language of our sires, and that proud name 7.544. of Ardea still it wears, though proud no more. 7.545. Here Turnus in the gloom of midnight lay 7.546. half-sleeping in his regal hall. For him 7.547. Alecto her grim fury-guise put by 7.548. and wore an old crone's face, her baleful brow 7.549. delved deep with wrinkled age, her hoary hair 7.550. in sacred fillet bound, and garlanded 7.551. with leaf of olive: Calybe she seemed 7.552. an aged servitress ot Juno's shrine 7.553. and in this seeming thus the prince addressed:— 7.554. “O Turnus, wilt thou tamely see thy toil 7.555. lavished in vain? and thy true throne consigned 7.556. to Trojan wanderers? The King repels 7.557. thy noble wooing and thy war-won dower. 7.558. He summons him a son of alien stem 7.559. to take his kingdom. Rouse thee now, and front 7.560. corned and without reward, these perilous days. 7.561. Tread down that Tuscan host! Protect the peace 7.562. of Latium from its foe! Such is the word 7.563. which, while in night and slumber thou wert laid 7.564. Saturnia 's godhead, visibly revealed 7.565. bade me declare. Up, therefore, and array 7.566. thy warriors in arms! Swift sallying forth 7.567. from thy strong city-gates, on to the fray 7.568. exultant go! Assail the Phrygian chiefs 7.569. who tent them by thy beauteous river's marge 7.570. and burn their painted galleys! 't is the will 7.571. of gods above that speaks. Yea, even the King 8.113. white gleaming through the grove, with all her brood 8.143. and to the powers divine pay worship due 8.151. prang to its feet and left the feast divine. 8.313. from the long ridge above the vaulted cave 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.345. With Cacus, who breathed unavailing flame 8.346. he grappled in the dark, locked limb with limb 8.347. and strangled him, till o'er the bloodless throat 8.348. the starting eyeballs stared. Then Hercules 8.608. ummoned Evander. From his couch arose 8.609. the royal sire, and o'er his aged frame 8.610. a tunic threw, tying beneath his feet 8.611. the Tuscan sandals: an Arcadian sword 8.612. girt at his left, was over one shoulder slung 8.613. his cloak of panther trailing from behind. 8.614. A pair of watch-dogs from the lofty door 8.615. ran close, their lord attending, as he sought 8.616. his guest Aeneas; for his princely soul 8.617. remembered faithfully his former word 8.618. and promised gift. Aeneas with like mind 8.619. was stirring early. King Evander's son 8.620. Pallas was at his side; Achates too 8.621. accompanied his friend. All these conjoin 8.622. in hand-clasp and good-morrow, taking seats 8.623. in midcourt of the house, and give the hour 8.625. “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626. in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627. vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628. my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629. Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630. Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631. with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632. to league with thee a numerous array 8.633. of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634. now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635. because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636. a city on an ancient rock is seen 8.637. Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638. built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639. for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640. of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641. his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642. and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643. May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644. and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645. dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646. and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647. Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace 8.648. a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649. his people rose in furious despair 8.650. and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651. his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652. and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while 8.653. escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654. to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655. in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656. Etruria, to righteous anger stirred 8.657. demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658. To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662. are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663. of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664. their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665. of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666. the bloom and glory of an ancient race 8.667. whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668. enflame against Mezentius your foe 8.669. it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670. hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me 8.714. Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715. long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716. if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths 8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! 8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721. to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722. what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723. hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725. He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726. Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727. acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods 8.729. revered by good Evander, at whose side 8.730. the Trojan company made sacrifice 8.731. of chosen lambs, with fitting rites and true. 10.495. who also for the roughness of the ground 10.496. were all unmounted: he (the last resource 10.497. of men in straits) to wild entreaty turned 10.498. and taunts, enkindling their faint hearts anew: 10.499. “Whither, my men! O, by your own brave deeds 10.500. O, by our lord Evander's happy wars 10.501. the proud hopes I had to make my name 10.502. a rival glory,—think not ye can fly! 10.503. Your swords alone can carve ye the safe way 10.504. traight through your foes. Where yonder warrior-throng 10.505. is fiercest, thickest, there and only there 11.42. his darling child. Around him is a throng 11.43. of slaves, with all the Trojan multitude 11.44. and Ilian women, who the wonted way 11.45. let sorrow's tresses loosely flow. When now 11.46. Aeneas to the lofty doors drew near 11.47. all these from smitten bosoms raised to heaven 11.48. a mighty moaning, till the King's abode 11.49. was loud with anguish. There Aeneas viewed 11.50. the pillowed head of Pallas cold and pale 11.51. the smooth young breast that bore the gaping wound 11.52. of that Ausonian spear, and weeping said: 11.53. “Did Fortune's envy, smiling though she came 11.54. refuse me, hapless boy, that thou shouldst see 11.55. my throne established, and victorious ride 11.56. beside me to thy father's house? Not this 11.57. my parting promise to thy King and sire 11.58. Evander, when with friendly, fond embrace 11.243. built funeral pyres along the winding shore 11.244. King Tarchon at his side. Each thither brought 11.245. the bodies of his kin, observing well 11.246. all ancient ritual. The fuming fires 11.247. burned from beneath, till highest heaven was hid 11.248. in blackest, overmantling cloud. Three times 11.249. the warriors, sheathed in proud, resplendent steel 11.250. paced round the kindling pyres; and three times 11.251. fair companies of horsemen circled slow 11.252. with loud lamenting, round the doleful flame. 11.253. The wail of warriors and the trumpets' blare 11.254. the very welkin rend. Cast on the flames 11.255. are spoils of slaughtered Latins,—helms and blades 11.256. bridles and chariot-wheels. Yet others bring 11.257. gifts to the dead familiar, their own shields 11.258. and unavailing spears. Around them slain 11.259. great herds of kine give tribute unto death: 11.260. wine, bristly-backed, from many a field are borne 11.261. and slaughtered sheep bleed o'er the sacred fire. 11.262. So on the shore the wailing multitude 11.263. behold their comrades burning, and keep guard 11.264. o'er the consuming pyres, nor turn away 11.265. till cooling night re-shifts the globe of heaven 11.267. Likewise the mournful Latins far away 11.268. have built their myriad pyres. Yet of the slain 11.269. not few in graves are laid, and borne with tears 11.270. to neighboring country-side or native town; 11.271. the rest—promiscuous mass of dead unknown— 11.272. to nameless and unhonored ashes burn; 11.273. with multitude of fires the far-spread fields 11.274. blaze forth unweariedly. But when from heaven 11.275. the third morn had dispelled the dark and cold 11.276. the mournful bands raked forth the mingled bones 11.277. and plenteous ashes from the smouldering pyres 11.278. then heaped with earth the one sepulchral mound. 11.279. Now from the hearth-stones of the opulent town 11.280. of old Latinus a vast wail burst forth 11.281. for there was found the chief and bitterest share 11.282. of all the woe. For mothers in their tears 11.283. lone brides, and stricken souls of sisters fond 11.284. and boys left fatherless, fling curses Ioud 11.285. on Turnus' troth-plight and the direful war: 11.286. “Let him, let Turnus, with his single sword 11.287. decide the strife,”—they cry,—“and who shall claim 11.288. Lordship of Italy and power supreme.” 11.289. Fierce Drances whets their fury, urging all 11.290. that Turnus singly must the challenge hear 11.291. and singly wage the war; but others plead 11.292. in Turnus' favor; the Queen's noble name 11.293. protects him, and his high renown in arms 11.295. Amid these tumults of the wrathful throng 12.435. this frantic stir, this quarrel rashly bold? 12.436. Recall your martial rage! The pledge is given
21. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.4-4.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.4. woods worthy of a Consul let them be. 4.5. Now the last age by Cumae's Sibyl sung 4.6. has come and gone, and the majestic roll 4.7. of circling centuries begins anew: 4.8. justice returns, returns old Saturn's reign 4.9. with a new breed of men sent down from heaven. 4.10. Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom
22. Vergil, Georgics, 1.121-1.128, 2.498, 3.1-3.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 2.498. Hath needs beyond exhausting; the whole soil 3.1. Thee too, great Pales, will I hymn, and thee 3.2. Amphrysian shepherd, worthy to be sung 3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 3.40. And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe 3.41. Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts 3.42. And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand 3.43. From empires twain on ocean's either shore. 3.44. And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45. Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus 3.46. And great names of the Jove-descended folk 3.47. And father Tros, and placeName key= 3.48. of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there
23. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 8.2.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

24. Martial, Epigrams, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Martial, Epigrams, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. New Testament, James, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
27. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.36, 34.69, 35.6, 35.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Plutarch, Julius Caesar, 61.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Plutarch, Fabius, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22.6. However, he removed the colossal statue of Heracles from Tarentum, and set it up on the Capitol, and near it an equestrian statue of himself, in bronze. He thus appeared far more eccentric in these matters than Marcellus, nay rather, the mild and humane conduct of Marcellus was thus made to seem altogether admirable by contrast, as has been written in his Life. Chapter xxi. Marcellus had enriched Rome with works of Greek art taken from Syracuse in 212 B.C. Livy’s opinion is rather different from Plutarch’s: sed maiore animo generis eius praeda abstinuit Fabius quam Marcellus, xxvii. 16. Fabius killed the people but spared their gods; Marcellus spared the people but took their gods.
32. Plutarch, Marcellus, 21.2-21.3, 21.5, 28.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21.2. but filled full of barbaric arms and bloody spoils, and crowned round about with memorials and trophies of triumphs, she was not a gladdening or a reassuring sight, nor one for unwarlike and luxurious spectators. Indeed, as Epaminondas called the Boeotian plain a dancing floor of Ares, and as Xenophon Hell. iii. 4,17. speaks of Ephesus as a work-shop of war, so, it seems to me, one might at that time have called Rome, in the language of Pindar, a precinct of much-warring Ares. Pyth. ii. 1 f. 21.3. Therefore with the common people Marcellus won more favour because he adorned the city with objects that had Hellenic grace and charm and fidelity; but with the elder citizens Fabius Maximus was more popular. For he neither disturbed nor brought away anything of this sort from Tarentum, when that city was taken, but while he carried off the money and the other valuables, he suffered the statues to remain in their places, adding the well-known saying: 21.5. and was inexperienced in luxury and ease, but, like the Heracles of Euripides, was Plain, unadorned, in a great crisis brave and true, A fragment of the lost Licymnius of Euripides (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 p. 507). he made them idle and full of glib talk about arts and artists, so that they spent a great part of the day in such clever disputation. Notwithstanding such censure, Marcellus spoke of this with pride even to the Greeks, declaring that he had taught the ignorant Romans to admire and honour the wonderful and beautiful productions of Greece. 28.1. After assuming his office, he first quelled a great agitation for revolt in Etruria, and visited and pacified the cities there; next, he desired to dedicate to Honour and Virtue a temple that he had built out of his Sicilian spoils, hut was prevented by the priests, who would not consent that two deities should occupy one temple; he therefore began to build another temple adjoining the first, although he resented the priests’ opposition and regarded it as ominous.
33. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 22.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22.2. They did not burn his body, because, as it is said, he forbade it; but they made two stone coffins and buried them under the Janiculum. One of these held his body, and the other the sacred books which he had written out with his own hand, as the Greek lawgivers their tablets. But since, while he was still living, he had taught the priests the written contents of the books, and had inculcated in their hearts the scope and meaning of them all, he commanded that they should be buried with his body, convinced that such mysteries ought not to be entrusted to the care of lifeless documents.
34. Suetonius, Augustus, 29.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Suetonius, Iulius, 79 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tacitus, Annals, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.28.  Then came Pompey's third consulate. But this chosen reformer of society, operating with remedies more disastrous than the abuses, this maker and breaker of his own enactments, lost by the sword what he was holding by the sword. The followed twenty crowded years of discord, during which law and custom ceased to exist: villainy was immune, decency not rarely a sentence of death. At last, in his sixth consulate, Augustus Caesar, feeling his power secure, cancelled the behests of his triumvirate, and presented us with laws to serve our needs in peace and under a prince. Thenceforward the fetters were tightened: sentries were set over us and, under the Papia-Poppaean law, lured on by rewards; so that, if a man shirked the privileges of paternity, the state, as universal parent, might step into the vacant inheritance. But they pressed their activities too far: the capital, Italy, every corner of the Roman world, had suffered from their attacks, and the positions of many had been wholly ruined. Indeed, a reign of terror was threatened, when Tiberius, for the fixing of a remedy, chose by lot five former consuls, five former praetors, and an equal number of ordinary senators: a body which, by untying many of the legal knots, gave for the time a measure of relief.
37. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 1.1.8, 1.1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 55.10.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55.10.2.  . . . to Mars, and that he himself and his grandsons should go there as often as they wished, while those who were passing from the class of boys and were being enrolled among the youths of military age should invariably do so; that those who were sent out to commands abroad should make that their starting-point;
39. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.1.2, 7.16.10 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1.2. Corinth is no longer inhabited by any of the old Corinthians, but by colonists sent out by the Romans. This change is due to the Achaean League. A league of states in the northern Peloponnesus . It was most influential in the second half of the third century B.C. Founded 280 B.C. The Corinthians, being members of it, joined in the war against the Romans, which Critolaus, when appointed general of the Achaeans, brought about by persuading to revolt both the Achaeans and the majority of the Greeks outside the Peloponnesus . When the Romans won the war, they carried out a general disarmament of the Greeks 146 B.C. and dismantled the walls of such cities as were fortified. Corinth was laid waste by Mummius, who at that time commanded the Romans in the field, and it is said that it was afterwards refounded by Caesar, 44 B.C. who was the author of the present constitution of Rome . Carthage, too, they say, was refounded in his reign. 7.16.10. A few years later the Romans took pity on Greece, restored the various old racial confederacies, with the right to acquire property in a foreign country, and remitted the fines imposed by Mummius. For he had ordered the Boeotians to pay a hundred talents to the people of Heracleia and Euboea, and the Achaeans to pay two hundred to the Lacedaemonians. Although the Romans granted the Greeks remission of these payments, yet down to my day a Roman governor has been sent to the country. The Romans call him the Governor, not of Greece, but of Achaia, because the cause of the subjection of Greece was the Achaeans, at that time at the head of the Greek nation. With Frazer's reading: “when the Romans subdued Greece, Achaia was at the head, etc.” This war came to an end when Antitheus was archon at Athens, in the hundred and sixtieth Olympiad 140 B.C., at which Diodorus of Sicyon was victorious. Pausanias seems to have made a mistake, as Corinth was taken in 146 B.C.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
access Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
achaemenides Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 93; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 240
achilles, in kingship theory Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
achilles, successors, aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
achilles, unlike odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
achilles Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
aeneas, and turnus Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
aeneas, death wish Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 282
aeneas, first meeting with dido Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
aeneas, iliadic orientation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
aeneas, intertextual identities, ajax son of telamon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
aeneas, intertextual identities, heracles/hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
aeneas, intertextual identities, odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
aeneas, italianisation of Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 118
aeneas, kingship of Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 60, 61, 62
aeneas, personal desires Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
aeneas, prefiguring augustus Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
aeneas, reader Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 239, 240, 242, 243, 282
aeneas, resentment of fate Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
aeneas, shield of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 173
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177, 235, 239, 240, 242, 243, 282; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18, 149, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161, 200; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
aeschylus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
agamemnon Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
alaric O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 98
alba longa Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 169, 171
alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
alexander the great Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38, 42
allecto Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
allegory Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
amata Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 242, 282
anachronism Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 155, 156
analogues Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 62
anchises Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 239, 240, 242, 243; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
antisthenes Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
apollo Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
apollonius of rhodes, argonautica Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
apotheosis, of an unspecified caesar, in aeneid Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
argos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
aristides of thebes, his dionysus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
arms (arma) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 282
ascanius Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 171, 172
assaracus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
asylum O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 98
attalus ii of pergamum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
audiences, heterogeneity of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
audiences, power of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156, 160
augustalia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
augustus, and romulus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
augustus, augustan, accomplishments (res gestae) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
augustus, augustan, augustan rome Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
augustus, augustan, caesar Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
augustus, augustan Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
augustus/octavian, as author and builder Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 160, 163
augustus/octavian, as pater patriae Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158
augustus/octavian, as performer of a public image Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
augustus/octavian, relation with caesar Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154, 155, 156
augustus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 60, 61, 62; König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
authority, mutual constitution of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158
authority Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
autocracy Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
avernus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
bacchic poetics, in euripides Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
bacchus, and augustus Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
bacchus, as deified hero Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
belatedness Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149
brutus, decimus junius brutus ( Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
brutus, lucius junius brutus (d. Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
brutus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
burial of dead O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 98
buthrotum Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
cacus Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
caecilius metellus macedonicus, q. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
caesar, unspecified Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 169
caieta Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
callimachus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
capitol, destiny of Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
cassandra Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
catabasis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 243
cerberus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
charon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 235
circe Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
city of god, polemic in O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 97, 98
civil war Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 93
civil wars Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154, 155, 156, 163
clastidium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
claudius marcellus, m. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
clemency Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 155
concord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 60, 93
conquers sicily, loots syracuse Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
constantinople Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
coponius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
corinth, ancient, greek or roman Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 6
corinth, ancient Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 6
corinth Graverini, Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius (2012) 171; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
cornelius scipio africanus, p., rivalry with q. fabius maximus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
costs of war Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153
counterfactual discourse König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
cyclical schemas of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
death, heroic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 235, 243
death of the author Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18
decision Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
decline, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
decreasing explicitness Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 62
deianeira Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
deified heroes, canon or catalogue of Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
determinism Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
dido, death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
dido, intertexutal identities, circe Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
dido, intertexutal identities, heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 282; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
education, instruction Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
ekphrasis Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18, 200
ekphrastic Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
emotions, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 242, 282
emotions, passions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
emotions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 242
empire, as territorial expanse Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 156, 163, 200
epic Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149
erato Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
ethical qualities, adaptability, flexibility, versatility Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 242, 282
ethical qualities, circumspection Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, cleverness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 240
ethical qualities, courage, valor (virtus, andreia, aretê) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, endurance Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
ethical qualities, force, violence Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 240
ethical qualities, inflexibility Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, intelligence (sapientia, mêtis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 239, 240
ethical qualities, intransigence, inflexibility, obstinacy, stubbornness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, obstinacy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, pitilessness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, restraint, self-control, self-restraint Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 239
ethical qualities, self-absorption Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethical qualities, solipsism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
ethics, ethical heroism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
ethics Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
etymology, erato Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
etymology Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 118; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 239, 240, 243
euripides, alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
euripides, heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
euripides Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
evander Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
exempla and exemplarity, republican König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
exempla and exemplarity König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
fabius maximus, q., captures tarentum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
fabius maximus, q., dedicates colossal hercules on capitoline Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
fabius maximus, q. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
fabricius luscinus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
fate, fates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
fate, fictions, truth of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 97, 98
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
fates Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168
fictionality Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149
focalization Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18
foreigners Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
freedom, freeom of speech (libertas) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239, 240
funeral Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 157, 160
games Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 118
gates of sleep Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 172, 173
genre Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
gens iulia Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168, 171, 172, 173
gigantomachy Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 173
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242, 282
golden age Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 124
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 98
greece, culture appropriated by romans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
greece Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
greek, art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
greeks Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
hannibal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
hegemony Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154
hera Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, comic aspects Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, death of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, in callimachus aetia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, in greek tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, labors Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 235; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 170, 171
hermeneutic, guides Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 154
hermeneutics Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 6
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 242
heroism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
history Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235, 239
homer, odyssey König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
homer, the iliad Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
homer Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 243
horatius flaccus, q. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
ilion Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
imagination Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158
impietas against, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
inconsistency Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 153, 156, 160, 200
indeterminacy, hindsight Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154, 156
indeterminacy, historical narratives Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 200
indeterminacy, horace Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 158
indeterminacy, strategies Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158, 160
intentions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
intertextuality, dialogic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
intertextuality, window reference (two-tier allusion) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
intertextuality Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177, 242; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18, 160, 161, 163
iris Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
italy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 235, 239, 240, 242, 243
judgment Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154
julius caesar Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 60, 61, 62; König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
juno Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
jupiter Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
kings Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80, 235, 239, 242
kings of rome Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 60, 61, 62
laocoon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
latinus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 62; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242, 243
latium Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242, 243
laurentum Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
lavinia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
leadership Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239, 282
letters, ancient Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 6
linear and cyclical conceptions of time and space Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 153, 160
livius andronicus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
love Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
luna Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
lusus troiae Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 118
luxury, attitudes towards Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
lysippus, and alexander the great Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
lysippus, his colossal hercules Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
lysippus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
madness, furial Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, god-driven Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
madness, infernal Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, madness (personified) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
maps and mapping Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 153, 160
marcellus, augustus heir Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 171, 172
marcellus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 157, 158, 160, 161
marriage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
mars Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 161
martial, and pliny König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
martial König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
masculinity Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 163
metaliterariness Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
militarism Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 160, 163
minerva Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
monuments Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18, 153
mummius Graverini, Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius (2012) 171
mummius achaicus, l., exhibits and distributes spoils Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
mummius achaicus, l., sacks corinth Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
mummius achaicus, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
muses, erato Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242
muses, invocation of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242, 243
muses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
museum, the capitoline museum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
mycenae Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
naevius, gnaeus, the punic war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
names and naming Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 149, 155, 156
narratives Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 235
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 242, 243
narrators, argonautic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
neptune Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
nerva König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313
nestor Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
nostalgia Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
numa König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154
objects, access to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
objects, and political competition Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
objects, and power Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
objects, inventory of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
objects, used for patronage Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
octavia Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 157
odysseus, stage villain, Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
omission Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 154, 160, 163
opposition Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
ornamenta, östenberg, i. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
parade of heroes, in aeneid Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
parade of heroes Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 200
paratexts Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 18
patroclus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
performance Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
philippi, battle of ( Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 239
philosophy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 80
phthia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
plots, comic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
plots, tragic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
plutarch, on marcellus plundering of sicily Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
plutarch Graverini, Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius (2012) 171
poets, dependence on readers Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 157
poets, rivalry with the princeps Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158, 200
polybius, on marcellus plundering of sicily Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 38
pompeii, temple of apollo Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
pompey König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 313; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 200
pompey the great, his triumph over mithridates Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 42
portraiture Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 163
power, of audiences Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156, 160
presence/absence Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 158
priam Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
prizes, rewards Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 282
progress, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
propaganda Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 163