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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11092
Vergil, Aeneis, 6.440-6.441


Nec procul hinc partem fusi monstrantur in omnemInto the billowy deep. Aeneas now


lugentes campi: sic illos nomine dicunt.Discerned his sad face through the blinding gloom


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 11.233-11.234, 11.563-11.564 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Euripides, Alcestis, 1144-1146, 175-184, 1143 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 823-874, 822 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

822. Courage, old men! she, whom you see, is Madness, daughter of Night, and I am Iris, the handmaid of the gods. We have not come to do your city any hurt
4. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 913-931, 912 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

912. crying aloud upon her own fate, and her childless existence thereafter. But when she finished this, I saw her suddenly rush into the bedchamber of Heracles. I hid in the shadows to keep my observation secret and was watching over her
5. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.48.7, 19.98 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.48.7.  It has a length of about five hundred stades and a width of about sixty, and its water is so ill-smelling and so very bitter that it cannot support fish or any of the other animals which commonly live in water. And although great rivers of remarkable sweetness empty into it, the lake gets the better of them by reason of its evil smell, and from its centre it spouts forth once a year a great mass of asphalt, which sometimes extends for more than three plethra, and sometimes for only two; and when this occurs the barbarians who live about the lake usually call the larger flow a "bull" and to the smaller one they give the name "calf.
6. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.280, 9.666-9.797, 12.459-12.532 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.445-4.465, 6.14-6.41, 6.149-6.174, 6.176-6.182, 6.264-6.269, 6.273-6.281, 6.283-6.289, 6.292-6.296, 6.302-6.304, 6.309-6.310, 6.321, 6.333-6.439, 6.441-6.556, 6.566-6.569, 6.582-6.600, 6.608-6.625, 6.628-6.629, 6.637-6.683, 6.687-6.689, 6.692-6.693, 6.695-6.901, 7.37-7.45, 7.286-7.571 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.445. by our poor marriage of imperfect vow 4.446. if aught to me thou owest, if aught in me 4.447. ever have pleased thee—O, be merciful 4.448. to my low-fallen fortunes! I implore 4.449. if place be left for prayer, thy purpose change! 4.450. Because of thee yon Libyan savages 4.451. and nomad chiefs are grown implacable 4.452. and my own Tyrians hate me. Yes, for thee 4.453. my chastity was slain and honor fair 4.454. by which alone to glory I aspired 4.455. in former days. To whom dost thou in death 4.456. abandon me? my guest!—since but this name 4.457. is left me of a husband! Shall I wait 4.458. till fell Pygmalion, my brother, raze 4.459. my city walls? Or the Gaetulian king 4.460. Iarbas, chain me captive to his car? . 4.461. O, if, ere thou hadst fled, I might but bear 4.462. ome pledge of love to thee, and in these halls 4.463. watch some sweet babe Aeneas at his play 4.464. whose face should be the memory of thine own — 6.14. The templed hill where lofty Phoebus reigns 6.15. And that far-off, inviolable shrine 6.16. of dread Sibylla, in stupendous cave 6.17. O'er whose deep soul the god of Delos breathes 6.18. Prophetic gifts, unfolding things to come. 6.20. Here Daedalus, the ancient story tells 6.21. Escaping Minos' power, and having made 6.22. Hazard of heaven on far-mounting wings 6.23. Floated to northward, a cold, trackless way 6.24. And lightly poised, at last, o'er Cumae 's towers. 6.25. Here first to earth come down, he gave to thee 6.26. His gear of wings, Apollo! and ordained 6.27. Vast temples to thy name and altars fair. 6.28. On huge bronze doors Androgeos' death was done; 6.29. And Cecrops' children paid their debt of woe 6.30. Where, seven and seven,—0 pitiable sight!— 6.31. The youths and maidens wait the annual doom 6.32. Drawn out by lot from yonder marble urn. 6.33. Beyond, above a sea, lay carven Crete :— 6.34. The bull was there; the passion, the strange guile; 6.35. And Queen Pasiphae's brute-human son 6.36. The Minotaur—of monstrous loves the sign. 6.37. Here was the toilsome, labyrinthine maze 6.38. Where, pitying love-lorn Ariadne's tears 6.39. The crafty Daedalus himself betrayed 6.40. The secret of his work; and gave the clue 6.41. To guide the path of Theseus through the gloom. 6.149. of my loved sire. Thy hand may point the way; 6.150. Thy word will open wide yon holy doors. 6.151. My father through the flames and falling spears 6.152. Straight through the centre of our foes, I bore 6.153. Upon these shoulders. My long flight he shared 6.154. From sea to sea, and suffered at my side 6.155. The anger of rude waters and dark skies,— 6.156. Though weak—0 task too great for old and gray! 6.157. Thus as a suppliant at thy door to stand 6.158. Was his behest and prayer. On son and sire 6.159. 0 gracious one, have pity,—for thy rule 6.160. Is over all; no vain authority 6.161. Hadst thou from Trivia o'er th' Avernian groves. 6.162. If Orpheus could call back his loved one's shade 6.163. Emboldened by the lyre's melodious string : 6.164. If Pollux by the interchange of death 6.165. Redeemed his twin, and oft repassed the way : 6.166. If Theseus—but why name him? why recall 6.168. Thus, to the altar clinging, did he pray : 6.169. The Sibyl thus replied : “offspring of Heaven 6.170. Anchises' son, the downward path to death 6.171. Is easy; all the livelong night and day 6.172. Dark Pluto's door stands open for a guest. 6.173. But 0! remounting to the world of light 6.174. This is a task indeed, a strife supreme. 6.176. Or quenchless virtue carried to the stars 6.177. Children of gods, have such a victory won. 6.178. Grim forests stop the way, and, gliding slow 6.179. Cocytus circles through the sightless gloom. 6.180. But if it be thy dream and fond desire 6.181. Twice o'er the Stygian gulf to travel, twice 6.182. On glooms of Tartarus to set thine eyes 6.264. The lightly-feeding doves flit on and on 6.265. Ever in easy ken of following eyes 6.266. Till over foul Avernus' sulphurous throat 6.267. Swiftly they lift them through the liquid air 6.268. In silent flight, and find a wished-for rest 6.269. On a twy-natured tree, where through green boughs 6.273. Whose seed is never from the parent tree 6.274. O'er whose round limbs its tawny tendrils twine,— 6.275. So shone th' out-leafing gold within the shade 6.276. of dark holm-oak, and so its tinsel-bract 6.277. Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 6.278. The lingering bough, broke it in eager haste 6.280. Meanwhile the Trojans on the doleful shore 6.281. Bewailed Misenus, and brought tribute there 6.283. First, of the full-sapped pine and well-hewn oak 6.284. A lofty pyre they build; then sombre boughs 6.285. Around it wreathe, and in fair order range 6.286. Funereal cypress; glittering arms are piled 6.287. High over all; on blazing coals they lift 6.288. Cauldrons of brass brimmed o'er with waters pure; 6.289. And that cold, lifeless clay lave and anoint 6.292. With purple vesture and familiar pall. 6.293. Then in sad ministry the chosen few 6.294. With eyes averted, as our sires did use 6.295. Hold the enkindling torch beneath the pyre : 6.296. They gather up and burn the gifts of myrrh 6.302. With blessed olive branch and sprinkling dew 6.303. Purges the people with ablution cold 6.304. In lustral rite; oft chanting, “Hail! Farewell!” 6.310. After these toils, they hasten to fulfil 6.321. The priestess sprinkled wine; 'twixt the two horns 6.333. An altar dark, and piled upon the flames 6.334. The ponderous entrails of the bulls, and poured 6.335. Free o'er the burning flesh the goodly oil. 6.336. Then lo! at dawn's dim, earliest beam began 6.337. Beneath their feet a groaning of the ground : 6.338. The wooded hill-tops shook, and, as it seemed 6.339. She-hounds of hell howled viewless through the shade 6.340. To hail their Queen. “Away, 0 souls profane! 6.341. Stand far away!” the priestess shrieked, “nor dare 6.342. Unto this grove come near! Aeneas, on! 6.343. Begin thy journey! Draw thy sheathed blade! 6.344. Now, all thy courage! now, th' unshaken soul!” 6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.346. With frenzied step; he follows where she leads 6.348. Ye gods! who rule the spirits of the dead! 6.349. Ye voiceless shades and silent lands of night! 6.350. 0 Phlegethon! 0 Chaos! let my song 6.351. If it be lawful, in fit words declare 6.352. What I have heard; and by your help divine 6.353. Unfold what hidden things enshrouded lie 6.355. They walked exploring the unpeopled night 6.356. Through Pluto's vacuous realms, and regions void 6.357. As when one's path in dreary woodlands winds 6.358. Beneath a misty moon's deceiving ray 6.359. When Jove has mantled all his heaven in shade 6.360. And night seals up the beauty of the world. 6.361. In the first courts and entrances of Hell 6.362. Sorrows and vengeful Cares on couches lie : 6.363. There sad Old Age abides, Diseases pale 6.364. And Fear, and Hunger, temptress to all crime; 6.365. Want, base and vile, and, two dread shapes to see 6.366. Bondage and Death : then Sleep, Death's next of kin; 6.367. And dreams of guilty joy. Death-dealing War 6.368. Is ever at the doors, and hard thereby 6.369. The Furies' beds of steel, where wild-eyed Strife 6.371. There in the middle court a shadowy elm 6.372. Its ancient branches spreads, and in its leaves 6.373. Deluding visions ever haunt and cling. 6.374. Then come strange prodigies of bestial kind : 6.375. Centaurs are stabled there, and double shapes 6.376. Like Scylla, or the dragon Lerna bred 6.377. With hideous scream; Briareus clutching far 6.378. His hundred hands, Chimaera girt with flame 6.379. A crowd of Gorgons, Harpies of foul wing 6.380. And giant Geryon's triple-monstered shade. 6.381. Aeneas, shuddering with sudden fear 6.382. Drew sword and fronted them with naked steel; 6.383. And, save his sage conductress bade him know 6.384. These were but shapes and shadows sweeping by 6.386. Hence the way leads to that Tartarean stream 6.387. of Acheron, whose torrent fierce and foul 6.388. Disgorges in Cocytus all its sands. 6.389. A ferryman of gruesome guise keeps ward 6.390. Upon these waters,—Charon, foully garbed 6.391. With unkempt, thick gray beard upon his chin 6.392. And staring eyes of flame; a mantle coarse 6.393. All stained and knotted, from his shoulder falls 6.394. As with a pole he guides his craft, tends sail 6.395. And in the black boat ferries o'er his dead;— 6.396. Old, but a god's old age looks fresh and strong. 6.397. To those dim shores the multitude streams on— 6.398. Husbands and wives, and pale, unbreathing forms 6.399. of high-souled heroes, boys and virgins fair 6.400. And strong youth at whose graves fond parents mourned. 6.401. As numberless the throng as leaves that fall 6.402. When autumn's early frost is on the grove; 6.403. Or like vast flocks of birds by winter's chill 6.404. Sent flying o'er wide seas to lands of flowers. 6.405. All stood beseeching to begin their voyage 6.406. Across that river, and reached out pale hands 6.407. In passionate yearning for its distant shore. 6.408. But the grim boatman takes now these, now those 6.409. Or thrusts unpitying from the stream away. 6.410. Aeneas, moved to wonder and deep awe 6.411. Beheld the tumult; “Virgin seer!” he cried, . 6.412. “Why move the thronging ghosts toward yonder stream? 6.413. What seek they there? Or what election holds 6.414. That these unwilling linger, while their peers 6.415. Sweep forward yonder o'er the leaden waves?” 6.416. To him, in few, the aged Sibyl spoke : 6.417. “Son of Anchises, offspring of the gods 6.418. Yon are Cocytus and the Stygian stream 6.419. By whose dread power the gods themselves do fear 6.420. To take an oath in vain. Here far and wide 6.421. Thou seest the hapless throng that hath no grave. 6.422. That boatman Charon bears across the deep 6.423. Such as be sepulchred with holy care. 6.424. But over that loud flood and dreadful shore 6.425. No trav'ler may be borne, until in peace 6.426. His gathered ashes rest. A hundred years 6.427. Round this dark borderland some haunt and roam 6.428. Then win late passage o'er the longed-for wave.” 6.429. Aeneas lingered for a little space 6.430. Revolving in his soul with pitying prayer 6.431. Fate's partial way. But presently he sees 6.432. Leucaspis and the Lycian navy's lord 6.433. Orontes; both of melancholy brow 6.434. Both hapless and unhonored after death 6.435. Whom, while from Troy they crossed the wind-swept seas 6.437. There, too, the helmsman Palinurus strayed : 6.438. Who, as he whilom watched the Libyan stars 6.439. Had fallen, plunging from his lofty seat 6.441. Discerned his sad face through the blinding gloom 6.442. And hailed him thus : “0 Palinurus, tell 6.443. What god was he who ravished thee away 6.444. From me and mine, beneath the o'crwhelming wave? 6.445. Speak on! for he who ne'er had spoke untrue 6.446. Apollo's self, did mock my listening mind 6.447. And chanted me a faithful oracle 6.448. That thou shouldst ride the seas unharmed, and touch 6.449. Ausonian shores. Is this the pledge divine?” 6.450. Then he, “0 chieftain of Anchises' race 6.451. Apollo's tripod told thee not untrue. 6.452. No god did thrust me down beneath the wave 6.453. For that strong rudder unto which I clung 6.454. My charge and duty, and my ship's sole guide 6.455. Wrenched from its place, dropped with me as I fell. 6.456. Not for myself—by the rude seas I swear— 6.457. Did I have terror, but lest thy good ship 6.458. Stripped of her gear, and her poor pilot lost 6.459. Should fail and founder in that rising flood. 6.460. Three wintry nights across the boundless main 6.461. The south wind buffeted and bore me on; 6.462. At the fourth daybreak, lifted from the surge 6.463. I looked at last on Italy, and swam 6.464. With weary stroke on stroke unto the land. 6.465. Safe was I then. Alas! but as I climbed 6.466. With garments wet and heavy, my clenched hand 6.467. Grasping the steep rock, came a cruel horde 6.468. Upon me with drawn blades, accounting me— 6.469. So blind they were!—a wrecker's prize and spoil. 6.470. Now are the waves my tomb; and wandering winds 6.471. Toss me along the coast. 0, I implore 6.472. By heaven's sweet light, by yonder upper air 6.473. By thy lost father, by lulus dear 6.474. Thy rising hope and joy, that from these woes 6.475. Unconquered chieftain, thou wilt set me free! 6.476. Give me a grave where Velia 's haven lies 6.477. For thou hast power! Or if some path there be 6.478. If thy celestial mother guide thee here 6.479. (For not, I ween, without the grace of gods 6.480. Wilt cross yon rivers vast, you Stygian pool) 6.481. Reach me a hand! and bear with thee along! 6.482. Until (least gift!) death bring me peace and calm.” 6.483. Such words he spoke: the priestess thus replied: 6.484. “Why, Palinurus, these unblest desires? 6.485. Wouldst thou, unsepulchred, behold the wave 6.486. of Styx, stern river of th' Eumenides? 6.487. Wouldst thou, unbidden, tread its fearful strand? 6.488. Hope not by prayer to change the laws of Heaven! 6.489. But heed my words, and in thy memory 6.490. Cherish and keep, to cheer this evil time. 6.491. Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven 6.492. Thy countrymen from many a templed town 6.493. Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb 6.494. A tomb with annual feasts and votive flowers 6.495. To Palinurus a perpetual fame!” 6.496. Thus was his anguish stayed, from his sad heart 6.497. Grief ebbed awhile, and even to this day 6.499. The twain continue now their destined way 6.500. Unto the river's edge. The Ferryman 6.501. Who watched them through still groves approach his shore 6.502. Hailed them, at distance, from the Stygian wave 6.503. And with reproachful summons thus began: 6.504. “Whoe'er thou art that in this warrior guise 6.505. Unto my river comest,—quickly tell 6.506. Thine errand! Stay thee where thou standest now! 6.507. This is ghosts' land, for sleep and slumbrous dark. 6.508. That flesh and blood my Stygian ship should bear 6.509. Were lawless wrong. Unwillingly I took 6.510. Alcides, Theseus, and Pirithous 6.511. Though sons of gods, too mighty to be quelled. 6.512. One bound in chains yon warder of Hell's door 6.513. And dragged him trembling from our monarch's throne: 6.514. The others, impious, would steal away 6.515. Out of her bride-bed Pluto's ravished Queen.” 6.516. Briefly th' Amphrysian priestess made reply: 6.517. “Not ours, such guile: Fear not! This warrior's arms 6.518. Are innocent. Let Cerberus from his cave 6.519. Bay ceaselessly, the bloodless shades to scare; 6.520. Let Proserpine immaculately keep 6.521. The house and honor of her kinsman King. 6.522. Trojan Aeneas, famed for faithful prayer 6.523. And victory in arms, descends to seek 6.524. His father in this gloomy deep of death. 6.525. If loyal goodness move not such as thee 6.526. This branch at least” (she drew it from her breast) 6.527. “Thou knowest well.” 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 6.530. Upon that fateful, venerable wand 6.531. Seen only once an age. Shoreward he turned 6.532. And pushed their way his boat of leaden hue. 6.533. The rows of crouching ghosts along the thwarts 6.534. He scattered, cleared a passage, and gave room 6.535. To great Aeneas. The light shallop groaned 6.536. Beneath his weight, and, straining at each seam 6.537. Took in the foul flood with unstinted flow. 6.538. At last the hero and his priestess-guide 6.539. Came safe across the river, and were moored 6.541. Here Cerberus, with triple-throated roar 6.542. Made all the region ring, as there he lay 6.543. At vast length in his cave. The Sibyl then 6.544. Seeing the serpents writhe around his neck 6.545. Threw down a loaf with honeyed herbs imbued 6.546. And drowsy essences: he, ravenous 6.547. Gaped wide his three fierce mouths and snatched the bait 6.548. Crouched with his large backs loose upon the ground 6.549. And filled his cavern floor from end to end. 6.550. Aeneas through hell's portal moved, while sleep 6.551. Its warder buried; then he fled that shore 6.553. Now hears he sobs, and piteous, lisping cries 6.554. of souls of babes upon the threshold plaining; 6.555. Whom, ere they took their portion of sweet life 6.556. Dark Fate from nursing bosoms tore, and plunged 6.566. The vital essence. Willingly, alas! 6.567. They now would suffer need, or burdens bear 6.568. If only life were given! But Fate forbids. 6.569. Around them winds the sad, unlovely wave 6.582. And Caeneus, not a boy, but maiden now 6.583. By Fate remoulded to her native seeming. 6.584. Here Tyrian Dido, too, her wound unhealed 6.585. Roamed through a mighty wood. The Trojan's eyes 6.586. Beheld her near him through the murky gloom 6.587. As when, in her young month and crescent pale 6.588. One sees th' o'er-clouded moon, or thinks he sees. 6.589. Down dropped his tears, and thus he fondly spoke: 6.590. “0 suffering Dido! Were those tidings true 6.591. That thou didst fling thee on the fatal steel? 6.592. Thy death, ah me! I dealt it. But I swear 6.593. By stars above us, by the powers in Heaven 6.594. Or whatsoever oath ye dead believe 6.595. That not by choice I fled thy shores, 0 Queen! 6.596. Divine decrees compelled me, even as now 6.597. Among these ghosts I pass, and thread my way 6.598. Along this gulf of night and loathsome land. 6.599. How could I deem my cruel taking leave 6.600. Would bring thee at the last to all this woe? 6.608. Were changeless flint or carved in Parian stone. 6.609. Then, after pause, away in wrath she fled 6.610. And refuge took within the cool, dark grove 6.611. Where her first spouse, Sichaeus, with her tears 6.612. Mingled his own in mutual love and true. 6.613. Aeneas, none the less, her guiltless woe 6.614. With anguish knew, watched with dimmed eyes her way 6.616. But now his destined way he must be gone; 6.617. Now the last regions round the travellers lie 6.618. Where famous warriors in the darkness dwell: 6.619. Here Tydeus comes in view, with far-renowned 6.620. Parthenopaeus and Adrastus pale; 6.621. Here mourned in upper air with many a moan 6.622. In battle fallen, the Dardanidae 6.623. Whose long defile Aeneas groans to see: 6.624. Glaucus and Medon and Thersilochus 6.625. Antenor's children three, and Ceres' priest 6.628. Around him left and right the crowding shades 6.629. Not only once would see, but clutch and cling 6.637. A feeble shout, or vainly opened wide 6.639. Here Priam's son, with body rent and torn 6.640. Deiphobus Deïphobus is seen,—his mangled face 6.641. His face and bloody hands, his wounded head 6.642. of ears and nostrils infamously shorn. 6.643. Scarce could Aeneas know the shuddering shade 6.644. That strove to hide its face and shameful scar; 6.645. But, speaking first, he said, in their own tongue: 6.646. “Deiphobus, strong warrior, nobly born 6.647. of Teucer's royal stem, what ruthless foe 6.648. Could wish to wreak on thee this dire revenge? 6.649. Who ventured, unopposed, so vast a wrong? 6.650. The rumor reached me how, that deadly night 6.651. Wearied with slaying Greeks, thyself didst fall 6.652. Prone on a mingled heap of friends and foes. 6.653. Then my own hands did for thy honor build 6.654. An empty tomb upon the Trojan shore 6.655. And thrice with echoing voice I called thy shade. 6.656. Thy name and arms are there. But, 0 my friend 6.657. Thee could I nowhere find, but launched away 6.658. Nor o'er thy bones their native earth could fling.” 6.659. To him the son of Priam thus replied: 6.660. “Nay, friend, no hallowed rite was left undone 6.661. But every debt to death and pity due 6.662. The shades of thy Deiphobus received. 6.663. My fate it was, and Helen's murderous wrong 6.664. Wrought me this woe; of her these tokens tell. 6.665. For how that last night in false hope we passed 6.666. Thou knowest,—ah, too well we both recall! 6.667. When up the steep of Troy the fateful horse 6.668. Came climbing, pregt with fierce men-at-arms 6.669. 't was she, accurst, who led the Phrygian dames 6.670. In choric dance and false bacchantic song 6.671. And, waving from the midst a lofty brand 6.672. Signalled the Greeks from Ilium 's central tower 6.673. In that same hour on my sad couch I lay 6.674. Exhausted by long care and sunk in sleep 6.675. That sweet, deep sleep, so close to tranquil death. 6.676. But my illustrious bride from all the house 6.677. Had stolen all arms; from 'neath my pillowed head 6.678. She stealthily bore off my trusty sword; 6.679. Then loud on Menelaus did she call 6.680. And with her own false hand unbarred the door; 6.681. Such gift to her fond lord she fain would send 6.682. To blot the memory of his ancient wrong! 6.683. Why tell the tale, how on my couch they broke 6.687. If with clean lips upon your wrath I call! 6.688. But, friend, what fortunes have thy life befallen? 6.689. Tell point by point. Did waves of wandering seas 6.693. While thus they talked, the crimsoned car of Morn 6.695. On her ethereal road. The princely pair 6.696. Had wasted thus the whole brief gift of hours; 6.697. But Sibyl spoke the warning: “Night speeds by 6.698. And we, Aeneas, lose it in lamenting. 6.699. Here comes the place where cleaves our way in twain. 6.700. Thy road, the right, toward Pluto's dwelling goes 6.701. And leads us to Elysium. But the left 6.702. Speeds sinful souls to doom, and is their path 6.703. To Tartarus th' accurst.” Deiphobus Deïphobus 6.704. Cried out: “0 priestess, be not wroth with us! 6.705. Back to the ranks with yonder ghosts I go. 6.706. 0 glory of my race, pass on! Thy lot 6.708. Aeneas straightway by the leftward cliff 6.709. Beheld a spreading rampart, high begirt 6.710. With triple wall, and circling round it ran 6.711. A raging river of swift floods of flame 6.712. Infernal Phlegethon, which whirls along 6.713. Loud-thundering rocks. A mighty gate is there 6.714. Columned in adamant; no human power 6.715. Nor even the gods, against this gate prevail. 6.716. Tall tower of steel it has; and seated there 6.717. Tisiphone, in blood-flecked pall arrayed 6.718. Sleepless forever, guards the entering way. 6.719. Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge 6.720. Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721. Aeneas motionless with horror stood 6.722. o'erwhelmed at such uproar. “0 virgin, say 6.723. What shapes of guilt are these? What penal woe 6.724. Harries them thus? What wailing smites the air?” 6.725. To whom the Sibyl, “Far-famed prince of Troy 6.726. The feet of innocence may never pass 6.727. Into this house of sin. But Hecate 6.728. When o'er th' Avernian groves she gave me power 6.729. Taught me what penalties the gods decree 6.730. And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731. His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732. Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733. of mortals who, exulting in vain guile 6.734. Elude till death, their expiation due. 6.735. There, armed forever with her vengeful scourge 6.736. Tisiphone, with menace and affront 6.737. The guilty swarm pursues; in her left hand 6.738. She lifts her angered serpents, while she calls 6.739. A troop of sister-furies fierce as she. 6.740. Then, grating loud on hinge of sickening sound 6.741. Hell's portals open wide. 0, dost thou see 6.742. What sentinel upon that threshold sits 6.744. Far, far within the dragon Hydra broods 6.745. With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black; 6.746. And Tartarus slopes downward to the dark 6.747. Twice the whole space that in the realms of light 6.748. Th' Olympian heaven above our earth aspires. — 6.749. Here Earth's first offspring, the Titanic brood 6.750. Roll lightning-blasted in the gulf profound; 6.751. The twin Aloidae Aloïdae , colossal shades 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 6.893. Thy kindred accent mingling with my own? 6.894. I cherished long this hope. My prophet-soul 6.895. Numbered the lapse of days, nor did my thought 6.896. Deceive. 0, o'er what lands and seas wast driven 6.897. To this embrace! What perils manifold 6.898. Assailed thee, 0 my son, on every side! 6.899. How long I trembled, lest that Libyan throne 6.900. Should work thee woe!” 6.901. Aeneas thus replied: 7.37. Then, gazing from the deep, Aeneas saw 7.38. a stretch of groves, whence Tiber 's smiling stream 7.39. its tumbling current rich with yellow sands 7.40. burst seaward forth: around it and above 7.41. hore-haunting birds of varied voice and plume 7.42. flattered the sky with song, and, circling far 7.43. o'er river-bed and grove, took joyful wing. 7.44. Thither to landward now his ships he steered 7.286. that lone wight hears whom earth's remotest isle 7.287. has banished to the Ocean's rim, or he 7.288. whose dwelling is the ample zone that burns 7.289. betwixt the changeful sun-god's milder realms 7.290. far severed from the world. We are the men 7.291. from war's destroying deluge safely borne 7.292. over the waters wide. We only ask 7.293. ome low-roofed dwelling for our fathers' gods 7.294. ome friendly shore, and, what to all is free 7.295. water and air. We bring no evil name 7.296. upon thy people; thy renown will be 7.297. but wider spread; nor of a deed so fair 7.298. can grateful memory die. Ye ne'er will rue 7.299. that to Ausonia's breast ye gathered Troy . 7.300. I swear thee by the favored destinies 7.301. of great Aeneas, by his strength of arm 7.302. in friendship or in war, that many a tribe 7.303. (O, scorn us not, that, bearing olive green 7.304. with suppliant words we come), that many a throne 7.305. has sued us to be friends. But Fate's decree 7.306. to this thy realm did guide. Here Dardanus 7.307. was born; and with reiterate command 7.308. this way Apollo pointed to the stream 7.309. of Tiber and Numicius' haunted spring. 7.310. Lo, these poor tributes from his greatness gone 7.311. Aeneas sends, these relics snatched away 7.312. from Ilium burning: with this golden bowl 7.313. Anchises poured libation when he prayed; 7.314. and these were Priam's splendor, when he gave 7.315. laws to his gathered states; this sceptre his 7.316. this diadem revered, and beauteous pall 7.317. handwork of Asia 's queens.” So ceased to speak 7.318. Ilioneus. But King Latinus gazed 7.319. uswering on the ground, all motionless 7.320. ave for his musing eyes. The broidered pall 7.321. of purple, and the sceptre Priam bore 7.322. moved little on his kingly heart, which now 7.323. pondered of giving to the bridal bed 7.324. his daughter dear. He argues in his mind 7.325. the oracle of Faunus:—might this be 7.326. that destined bridegroom from an alien land 7.327. to share his throne, to get a progeny 7.328. of glorious valor, which by mighty deeds 7.329. hould win the world for kingdom? So at last 7.330. with joyful brow he spoke: “Now let the gods 7.331. our purpose and their own fair promise bless! 7.332. Thou hast, O Trojan, thy desire. Thy gifts 7.333. I have not scorned; nor while Latinus reigns 7.334. hall ye lack riches in my plenteous land 7.335. not less than Trojan store. But where is he 7.336. Aeneas' self? If he our royal love 7.337. o much desire, and have such urgent mind 7.338. to be our guest and friend, let him draw near 7.339. nor turn him from well-wishing looks away! 7.340. My offering and pledge of peace shall be 7.341. to clasp your monarch's hand. Bear back, I pray 7.342. this answer to your King: my dwelling holds 7.343. a daughter, whom with husband of her blood 7.344. great signs in heaven and from my father's tomb 7.345. forbid to wed. A son from alien shores 7.346. they prophesy for Latium 's heir, whose seed 7.347. hall lift our glory to the stars divine. 7.348. I am persuaded this is none but he 7.349. that man of destiny; and if my heart 7.350. be no false prophet, I desire it so.” 7.351. Thus having said, the sire took chosen steeds 7.352. from his full herd, whereof, well-groomed and fair 7.353. three hundred stood within his ample pale. 7.354. of these to every Teucrian guest he gave 7.355. a courser swift and strong, in purple clad 7.356. and broidered housings gay; on every breast 7.357. hung chains of gold; in golden robes arrayed 7.358. they champed the red gold curb their teeth between. 7.359. For offering to Aeneas, he bade send 7.360. a chariot, with chargers twain of seed 7.361. ethereal, their nostrils breathing fire: 7.362. the famous kind which guileful Circe bred 7.363. cheating her sire, and mixed the sun-god's team 7.364. with brood-mares earthly born. The sons of Troy 7.365. uch gifts and greetings from Latinus bearing 7.367. But lo! from Argos on her voyage of air 7.368. rides the dread spouse of Jove. She, sky-enthroned 7.369. above the far Sicilian promontory 7.370. pachynus, sees Dardania's rescued fleet 7.371. and all Aeneas' joy. The prospect shows 7.372. houses a-building, lands of safe abode 7.373. and the abandoned ships. With bitter grief 7.374. he stands at gaze: then with storm-shaken brows 7.375. thus from her heart lets loose the wrathful word: 7.376. “O hated race! O Phrygian destinies — 7.377. to mine forevermore (unhappy me!) 7.378. a scandal and offense! Did no one die 7.379. on Troy 's embattled plain? Could captured slaves 7.380. not be enslaved again? Was Ilium's flame 7.381. no warrior's funeral pyre? Did they walk safe 7.382. through serried swords and congregated fires? 7.383. At last, methought, my godhead might repose 7.384. and my full-fed revenge in slumber lie. 7.385. But nay! Though flung forth from their native land 7.386. I o'er the waves, with enmity unstayed 7.387. dared give them chase, and on that exiled few 7.388. hurled the whole sea. I smote the sons of Troy 7.389. with ocean's power and heaven's. But what availed 7.390. Syrtes, or Scylla, or Charybdis' waves? 7.391. The Trojans are in Tiber ; and abide 7.392. within their prayed-for land delectable 7.393. afe from the seas and me! Mars once had power 7.394. the monstrous Lapithae to slay; and Jove 7.395. to Dian's honor and revenge gave o'er 7.396. the land of Calydon. What crime so foul 7.397. was wrought by Lapithae or Calydon? 7.398. But I, Jove's wife and Queen, who in my woes 7.399. have ventured each bold stroke my power could find 7.400. and every shift essayed,—behold me now 7.401. outdone by this Aeneas! If so weak 7.402. my own prerogative of godhead be 7.403. let me seek strength in war, come whence it will! 7.404. If Heaven I may not move, on Hell I call. 7.405. To bar him from his Latin throne exceeds 7.406. my fated power. So be it! Fate has given 7.407. Lavinia for his bride. But long delays 7.408. I still can plot, and to the high event 7.409. deferment and obstruction. I can smite 7.410. the subjects of both kings. Let sire and son 7.411. buy with their people's blood this marriage-bond! 7.412. Let Teucrian and Rutulian slaughter be 7.413. thy virgin dower, and Bellona's blaze 7.414. light thee the bridal bed! Not only teemed 7.415. the womb of Hecuba with burning brand 7.416. and brought forth nuptial fires; but Venus, too 7.417. uch offspring bore, a second Paris, who 7.419. So saying, with aspect terrible she sped 7.420. earthward her way; and called from gloom of hell 7.421. Alecto, woeful power, from cloudy throne 7.422. among the Furies, where her heart is fed 7.423. with horrid wars, wrath, vengeance, treason foul 7.424. and fatal feuds. Her father Pluto loathes 7.425. the creature he engendered, and with hate 7.426. her hell-born sister-fiends the monster view. 7.427. A host of shapes she wears, and many a front 7.428. of frowning black brows viper-garlanded. 7.429. Juno to her this goading speech addressed: 7.430. “O daughter of dark Night, arouse for me 7.431. thy wonted powers and our task begin! 7.432. Lest now my glory fail, my royal name 7.433. be vanquished, while Aeneas and his crew 7.434. cheat with a wedlock bond the Latin King 7.435. and seize Italia 's fields. Thou canst thrust on 7.436. two Ioving brothers to draw sword and slay 7.437. and ruin homes with hatred, calling in 7.438. the scourge of Furies and avenging fires. 7.439. A thousand names thou bearest, and thy ways 7.440. of ruin multiply a thousand-fold. 7.441. Arouse thy fertile breast! Go, rend in twain 7.442. this plighted peace! Breed calumnies and sow 7.443. causes of battle, till yon warrior hosts 7.445. Straightway Alecto, through whose body flows 7.446. the Gorgon poison, took her viewless way 7.447. to Latium and the lofty walls and towers 7.448. of the Laurentian King. Crouching she sate 7.449. in silence on the threshold of the bower 7.450. where Queen Amata in her fevered soul 7.451. pondered, with all a woman's wrath and fear 7.452. upon the Trojans and the marriage-suit 7.453. of Turnus. From her Stygian hair the fiend 7.454. a single serpent flung, which stole its way 7.455. to the Queen's very heart, that, frenzy-driven 7.456. he might on her whole house confusion pour. 7.457. Betwixt her smooth breast and her robe it wound 7.458. unfelt, unseen, and in her wrathful mind 7.459. instilled its viper soul. Like golden chain 7.460. around her neck it twined, or stretched along 7.461. the fillets on her brow, or with her hair 7.462. enwrithing coiled; then on from limb to limb 7.463. lipped tortuous. Yet though the venom strong 7.464. thrilled with its first infection every vein 7.465. and touched her bones with fire, she knew it not 7.466. nor yielded all her soul, but made her plea 7.467. in gentle accents such as mothers use; 7.468. and many a tear she shed, about her child 7.469. her darling, destined for a Phrygian's bride: 7.470. “O father! can we give Lavinia's hand 7.471. to Trojan fugitives? why wilt thou show 7.472. no mercy on thy daughter, nor thyself; 7.473. nor unto me, whom at the first fair wind 7.474. that wretch will leave deserted, bearing far 7.475. upon his pirate ship my stolen child? 7.476. Was it not thus that Phrygian shepherd came 7.477. to Lacedaemon, ravishing away 7.478. Helen, the child of Leda, whom he bore 7.479. to those false Trojan lands? Hast thou forgot 7.480. thy plighted word? Where now thy boasted love 7.481. of kith and kin, and many a troth-plight given 7.482. unto our kinsman Turnus? If we need 7.483. an alien son, and Father Faunus' words 7.484. irrevocably o'er thy spirit brood 7.485. I tell thee every land not linked with ours 7.486. under one sceptre, but distinct and free 7.487. is alien; and 't is thus the gods intend. 7.488. Indeed, if Turnus' ancient race be told 7.489. it sprang of Inachus, Acrisius 7.490. and out of mid- Mycenae .” But she sees 7.491. her lord Latinus resolute, her words 7.492. an effort vain; and through her body spreads 7.493. the Fury's deeply venomed viper-sting. 7.494. Then, woe-begone, by dark dreams goaded on 7.495. he wanders aimless, fevered and unstrung 7.496. along the public ways; as oft one sees 7.497. beneath the twisted whips a leaping top 7.498. ped in long spirals through a palace-close 7.499. by lads at play: obedient to the thong 7.500. it weaves wide circles in the gaping view 7.501. of its small masters, who admiring see 7.502. the whirling boxwood made a living thing 7.503. under their lash. So fast and far she roved 7.504. from town to town among the clansmen wild. 7.505. Then to the wood she ran, feigning to feel 7.506. the madness Bacchus loves; for she essays 7.507. a fiercer crime, by fiercer frenzy moved. 7.508. Now in the leafy dark of mountain vales 7.509. he hides her daughter, ravished thus away 7.510. from Trojan bridegroom and the wedding-feast. 7.511. “Hail, Bacchus! Thou alone,” she shrieked and raved 7.512. “art worthy such a maid. For thee she bears 7.513. the thyrsus with soft ivy-clusters crowned 7.514. and trips ecstatic in thy beauteous choir. 7.515. For thee alone my daughter shall unbind 7.516. the glory of her virgin hair.” Swift runs 7.517. the rumor of her deed; and, frenzy-driven 7.518. the wives of Latium to the forests fly 7.519. enkindled with one rage. They leave behind 7.520. their desolated hearths, and let rude winds 7.521. o'er neck and tresses blow; their voices fill 7.522. the welkin with convulsive shriek and wail; 7.523. and, with fresh fawn-skins on their bodies bound 7.524. they brandish vine-clad spears. The Queen herself 7.525. lifts high a blazing pine tree, while she sings 7.526. a wedding-song for Turnus and her child. 7.527. With bloodshot glance and anger wild, she cries: 7.528. “Ho! all ye Latin wives, if e'er ye knew 7.529. kindness for poor Amata, if ye care 7.530. for a wronged mother's woes, O, follow me! 7.531. Cast off the matron fillet from your brows 7.532. and revel to our mad, voluptuous song.” 7.533. Thus, through the woodland haunt of creatures wild 7.534. Alecto urges on the raging Queen 7.535. with Bacchus' cruel goad. But when she deemed 7.536. the edge of wrath well whetted, and the house 7.537. of wise Latinus of all reason reft 7.538. then soared the black-winged goddess to the walls 7.539. of the bold Rutule, to the city built 7.540. (So runs the tale) by beauteous Danae 7.541. and her Acrisian people, shipwrecked there 7.542. by south wind strong. Its name was Ardea 7.543. in language of our sires, and that proud name 7.544. of Ardea still it wears, though proud no more. 7.545. Here Turnus in the gloom of midnight lay 7.546. half-sleeping in his regal hall. For him 7.547. Alecto her grim fury-guise put by 7.548. and wore an old crone's face, her baleful brow 7.549. delved deep with wrinkled age, her hoary hair 7.550. in sacred fillet bound, and garlanded 7.551. with leaf of olive: Calybe she seemed 7.552. an aged servitress ot Juno's shrine 7.553. and in this seeming thus the prince addressed:— 7.554. “O Turnus, wilt thou tamely see thy toil 7.555. lavished in vain? and thy true throne consigned 7.556. to Trojan wanderers? The King repels 7.557. thy noble wooing and thy war-won dower. 7.558. He summons him a son of alien stem 7.559. to take his kingdom. Rouse thee now, and front 7.560. corned and without reward, these perilous days. 7.561. Tread down that Tuscan host! Protect the peace 7.562. of Latium from its foe! Such is the word 7.563. which, while in night and slumber thou wert laid 7.564. Saturnia 's godhead, visibly revealed 7.565. bade me declare. Up, therefore, and array 7.566. thy warriors in arms! Swift sallying forth 7.567. from thy strong city-gates, on to the fray 7.568. exultant go! Assail the Phrygian chiefs 7.569. who tent them by thy beauteous river's marge 7.570. and burn their painted galleys! 't is the will 7.571. of gods above that speaks. Yea, even the King
8. Phlegon of Tralles, On Miraculous Things, 6-10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.71, 7.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Tacitus, Histories, 5.6-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.6.  Their land is bounded by Arabia on the east, Egypt lies on the south, on the west are Phoenicia and the sea, and toward the north the people enjoy a wide prospect over Syria. The inhabitants are healthy and hardy. Rains are rare; the soil is fertile; its products are like ours, save that the balsam and the palm also grow there. The palm is a tall and handsome tree; the balsam a mere shrub: if a branch, when swollen with sap, is pierced with steel, the veins shrivel up; so a piece of stone or a potsherd is used to open them; the juice is employed by physicians. of the mountains, Lebanon rises to the greatest height, and is in fact a marvel, for in the midst of the excessive heat its summit is shaded by trees and covered with snow; it likewise is the source and supply of the river Jordan. This river does not empty into the sea, but after flowing with volume undiminished through two lakes is lost in the third. The last is a lake of great size: it is like the sea, but its water has a nauseous taste, and its offensive odour is injurious to those who live near it. Its waters are not moved by the wind, and neither fish nor water-fowl can live there. Its lifeless waves bear up whatever is thrown upon them as on a solid surface; all swimmers, whether skilled or not, are buoyed up by them. At a certain season of the year the sea throws up bitumen, and experience has taught the natives how to collect this, as she teaches all arts. Bitumen is by nature a dark fluid which coagulates when sprinkled with vinegar, and swims on the surface. Those whose business it is, catch hold of it with their hands and haul it on shipboard: then with no artificial aid the bitumen flows in and loads the ship until the stream is cut off. Yet you cannot use bronze or iron to cut the bituminous stream; it shrinks from blood or from a cloth stained with a woman's menses. Such is the story told by ancient writers, but those who are acquainted with the country aver that the floating masses of bitumen are driven by the winds or drawn by hand to shore, where later, after they have been dried by vapours from the earth or by the heat of the sun, they are split like timber or stone with axes and wedges. 5.7.  Not far from this lake is a plain which, according to report, was once fertile and the site of great cities, but which was later devastated by lightning; and it is said that traces of this disaster still exist there, and that the very ground looks burnt and has lost its fertility. In fact, all the plants there, whether wild or cultivated, turn black, become sterile, and seem to wither into dust, either in leaf or in flower or after they have reached their usual mature form. Now for my part, although I should grant that famous cities were once destroyed by fire from heaven, I still think that it is the exhalations from the lake that infect the ground and poison the atmosphere about this district, and that this is the reason that crops and fruits decay, since both soil and climate are deleterious. The river Belus also empties into the Jewish Sea; around its mouth a kind of sand is gathered, which when mixed with soda is fused into glass. The beach is of moderate size, but it furnishes an inexhaustible supply. 5.8.  A great part of Judea is covered with scattered villages, but there are some towns also; Jerusalem is the capital of the Jews. In it was a temple possessing enormous riches. The first line of fortifications protected the city, the next the palace, and the innermost wall the temple. Only a Jew might approach its doors, and all save the priests were forbidden to cross the threshold. While the East was under the dominion of the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, the Jews were regarded as the meanest of their subjects: but after the Macedonians gained supremacy, King Antiochus endeavoured to abolish Jewish superstition and to introduce Greek civilization; the war with the Parthians, however, prevented his improving this basest of peoples; for it was exactly at that time that Arsaces had revolted. Later on, since the power of Macedon had waned, the Parthians were not yet come to their strength, and the Romans were far away, the Jews selected their own kings. These in turn were expelled by the fickle mob; but recovering their throne by force of arms, they banished citizens, destroyed towns, killed brothers, wives, and parents, and dared essay every other kind of royal crime without hesitation; but they fostered the national superstition, for they had assumed the priesthood to support their civil authority. 5.9.  The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot in their temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey; thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing. The walls of Jerusalem were razed, but the temple remained standing. Later, in the time of our civil wars, when these eastern provinces had fallen into the hands of Mark Antony, the Parthian prince, Pacorus, seized Judea, but he was slain by Publius Ventidius, and the Parthians were thrown back across the Euphrates: the Jews were subdued by Gaius Sosius. Antony gave the throne to Herod, and Augustus, after his victory, increased his power. After Herod's death, a certain Simon assumed the name of king without waiting for Caesar's decision. He, however, was put to death by Quintilius Varus, governor of Syria; the Jews were repressed; and the kingdom was divided into three parts and given to Herod's sons. Under Tiberius all was quiet. Then, when Caligula ordered the Jews to set up his statue in their temple, they chose rather to resort to arms, but the emperor's death put an end to their uprising. The princes now being dead or reduced to insignificance, Claudius made Judea a province and entrusted it to Roman knights or to freedmen; one of the latter, Antonius Felix, practised every kind of cruelty and lust, wielding the power of king with all the instincts of a slave; he had married Drusilla, the grand-daughter of Cleopatra and Antony, and so was Antony's grandson-in‑law, while Claudius was Antony's grandson. 5.10.  Still the Jews' patience lasted until Gessius Florus became procurator: in his time war began. When Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria, tried to stop it, he suffered varied fortunes and met defeat more often than he gained victory. On his death, whether in the course of nature or from vexation, Nero sent out Vespasian, who, aided by his good fortune and reputation as well as by his excellent subordinates, within two summers occupied with his victorious army the whole of the level country and all the cities except Jerusalem. The next year was taken up with civil war, and thus was passed in inactivity so far as the Jews were concerned. When peace had been secured throughout Italy, foreign troubles began again; and the fact that the Jews alone had failed to surrender increased our resentment; at the same time, having regard to all the possibilities and hazards of a new reign, it seemed expedient for Titus to remain with the army.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles, grandson of aeacus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
achilles, successors, aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 237
achilles, successors, pyrrhus/ neoptolemus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
admetus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
aeacus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
aeneas, iliadic orientation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
aeneas, intertextual identities, achilles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
aeneas, intertextual identities, heracles/hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176
aeneas, intertextual identities, odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
aeneas, reader Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 237, 243
aeneas, shield of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177, 236, 237, 243; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153, 156
aeolus, king of the winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
aeolus, son of sisyphus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
ajax son of telamon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176
allecto Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
amata Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
anachronism Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
anchises, as aeacus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
anchises Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237, 243; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 156
anthropogeography Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
apollo Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
ascanius Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
athenian theater festivals, satyr drama in Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
audiences, power of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
augustus/octavian, relation with caesar Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
bezalel bar-kochva Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
birds Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
caeneus Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
caeneus / caenis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
callimachus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
catabasis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 243
catalogue of heroines Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
centaurs Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
cerberus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
charon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
choice Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
civil wars Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
clytemnestra Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
comedy, comic, comic endings Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
comedy, comic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
costs of war Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153
crossroads Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
dead sea Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
death, in tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 236, 243
decision Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
deianeira Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
deiphobus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
dido, character Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
dido, death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
dido, intertexutal identities, alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
dido, intertexutal identities, heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
dido Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 236; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26; Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
dreams Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 243
education, instruction Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 243
elegy Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152
elysium, elysian fields Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
emotions, passions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
empire, as territorial expanse Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 156
epic Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152
erato Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
eriphyle Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
ethical qualities, craftiness, deceit, deception, disguise, feigning, guile, sleight of hand, trickery (dolus, dolos) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 237
ethical qualities, resourcefulness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
ethical qualities, thievery Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
ethical qualities, treachery Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
ethics Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
ethnography Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
etymology, erato Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
etymology Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
euripides, alcestis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
euripides, heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
evander Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
failure Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
fate, fates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
fields of mourning Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
funeral Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 153
genre Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
golden bough Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
gomorrah Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
greeks Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
helen Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
hera Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, comic aspects Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, death of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, in callimachus aetia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles, in greek tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176
heracles, labors Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
hermaphrodites Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
hermeneutic, guides Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152, 153
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 236, 237
heroism Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
inconsistency Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153, 156
indeterminacy, hindsight Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
indeterminacy, historical narratives Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 156
intentions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
intertextuality, dialogic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
intertextuality, window reference (two-tier allusion) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
intertextuality Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
iphis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
iris Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
isis Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
italians, as iliadic greeks Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
italy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 236, 237, 243
jerusalem Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
judea Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
juno Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 243
kings, kingship theory Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
kings Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
lapiths Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
latinus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
latium Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
leto Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
leuca Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 110
leucippus Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
linear and cyclical conceptions of time and space Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152, 153
love Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 243
madness, furial Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, god-driven Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
madness, infernal Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
madness, madness (personified) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
maps and mapping Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153
marriage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
menelaus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
metamorphosis narratives, patterns of Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
minos Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 237
misenus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151
monuments Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153
mourning fields Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
muses, invocation of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
muses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
myth, greek (pagan) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 110
myth Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
names and naming Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 156
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 243
narrators, argonautic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
narrators, internal, apollo Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 237; Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
ovid Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
parade of heroes Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153, 156
paratexts Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151
phaedra Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
phlegyas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
plots, comic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
plots, epic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
plots, tragic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
pompey Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151
poseidon Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
power, of audiences Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
prayer for metamorphosis / release Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
procris Gazis and Hooper, Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature (2021) 63
prophecy, optimistic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
pyrrhus/neoptolemus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
reading, active Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153
relics Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 110
revisionary, verbs of Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153
revisionary Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 156
rhadamanthus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
rocks Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
romanitas Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153, 156
romans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 237
rome, romans Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88
satyr drama Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 177
seneca Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
sex-changes Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
sex Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
sibyl Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153
sibyl of cumae Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236, 237, 243
siproetes Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
sithon Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
sodom Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 88, 110
sophocles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
stage set (scaena, skênê) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
story Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
styx Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
suicide Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26
sychaeus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
tartarus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
theater' Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152
theater Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 153, 156
third ways Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
title Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
tourism Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 110
tragedy, and comedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragedy, as a theme Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
tragedy, greek Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
tragic, ending Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176
tragic, mode Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
tragic, prologue Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174
trojans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177, 236
troy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
turnus, intertextual identity, achilles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
turnus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 177
ulysses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
underworld Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 236, 237, 243; Fletcher, The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature (2023) 26; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 152, 153, 156
varro Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 153
vergil, aeneid, ancient scholarship on Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 237
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, argonautic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, heraclean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176, 177
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, odyssean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
vergil, aeneid, intertextual identity, tragic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174, 176, 177
vergil, aeneid, plot Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 176
vergil Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 151, 152, 153, 156
voice Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
wandering, odyssean theme Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 236
war, warfare Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 243
winds Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 237
words Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 174