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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11092
Vergil, Aeneis, 1.286-1.288


Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesarplace cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires.


imperium oceano, famam qui terminet astris,—Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green


Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo.they rally their lost powers, and feast them well


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 107-201, 106 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

106. (The lid already stopped her, by the will
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.396-1.400, 1.590-1.594, 8.479-8.481, 15.18-15.24 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.396. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.397. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.398. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.399. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.590. /he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled 1.591. /he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled 1.592. /he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled 1.593. /he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled 1.594. /he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled 8.479. /on the day when at the sterns of the ships they shall be fighting in grimmest stress about Patroclus fallen; for thus it is ordained of heaven. But of thee I reck not in thine anger, no, not though thou shouldst go to the nethermost bounds of earth and sea, where abide Iapetus and Cronos 8.480. /and have joy neither in the rays of Helios Hyperion nor in any breeze, but deep Tartarus is round about them. Though thou shouldst fare even thither in thy wanderings, yet reck I not of thy wrath, seeing there is naught more shameless than thou. So said he; howbeit white-armed Hera spake no word in answer. 8.481. /and have joy neither in the rays of Helios Hyperion nor in any breeze, but deep Tartarus is round about them. Though thou shouldst fare even thither in thy wanderings, yet reck I not of thy wrath, seeing there is naught more shameless than thou. So said he; howbeit white-armed Hera spake no word in answer. 15.18. /that hath stayed goodly Hector from the fight, and hath driven the host in rout. Verily I know not but thou shalt yet be the first to reap the fruits of thy wretched ill-contriving, and I shall scourge thee with stripes. Dost thou not remember when thou wast hung from on high, and from thy feet I suspended two anvils, and about thy wrists cast 15.19. /that hath stayed goodly Hector from the fight, and hath driven the host in rout. Verily I know not but thou shalt yet be the first to reap the fruits of thy wretched ill-contriving, and I shall scourge thee with stripes. Dost thou not remember when thou wast hung from on high, and from thy feet I suspended two anvils, and about thy wrists cast 15.20. /a band of gold that might not be broken? And in the air amid the clouds thou didst hang, and the gods had indignation throughout high Olympus; howbeit they availed not to draw nigh and loose thee. Nay, whomsoever I caught, I would seize and hurl from the threshold until he reached the earth, his strength all spent. Yet not even so was my heart 15.21. /a band of gold that might not be broken? And in the air amid the clouds thou didst hang, and the gods had indignation throughout high Olympus; howbeit they availed not to draw nigh and loose thee. Nay, whomsoever I caught, I would seize and hurl from the threshold until he reached the earth, his strength all spent. Yet not even so was my heart 15.22. /a band of gold that might not be broken? And in the air amid the clouds thou didst hang, and the gods had indignation throughout high Olympus; howbeit they availed not to draw nigh and loose thee. Nay, whomsoever I caught, I would seize and hurl from the threshold until he reached the earth, his strength all spent. Yet not even so was my heart 15.23. /a band of gold that might not be broken? And in the air amid the clouds thou didst hang, and the gods had indignation throughout high Olympus; howbeit they availed not to draw nigh and loose thee. Nay, whomsoever I caught, I would seize and hurl from the threshold until he reached the earth, his strength all spent. Yet not even so was my heart 15.24. /a band of gold that might not be broken? And in the air amid the clouds thou didst hang, and the gods had indignation throughout high Olympus; howbeit they availed not to draw nigh and loose thee. Nay, whomsoever I caught, I would seize and hurl from the threshold until he reached the earth, his strength all spent. Yet not even so was my heart
3. Homer, Odyssey, 1.1-1.9, 1.11-1.21, 8.266-8.366, 19.562-19.567 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Theocritus, Idylls, 17.128-17.134 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 3.34-3.35, 3.111-3.166, 3.221-3.222 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.34. εἰ δέ σοι αὐτῇ μῦθος ἐφανδάνει, ἦ τʼ ἂν ἔγωγε 3.35. ἑσποίμην· σὺ δέ κεν φαίης ἔπος ἀντιόωσα.’ 3.111. ἦ ῥα, καὶ ἔλλιπε θῶκον· ἐφωμάρτησε δʼ Ἀθήνη· 3.112. ἐκ δʼ ἴσαν ἄμφω ταίγε παλίσσυτοι. ἡ δὲ καὶ αὐτὴ 3.113. βῆ ῥ̓ ἴμεν Οὐλύμποιο κατὰ πτύχας, εἴ μιν ἐφεύροι. 3.114. εὗρε δὲ τόνγʼ ἀπάνευθε Διὸς θαλερῇ ἐν ἀλωῇ 3.115. οὐκ οἶον, μετα καὶ Γανυμήδεα, τόν ῥά ποτε Ζεὺς 3.116. οὐρανῷ ἐγκατένασσεν ἐφέστιον ἀθανάτοισιν 3.117. κάλλεος ἱμερθείς. ἀμφʼ ἀστραγάλοισι δὲ τώγε 3.118. χρυσείοις, ἅ τε κοῦροι ὁμήθεες, ἑψιόωντο. 3.119. καί ῥ̓ ὁ μὲν ἤδη πάμπαν ἐνίπλεον ᾧ ὑπὸ μαζῷ 3.120. μάργος Ἔρως λαιῆς ὑποΐσχανε χειρὸς ἀγοστόν 3.121. ὀρθὸς ἐφεστηώς· γλυκερὸν δέ οἱ ἀμφὶ παρειὰς 3.122. χροιῇ θάλλεν ἔρευθος. ὁ δʼ ἐγγύθεν ὀκλαδὸν ἧστο 3.123. σῖγα κατηφιόων· δοιὼ δʼ ἔχεν, ἄλλον ἔτʼ αὔτως 3.124. ἄλλῳ ἐπιπροϊείς, κεχόλωτο δὲ καγχαλόωντι. 3.125. καὶ μὴν τούσγε παρᾶσσον ἐπὶ προτέροισιν ὀλέσσας 3.126. βῆ κενεαῖς σὺν χερσὶν ἀμήχανος, οὐδʼ ἐνόησεν 3.127. Κύπριν ἐπιπλομένην. ἡ δʼ ἀντίη ἵστατο παιδός 3.128. καί μιν ἄφαρ γναθμοῖο κατασχομένη προσέειπεν· 3.129. ‘τίπτʼ ἐπιμειδιάᾳς, ἄφατον κακόν; ἦέ μιν αὔτως 3.130. ἤπαφες, οὐδὲ δίκῃ περιέπλεο νῆιν ἐόντα; 3.131. εἰ δʼ ἄγε μοι πρόφρων τέλεσον χρέος, ὅττι κεν εἴπω· 3.132. καί κέν τοι ὀπάσαιμι Διὸς περικαλλὲς ἄθυρμα 3.133. κεῖνο, τό οἱ ποίησε φίλη τροφὸς Ἀδρήστεια 3.134. ἄντρῳ ἐν Ἰδαίῳ ἔτι νήπια κουρίζοντι 3.135. σφαῖραν ἐυτρόχαλον, τῆς οὐ σύγε μείλιον ἄλλο 3.136. χειρῶν Ἡφαίστοιο κατακτεατίσσῃ ἄρειον. 3.137. χρύσεα μέν οἱ κύκλα τετεύχαται· ἀμφὶ δʼ ἑκάστῳ 3.138. διπλόαι ἁψῖδες περιηγέες εἱλίσσονται· 3.139. κρυπταὶ δὲ ῥαφαί εἰσιν· ἕλιξ δʼ ἐπιδέδρομε πάσαις 3.140. κυανέη. ἀτὰρ εἴ μιν ἑαῖς ἐνὶ χερσὶ βάλοιο 3.141. ἀστὴρ ὥς, φλεγέθοντα διʼ ἠέρος ὁλκὸν ἵησιν. 3.142. τήν τοι ἐγὼν ὀπάσω· σὺ δὲ παρθένον Αἰήταο 3.143. θέλξον ὀιστεύσας ἐπʼ Ἰήσονι· μηδέ τις ἔστω 3.144. ἀμβολίη. δὴ γάρ κεν ἀφαυροτέρη χάρις εἴη.’ 3.145. ὧς φάτο· τῷ δʼ ἀσπαστὸν ἔπος γένετʼ εἰσαΐοντι. 3.146. μείλια δʼ ἔκβαλε πάντα, καὶ ἀμφοτέρῃσι χιτῶνος 3.147. νωλεμὲς ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα θεᾶς ἔχεν ἀμφιμεμαρπώς. 3.148. λίσσετο δʼ αἶψα πορεῖν αὐτοσχεδόν· ἡ δʼ ἀγανοῖσιν 3.149. ἀντομένη μύθοισιν, ἐπειρύσσασα παρειάς 3.150. κύσσε ποτισχομένη, καὶ ἀμείβετο μειδιόωσα· 3.151. ‘ἴστω νῦν τόδε σεῖο φίλον κάρη ἠδʼ ἐμὸν αὐτῆς 3.152. ἦ μέν τοι δῶρόν γε παρέξομαι, οὐδʼ ἀπατήσω 3.153. εἴ κεν ἐνισκίμψῃς κούρῃ βέλος Αἰήταο.’ 3.154. φῆ· ὁ δʼ ἄρʼ ἀστραγάλους συναμήσατο, κὰδ δὲ φαεινῷ 3.155. μητρὸς ἑῆς εὖ πάντας ἀριθμήσας βάλε κόλπῳ. 3.156. αὐτίκα δʼ ἰοδόκην χρυσέῃ περικάτθετο μίτρῃ 3.157. πρέμνῳ κεκλιμένην· ἀνὰ δʼ ἀγκύλον εἵλετο τόξον. 3.158. βῆ δὲ διὲκ μεγάροιο Διὸς πάγκαρπον ἀλωήν. 3.159. αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα πύλας ἐξήλυθεν Οὐλύμποιο 3.160. αἰθερίας· ἔνθεν δὲ καταιβάτις ἐστὶ κέλευθος 3.161. οὐρανίη· δοιὼ δὲ πόλοι ἀνέχουσι κάρηνα 3.162. οὐρέων ἠλιβάτων, κορυφαὶ χθονός, ᾗχί τʼ ἀερθεὶς 3.163. ἠέλιος πρώτῃσιν ἐρεύθεται ἀκτίνεσσιν. 3.164. νειόθι δʼ ἄλλοτε γαῖα φερέσβιος ἄστεά τʼ ἀνδρῶν 3.165. φαίνετο καὶ ποταμῶν ἱεροὶ ῥόοι, ἄλλοτε δʼ αὖτε 3.166. ἄκριες, ἀμφὶ δὲ πόντος ἀνʼ αἰθέρα πολλὸν ἰόντι. 3.221. ὑψοῦ ἀειρόμεναι μέγʼ ἐθήλεον. αἱ δʼ ὑπὸ τῇσιν 3.222. ἀέναοι κρῆναι πίσυρες ῥέον, ἃς ἐλάχηνεν
6. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.89 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.89. Just as the shield in Accius who had never seen a ship before, on descrying in the distance from his mountain‑top the strange vessel of the Argonauts, built by the gods, in his first amazement and alarm cries out: so huge a bulk Glides from the deep with the roar of a whistling wind: Waves roll before, and eddies surge and swirl; Hurtling headlong, it snort and sprays the foam. Now might one deem a bursting storm-cloud rolled, Now that a rock flew skyward, flung aloft By wind and storm, or whirling waterspout Rose from the clash of wave with warring wave; Save 'twere land-havoc wrought by ocean-flood, Or Triton's trident, heaving up the roots of cavernous vaults beneath the billowy sea, Hurled from the depth heaven-high a massy crag. At first he wonders what the unknown creature that he beholds may be. Then when he sees the warriors and hears the singing of the sailors, he goes on: the sportive dolphins swift Forge snorting through the foam — and so on and so on — Brings to my ears and hearing such a tune As old Silvanus piped.
7. Cicero, On Duties, 1.35, 1.62, 1.74-1.78, 1.121, 2.26-2.27, 2.45, 2.85 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.35. Quare suscipienda quidem bella sunt ob eam causam, ut sine iniuria in pace vivatur, parta autem victoria conservandi ii, qui non crudeles in bello, non immanes fuerunt, ut maiores nostri Tusculanos, Aequos, Volscos, Sabinos, Hernicos in civitatem etiam acceperunt, at Carthaginem et Numantiam funditus sustulerunt; nollem Corinthum, sed credo aliquid secutos, opportunitatem loci maxime, ne posset aliquando ad bellum faciendum locus ipse adhortari. Mea quidem sententia paci, quae nihil habitura sit insidiarum, semper est consulendum. In quo si mihi esset optemperatum, si non optimam, at aliquam rem publicam, quae nunc nulla est, haberemus. Et cum iis, quos vi deviceris, consulendum est, tum ii, qui armis positis ad imperatorum fidem confugient, quamvis murum aries percusserit, recipiendi. In quo tantopere apud nostros iustitia culta est, ut ii, qui civitates aut nationes devictas bello in fidem recepissent, earum patroni essent more maiorum. 1.62. Sed ea animi elatio, quae cernitur in periculis et laboribus, si iustitia vacat pugnatque non pro salute communi, sed pro suis commodis, in vitio est; non modo enim id virtutis non est, sed est potius immanitatis omnem humanitatem repellentis. Itaque probe definitur a Stoicis fortitudo, cum eam virtutem esse dicunt propugtem pro aequitate. Quocirca nemo, qui fortitudinis gloriam consecutus est insidiis et malitia, laudem est adeptus; nihil enim honestum esse potest, quod iustitia vacat. 1.74. Sed cum plerique arbitrentur res bellicas maiores esse quam urbanas, minuenda est haec opinio. Multi enim bella saepe quaesiverunt propter gloriae cupiditatem, atque id in magnis animis ingeniisque plerumque contingit, eoque magis, si sunt ad rem militarem apti et cupidi bellorum gerendorum; vere autem si volumus iudicare, multae res exstiterunt urbanae maiores clarioresque quam bellicae. 1.75. Quamvis enim Themistocles iure laudetur et sit eius nomen quam Solonis illustrius citcturque Salamis clarissimae testis victoriae, quae anteponatur consilio Solonis ei, quo primum constituit Areopagitas, non minus praeclarum hoc quam illud iudicandum est; illud enim semel profuit, hoc semper proderit civitati; hoc consilio leges Atheniensium, hoc maiorum instituta servantur; et Themistocles quidem nihil dixerit, in quo ipse Areopagum adiuverit, at ille vere a se adiutum Themistoclem; est enim bellum gestum consilio senatus eius, qui a Solone erat constitutus. 1.76. Licet eadem de Pausania Lysandroque dicere, quorum rebus gestis quamquam imperium Lacedaemoniis partum putatur, tamen ne minima quidem ex parte Lycurgi legibus et disciplinae confercndi sunt; quin etiam ob has ipsas causas et parentiores habuerunt exercitus et fortiores. Mihi quidem neque pueris nobis M. Scaurus C. Mario neque, cum versaremur in re publica, Q. Catulus Cn. Pompeio cedere videbatur; parvi enim sunt foris arma, nisi est consilium domi; nec plus Africanus, singularis et vir et imperator, in exscindenda Numantia rei publicae profuit quam eodem tempore P. Nasica privatus, cum Ti. Gracchum interemit; quamquam haec quidem res non solum ex domestica est ratione (attingit etiam bellicam, quoniam vi manuque confecta est), sed tamen id ipsum est gestum consilio urbano sine exercitu. 1.77. Illud autem optimum est, in quod invadi solere ab improbis et invidis audio: Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi. Ut enim alios omittam, nobis rem publicam gubertibus nonne togae arma cesserunt? neque enim periculum in re publica fuit gravius umquam nec maius otium. Ita consiliis diligentiaque nostra celeriter de manibus audacissimorum civium delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt. 1.78. Quae res igitur gesta umquam in bello tanta? qui triumphus conferendus? licet enim mihi, M. fill, apud te gloriari, ad quem et hereditas huius gloriae et factorum imitatio pertinet. Mihi quidem certe vir abundans bellicis laudibus, Cn. Pompeius, multis audientibus hoc tribuit, ut diceret frustra se triumphum tertium deportaturum fuisse, nisi meo in rem publicam beneficio, ubi triumpharet, esset habiturus. Sunt igitur domesticae fortitudines non inferiores militaribus; in quibus plus etiam quam in his operae studiique ponendum est. 1.121. Commutato autem genere vitae omni ratione curandum est, ut id bono consilio fecisse videamur. Sed quoniam paulo ante dictum est imitandos esse maiores, primum illud exceptum sit, ne vitia sint imitanda, deinde si natura non feret, ut quaedam imitari posit (ut superioris filius Africani, qui hunc Paulo natum adoptavit, propter infirmitatem valetudinis non tam potuit patris similis esse, quam ille fuerat sui); si igitur non poterit sive causas defensitare sive populum contionibus tenere sive bella gerere, illa tamen praestare debebit, quae erunt in ipsius potestate, iustitiam, fidem, liberalitatem, modestiam, temperantiam, quo minus ab eo id, quod desit, requiratur. Optima autem hereditas a patribus traditur liberis omnique patrimonio praestantior gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum, cui dedecori esse nefas et vitium iudicandum est. 2.26. Testis est Phalaris, cuius est praeter ceteros nobilitata crudelitas, qui non ex insidiis interiit, ut is, quem modo dixi, Alexander, non a paucis, ut hic noster, sed in quem universa Agrigentinorum multitudo impetum fecit. Quid? Macedones nonne Demetrium reliquerunt universique se ad Pyrrhum contulerunt? Quid? Lacedaemonios iniuste imperantes nonne repente omnes fere socii deseruerunt spectatoresque se otiosos praebuerunt Leuctricae calamitatis? Externa libentius in tali re quam domestica recordor. Verum tamen, quam diu imperium populi Romani beneficiis tenebatur, non iniuriis, bella aut pro sociis aut de imperio gerebantur, exitus erant bellorum aut mites aut necessarii, regum, populorum, nationum portus erat et refugium senatus 2.27. nostri autem magistratus imperatoresque ex hac una re maximam laudem capere studebant, si provincias, si socios aequitate et fide defendissent; itaque illud patrocinium orbis terrae verius quam imperium poterat nominari. Sensim hanc consuetudinem et disciplinam iam antea minuebamus, post vero Sullae victoriam penitus amisimus; desitum est enim videri quicquam in socios iniquum, cum exstitisset in cives tanta crudelitas. Ergo in illo secuta est honestam causam non honesta victoria; est enim ausus dicere, hasta posita cum bona in foro venderet et bonorum virorum et locupletium et certe civium, praedam se suam vendere. Secutus est, qui in causa impia, victoria etiam foediore non singulorum civium bona publicaret, sed universas provincias regionesque uno calamitatis iure comprehenderet. 2.45. Quorum autem prima aetas propter humilitatem et obscuritatem in hominum ignoratione versatur, ii, simul ac iuvenes esse coeperunt, magna spectare et ad ea rectis studiis debent contendere; quod eo firmiore animo facient, quia non modo non invidetur illi aetati, verum etiam favetur. Prima igitur est adulescenti commendatio ad gloriam, si qua ex bellicis rebus comparari potest, in qua multi apud maiores nostros exstiterunt; semper enim fere bella gerebantur. Tua autem aetas incidit in id bellum, cuius altera pars sceleris nimium habuit, altera felicitatis parum. Quo tamen in bello cum te Pompeius alae alteri praefecisset, magnam laudem et a summo viro et ab exercitu consequebare equitando, iaculando, omni militari labore tolerando. Atque ea quidem tua laus pariter cum re publica cecidit. Mihi autem haec oratio suscepta non de te est, sed de genere toto; quam ob rein pergarnus ad ea, quae restant. 2.85. Ab hoc igitur genere largitionis, ut aliis detur, aliis auferatur, aberunt ii, qui rem publicam tuebuntur, in primisque operam dabunt, ut iuris et iudiciorum aequitate suum quisque teneat et neque tenuiores propter humilitatem circumveniantur neque locupletibus ad sua vel tenenda vel recuperanda obsit invidia, praeterea, quibuscumque rebus vel belli vel domi poterunt, rem publicam augeant imperio, agris, vectigalibus. Haec magnorum hominum sunt, haec apud maiores nostros factitata, haec genera officiorum qui persequentur, cum summa utilitate rei publicae magnam ipsi adipiscentur et gratiam et gloriam. 1.35.  The only excuse, therefore, for going to war is that we may live in peace unharmed; and when the victory is won, we should spare those who have not been blood-thirsty and barbarous in their warfare. For instance, our forefathers actually admitted to full rights of citizenship the Tusculans, Aequians, Volscians, Sabines, and Hernicians, but they razed Carthage and Numantia to the ground. I wish they had not destroyed Corinth; but I believe they had some special reason for what they did — its convenient situation, probably — and feared that its very location might some day furnish a temptation to renew the war. In my opinion, at least, we should always strive to secure a peace that shall not admit of guile. And if my advice had been heeded on this point, we should still have at least some sort of constitutional government, if not the best in the world, whereas, as it is, we have none at all. Not only must we show consideration for those whom we have conquered by force of arms but we must also ensure protection to those who lay down their arms and throw themselves upon the mercy of our generals, even though the battering-ram has hammered at their walls. And among our countrymen justice has been observed so conscientiously in this direction, that those who have given promise of protection to states or nations subdued in war become, after the custom of our forefathers, the patrons of those states. 1.62.  But if the exaltation of spirit seen in times of danger and toil is devoid of justice and fights for selfish ends instead of for the common good, it is a vice; for not only has it no element of virtue, but its nature is barbarous and revolting to all our finer feelings. The Stoics, therefore, correctly define courage as "that virtue which champions the cause of right." Accordingly, no one has attained to true glory who has gained a reputation for courage by treachery and cunning; for nothing that lacks justice can be morally right. 1.74.  Most people think that the achievements of war are more important than those of peace; but this opinion needs to be corrected. For many men have sought occasions for war from the mere ambition for fame. This is notably the case with men of great spirit and natural ability, and it is the more likely to happen, if they are adapted to a soldier's life and fond of warfare. But if we will face the facts, we shall find that there have been many instances of achievement in peace more important and no less renowned than in war. 1.75.  However highly Themistocles, for example, may be extolled — and deservedly — and however much more illustrious his name may be than Solon's, and however much Salamis may be cited as witness of his most glorious victory — a victory glorified above Solon's statesmanship in instituting the Areopagus — yet Solon's achievement is not to be accounted less illustrious than his. For Themistocles's victory served the state once and only once; while Solon's work will be of service for ever. For through his legislation the laws of the Athenians and the institutions of their fathers are maintained. And while Themistocles could not readily point to any instance in which he himself had rendered assistance to the Areopagus, the Areopagus might with justice assert that Themistocles had received assistance from it; for the war was directed by the counsels of that senate which Solon had created. 1.76.  The same may be said of Pausanias and Lysander. Although it is thought that it was by their achievements that Sparta gained her supremacy, yet these are not even remotely to be compared with the legislation and discipline of Lycurgus. Nay, rather, it was due to these that Pausanias and Lysander had armies so brave and so well disciplined. For my own part, I do not consider that Marcus Scaurus was inferior to Gaius Marius, when I was a lad, or Quintus Catulus to Gnaeus Pompey, when I was engaged in public life. For arms are of little value in the field unless there is wise counsel at home. So, too, Africanus, though a great man and a soldier of extraordinary ability, did no greater service to the state by destroying Numantia than was done at the same time by Publius Nasica, though not then clothed with official authority, by removing Tiberius Gracchus. This deed does not, to be sure, belong wholly to the domain of civil affairs; it partakes of the nature of war also, since it was effected by violence; but it was, for all that, executed as a political measure without the help of an army. 1.77.  The whole truth, however, is in this verse, against which, I am told, the malicious and envious are wont to rail: "Yield, ye arms, to the toga; to civic praises, ye laurels." Not to mention other instances, did not arms yield to the toga, when I was at the helm of state? For never was the republic in more serious peril, never was peace more profound. Thus, as the result of my counsels and my vigilance, their weapons slipped suddenly from the hands of the most desperate traitors — dropped to the ground of their own accord! What achievement in war, then, was ever so great? 1.78.  What triumph can be compared with that? For I may boast to you, my son Marcus; for to you belong the inheritance of that glory of mine and the duty of imitating my deeds. And it was to me, too, that Gnaeus Pompey, a hero crowned with the honour of war, paid this tribute in the hearing of many, when he said that his third triumph would have been gained in vain, if he were not to have through my services to the state a place in which to celebrate it. There are, therefore, instances of civic courage that are not inferior to the courage of the soldier. Nay, the former calls for even greater energy and greater devotion than the latter. 1.121.  And when we have once changed our calling in life, we must take all possible care to make it clear that we have done so with good reason. But whereas I said a moment ago that we have to follow in the steps of our fathers, let me make the following exceptions: first, we need not imitate their faults; second, we need not imitate certain other things, if our nature does not permit such imitation; for example, the son of the elder Africanus (that Scipio who adopted the younger Africanus, the son of Paulus) could not on account of ill-health be so much like his father as Africanus had been like his. If, then, a man is unable to conduct cases at the bar or to hold the people spell-bound with his eloquence or to conduct wars, still it will be his duty to practise these other virtues, which are within his reach — justice, good faith, generosity, temperance, self-control — that his deficiencies in other respects may be less conspicuous. The noblest heritage, however, that is handed down from fathers to children, and one more precious than any inherited wealth, is a reputation for virtue and worthy deeds; and to dishonour this must be branded as a sin and a shame. 2.26.  And indeed no power is strong enough to be lasting if it labours under the weight of fear. Witness Phalaris, whose cruelty is notorious beyond that of all others. He was slain, not treacherously (like that Alexander whom I named but now), not by a few conspirators (like that tyrant of ours), but the whole population of Agrigentum rose against him with one accord. Again, did not the Macedonians abandon Demetrius and march over as one man to Pyrrhus? And again, when the Spartans exercised their supremacy tyrannically, did not practically all the allies desert them and view their disaster at Leuctra, as idle spectators? I prefer in this connection to draw my illustrations from foreign history rather than from our own. Let me add, however, that as long as the empire of the Roman People maintained itself by acts of service, not of oppression, wars were waged in the interest of our allies or to safeguard our supremacy; the end of our wars was marked by acts of clemency or by only a necessary degree of severity; the senate was a haven of refuge for kings, tribes, and nations; 2.27.  and the highest ambition of our magistrates and generals was to defend our provinces and allies with justice and honour. 2.45.  Those, on the other hand, whose humble and obscure origin has kept them unknown to the world in their early years ought, as soon as they approach young manhood, to set a high ideal before their eyes and to strive with unswerving zeal towards its realization. This they will do with the better heart, because that time of life is accustomed to find favour rather than to meet with opposition. Well, then, the first thing to recommend to a young man in his quest for glory is that he try to win it, if he can, in a military career. Among our forefathers many distinguished themselves as soldiers; for warfare was almost continuous then. The period of your own youth, however, has coincided with that war in which the one side was too prolific in crime, the other in failure. And yet, when Pompey placed you in command of a cavalry squadron in this war, you won the applause of that great man and of the army for your skill in riding and spear-throwing and for endurance of all the hardships of the soldier's life. But that credit accorded to you came to nothing along with the fall of the republic. The subject of this discussion, however, is not your personal history, but the general theme. Let us, therefore, proceed to the sequel. 2.85.  Those, then, whose office it is to look after the interests of the state will refrain from that form of liberality which robs one man to enrich another. Above all, they will use their best endeavours that everyone shall be protected in the possession of his own property by the fair administration of the law and the courts, that the poorer classes shall not be oppressed because of their helplessness, and that envy shall not stand in the way of the rich, to prevent them from keeping or recovering possession of what justly belongs to them; they must strive, too, by whatever means they can, in peace or in war, to advance the state in power, in territory, and in revenues. Such service calls for great men; it was commonly rendered in the days of our ancestors; if men will perform duties such as these, they will win popularity and glory for themselves and at the same time render eminent service to the state.
8. Cicero, Republic, 3.35-3.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.35. Isid. Orig. 18.1.2sq. Illa iniusta bella sunt, quae sunt sine causa suscepta. Nam extra ulciscendi aut propulsandorum hostium causam bellum geri iustum nullum potest. Isid. Orig. 18.1.2sq. Nullum bellum iustum habetur nisi denuntiatum, nisi indictum, nisi repetitis rebus. 3.35. Non. 498M Noster autem populus sociis defendendis terrarum iam omnium potitus est. 3.36. August. C.D. 19.21 Cur igitur deus homini, animus imperat corpori, ratio libidini ceterisque vitiosis animi partibus?
9. Cicero, Philippicae, 9.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Pro Sestio, 101, 96-100 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.2, 1.109-1.110 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2. Nam mores et instituta vitae resque domesticas ac familiaris nos profecto et melius tuemur et lautius, latius R 1 rem vero publicam nostri maiores certe melioribus temperaverunt et institutis et legibus. quid loquar de re militari? in qua cum virtute nostri multum valuerunt, tum plus etiam disciplina. iam illa, quae natura, non litteris adsecuti assec. KRH sunt, neque cum Graecia neque ulla cum gente cum ulla gente K sunt conferenda. quae enim tanta gravitas, quae tanta constantia, magnitudo animi, animi magnitudo K probitas, fides, quae tam excellens in omni genere virtus in ullis fuit, ut sit cum maioribus nostris comparanda? 1.109. quantum famaeque V (ae in r. V c ) autem consuetudini famaeque dandum sit, id curent vivi, sed ita, ut intellegant nihil id id ss. G 1 ad mortuos pertinere. Sed profecto mors tum aequissimo animo oppetitur, cum suis se laudibus vita occidens consolari potest. nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis virtutis -utis in r. V c perfectae perfecto perfecto exp. V 2 functus est munere. multa mihi ipsi ad mortem tempestiva fuerunt. quam quam Dav. quae (idem error p. 274, 16 saep.) utinam potuissem obire! nihil enim iam adquirebatur, cumulata erant officia vitae, cum fortuna fortunae K 2 B bella restabant. quare si ipsa ratio minus perficiat, perficiet V 2 ut mortem neglegere possimus, at vita acta perficiat, ut satis superque vixisse videamur. videamus V 1 quamquam enim en im V (si et ... 2 ) sensus abierit, tamen suis suis Lb. (cf.p.253,9) summis et propriis bonis laudis et gloriae, quamvis non sentiant, mortui non carent. etsi enim nihil habet habe t G( eras. n) in se gloria cur expetatur, expectatur X (c exp. in V) vir tutē V ( ss. 2? ) tamen virtutem tamquam umbra sequitur. sequatur V 2? 1.110. verum suppl. Po. (obl. Bitschofsky, Berl. ph. Woch. 1913,173) ante verum quod pro adi. habent add. et Bentl. igitur Sey multitudinis iudicium de bonis bonum si quando est, magis laudandum est quam illi ob eam rem beati. non possum autem dicere, quoquo quo V 1 ( add. c ) modo hoc accipietur, Lycurgum Solonem legum et publicae publicę V (-ce K publi G 1 ) disciplinae carere gloria, Themistoclem Epaminondam et epam. V 2 bellicae virtutis. ante enim Salamina salamina Man. salaminam cf. We. salamini GK 1 (i add. 2 ) V ipsam Neptunus obruet quam Salaminii tropaei trop hi G 1 K ( add. 2 ) trop ei m. V ( ss. 2 ) memoriam, priusque e V 2 om. X e Boeotia bootia X (boetia K 2 V 2 B) Leuctra leuctrae V 2 leuctrha K 1 R 1 tollentur quam quam K quae GRV 1 ( supra ae add. V rec ) pugnae Leuctricae gloria. multo autem tardius fama deseret desseret GV 1 Curium Fabricium Calatinum, duo Scipiones duo duos V rec Africanos, Maximum Marcellum Paulum, Catonem Laelium, innumerabilis alios; quorum similitudinem aliquam qui arripuerit, non eam fama populari, sed vera bonorum laude metiens, fidenti animo, anima G si ita res feret, res feret V 2 s Lact. refert X gradietur ad mortem; in qua aut summum bonum aut nullum malum esse cognovimus. fidenti...24 cognovimus Lact. inst. 7, 10, 9 secundis vero suis rebus volet etiam mori; non enim tam tam add. G 1 cumulus bonorum iucundus esse potest quam molesta decessio. hanc sententiam significare videtur Laconis illa vox, qui, cum Rhodius Diagoras, Olympionices olimp. X (10 solus V) nobilis, uno die duo suos filios victores Olympiae vidisset, accessit ad senem et gratulatus:
12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.12-6.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.' 6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.' 6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,' 6.15. in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height. 6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.' 6.17. Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story.
13. Catullus, Poems, 64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Horace, Odes, 1.12.47, 3.3.9-3.3.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, 2.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Livy, History, 1.39.1-1.39.4, 25.39.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Ovid, Amores, 2.11.1-2.11.6, 3.9, 3.9.7, 3.9.13-3.9.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Ovid, Fasti, 1.85-1.86, 1.295-1.310, 1.529-1.532, 2.138, 2.684 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.85. When Jupiter watches the whole world from his hill 1.86. Everything that he sees belongs to Rome. 1.295. What prevents me speaking of the stars, and their rising 1.296. And setting? That was a part of what I’ve promised. 1.297. Happy minds that first took the trouble to consider 1.298. These things, and to climb to the celestial regions! 1.299. We can be certain that they raised their head 1.300. Above the failings and the homes of men, alike. 1.301. Neither wine nor lust destroyed their noble natures 1.302. Nor public business nor military service: 1.303. They were not seduced by trivial ambitions 1.304. Illusions of bright glory, nor hunger for great wealth. 1.305. They brought the distant stars within our vision 1.306. And subjected the heavens to their genius. 1.307. So we reach the sky: there’s no need for Ossa to be piled 1.308. On Olympus, or Pelion’s summit touch the highest stars. 1.309. Following these masters I too will measure out the skies 1.310. And attribute the wheeling signs to their proper dates. 1.529. And a god in person will hold the sacred rites. 1.530. The safety of the country will lie with Augustus’ house: 1.531. It’s decreed this family will hold the reins of empire. 1.532. So Caesar’s son, Augustus, and grandson, Tiberius 2.138. Caesar possesses all beneath Jupiter’s heavens. 2.684. The extent of the City of Rome and the world is one.
19. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.150, 6.721 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Ovid, Tristia, 1.5.69-1.5.70, 3.7.51-3.7.52 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Propertius, Elegies, 3.11.57 (1st cent. BCE

22. Sallust, Catiline, 7.3-7.6, 12.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

23. Sallust, Iugurtha, 4.5-4.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

24. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.3.8. These advantages accrued to the city from the nature of the country; but the foresight of the Romans added others besides. The Grecian cities are thought to have flourished mainly on account of the felicitous choice made by their founders, in regard to the beauty and strength of their sites, their proximity to some port, and the fineness of the country. But the Roman prudence was more particularly employed on matters which had received but little attention from the Greeks, such as paving their roads, constructing aqueducts, and sewers, to convey the sewage of the city into the Tiber. In fact, they have paved the roads, cut through hills, and filled up valleys, so that the merchandise may be conveyed by carriage from the ports. The sewers, arched over with hewn stones, are large enough in some parts for waggons loaded with hay to pass through; while so plentiful is the supply of water from the aqueducts, that rivers may be said to flow through the city and the sewers, and almost every house is furnished with water-pipes and copious fountains. To effect which Marcus Agrippa directed his special attention; he likewise bestowed upon the city numerous ornaments. We may remark, that the ancients, occupied with greater and more necessary concerns, paid but little attention to the beautifying of Rome. But their successors, and especially those of our own day, without neglecting these things, have at the same time embellished the city with numerous and splendid objects. Pompey, divus Caesar, and Augustus, with his children, friends, wife, and sister, have surpassed all others in their zeal and munificence in these decorations. The greater number of these may be seen in the Campus Martius, which to the beauties of nature adds those of art. The size of the plain is marvellous, permitting chariot-races and other feats of horsemanship without impediment, and multitudes to exercise themselves at ball, in the circus and the palaestra. The structures which surround it, the turf covered with herbage all the year round, the summits of the hills beyond the Tiber, extending from its banks with panoramic effect, present a spectacle which the eye abandons with regret. Near to this plain is another surrounded with columns, sacred groves, three theatres, an amphitheatre, and superb temples in close contiguity to each other; and so magnificent, that it would seem idle to describe the rest of the city after it. For this cause the Romans, esteeming it as the most sacred place, have there erected funeral monuments to the most illustrious persons of either sex. The most remarkable of these is that designated as the Mausoleum, which consists of a mound of earth raised upon a high foundation of white marble, situated near the river, and covered to the top with ever-green shrubs. Upon the summit is a bronze statue of Augustus Caesar, and beneath the mound are the ashes of himself, his relatives, and friends. Behind is a large grove containing charming promenades. In the centre of the plain, is the spot where this prince was reduced to ashes; it is surrounded with a double enclosure, one of marble, the other of iron, and planted within with poplars. If from hence you proceed to visit the ancient forum, which is equally filled with basilicas, porticos, and temples, you will there behold the Capitol, the Palatium, with the noble works which adorn them, and the promenade of Livia, each successive place causing you speedily to forget what you have before seen. Such is Rome.
25. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1-1.285, 1.287-1.756, 2.1-2.2, 2.7, 2.44, 2.90, 2.97-2.99, 2.261, 2.559-2.587, 2.685-2.703, 2.762, 3.37-3.38, 3.40-3.43, 3.56-3.59, 3.62-3.65, 3.67-3.68, 3.273, 3.280, 3.294-3.295, 3.435-3.440, 3.500-3.505, 3.588-3.654, 4.1-4.53, 4.67, 4.90-4.128, 4.208, 4.219-4.278, 4.452-4.456, 4.465-4.473, 4.678-4.679, 5.597-5.598, 5.600-5.601, 5.796-5.797, 5.803-5.804, 5.812, 5.814-5.817, 5.838-5.841, 5.864, 6.489-6.493, 6.528-6.529, 6.752-6.892, 6.896, 7.38, 7.81-7.101, 7.286-7.341, 7.707, 8.1-8.24, 8.31-8.34, 8.324-8.325, 8.370-8.406, 8.608-8.728, 8.730-8.731, 9.106, 9.638-9.644, 10.1-10.117, 10.242-10.243, 10.252, 10.606-10.632, 11.246-11.247, 11.532-11.596, 12.4-12.8, 12.134-12.160, 12.283-12.284, 12.286, 12.290, 12.331-12.336, 12.701-12.703, 12.749-12.757, 12.791-12.842 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Arms and the man I sing, who first made way 1.2. predestined exile, from the Trojan shore 1.3. to Italy, the blest Lavinian strand. 1.4. Smitten of storms he was on land and sea 1.5. by violence of Heaven, to satisfy 1.6. tern Juno's sleepless wrath; and much in war 1.7. he suffered, seeking at the last to found 1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods 1.9. to safe abode in Latium ; whence arose 1.10. the Latin race, old Alba's reverend lords 1.12. O Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege 1.13. or vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen 1.14. to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil 1.15. a man whose largest honor in men's eyes 1.17. In ages gone an ancient city stood— 1.18. Carthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar 1.19. made front on Italy and on the mouths 1.20. of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues 1.21. were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war. 1.22. 'T is said that Juno, of all lands she loved 1.23. most cherished this,—not Samos ' self so dear. 1.24. Here were her arms, her chariot; even then 1.25. a throne of power o'er nations near and far 1.26. if Fate opposed not, 't was her darling hope 1.27. to 'stablish here; but anxiously she heard 1.28. that of the Trojan blood there was a breed 1.29. then rising, which upon the destined day 1.30. hould utterly o'erwhelm her Tyrian towers 1.31. a people of wide sway and conquest proud 1.32. hould compass Libya 's doom;—such was the web 1.33. the Fatal Sisters spun. Such was the fear 1.34. of Saturn's daughter, who remembered well 1.35. what long and unavailing strife she waged 1.36. for her loved Greeks at Troy . Nor did she fail 1.37. to meditate th' occasions of her rage 1.38. and cherish deep within her bosom proud 1.39. its griefs and wrongs: the choice by Paris made; 1.40. her scorned and slighted beauty; a whole race 1.41. rebellious to her godhead; and Jove's smile 1.42. that beamed on eagle-ravished Ganymede. 1.43. With all these thoughts infuriate, her power 1.44. pursued with tempests o'er the boundless main 1.45. the Trojans, though by Grecian victor spared 1.46. and fierce Achilles; so she thrust them far 1.47. from Latium ; and they drifted, Heaven-impelled 1.48. year after year, o'er many an unknown sea— 1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.223. rises a straight-stemmed grove of dense, dark shade. 1.224. Fronting on these a grotto may be seen 1.225. o'erhung by steep cliffs; from its inmost wall 1.226. clear springs gush out; and shelving seats it has 1.227. of unhewn stone, a place the wood-nymphs love. 1.228. In such a port, a weary ship rides free 1.230. Hither Aeneas of his scattered fleet 1.231. aving but seven, into harbor sailed; 1.232. with passionate longing for the touch of land 1.233. forth leap the Trojans to the welcome shore 1.234. and fling their dripping limbs along the ground. 1.235. Then good Achates smote a flinty stone 1.236. ecured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves 1.237. and with dry branches nursed the mounting flame. 1.238. Then Ceres' gift from the corrupting sea 1.239. they bring away; and wearied utterly 1.240. ply Ceres' cunning on the rescued corn 1.241. and parch in flames, and mill 'twixt two smooth stones. 1.242. Aeneas meanwhile climbed the cliffs, and searched 1.243. the wide sea-prospect; haply Antheus there 1.244. torm-buffeted, might sail within his ken 1.245. with biremes, and his Phrygian mariners 1.246. or Capys or Caicus armor-clad 1.247. upon a towering deck. No ship is seen; 1.248. but while he looks, three stags along the shore 1.249. come straying by, and close behind them comes 1.250. the whole herd, browsing through the lowland vale 1.251. in one long line. Aeneas stopped and seized 1.252. his bow and swift-winged arrows, which his friend 1.253. trusty Achates, close beside him bore. 1.254. His first shafts brought to earth the lordly heads 1.255. of the high-antlered chiefs; his next assailed 1.256. the general herd, and drove them one and all 1.257. in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.258. the victory of his bow, till on the ground 1.259. lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260. Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends 1.261. distributed the spoil, with that rare wine 1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.305. near him, her radiant eyes all dim with tears 1.306. nor smiling any more, Venus approached 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 1.309. enthroned in awful thunder! What huge wrong 1.310. could my Aeneas and his Trojans few 1.311. achieve against thy power? For they have borne 1.312. unnumbered deaths, and, failing Italy 1.313. the gates of all the world against them close. 1.314. Hast thou not given us thy covet 1.315. that hence the Romans when the rolling years 1.316. have come full cycle, shall arise to power 1.317. from Troy 's regenerate seed, and rule supreme 1.318. the unresisted lords of land and sea? 1.319. O Sire, what swerves thy will? How oft have I 1.320. in Troy 's most lamentable wreck and woe 1.321. consoled my heart with this, and balanced oft 1.322. our destined good against our destined ill! 1.323. But the same stormful fortune still pursues 1.324. my band of heroes on their perilous way. 1.325. When shall these labors cease, O glorious King? 1.326. Antenor, though th' Achaeans pressed him sore 1.327. found his way forth, and entered unassailed 1.328. Illyria 's haven, and the guarded land 1.329. of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed 1.330. where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 1.331. a nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 1.332. and whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 1.333. He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes 1.334. for Troy 's far-exiled sons; he gave a name 1.335. to a new land and race; the Trojan arms 1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby 1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. 1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass 1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. 1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called 1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood) 1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build 1.370. Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 1.371. have kingly power; till a priestess queen 1.372. by Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 1.374. in tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 1.375. the sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 1.376. and on his Romans his own name bestow. 1.377. To these I give no bounded times or power 1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea 1.380. with her dread frown, will find a wiser way 1.381. and at my sovereign side protect and bless 1.382. the Romans, masters of the whole round world 1.383. who, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind. 1.384. Such my decree! In lapse of seasons due 1.385. the heirs of Ilium 's kings shall bind in chains 1.386. Mycenae 's glory and Achilles' towers 1.387. and over prostrate Argos sit supreme. 1.388. of Trojan stock illustriously sprung 1.389. lo, Caesar comes! whose power the ocean bounds 1.390. whose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name 1.391. Iulus nobly bore, great Julius, he. 1.392. Him to the skies, in Orient trophies dress 1.393. thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, like us 1.394. hall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow. 1.395. Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound 1.396. will be forgot; for olden Honor then 1.397. with spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain 1.398. Remus and Romulus, at strife no more 1.399. will publish sacred laws. The dreadful gates 1.400. whence issueth war, shall with close-jointed steel 1.401. be barred impregnably; and prisoned there 1.402. the heaven-offending Fury, throned on swords 1.403. and fettered by a hundred brazen chains 1.405. These words he gave, and summoned Maia's son 1.406. the herald Mercury, who earthward flying 1.407. hould bid the Tyrian realms and new-built towers 1.408. welcome the Trojan waifs; lest Dido, blind 1.409. to Fate's decree, should thrust them from the land. 1.410. He takes his flight, with rhythmic stroke of wing 1.411. across th' abyss of air, and soon draws near 1.412. unto the Libyan mainland. He fulfils 1.413. his heavenly task; the Punic hearts of stone 1.414. grow soft beneath the effluence divine; 1.415. and, most of all, the Queen, with heart at ease 1.417. But good Aeneas, pondering all night long 1.418. his many cares, when first the cheerful dawn 1.419. upon him broke, resolved to take survey 1.420. of this strange country whither wind and wave 1.421. had driven him,—for desert land it seemed,— 1.422. to learn what tribes of man or beast possess 1.423. a place so wild, and careful tidings bring 1.424. back to his friends. His fleet of ships the while 1.425. where dense, dark groves o'er-arch a hollowed crag 1.426. he left encircled in far-branching shade. 1.427. Then with no followers save his trusty friend 1.428. Achates, he went forth upon his way 1.429. two broad-tipped javelins poising in his hand. 1.430. Deep to the midmost wood he went, and there 1.431. his Mother in his path uprose; she seemed 1.432. in garb and countece a maid, and bore 1.433. like Spartan maids, a weapon; in such guise 1.434. Harpalyce the Thracian urges on 1.435. her panting coursers and in wild career 1.436. outstrips impetuous Hebrus as it flows. 1.437. Over her lovely shoulders was a bow 1.438. lender and light, as fits a huntress fair; 1.439. her golden tresses without wimple moved 1.440. in every wind, and girded in a knot 1.441. her undulant vesture bared her marble knees. 1.442. She hailed them thus: “Ho, sirs, I pray you tell 1.443. if haply ye have noted, as ye came 1.444. one of my sisters in this wood astray? 1.445. She bore a quiver, and a lynx's hide 1.446. her spotted mantle was; perchance she roused 1.448. So Venus spoke, and Venus' son replied: 1.449. “No voice or vision of thy sister fair 1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess 1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph 1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art 1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies 1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! 1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand 1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold 1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell 1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there 1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity 1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; 1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed 1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love 1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly 1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul 1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept 1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came 1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was 1.494. to fly, self-banished, from her ruined land 1.495. and for her journey's aid, he whispered where 1.496. his buried treasure lay, a weight unknown 1.497. of silver and of gold. Thus onward urged 1.498. Dido, assembling her few trusted friends 1.499. prepared her flight. There rallied to her cause 1.500. all who did hate and scorn the tyrant king 1.501. or feared his cruelty. They seized his ships 1.502. which haply rode at anchor in the bay 1.503. and loaded them with gold; the hoarded wealth 1.504. of vile and covetous Pygmalion 1.505. they took to sea. A woman wrought this deed. 1.506. Then came they to these lands where now thine eyes 1.507. behold yon walls and yonder citadel 1.508. of newly rising Carthage . For a price 1.509. they measured round so much of Afric soil 1.510. as one bull's hide encircles, and the spot 1.511. received its name, the Byrsa. But, I pray 1.512. what men are ye? from what far land arrived 1.513. and whither going?” When she questioned thus 1.514. her son, with sighs that rose from his heart's depths 1.516. “Divine one, if I tell 1.517. my woes and burdens all, and thou could'st pause 1.518. to heed the tale, first would the vesper star 1.519. th' Olympian portals close, and bid the day 1.520. in slumber lie. of ancient Troy are we— 1.521. if aught of Troy thou knowest! As we roved 1.522. from sea to sea, the hazard of the storm 1.523. cast us up hither on this Libyan coast. 1.524. I am Aeneas, faithful evermore 1.525. to Heaven's command; and in my ships I bear 1.526. my gods ancestral, which I snatched away 1.527. from peril of the foe. My fame is known 1.528. above the stars. I travel on in quest 1.529. of Italy, my true home-land, and I 1.530. from Jove himself may trace my birth divine. 1.531. With twice ten ships upon the Phryglan main 1.532. I launched away. My mother from the skies 1.533. gave guidance, and I wrought what Fate ordained. 1.534. Yet now scarce seven shattered ships survive 1.535. the shock of wind and wave; and I myself 1.536. friendless, bereft, am wandering up and down 1.537. this Libyan wilderness! Behold me here 1.538. from Europe and from Asia exiled still!” 1.539. But Venus could not let him longer plain 1.541. “Whoe'er thou art 1.542. I deem that not unblest of heavenly powers 1.543. with vital breath still thine, thou comest hither 1.544. unto our Tyrian town. Go steadfast on 1.545. and to the royal threshold make thy way! 1.546. I bring thee tidings that thy comrades all 1.547. are safe at land; and all thy ships, conveyed 1.548. by favoring breezes, safe at anchor lie; 1.549. or else in vain my parents gave me skill 1.550. to read the skies. Look up at yonder swans! 1.551. A flock of twelve, whose gayly fluttering file 1.552. erst scattered by Jove's eagle swooping down 1.553. from his ethereal haunt, now form anew 1.554. their long-drawn line, and make a landing-place 1.555. or, hovering over, scan some chosen ground 1.556. or soaring high, with whir of happy wings 1.557. re-circle heaven in triumphant song: 1.558. likewise, I tell thee, thy Iost mariners 1.559. are landed, or fly landward at full sail. 1.561. She ceased and turned away. A roseate beam 1.562. from her bright shoulder glowed; th' ambrosial hair 1.563. breathed more than mortal sweetness, while her robes 1.564. fell rippling to her feet. Each step revealed 1.565. the veritable goddess. Now he knew 1.566. that vision was his mother, and his words 1.567. pursued the fading phantom as it fled: 1.568. “Why is thy son deluded o'er and o'er 1.569. with mocking dreams,—another cruel god? 1.570. Hast thou no hand-clasp true, nor interchange 1.571. of words unfeigned betwixt this heart and thine?” 1.572. Such word of blame he spoke, and took his way 1.573. toward the city's rampart. Venus then 1.574. o'erveiled them as they moved in darkened air,— 1.575. a liquid mantle of thick cloud divine,— 1.576. that viewless they might pass, nor would any 1.577. obstruct, delay, or question why they came. 1.578. To Paphos then she soared, her Ioved abode 1.579. where stands her temple, at whose hundred shrines 1.580. garlands of myrtle and fresh roses breathe 1.582. Meanwhile the wanderers swiftly journey on 1.583. along the clear-marked road, and soon they climb 1.584. the brow of a high hill, which close in view 1.585. o'er-towers the city's crown. The vast exploit 1.586. where lately rose but Afric cabins rude 1.587. Aeneas wondered at: the smooth, wide ways; 1.588. the bastioned gates; the uproar of the throng. 1.589. The Tyrians toil unwearied; some up-raise 1.590. a wall or citadel, from far below 1.591. lifting the ponderous stone; or with due care 1.592. choose where to build, and close the space around 1.593. with sacred furrow; in their gathering-place 1.594. the people for just governors, just laws 1.595. and for their reverend senate shout acclaim. 1.596. Some clear the harbor mouth; some deeply lay 1.597. the base of a great theatre, and carve out 1.598. proud columns from the mountain, to adorn 1.599. their rising stage with lofty ornament. 1.600. o busy bees above a field of flowers 1.601. in early summer amid sunbeams toil 1.602. leading abroad their nation's youthful brood; 1.603. or with the flowing honey storing close 1.604. the pliant cells, until they quite run o'er 1.605. with nectared sweet; while from the entering swarm 1.606. they take their little loads; or lined for war 1.607. rout the dull drones, and chase them from the hive; 1.608. brisk is the task, and all the honeyed air 1.609. breathes odors of wild thyme. “How blest of Heaven. 1.610. These men that see their promised ramparts rise!” 1.611. Aeneas sighed; and swift his glances moved 1.612. from tower to tower; then on his way he fared 1.613. veiled in the wonder-cloud, whence all unseen 1.614. of human eyes,—O strange the tale and true!— 1.616. Deep in the city's heart there was a grove 1.617. of beauteous shade, where once the Tyrians 1.618. cast here by stormful waves, delved out of earth 1.619. that portent which Queen Juno bade them find,— 1.620. the head of a proud horse,—that ages long 1.621. their boast might be wealth, luxury and war. 1.622. Upon this spot Sidonian Dido raised 1.623. a spacious fane to Juno, which became 1.624. plendid with gifts, and hallowed far and wide 1.625. for potency divine. Its beams were bronze 1.626. and on loud hinges swung the brazen doors. 1.627. A rare, new sight this sacred grove did show 1.628. which calmed Aeneas' fears, and made him bold 1.629. to hope for safety, and with lifted heart 1.630. from his low-fallen fortunes re-aspire. 1.631. For while he waits the advent of the Queen 1.632. he scans the mighty temple, and admires 1.633. the city's opulent pride, and all the skill 1.634. its rival craftsmen in their work approve. 1.635. Behold! he sees old Ilium 's well-fought fields 1.636. in sequent picture, and those famous wars 1.637. now told upon men's lips the whole world round. 1.638. There Atreus' sons, there kingly Priam moved 1.639. and fierce Pelides pitiless to both. 1.640. Aeneas paused, and, weeping, thus began: 1.641. “Alas, Achates, what far region now 1.642. what land in all the world knows not our pain? 1.648. So saying, he received into his heart 1.649. that visionary scene, profoundly sighed 1.650. and let his plenteous tears unheeded flow. 1.651. There he beheld the citadel of Troy 1.652. girt with embattled foes; here, Greeks in flight 1.653. ome Trojan onset 'scaped; there, Phrygian bands 1.654. before tall-plumed Achilles' chariot sped. 1.655. The snowy tents of Rhesus spread hard by 1.657. in night's first watch burst o'er them unawares 1.658. with bloody havoc and a host of deaths; 1.659. then drove his fiery coursers o'er the plain 1.660. before their thirst or hunger could be stayed 1.661. on Trojan corn or Xanthus ' cooling stream. 1.662. Here too was princely Troilus, despoiled 1.663. routed and weaponless, O wretched boy! 1.664. Ill-matched against Achilles! His wild steeds 1.665. bear him along, as from his chariot's rear 1.666. he falls far back, but clutches still the rein; 1.667. his hair and shoulders on the ground go trailing 1.668. and his down-pointing spear-head scrawls the dust. 1.669. Elsewhere, to Pallas' ever-hostile shrine 1.670. daughters of Ilium, with unsnooded hair 1.671. and lifting all in vain her hallowed pall 1.672. walked suppliant and sad, beating their breasts 1.673. with outspread palms. But her unswerving eyes 1.674. the goddess fixed on earth, and would not see. 1.675. Achilles round the Trojan rampart thrice 1.676. had dragged the fallen Hector, and for gold 1.677. was making traffic of the lifeless clay. 1.678. Aeneas groaned aloud, with bursting heart 1.679. to see the spoils, the car, the very corpse 1.680. of his lost friend,—while Priam for the dead 1.681. tretched forth in piteous prayer his helpless hands. 1.682. There too his own presentment he could see 1.683. urrounded by Greek kings; and there were shown 1.684. hordes from the East, and black-browed Memnon's arms; 1.685. her band of Amazons, with moon-shaped shields 1.686. Penthesilea led; her martial eye 1.687. flamed on from troop to troop; a belt of gold 1.688. beneath one bare, protruded breast she bound— 1.690. While on such spectacle Aeneas' eyes 1.691. looked wondering, while mute and motionless 1.692. he stood at gaze, Queen Dido to the shrine 1.693. in lovely majesty drew near; a throng 1.694. of youthful followers pressed round her way. 1.695. So by the margin of Eurotas wide 1.696. or o'er the Cynthian steep, Diana leads 1.697. her bright processional; hither and yon 1.698. are visionary legions numberless 1.699. of Oreads; the regt goddess bears 1.700. a quiver on her shoulders, and is seen 1.701. emerging tallest of her beauteous train; 1.702. while joy unutterable thrills the breast 1.703. of fond Latona: Dido not less fair 1.704. amid her subjects passed, and not less bright 1.705. her glow of gracious joy, while she approved 1.706. her future kingdom's pomp and vast emprise. 1.707. Then at the sacred portal and beneath 1.708. the temple's vaulted dome she took her place 1.709. encompassed by armed men, and lifted high 1.710. upon a throne; her statutes and decrees 1.711. the people heard, and took what lot or toil 1.712. her sentence, or impartial urn, assigned. 1.713. But, lo! Aeneas sees among the throng 1.714. Antheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus bold 1.715. with other Teucrians, whom the black storm flung 1.716. far o'er the deep and drove on alien shores. 1.717. Struck dumb was he, and good Achates too 1.718. half gladness and half fear. Fain would they fly 1.719. to friendship's fond embrace; but knowing not 1.720. what might befall, their hearts felt doubt and care. 1.721. Therefore they kept the secret, and remained 1.722. forth-peering from the hollow veil of cloud 1.723. haply to learn what their friends' fate might be 1.724. or where the fleet was landed, or what aim 1.725. had brought them hither; for a chosen few 1.726. from every ship had come to sue for grace 1.729. and leave to speak, revered Ilioneus 1.730. with soul serene these lowly words essayed: 1.731. “O Queen, who hast authority of Jove 1.732. to found this rising city, and subdue 1.733. with righteous goverce its people proud 1.734. we wretched Trojans, blown from sea to sea 1.735. beseech thy mercy; keep the curse of fire 1.736. from our poor ships! We pray thee, do no wrong 1.737. unto a guiltless race. But heed our plea! 1.738. No Libyan hearth shall suffer by our sword 1.739. nor spoil and plunder to our ships be borne; 1.740. uch haughty violence fits not the souls 1.741. of vanquished men. We journey to a land 1.742. named, in Greek syllables, Hesperia : 1.743. a storied realm, made mighty by great wars 1.744. and wealth of fruitful land; in former days 1.745. Oenotrians had it, and their sons, 't is said 1.746. have called it Italy, a chieftain's name 1.747. to a whole region given. Thitherward 1.748. our ships did fare; but with swift-rising flood 1.749. the stormful season of Orion's star 1.750. drove us on viewless shoals; and angry gales 1.751. dispersed us, smitten by the tumbling surge 1.752. among innavigable rocks. Behold 1.753. we few swam hither, waifs upon your shore! 1.754. What race of mortals this? What barbarous land 1.755. that with inhospitable laws ye thrust 1.756. a stranger from your coasts, and fly to arms 2.1. A general silence fell; and all gave ear 2.2. while, from his lofty station at the feast 2.7. the Greek flung down; which woeful scene I saw 2.44. that horse which loomed so large. Thymoetes then 2.90. a mark for every eye, defenceless, dazed 2.97. Such groans and anguish turned all rage away 2.98. and stayed our lifted hands. We bade him tell 2.99. his birth, his errand, and from whence might be 2.261. inside your walls, nor anywise restore 2.559. upon his orient steeds—while forests roar 2.567. o'erwhelms us utterly. Coroebus first 2.568. at mailed Minerva's altar prostrate lay 2.569. pierced by Peneleus, blade; then Rhipeus fell; 2.570. we deemed him of all Trojans the most just 2.571. most scrupulously righteous; but the gods 2.572. gave judgment otherwise. There Dymas died 2.573. and Hypanis, by their compatriots slain; 2.574. nor thee, O Panthus, in that mortal hour 2.575. could thy clean hands or Phoebus, priesthood save. 2.576. O ashes of my country! funeral pyre 2.577. of all my kin! bear witness that my breast 2.578. hrank not from any sword the Grecian drew 2.579. and that my deeds the night my country died 2.580. deserved a warrior's death, had Fate ordained. 2.581. But soon our ranks were broken; at my side 2.582. tayed Iphitus and Pelias; one with age 2.583. was Iong since wearied, and the other bore 2.584. the burden of Ulysses' crippling wound. 2.585. Straightway the roar and tumult summoned us 2.586. to Priam's palace, where a battle raged 2.587. as if save this no conflict else were known 2.685. he girded on; then charged, resolved to die 2.686. encircled by the foe. Within his walls 2.687. there stood, beneath the wide and open sky 2.688. a lofty altar; an old laurel-tree 2.689. leaned o'er it, and enclasped in holy shade 2.690. the statues of the tutelary powers. 2.691. Here Hecuba and all the princesses 2.692. took refuge vain within the place of prayer. 2.693. Like panic-stricken doves in some dark storm 2.694. close-gathering they sate, and in despair 2.695. embraced their graven gods. But when the Queen 2.696. aw Priam with his youthful harness on 2.697. “What frenzy, O my wretched lord,” she cried 2.698. “Arrayed thee in such arms? O, whither now? 2.699. Not such defences, nor such arm as thine 2.700. the time requires, though thy companion were 2.701. our Hector's self. O, yield thee, I implore! 2.702. This altar now shall save us one and all 2.703. or we must die together.” With these words 2.762. I stood there sole surviving; when, behold 3.57. a moaning and a wail from that deep grave 3.62. was kin of thine. This blood is not of trees. 3.63. Haste from this murderous shore, this land of greed. 3.64. O, I am Polydorus! Haste away! 3.65. Here was I pierced; a crop of iron spears 3.67. to all these deadly javelins, keen and strong.” 3.68. Then stood I, burdened with dark doubt and fear 3.273. gave heed to sad Cassandra's voice divine? 3.280. When from the deep the shores had faded far 3.294. or ken our way. Three days of blinding dark 3.295. three nights without a star, we roved the seas; 3.435. carce finding voice, her lips addressed me thus : 3.436. “Have I true vision? Bringest thou the word 3.437. of truth, O goddess-born? Art still in flesh? 3.438. Or if sweet light be fled, my Hector, where?” 3.439. With flood of tears she spoke, and all the grove 3.440. reechoed to her cry. Scarce could I frame 3.500. “offspring of Troy, interpreter of Heaven! 3.501. Who knowest Phoebus' power, and readest well 3.502. the tripod, stars, and vocal laurel leaves 3.503. to Phoebus dear, who know'st of every bird 3.504. the ominous swift wing or boding song 3.505. o, speak! For all my course good omens showed 3.588. the monster waves, and ever and anon 3.589. flings them at heaven, to lash the tranquil stars. 3.590. But Scylla, prisoned in her eyeless cave 3.591. thrusts forth her face, and pulls upon the rocks 3.592. hip after ship; the parts that first be seen 3.593. are human; a fair-breasted virgin she 3.594. down to the womb; but all that lurks below 3.595. is a huge-membered fish, where strangely join 3.596. the flukes of dolphins and the paunch of wolves. 3.597. Better by far to round the distant goal 3.598. of the Trinacrian headlands, veering wide 3.599. from thy true course, than ever thou shouldst see 3.600. that shapeless Scylla in her vaulted cave 3.601. where grim rocks echo her dark sea-dogs' roar. 3.602. Yea, more, if aught of prescience be bestowed 3.603. on Helenus, if trusted prophet he 3.604. and Phoebus to his heart true voice have given 3.605. o goddess-born, one counsel chief of all 3.606. I tell thee oft, and urge it o'er and o'er. 3.607. To Juno's godhead lift thy Ioudest prayer; 3.608. to Juno chant a fervent votive song 3.609. and with obedient offering persuade 3.610. that potent Queen. So shalt thou, triumphing 3.611. to Italy be sped, and leave behind 3.612. Trinacria . When wafted to that shore 3.613. repair to Cumae 's hill, and to the Lake 3.614. Avernus with its whispering grove divine. 3.615. There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess 3.616. who from beneath the hollow scarped crag 3.617. ings oracles, or characters on leaves 3.618. mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes 3.619. on leaves inscribing the portentous song 3.620. he sets in order, and conceals them well 3.621. in her deep cave, where they abide unchanged 3.622. in due array. Yet not a care has she 3.623. if with some swinging hinge a breeze sweeps in 3.624. to catch them as they whirl: if open door 3.625. disperse them flutterlig through the hollow rock 3.626. he will not link their shifted sense anew 3.627. nor re-invent her fragmentary song. 3.628. oft her uswered votaries depart 3.629. corning the Sibyl's shrine. But deem not thou 3.630. thy tarrying too Iong, whate'er thy stay. 3.631. Though thy companions chide, though winds of power 3.632. invite thy ship to sea, and well would speed 3.633. the swelling sail, yet to that Sibyl go. 3.634. Pray that her own lips may sing forth for thee 3.635. the oracles, uplifting her dread voice 3.636. in willing prophecy. Her rede shall tell 3.637. of Italy, its wars and tribes to be 3.638. and of what way each burden and each woe 3.639. may be escaped, or borne. Her favoring aid 3.640. will grant swift, happy voyages to thy prayer. 3.641. Such counsels Heaven to my lips allows. 3.642. arise, begone! and by thy glorious deeds 3.644. So spake the prophet with benigt voice. 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 3.649. of brazen cauldrons; a cuirass he gave 3.650. of linked gold enwrought and triple chain; 3.651. a noble helmet, too, with flaming crest 3.652. and lofty cone, th' accoutrement erewhile 3.653. of Neoptolemus. My father too 3.654. had fit gifts from the King; whose bounty then 4.1. Now felt the Queen the sharp, slow-gathering pangs 4.2. of love; and out of every pulsing vein 4.5. keep calling to her soul; his words, his glance 4.6. cling to her heart like lingering, barbed steel 4.9. lit up all lands, and from the vaulted heaven 4.10. Aurora had dispelled the dark and dew; 4.12. of her dear sister spoke the stricken Queen: 4.13. “Anna, my sister, what disturbing dreams 4.14. perplex me and alarm? What guest is this 4.15. new-welcomed to our house? How proud his mien! 4.16. What dauntless courage and exploits of war! 4.20. has smitten him with storms! What dire extremes 4.21. of war and horror in his tale he told! 4.22. O, were it not immutably resolved 4.23. in my fixed heart, that to no shape of man 4.24. I would be wed again (since my first love 4.25. left me by death abandoned and betrayed); 4.26. loathed I not so the marriage torch and train 4.27. I could—who knows?—to this one weakness yield. 4.30. were by a brother's murder dabbled o'er 4.32. has shaken my weak will. I seem to feel 4.33. the motions of love's lost, familiar fire. 4.34. But may the earth gape open where I tread 4.35. and may almighty Jove with thunder-scourge 4.36. hurl me to Erebus' abysmal shade 4.37. to pallid ghosts and midnight fathomless 4.38. before, O Chastity! I shall offend 4.39. thy holy power, or cast thy bonds away! 4.40. He who first mingled his dear life with mine 4.41. took with him all my heart. 'T is his alone — 4.42. o, let it rest beside him in the grave!” 4.47. weet babes at thine own breast, nor gifts of love? 4.51. and long ago in Tyre . Iarbas knew 4.52. thy scorn, and many a prince and captain bred 4.67. if thus espoused! With Trojan arms allied 4.90. with many a votive gift; or, peering deep 4.91. into the victims' cloven sides, she read 4.92. the fate-revealing tokens trembling there. 4.93. How blind the hearts of prophets be! Alas! 4.94. of what avail be temples and fond prayers 4.95. to change a frenzied mind? Devouring ever 4.96. love's fire burns inward to her bones; she feels 4.97. quick in her breast the viewless, voiceless wound. 4.98. Ill-fated Dido ranges up and down 4.99. the spaces of her city, desperate 4.100. her life one flame—like arrow-stricken doe 4.101. through Cretan forest rashly wandering 4.102. pierced by a far-off shepherd, who pursues 4.103. with shafts, and leaves behind his light-winged steed 4.104. not knowing; while she scours the dark ravines 4.105. of Dicte and its woodlands; at her heart 4.106. the mortal barb irrevocably clings. 4.107. around her city's battlements she guides 4.108. aeneas, to make show of Sidon 's gold 4.109. and what her realm can boast; full oft her voice 4.110. essays to speak and frembling dies away: 4.111. or, when the daylight fades, she spreads anew 4.112. a royal banquet, and once more will plead 4.113. mad that she is, to hear the Trojan sorrow; 4.114. and with oblivious ravishment once more 4.115. hangs on his lips who tells; or when her guests 4.116. are scattered, and the wan moon's fading horn 4.117. bedims its ray, while many a sinking star 4.118. invites to slumber, there she weeps alone 4.119. in the deserted hall, and casts her down 4.120. on the cold couch he pressed. Her love from far 4.121. beholds her vanished hero and receives 4.122. his voice upon her ears; or to her breast 4.123. moved by a father's image in his child 4.124. he clasps Ascanius, seeking to deceive 4.125. her unblest passion so. Her enterprise 4.126. of tower and rampart stops: her martial host 4.127. no Ionger she reviews, nor fashions now 4.128. defensive haven and defiant wall; 4.208. moves o'er the Cynthian steep; his flowing hair 4.219. and mass their dust-blown squadrons in wild flight 4.220. far from the mountain's bound. Ascanius 4.221. flushed with the sport, spurs on a mettled steed 4.222. from vale to vale, and many a flying herd 4.223. his chase outspeeds; but in his heart he prays 4.224. among these tame things suddenly to see 4.225. a tusky boar, or, leaping from the hills 4.227. Meanwhile low thunders in the distant sky 4.228. mutter confusedly; soon bursts in full 4.229. the storm-cloud and the hail. The Tyrian troop 4.230. is scattered wide; the chivalry of Troy 4.231. with the young heir of Dardan's kingly line 4.232. of Venus sprung, seek shelter where they may 4.233. with sudden terror; down the deep ravines 4.234. the swollen torrents roar. In that same hour 4.235. Queen Dido and her hero out of Troy 4.236. to the same cavern fly. Old Mother-Earth 4.237. and wedlock-keeping Juno gave the sign; 4.238. the flash of lightnings on the conscious air 4.239. were torches to the bridal; from the hills 4.240. the wailing wood-nymphs sobbed a wedding song. 4.241. Such was that day of death, the source and spring 4.242. of many a woe. For Dido took no heed 4.243. of honor and good-name; nor did she mean 4.244. her loves to hide; but called the lawlessness 4.246. Swift through the Libyan cities Rumor sped. 4.247. Rumor! What evil can surpass her speed? 4.248. In movement she grows mighty, and achieves 4.249. trength and dominion as she swifter flies. 4.250. mall first, because afraid, she soon exalts 4.251. her stature skyward, stalking through the lands 4.252. and mantling in the clouds her baleful brow. 4.253. The womb of Earth, in anger at high Heaven 4.254. bore her, they say, last of the Titan spawn 4.255. ister to Coeus and Enceladus. 4.256. Feet swift to run and pinions like the wind 4.257. the dreadful monster wears; her carcase huge 4.258. is feathered, and at root of every plume 4.259. a peering eye abides; and, strange to tell 4.260. an equal number of vociferous tongues 4.261. foul, whispering lips, and ears, that catch at all. 4.262. At night she spreads midway 'twixt earth and heaven 4.263. her pinions in the darkness, hissing loud 4.264. nor e'er to happy slumber gives her eyes: 4.265. but with the morn she takes her watchful throne 4.266. high on the housetops or on lofty towers 4.267. to terrify the nations. She can cling 4.268. to vile invention and maligt wrong 4.269. or mingle with her word some tidings true. 4.270. She now with changeful story filled men's ears 4.271. exultant, whether false or true she sung: 4.272. how, Trojan-born Aeneas having come 4.273. Dido, the lovely widow, Iooked his way 4.274. deigning to wed; how all the winter long 4.275. they passed in revel and voluptuous ease 4.276. to dalliance given o'er; naught heeding now 4.277. of crown or kingdom—shameless! lust-enslaved! 4.278. Such tidings broadcast on the lips of men 4.452. and my own Tyrians hate me. Yes, for thee 4.453. my chastity was slain and honor fair 4.454. by which alone to glory I aspired 4.455. in former days. To whom dost thou in death 4.456. abandon me? my guest!—since but this name 4.466. She said. But he, obeying Jove's decree 4.467. gazed steadfastly away; and in his heart 4.468. with strong repression crushed his cruel pain; 4.469. then thus the silence broke: “O Queen, not one 4.470. of my unnumbered debts so strongly urged 4.471. would I gainsay. Elissa's memory 4.472. will be my treasure Iong as memory holds 4.473. or breath of life is mine. Hear my brief plea! 4.678. what hearts she will, or visit cruel woes 4.679. on men afar. She stops the downward flow 5.597. gives he, but like a storm of rattling hail 5.598. upon a house-top, so from each huge hand 5.600. Then Sire Aeneas willed to make a stay 5.601. to so much rage, nor let Entellus' soul 5.803. he called the Trojan dames: “O ye ill-starred 5.804. that were not seized and slain by Grecian foes 5.812. of Eryx, of Acestes, friend and kin; 5.814. and build a town? O city of our sires! 5.815. O venerated gods from haughty foes 5.838. her heavenly beauty and her radiant eyes! 5.839. What voice of music and majestic mien 5.840. what movement like a god! Myself am come 5.841. from Beroe sick, and left her grieving sore 5.864. nor could his guards restrain . “What madness now? 6.489. But heed my words, and in thy memory 6.490. Cherish and keep, to cheer this evil time. 6.491. Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven 6.492. Thy countrymen from many a templed town 6.493. Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 6.896. Deceive. 0, o'er what lands and seas wast driven 7.38. a stretch of groves, whence Tiber 's smiling stream 7.81. Laurentian, which his realm and people bear. 7.82. Unto this tree-top, wonderful to tell 7.83. came hosts of bees, with audible acclaim 7.84. voyaging the stream of air, and seized a place 7.85. on the proud, pointing crest, where the swift swarm 7.86. with interlacement of close-clinging feet 7.87. wung from the leafy bough. “Behold, there comes,” 7.88. the prophet cried, “a husband from afar! 7.89. To the same region by the self-same path 7.90. behold an arm'd host taking lordly sway 7.91. upon our city's crown!” Soon after this 7.92. when, coming to the shrine with torches pure 7.93. Lavinia kindled at her father's side 7.94. the sacrifice, swift seemed the flame to burn 7.95. along her flowing hair—O sight of woe! 7.96. Over her broidered snood it sparkling flew 7.97. lighting her queenly tresses and her crown 7.98. of jewels rare: then, wrapt in flaming cloud 7.99. from hall to hall the fire-god's gift she flung. 7.100. This omen dread and wonder terrible 7.101. was rumored far: for prophet-voices told 7.286. that lone wight hears whom earth's remotest isle 7.287. has banished to the Ocean's rim, or he 7.288. whose dwelling is the ample zone that burns 7.289. betwixt the changeful sun-god's milder realms 7.290. far severed from the world. We are the men 7.291. from war's destroying deluge safely borne 7.292. over the waters wide. We only ask 7.293. ome low-roofed dwelling for our fathers' gods 7.294. ome friendly shore, and, what to all is free 7.295. water and air. We bring no evil name 7.296. upon thy people; thy renown will be 7.297. but wider spread; nor of a deed so fair 7.298. can grateful memory die. Ye ne'er will rue 7.299. that to Ausonia's breast ye gathered Troy . 7.300. I swear thee by the favored destinies 7.301. of great Aeneas, by his strength of arm 7.302. in friendship or in war, that many a tribe 7.303. (O, scorn us not, that, bearing olive green 7.304. with suppliant words we come), that many a throne 7.305. has sued us to be friends. But Fate's decree 7.306. to this thy realm did guide. Here Dardanus 7.307. was born; and with reiterate command 7.308. this way Apollo pointed to the stream 7.309. of Tiber and Numicius' haunted spring. 7.310. Lo, these poor tributes from his greatness gone 7.311. Aeneas sends, these relics snatched away 7.312. from Ilium burning: with this golden bowl 7.313. Anchises poured libation when he prayed; 7.314. and these were Priam's splendor, when he gave 7.315. laws to his gathered states; this sceptre his 7.316. this diadem revered, and beauteous pall 7.317. handwork of Asia 's queens.” So ceased to speak 7.318. Ilioneus. But King Latinus gazed 7.319. uswering on the ground, all motionless 7.320. ave for his musing eyes. The broidered pall 7.321. of purple, and the sceptre Priam bore 7.322. moved little on his kingly heart, which now 7.323. pondered of giving to the bridal bed 7.324. his daughter dear. He argues in his mind 7.325. the oracle of Faunus:—might this be 7.326. that destined bridegroom from an alien land 7.327. to share his throne, to get a progeny 7.328. of glorious valor, which by mighty deeds 7.329. hould win the world for kingdom? So at last 7.330. with joyful brow he spoke: “Now let the gods 7.331. our purpose and their own fair promise bless! 7.332. Thou hast, O Trojan, thy desire. Thy gifts 7.333. I have not scorned; nor while Latinus reigns 7.334. hall ye lack riches in my plenteous land 7.335. not less than Trojan store. But where is he 7.336. Aeneas' self? If he our royal love 7.337. o much desire, and have such urgent mind 7.338. to be our guest and friend, let him draw near 7.339. nor turn him from well-wishing looks away! 7.340. My offering and pledge of peace shall be 7.341. to clasp your monarch's hand. Bear back, I pray 7.707. five herds of cattle home; his busy churls 8.1. When Turnus from Laurentum's bastion proud 8.2. published the war, and roused the dreadful note 8.3. of the harsh trumpet's song; when on swift steeds 8.4. the lash he laid and clashed his sounding arms; 8.5. then woke each warrior soul; all Latium stirred 8.6. with tumult and alarm; and martial rage 8.7. enkindled youth's hot blood. The chieftains proud 8.8. Messapus, Ufens, and that foe of Heaven 8.9. Mezentius, compel from far and wide 8.10. their loyal hosts, and strip the field and farm 8.11. of husbandmen. To seek auxiliar arms 8.12. they send to glorious Diomed's domain 8.13. the herald Venulus, and bid him cry: 8.14. “ Troy is to Latium come; Aeneas' fleet 8.15. has come to land. He brings his vanquished gods 8.16. and gives himself to be our destined King. 8.17. Cities not few accept him, and his name 8.18. through Latium waxes large. But what the foe 8.19. by such attempt intends, what victory 8.20. is his presumptuous hope, if Fortune smile 8.21. Aetolia 's lord will not less wisely fear 8.23. Thus Latium 's cause moved on. Meanwhile the heir 8.24. of great Laomedon, who knew full well 8.31. of a reflected moon, send forth a beam 8.32. of flickering light that leaps from wall to wall 8.33. or, skyward lifted in ethereal flight 8.34. glances along some rich-wrought, vaulted dome. 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.370. acred to Hercules, wove him a wreath 8.371. to shade his silvered brow. The sacred cup 8.372. he raised in his right hand, while all the rest 8.374. Soon from the travelling heavens the western star 8.375. glowed nearer, and Potitius led forth 8.376. the priest-procession, girt in ancient guise 8.377. with skins of beasts and carrying burning brands. 8.378. new feasts are spread, and altars heaped anew 8.379. with gifts and laden chargers. Then with song 8.380. the Salian choir surrounds the blazing shrine 8.381. their foreheads wreathed with poplar. Here the youth 8.382. the elders yonder, in proud anthem sing 8.383. the glory and the deeds of Hercules: 8.384. how first he strangled with strong infant hand 8.385. two serpents, Juno's plague; what cities proud 8.386. Troy and Oechalia, his famous war 8.387. in pieces broke; what labors numberless 8.388. as King Eurystheus' bondman he endured 8.389. by cruel Juno's will. “Thou, unsubdued 8.390. didst strike the twy-formed, cloud-bred centaurs down 8.391. Pholus and tall Hylaeus. Thou hast slain 8.392. the Cretan horror, and the lion huge 8.393. beneath the Nemean crag. At sight of thee 8.394. the Stygian region quailed, and Cerberus 8.395. crouching o'er half-picked bones in gory cave. 8.396. Nothing could bid thee fear. Typhoeus towered 8.397. in his colossal Titan-panoply 8.398. o'er thee in vain; nor did thy cunning fail 8.399. when Lema's wonder-serpent round thee drew 8.400. its multudinous head. Hail, Jove's true son! 8.401. New glory to the gods above, come down 8.402. and these thine altars and thy people bless!” 8.403. Such hymns they chanted, telling oft the tale 8.404. of Cacus' cave and blasting breath of fire: 8.406. Such worship o'er, all take the homeward way 8.608. ummoned Evander. From his couch arose 8.609. the royal sire, and o'er his aged frame 8.610. a tunic threw, tying beneath his feet 8.611. the Tuscan sandals: an Arcadian sword 8.612. girt at his left, was over one shoulder slung 8.613. his cloak of panther trailing from behind. 8.614. A pair of watch-dogs from the lofty door 8.615. ran close, their lord attending, as he sought 8.616. his guest Aeneas; for his princely soul 8.617. remembered faithfully his former word 8.618. and promised gift. Aeneas with like mind 8.619. was stirring early. King Evander's son 8.620. Pallas was at his side; Achates too 8.621. accompanied his friend. All these conjoin 8.622. in hand-clasp and good-morrow, taking seats 8.623. in midcourt of the house, and give the hour 8.625. “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626. in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627. vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628. my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629. Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630. Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631. with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632. to league with thee a numerous array 8.633. of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634. now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635. because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636. a city on an ancient rock is seen 8.637. Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638. built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639. for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640. of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641. his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642. and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643. May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644. and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645. dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646. and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647. Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace 8.648. a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649. his people rose in furious despair 8.650. and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651. his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652. and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while 8.653. escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654. to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655. in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656. Etruria, to righteous anger stirred 8.657. demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658. To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662. are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663. of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664. their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665. of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666. the bloom and glory of an ancient race 8.667. whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668. enflame against Mezentius your foe 8.669. it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670. hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671. Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field 8.672. inert and fearful lies Etruria's force 8.673. disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674. envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675. even to me, and prayed I should assume 8.676. the sacred emblems of Etruria's king 8.677. and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 8.682. is half Italian-born. Thyself art he 8.683. whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684. fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685. Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686. of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687. the hope and consolation of our throne 8.688. pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689. a master and example, while he learns 8.690. the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds 8.691. let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692. with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693. two hundred horsemen of Arcadia 8.694. our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695. in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696. to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697. With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. 8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen 8.701. gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome 8.702. a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703. tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall 8.704. and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705. All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706. crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707. looked clearest hung a visionary cloud 8.708. whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. 8.709. All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son 8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711. her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried 8.712. “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read 8.713. the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me 8.714. Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715. long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716. if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths 8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! 8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721. to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722. what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723. hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725. He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726. Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727. acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods 8.730. the Trojan company made sacrifice 8.731. of chosen lambs, with fitting rites and true. 9.106. for rib and spar, and soon would put to sea 9.638. himself in glorious arms. Then every chief 9.639. awoke his mail-clad company, and stirred 9.640. their slumbering wrath with tidings from the foe. 9.641. Tumultuously shouting, they impaled 9.642. on lifted spears—O pitiable sight! — 9.643. the heads of Nisus and Euryalus. 9.644. Th' undaunted Trojans stood in battle-line 10.1. Meanwhile Olympus, seat of sovereign sway 10.2. threw wide its portals, and in conclave fair 10.3. the Sire of gods and King of all mankind 10.4. ummoned th' immortals to his starry court 10.5. whence, high-enthroned, the spreading earth he views— 10.6. and Teucria's camp and Latium 's fierce array. 10.7. Beneath the double-gated dome the gods 10.8. were sitting; Jove himself the silence broke: 10.9. “O people of Olympus, wherefore change 10.10. your purpose and decree, with partial minds 10.11. in mighty strife contending? I refused 10.12. uch clash of war 'twixt Italy and Troy . 10.13. Whence this forbidden feud? What fears 10.14. educed to battles and injurious arms 10.15. either this folk or that? Th' appointed hour 10.16. for war shall be hereafter—speed it not!— 10.17. When cruel Carthage to the towers of Rome 10.18. hall bring vast ruin, streaming fiercely down 10.19. the opened Alp. Then hate with hate shall vie 10.20. and havoc have no bound. Till then, give o'er 10.22. Thus briefly, Jove. But golden Venus made 10.23. less brief reply. “O Father, who dost hold 10.24. o'er Man and all things an immortal sway! 10.25. of what high throne may gods the aid implore 10.26. ave thine? Behold of yonder Rutuli 10.27. th' insulting scorn! Among them Turnus moves 10.28. in chariot proud, and boasts triumphant war 10.29. in mighty words. Nor do their walls defend 10.30. my Teucrians now. But in their very gates 10.31. and on their mounded ramparts, in close fight 10.32. they breast their foes and fill the moats with blood. 10.33. Aeneas knows not, and is far away. 10.34. Will ne'er the siege have done? A second time 10.35. above Troy 's rising walls the foe impends; 10.36. another host is gathered, and once more 10.37. from his Aetolian Arpi wrathful speeds 10.38. a Diomed. I doubt not that for me 10.39. wounds are preparing. Yea, thy daughter dear 10.40. awaits a mortal sword! If by thy will 10.41. unblest and unapproved the Trojans came 10.42. to Italy, for such rebellious crime 10.43. give them their due, nor lend them succor, thou 10.44. with thy strong hand! But if they have obeyed 10.45. unnumbered oracles from gods above 10.46. and sacred shades below, who now has power 10.47. to thwart thy bidding, or to weave anew 10.48. the web of Fate? Why speak of ships consumed 10.49. along my hallowed Erycinian shore? 10.50. Or of the Lord of Storms, whose furious blasts 10.51. were summoned from Aeolia ? Why tell 10.52. of Iris sped from heaven? Now she moves 10.53. the region of the shades (one kingdom yet 10.54. from her attempt secure) and thence lets loose 10.55. Alecto on the world above, who strides 10.56. in frenzied wrath along th' Italian hills. 10.57. No more my heart now cherishes its hope 10.58. of domination, though in happier days 10.59. uch was thy promise. Let the victory fall 10.60. to victors of thy choice! If nowhere lies 10.61. the land thy cruel Queen would deign accord 10.62. unto the Teucrian people,—O my sire 10.63. I pray thee by yon smouldering wreck of Troy 10.64. to let Ascanius from the clash of arms 10.65. escape unscathed. Let my own offspring live! 10.66. Yea, let Aeneas, tossed on seas unknown 10.67. find some chance way; let my right hand avail 10.68. to shelter him and from this fatal war 10.69. in safety bring. For Amathus is mine 10.70. mine are Cythera and the Paphian hills 10.71. and temples in Idalium . Let him drop 10.72. the sword, and there live out inglorious days. 10.73. By thy decree let Carthage overwhelm 10.74. Ausonia's power; nor let defence be found 10.75. to stay the Tyrian arms! What profits it 10.76. that he escaped the wasting plague of war 10.77. and fled Argolic fires? or that he knew 10.78. o many perils of wide wilderness 10.79. and waters rude? The Teucrians seek in vain 10.80. new-born Troy in Latium . Better far 10.81. crouched on their country's ashes to abide 10.82. and keep that spot of earth where once was Troy ! 10.83. Give back, O Father, I implore thee, give 10.84. Xanthus and Simois back! Let Teucer's sons 10.86. Then sovereign Juno, flushed with solemn scorn 10.87. made answer. “Dost thou bid me here profane 10.88. the silence of my heart, and gossip forth 10.89. of secret griefs? What will of god or man 10.90. impelled Aeneas on his path of war 10.91. or made him foeman of the Latin King? 10.92. Fate brought him to Italia ? Be it so! 10.93. Cassandra's frenzy he obeyed. What voice — 10.94. ay, was it mine?—urged him to quit his camp 10.95. risk life in storms, or trust his war, his walls 10.96. to a boy-captain, or stir up to strife 10.97. Etruria's faithful, unoffending sons? 10.98. What god, what pitiless behest of mine 10.99. impelled him to such harm? Who traces here 10.100. the hand of Juno, or of Iris sped 10.101. from heaven? Is it an ignoble stroke 10.102. that Italy around the new-born Troy 10.103. makes circling fire, and Turnus plants his heel 10.104. on his hereditary earth, the son 10.105. of old Pilumnus and the nymph divine 10.106. Venilia? For what offence would Troy 10.107. bring sword and fire on Latium, or enslave 10.108. lands of an alien name, and bear away 10.109. plunder and spoil? Why seek they marriages 10.110. and snatch from arms of love the plighted maids? 10.111. An olive-branch is in their hands; their ships 10.112. make menace of grim steel. Thy power one day 10.113. ravished Aeneas from his Argive foes 10.114. and gave them shape of cloud and fleeting air 10.115. to strike at for a man. Thou hast transformed 10.116. his ships to daughters of the sea. What wrong 10.117. if I, not less, have lent the Rutuli 10.242. to him had Populonia consigned 10.243. (His mother-city, she) six hundred youth 10.252. close lined, with bristling spears, of Pisa all 10.606. canned him from far, hurling defiant words 10.607. in answer to the King's. “My honor now 10.608. hall have the royal trophy of this war 10.609. or glorious death. For either fortune fair 10.610. my sire is ready. Threaten me no more!” 10.611. So saying, to the midmost space he strode 10.612. and in Arcadian hearts the blood stood still. 10.613. Swift from his chariot Turnus leaped, and ran 10.614. to closer fight. As when some lion sees 10.615. from his far mountain-lair a raging bull 10.616. that sniffs the battle from the grassy field 10.617. and down the steep he flies—such picture showed 10.618. grim Turnus as he came. But when he seemed 10.619. within a spear's cast, Pallas opened fight 10.620. expecting Fortune's favor to the brave 10.621. in such unequal match; and thus he prayed: 10.622. “O, by my hospitable father's roof 10.623. where thou didst enter as a stranger-guest 10.624. hear me, Alcides, and give aid divine 10.625. to this great deed. Let Turnus see these hands 10.626. trip from his half-dead breast the bloody spoil! 10.627. and let his eyes in death endure to see 10.628. his conqueror!” Alcides heard the youth: 10.629. but prisoned in his heart a deep-drawn sigh 10.630. and shed vain tears; for Jove, the King and Sire, . 10.631. poke with benigt accents to his son: 10.632. “To each his day is given. Beyond recall 11.246. all ancient ritual. The fuming fires 11.247. burned from beneath, till highest heaven was hid 11.532. thou madman! Aye, with thy vile, craven soul 11.533. disturb the general cause. Extol the power 11.534. of a twice-vanquished people, and decry 11.535. Latinus' rival arms. From this time forth 11.536. let all the Myrmidonian princes cower 11.537. before the might of Troy ; let Diomed 11.538. and let Achilles tremble; let the stream 11.539. of Aufidus in panic backward flow 11.540. from Hadria 's wave. But hear me when I say 11.541. that though his guilt and cunning feign to feel 11.542. fear of my vengeance, much embittering so 11.543. his taunts and insult—such a life as his 11.544. my sword disdains. O Drances, be at ease! 11.545. In thy vile bosom let thy breath abide! 11.546. But now of thy grave counsel and thy cause 11.547. O royal sire, I speak. If from this hour 11.548. thou castest hope of armed success away 11.549. if we be so unfriended that one rout 11.550. o'erwhelms us utterly, if Fortune's feet 11.551. never turn backward, let us, then, for peace 11.552. offer petition, lifting to the foe 11.553. our feeble, suppliant hands. Yet would I pray 11.554. ome spark of manhood such as once we knew 11.555. were ours once more! I count him fortunate 11.556. and of illustrious soul beyond us all 11.557. who, rather than behold such things, has fallen 11.558. face forward, dead, his teeth upon the dust. 11.559. But if we still have power, and men-at-arms 11.560. unwasted and unscathed, if there survive 11.561. Italian tribes and towns for help in war 11.562. aye! if the Trojans have but won success 11.563. at bloody cost,—for they dig graves, I ween 11.564. torm-smitten not less than we,—O, wherefore now 11.565. tand faint and shameful on the battle's edge? 11.566. Why quake our knees before the trumpet call? 11.567. Time and the toil of shifting, changeful days 11.568. restore lost causes; ebbing tides of chance 11.569. deceive us oft, which after at their flood 11.570. do lift us safe to shore. If aid come not 11.571. from Diomed in Arpi, our allies 11.572. hall be Mezentius and Tolumnius 11.573. auspicious name, and many a chieftain sent 11.574. from many a tribe; not all inglorious 11.575. are Latium 's warriors from Laurentian land! 11.576. Hither the noble Volscian stem sends down 11.577. Camilla with her beauteous cavalry 11.578. in glittering brass arrayed. But if, forsooth 11.579. the Trojans call me singly to the fight 11.580. if this be what ye will, and I so much 11.581. the public weal impair—when from this sword 11.582. has victory seemed to fly away in scorn? 11.583. I should not hopeless tread in honor's way 11.584. whate'er the venture. Dauntless will I go 11.585. though equal match for great Achilles, he 11.586. and though he clothe him in celestial arms 11.587. in Vulcan's smithy wrought. I, Turnus, now 11.588. not less than equal with great warriors gone 11.589. vow to Latinus, father of my bride 11.590. and to ye all, each drop of blood I owe. 11.591. Me singly doth Aeneas call? I crave 11.592. that challenge. Drances is not called to pay 11.593. the debt of death, if wrath from Heaven impend; 11.595. Thus in their doubtful cause the chieftains strove. 11.596. Meanwhile Aeneas his assaulting line 12.4. gaze all his way, fierce rage implacable 12.5. wells his high heart. As when on Libyan plain 12.6. a lion, gashed along his tawny breast 12.7. by the huntsman's grievous thrust, awakens him 12.8. unto his last grim fight, and gloriously 12.134. which leaned its weight against a column tall 12.135. in the mid-court, Auruncan Actor's spoil 12.136. and waved it wide in air with mighty cry: 12.137. “O spear, that ne'er did fail me when I called 12.138. the hour is come! Once mighty Actor's hand 12.139. but now the hand of Turnus is thy lord. 12.140. Grant me to strike that carcase to the ground 12.141. and with strong hand the corselet rip and rend 12.142. from off that Phrygian eunuch: let the dust 12.143. befoul those tresses, tricked to curl so fine 12.144. with singeing steel and sleeked with odorous oil.” 12.145. Such frenzy goads him: his impassioned brow 12.146. is all on flame, the wild eyes flash with fire. 12.147. Thus, bellowing loud before the fearful fray 12.148. ome huge bull proves the fury of his horns 12.149. pushing against a tree-trunk; his swift thrusts 12.150. would tear the winds in pieces; while his hoofs 12.152. That self-same day with aspect terrible 12.153. Aeneas girt him in the wondrous arms 12.154. his mother gave; made sharp his martial steel 12.155. and roused his heart to ire; though glad was he 12.156. to seal such truce and end the general war. 12.157. Then he spoke comfort to his friends; and soothed 12.158. Iulus' fear, unfolding Heaven's intent; 12.159. but on Latinus bade his heralds lay 12.283. of Hades and th' inexorable shrines 12.284. of the Infernal King; and may Jove hear 12.286. I touch these altars, and my lips invoke 12.290. let come what will; there is no power can change 12.331. fight them with half our warriors. of a truth 12.332. your champion brave shall to those gods ascend 12.333. before whose altars his great heart he vows; 12.334. and lips of men while yet on earth he stays 12.335. will spread his glory far. Ourselves, instead 12.336. must crouch to haughty masters, and resign 12.791. dissension 'twixt the frighted citizens: 12.792. ome would give o'er the city and fling wide 12.793. its portals to the Trojan, or drag forth 12.794. the King himself to parley; others fly 12.795. to arms, and at the rampart make a stand. 12.796. 'T is thus some shepherd from a caverned crag 12.797. tirs up the nested bees with plenteous fume 12.798. of bitter smoke; they, posting to and fro 12.799. fly desperate round the waxen citadel 12.800. and whet their buzzing fury; through their halls 12.801. the stench and blackness rolls; within the caves 12.802. noise and confusion ring; the fatal cloud 12.804. But now a new adversity befell 12.805. the weary Latins, which with common woe 12.806. hook the whole city to its heart. The Queen 12.807. when at her hearth she saw the close assault 12.808. of enemies, the walls beset, and fire 12.809. preading from roof to roof, but no defence 12.810. from the Rutulian arms, nor front of war 12.811. with Turnus leading,—she, poor soul, believed 12.812. her youthful champion in the conflict slain; 12.813. and, mad with sudden sorrow, shrieked aloud 12.814. against herself, the guilty chief and cause 12.815. of all this ill; and, babbling her wild woe 12.816. in endless words, she rent her purple pall 12.817. and with her own hand from the rafter swung 12.818. a noose for her foul death. The tidings dire 12.819. among the moaning wives of Latium spread 12.820. and young Lavinia's frantic fingers tore 12.821. her rose-red cheek and hyacinthine hair. 12.822. Then all her company of women shrieked 12.823. in anguish, and the wailing echoed far 12.824. along the royal seat; from whence the tale 12.825. of sorrow through the peopled city flew; 12.826. hearts sank; Latinus rent his robes, appalled 12.827. to see his consort's doom, his falling throne; 12.829. Meanwhile the warrior Turnus far afield 12.830. pursued a scattered few; but less his speed 12.831. for less and less his worn steeds worked his will; 12.832. and now wind-wafted to his straining ear 12.833. a nameless horror came, a dull, wild roar 12.834. the city's tumult and distressful cry. 12.835. “Alack,” he cried, “what stirs in yonder walls 12.836. uch anguish? Or why rings from side to side 12.837. uch wailing through the city?” Asking so 12.838. he tightened frantic grasp upon the rein. 12.839. To him his sister, counterfeiting still 12.840. the charioteer Metiscus, while she swayed 12.841. rein, steeds, and chariot, this answer made: 12.842. “Hither, my Turnus, let our arms pursue
26. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.4-4.10, 4.17, 9.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.4. woods worthy of a Consul let them be. 4.5. Now the last age by Cumae's Sibyl sung 4.6. has come and gone, and the majestic roll 4.7. of circling centuries begins anew: 4.8. justice returns, returns old Saturn's reign 4.9. with a new breed of men sent down from heaven. 4.10. Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom 4.17. of our old wickedness, once done away 9.47. or Cinna deem I, but account myself
27. Vergil, Georgics, 1.121-1.135, 1.463-1.466, 2.39-2.46, 3.8-3.10, 3.12, 4.365-4.373 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine 1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop 1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes placeName key= 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed 1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed 1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls 1.463. oft, too, when wind is toward, the stars thou'lt see 1.464. From heaven shoot headlong, and through murky night 1.465. Long trails of fire white-glistening in their wake 1.466. Or light chaff flit in air with fallen leaves 2.39. Shrink to restore the topmost shoot to earth 2.40. That gave it being. Nay, marvellous to tell 2.41. Lopped of its limbs, the olive, a mere stock 2.42. Still thrusts its root out from the sapless wood 2.43. And oft the branches of one kind we see 2.44. Change to another's with no loss to rue 2.45. Pear-tree transformed the ingrafted apple yield 2.46. And stony cornels on the plum-tree blush. 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust 4.365. Taught by the swain of Arcady, even how 4.366. The blood of slaughtered bullocks oft has borne 4.367. Bees from corruption. I will trace me back 4.368. To its prime source the story's tangled thread 4.369. And thence unravel. For where thy happy folk 4.370. Canopus , city of Pellaean fame 4.371. Dwell by the placeName key= 4.372. And high o'er furrows they have called their own 4.373. Skim in their painted wherries; where, hard by
28. Juvenal, Satires, 3.171-3.172 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.45-1.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 15.19, 34.19, 34.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Plutarch, Julius Caesar, 69.4-69.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 50.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Seneca The Younger, Medea, 365-379, 364 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Suetonius, Augustus, 94.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Suetonius, Iulius, 37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tacitus, Annals, 1.15, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.15.  The elections were now for the first time transferred from the Campus to the senate: up to that day, while the most important were determined by the will of the sovereign, a few had still been left to the predilections of the Tribes. From the people the withdrawal of the right brought no protest beyond idle murmurs; and the senate, relieved from the necessity of buying or begging votes, was glad enough to embrace the change, Tiberius limiting himself to the recommendation of not more than four candidates, to be appointed without rejection or competition. At the same time, the plebeian tribunes asked leave to exhibit games at their own expense — to be called after the late emperor and added to the calendar as the Augustalia. It was decided, however, that the cost should be borne by the treasury; also, that the tribunes should have the use of the triumphal robe in the Circus; the chariot was not to be permissible. The whole function, before long, was transferred to the praetor who happened to have the jurisdiction in suits between natives and aliens. 3.28.  Then came Pompey's third consulate. But this chosen reformer of society, operating with remedies more disastrous than the abuses, this maker and breaker of his own enactments, lost by the sword what he was holding by the sword. The followed twenty crowded years of discord, during which law and custom ceased to exist: villainy was immune, decency not rarely a sentence of death. At last, in his sixth consulate, Augustus Caesar, feeling his power secure, cancelled the behests of his triumvirate, and presented us with laws to serve our needs in peace and under a prince. Thenceforward the fetters were tightened: sentries were set over us and, under the Papia-Poppaean law, lured on by rewards; so that, if a man shirked the privileges of paternity, the state, as universal parent, might step into the vacant inheritance. But they pressed their activities too far: the capital, Italy, every corner of the Roman world, had suffered from their attacks, and the positions of many had been wholly ruined. Indeed, a reign of terror was threatened, when Tiberius, for the fixing of a remedy, chose by lot five former consuls, five former praetors, and an equal number of ordinary senators: a body which, by untying many of the legal knots, gave for the time a measure of relief.
38. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 1.7-1.12, 1.15-1.17, 1.21-1.22, 1.71-1.78, 1.194-1.204, 1.242, 1.245-1.247, 1.249, 1.252-1.295, 1.498-1.692, 2.34, 2.37, 2.57, 2.82-2.100, 2.567-2.573, 5.217-5.224, 8.350 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 1.1.15, 2.8.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 45.7.1-45.7.2, 56.46.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45.7.2.  And when this act also was allowed, no one trying to prevent it through fear of the populace, then at last some of the other decrees already passed in honour of Caesar were put into effect. Thus they called one of the months July after him, and in the course of certain festivals of thanksgiving for victory they sacrificed during one special day in memory of his name. For these reasons the soldiers also, particularly since some of them received largesses of money, readily took the side of Caesar. 56.46.4.  While his shrine was being erected in Rome, they placed a golden image of him on a couch in the temple of Mars, and to this they paid all the honours that they were afterwards to give to his statue. Other votes in regard to him were, that his image should not be borne in procession at anybody's funeral, that the consuls should celebrate his birthday with games like the Ludi Martiales, and that the tribunes, as being sacrosanct, were to have charge of the Augustalia.
41. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 6.2.31 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

42. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 6.2.31 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43. Prudentius, On The Crown of Martyrdom, 2.416, 2.481-2.484 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 1.170 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaemenides Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99, 193
achates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
achilles Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
aeetes Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 254, 256
aemulatio Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192, 193
aeneas, apotheosis of Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160
aeneas, in iliad Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192
aeneas, intertextual identities Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
aeneas, italianisation of Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 114
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108, 146, 187; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74, 95, 254; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 467
aeneas and odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 192, 193
aeneid Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
aeneid (vergil), jupiters prophecy Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 161, 162
aeneid (vergil), lusus troiae Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 161, 162
aeneid (vergil) Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 161, 162, 202
aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 192, 193
africa Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
agamemnon Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
ages, etruscan Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123, 248
alba longa Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
allegory, allegoresis, allegorization, allegorical (exegesis, image, interpretation, reading), and valerius flaccus Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 280
anchises, seduction of Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
anchises Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 328; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 162
antonius, m. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
aphrodite Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 280
apollo, phoebus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
apollo Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
apollo (see also phoebus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
apollodorus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
apollonius of rhodes, argonautica Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
apollonius rhodius Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 96; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
appendix vergiliana Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
argo Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
argonauts Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 96; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 467
argos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
arsinoe Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98
artemis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
ascanius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 162
asia Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
asinius pollio, c. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
assaracus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
astrology Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 248
astronomical preface, calendar-builders as duces in Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 78
athena Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146, 187
audience Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
augustus, building works Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 328
augustus, caesar (iulius) Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
augustus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 85; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233, 234, 248; Walter, Time in Ancient Stories of Origin (2020) 161, 162
augustus (emperor) Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
augustus (roman emperor) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
augustus (see also octavian) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 105, 256
aural signals Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191
authority Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
boutes Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
bribery Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
britain Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
brundisium Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
caesar, unspecified Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160, 161, 162
calcei Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
capite velato Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
capricorn Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
carmentis Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
choice Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
cicero Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 241
civil war, between octavian and mark antony Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
civil war Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 160
class status Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 90
claudian Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
claudius (roman emperor) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21
clavi (bands), angusti, narrow Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
cliens, clientes Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
cloaks Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
colchis Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 256
concord, of jupiter and juno Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98, 99
concord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98, 99
constantine i Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
consulatus suus (cicero's poem)" Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 234
corinth Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
correction Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 193
costume history Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
cronus (see also saturn) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
cumae Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 162
cupid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
cyclical schemas of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
daughters Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21
decline, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
deification, and journey to the stars motif Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 78
deification, of augustus Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 78
deification, of caesar Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 78
determinism Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
diana Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
dido, in naevius the punic war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
dido Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108, 146; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201, 367
diodorus siculus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
divine councils Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 430
divine visits, vergil Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 430
domitian Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
domitius calvinus, cn. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171
dreams and visions, examples, vergil Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 430
dreams and visions, theorematic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 430
dress, barbarian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
dress, citizens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 40, 90
dress, elite Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
dress, equestrian (knights) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
dress, female Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
dress, funerary Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
dress, greek Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21
dress, imperial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 40
dress, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 40, 90
dress, public ceremonial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 40, 90
dress, religious Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
dress, triumphal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
dress, working Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
ekphrasis Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74, 95
epic Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 240; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146, 187; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
eros, eros Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
eryx Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
ethical qualities, craftiness, deceit, deception, disguise, feigning, guile, sleight of hand, trickery (dolus, dolos) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
ethical qualities, deviousness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
ethical qualities, disguise Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
ethical qualities, treachery Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
ethnicity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39
etruscan Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40, 90
eulogy Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
fame Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
fas Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
fate, fates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 85, 171, 240
fate Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 280
fate (fata) Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 193
fates Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160
fatum Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
faunus Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
fear, and hope ( spes ) Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 96
focalization Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
forest Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
forum Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
funerals Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
gallia togata Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
gauls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
gender Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
genre Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
gens iulia Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160, 162
gens togata Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 90
geography, and conquest Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108, 146, 187
golden age Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83, 240; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123, 234
greece Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
greed, analogous to love, cause of discord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99
greek cultural influences Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 328
greeks Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39
hairstyles Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40
harris, w. v. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 241
hera Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
hercules Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
herodotus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
hesitation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
himation Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
history Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 467
homecoming Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
homer Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171, 240; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
horace Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
horatius flaccus, q. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
hyperion Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
iapetus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
identity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39, 40, 90
ides of march Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 234
ilion Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
image Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
imperial, imperial college Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
imperial, tetrarchy Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
imperial family Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
imperium Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
intermediality Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
intertextuality Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 171, 240
italy, true patria of aeneas Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 114
italy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 114
iulus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
jason Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
jerusalem Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
journey Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437, 467
julius caesar, c. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 234, 248
juno, goddess of marriage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
juno, jupiters opponent/sister/spouse Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
juno Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98, 99; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146, 187; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233, 234
juno (see also hera) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74, 160, 256
jupiter, aen. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 96
jupiter, and roman rulers Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 328
jupiter, arg. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 96
jupiter, in the aeneid Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233, 234, 248
jupiter Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123; Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108, 146, 187; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 280; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437, 467; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160
jupiter (see also zeus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74, 95, 105, 160, 254, 256
juvenal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
lament Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
landscapes Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 467
laomedon Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
lares Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
latinus Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
lavinia, characteristics, marriage to aeneas Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99
lavinia Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
lavinium Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
law courts Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21, 39
loss Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
love Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
love affair, of aeneas and dido Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99
lucan Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
ludi saeculares Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 248
lupercalia Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
mantua Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
marcius, l. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
marriage, brother-sister Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98, 99
marriage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
mars Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 256
matrons Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
medea Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
memory, remembering, etc. Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
mercury Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
minerva Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
mise en abyme Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95
morality Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39, 40
mos maiorum Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
mycenae Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
myth Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
naevius, gnaeus, the punic war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
naples Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
naples (neapolis) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
narrative, battle, in naevius the punic war Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
narrators, odyssean Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
nausicaa Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
nero Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 160
nicopolis Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 99
nostalgia Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
nudity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
nymphs Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
octavian, and the sidus julium Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 234
octavian, de uita sua Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 248
octavian Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 123, 233
octavius, c. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 240
orpheus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 74
ovid Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 256; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 201
palatine hill, augustan developments Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 328
pallium Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21
panegyric Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
parthia Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 161, 162
pax augusta Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83
persian wars Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
phaethon Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 256
phrixus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 256
phthia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
pindar Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
pliny, the elder Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
pliny the elder Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 160
poggioreale Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
poliziano, angelo Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
pontano, giovanni Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
portents Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 430
portraits Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40, 90
poseidon, enmity for odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 193
praise Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 123
prayer Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
priam Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 90
primacy, claims of avoidedin astronomical preface Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 78
prodigy, in virgil Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 233
progress, historical Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 83, 85
prologues, of aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 192, 193
prophecy, in the aeneid generally Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 162
prophecy, jupiters in aeneid 1 Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 160, 161, 162
prophecy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
punic wars (, as epic theme Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187
queen (regina, potnia) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 108
quindecimviri sacris faciundis Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 105
religion Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
religious-political legitimisation Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
renaissance, naples Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
renaissance Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 367
repentance Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 240
republic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 21
returns (noatoi) Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192, 193
rituals, by augustus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
robes Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 90
roman hegemony Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
romanitas Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39, 40, 90
romanitas ideology Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39, 40
romans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 146
rome Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 187; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 95, 105, 256
romulus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 98
rutulians, saeculum Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 248
sallust Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 241
satire Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 39
saturn (see also cronus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 254
sea Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 437
self-fashioning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 40, 90; Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 74
self-presentation Galinsky, Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity (2016) 219