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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11092
Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1-1.201


Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab orisArms and the man I sing, who first made way


insignem pietate virum, tot adire laboresthe Latin race, old Alba's reverend lords


Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undisI give thee in true wedlock for thine own


scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit?to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side


Talia iactanti stridens Aquilone procellahall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring
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Franguntur remi; tum prora avertit, et undisThen Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen


dat latus; insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons.to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty


Hi summo in fluctu pendent; his unda dehiscensthy high behest obeys. This humble throne


terram inter fluctus aperit; furit aestus harenis.is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain


Tris Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet—authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes


saxa vocant Itali mediis quae in fluctibus aras—my station at your bright Olympian board
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in brevia et Syrtis urguet, miserabile visuReplying thus, he smote with spear reversed


inliditque vadis atque aggere cingit harenae.the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds


Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Orontenthrough that wide breach in long, embattled line


ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontusand sweep tumultuous from land to land:


in puppim ferit: excutitur pronusque magisterwith brooding pinions o'er the waters spread


volvitur in caput; ast illam ter fluctus ibidemeast wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale


torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex.upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll;


Adparent rari nantes in gurgite vastothe shout of mariners, the creak of cordage


arma virum, tabulaeque, et Troia gaza per undas.follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal


Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloniO Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege


Iam validam Ilionei navem, iam fortis Achatifrom Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day;


et qua vectus Abas, et qua grandaevus Aletesnight o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky


vicit hiems; laxis laterum compagibus omnesthe thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare;


accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt.and all things mean swift death for mortal man.


Interea magno misceri murmure pontumStraightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze


emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus, et imisgroaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven


stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus; et altoand thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest


prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda.ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy


Disiectam Aeneae, toto videt aequore classemlooked on in your last hour! O bravest son


fluctibus oppressos Troas caelique ruinaGreece ever bore, Tydides! O that I


Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longeor vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen


nec latuere doli fratrem Iunonis et irae.had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life


Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc talia fatur:truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear


Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri?of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell


Iam caelum terramque meo sine numine, ventiand huge Sarpedon; where the Simois


miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles?in furious flood engulfed and whirled away
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Post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis.While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast


Maturate fugam, regique haec dicite vestro:mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves


non illi imperium pelagi saevumque tridentemto strike the very stars; in fragments flew


sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxathe shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered


ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli;to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil


vestras, Eure, domos; illa se iactet in aulaand gave her broadside to the roaring flood


Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet.where watery mountains rose and burst and fell.


Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida aequora placatNow high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs


collectasque fugat nubes, solemque reducit.lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives.


Cymothoe simul et Triton adnixus acutoThree ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung


detrudunt navis scopulo; levat ipse tridenti;on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice


et vastas aperit syrtis, et temperat aequorItalians call them, which lie far from shore


atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas.a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside


Ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta estan east wind, blowing landward from the deep


seditio, saevitque animis ignobile volgusdrove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,—


quam Iuno fertur terris magis omnibus unama man whose largest honor in men's eyes


iamque faces et saxa volant—furor arma ministrat;and girdled them in walls of drifting sand.


tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quemThat ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore


conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant;the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave


ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet,—truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes.


sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, aequora postquamForward the steersman rolled and o'er the side


prospiciens genitor caeloque invectus apertofell headlong, while three times the circling flood


flectit equos, curruque volans dat lora secundo.pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas.


Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursuLook, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave!


contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras.And on the waste of waters wide are seen


Est in secessu longo locus: insula portumweapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare
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efficit obiectu laterum, quibus omnis ab altoonce Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm.


frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos.Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus


Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minanturnow o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes


in caelum scopuli, quorum sub vertice latebursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams
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desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra.Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned


Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrumand how the tempest's turbulent assault


intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxohad vexed the stillness of his deepest cave


nympharum domus: hic fessas non vincula navisgreat Neptune knew; and with indignant mien


ulla tenent, unco non alligat ancora morsu.uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow.


hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esseIn ages gone an ancient city stood—


Huc septem Aeneas collectis navibus omniHe saw the Teucrian navy scattered far


ex numero subit; ac magno telluris amorealong the waters; and Aeneas' men


egressi optata potiuntur Troes harenao'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky.


et sale tabentis artus in litore ponunt.Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem


Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achatesher brother's royal glance failed not to see;


succepitque ignem foliis, atque arida circumand loud to eastward and to westward calling


nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flammam.he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power


Tum Cererem corruptam undis Cerealiaque armais yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will


expediunt fessi rerum, frugesque receptasaudacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven


et torrere parant flammis et frangere saxo.and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I—


si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque.Carthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar


Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit, et omnemnay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves


prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quemby heavier chastisement shall expiate


iactatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremishereafter your bold trespass. Haste away


aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici.and bear your king this word! Not unto him


Navem in conspectu nullam, tris litore cervosdominion o'er the seas and trident dread


prospicit errantis; hos tota armenta sequunturbut unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess


a tergo, et longum per vallis pascitur agmen.wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home


Constitit hic, arcumque manu celerisque sagittasO Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there


corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates;let Aeolus look proud, and play the king
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Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine ducimade front on Italy and on the mouths


cornibus arboreis, sternit, tum volgus, et omnemHe spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued


miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam;the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar


nec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victorth' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven.


corpora fundat humi, et numerum cum navibus aequet.Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil


Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes.thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef;


Vina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acesteswhile, with the trident, the great god's own hand


litore Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus herosassists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore


dividit, et dictis maerentia pectora mulcet:out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea


O socii—neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum—and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam.


O passi graviora, dabit deus his quoque finem.As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars


Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venitpredestined exile, from the Trojan shore


audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces;of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues


Vos et Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantisin some vast city a rebellious mob


accestis scopulos, vos et Cyclopea saxaand base-born passions in its bosom burn


hinc populum late regem belloque superbumwere vast, and ruthless was its quest of war.


venturum excidio Libyae: sic volvere Parcas.'T is said that Juno, of all lands she loved


Id metuens, veterisque memor Saturnia bellimost cherished this,—not Samos ' self so dear.


prima quod ad Troiam pro caris gesserat Argis—Here were her arms, her chariot; even then


necdum etiam causae irarum saevique doloresa throne of power o'er nations near and far


exciderant animo: manet alta mente repostumif Fate opposed not, 't was her darling hope


iudicium Paridis spretaeque iniuria formaeto 'stablish here; but anxiously she heard


et genus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores.that of the Trojan blood there was a breed


His accensa super, iactatos aequore totothen rising, which upon the destined day


litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et altoto Italy, the blest Lavinian strand.


Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achillihould utterly o'erwhelm her Tyrian towers


arcebat longe Latio, multosque per annosa people of wide sway and conquest proud


errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum.hould compass Libya 's doom;—such was the web


Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem!the Fatal Sisters spun. Such was the fear


Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altumof Saturn's daughter, who remembered well


vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis aere ruebantwhat long and unavailing strife she waged


cum Iuno, aeternum servans sub pectore volnusfor her loved Greeks at Troy . Nor did she fail


haec secum: Mene incepto desistere victamto meditate th' occasions of her rage


nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem?and cherish deep within her bosom proud


Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere classemits griefs and wrongs: the choice by Paris made;


vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;Smitten of storms he was on land and sea


Argivum atque ipsos potuit submergere pontoher scorned and slighted beauty; a whole race


unius ob noxam et furias Aiacis Oilei?rebellious to her godhead; and Jove's smile


Ipsa, Iovis rapidum iaculata e nubibus ignemthat beamed on eagle-ravished Ganymede.


disiecitque rates evertitque aequora ventisWith all these thoughts infuriate, her power


illum expirantem transfixo pectore flammaspursued with tempests o'er the boundless main


turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit acuto.the Trojans, though by Grecian victor spared


Ast ego, quae divom incedo regina, Iovisqueand fierce Achilles; so she thrust them far


et soror et coniunx, una cum gente tot annosfrom Latium ; and they drifted, Heaven-impelled


bella gero! Et quisquam numen Iunonis adoretyear after year, o'er many an unknown sea—
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multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbemby violence of Heaven, to satisfy


Talia flammato secum dea corde volutansBelow th' horizon the Sicilian isle


nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austrisjust sank from view, as for the open sea


Aeoliam venit. Hic vasto rex Aeolus antrowith heart of hope they sailed, and every ship


luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonorasclove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves.


imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat.But Juno of her everlasting wound


Illi indignantes magno cum murmure montisknew no surcease, but from her heart of pain


circum claustra fremunt; celsa sedet Aeolus arcethus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail


sceptra tenens, mollitque animos et temperat iras.of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King


Ni faciat, maria ac terras caelumque profundumfrom Italy away? Can Fate oppose?


quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque per auras.Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame


inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinumtern Juno's sleepless wrath; and much in war


Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atristhe Argive fleet and sink its mariners


hoc metuens, molemque et montis insuper altosrevenging but the sacrilege obscene


imposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certoby Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son?


et premere et laxas sciret dare iussus habenas.She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw


Ad quem tum Iuno supplex his vocibus usa est:cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms.


Aeole, namque tibi divom pater atque hominum rexHer foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire


et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere ventoin whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung.


gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequorBut I, who move among the gods a queen


Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates:Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe


incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppesmake war so long! Who now on Juno calls?


Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.he suffered, seeking at the last to found
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Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore nymphaeSo, in her fevered heart complaining still


quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopeaunto the storm-cloud land the goddess came


conubio iungam stabili propriamque dicaboa region with wild whirlwinds in its womb


omnis ut tecum meritis pro talibus annosAeolia named, where royal Aeolus


exigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control


Aeolus haec contra: Tuus, O regina, quid opteso'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms.


explorare labor; mihi iussa capessere fas est.There closely pent in chains and bastions strong


Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Iovemquethey, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar


concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divomchafing against their bonds. But from a throne


Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laesothe city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods


nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand


Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montemallays their fury and their rage confines.


impulit in latus: ac venti, velut agmine factoDid he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky


qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant.were whirled before them through the vast inane.


Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imisBut over-ruling Jove, of this in fear


una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellishid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled


Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king


Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum.to hold them in firm sway, or know what time


Eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemquewith Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world.
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quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casusto safe abode in Latium ; whence arose


Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus aether“Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods


praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem.and Sovereign of mankind confides the power


Extemplo Aeneae solvuntur frigore membra:to calm the waters or with winds upturn


ingemit, et duplicis tendens ad sidera palmasgreat Aeolus! a race with me at war


talia voce refert: O terque quaterque beatinow sails the Tuscan main towards Italy


quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altisbringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers.


contigit oppetere! O Danaum fortissime gentisUprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down!


Tydide! Mene Iliacis occumbere campisHurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead!


non potuisse, tuaque animam hanc effundere dextraTwice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould;


saevus ubi Aeacidae telo iacet Hector, ubi ingensof whom Deiopea, the most fair


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Homer, Iliad, 1.1-1.7 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.1. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.2. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.3. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.4. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.5. /The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment 1.5. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 1.6. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish 1.7. /from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish
2. Homer, Odyssey, 1.1-1.9, 1.11-1.21, 20.353, 20.355-20.356, 22.308, 23.40, 23.234, 23.236-23.237, 24.5, 24.184 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Aeschylus, Persians, 17 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17. καὶ τὸ παλαιὸν Κίσσιον ἕρκος
4. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 7-8, 6 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. δεξιὰ σημαίνει, λαοὺς δʼ ἐπὶ ἔργον ἐγείρει
5. Aristotle, Poetics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Callimachus, Hymn To Apollo, 106-113, 105 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Theocritus, Idylls, 24, 13 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 1.1-1.4, 1.839-1.841, 1.872-1.876 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. ἀρχόμενος σέο, Φοῖβε, παλαιγενέων κλέα φωτῶν 1.2. μνήσομαι, οἳ Πόντοιο κατὰ στόμα καὶ διὰ πέτρας 1.3. Κυανέας βασιλῆος ἐφημοσύνῃ Πελίαο 1.4. χρύσειον μετὰ κῶας ἐύζυγον ἤλασαν Ἀργώ. 1.839. ἐξείπω κατὰ κόσμον. ἀνακτορίη δὲ μελέσθω 1.840. σοίγʼ αὐτῇ καὶ νῆσος· ἔγωγε μὲν οὐκ ἀθερίζων 1.841. χάζομαι, ἀλλά με λυγροὶ ἐπισπέρχουσιν ἄεθλοι.’ 1.872. ἴομεν αὖτις ἕκαστοι ἐπὶ σφέα· τὸν δʼ ἐνὶ λέκτροις 1.873. Ὑψιπύλης εἰᾶτε πανήμερον, εἰσόκε Λῆμνον 1.874. παισὶν ἐσανδρώσῃ, μεγάλη τέ ἑ βάξις ἵκηται.’ 1.875. ὧς νείκεσσεν ὅμιλον· ἐναντία δʼ οὔ νύ τις ἔτλη 1.876. ὄμματʼ ἀνασχεθέειν, οὐδὲ προτιμυθήσασθαι·
9. Cicero, Letters, 1.16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Letters, 1.16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Letters, 1.16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Cicero, Letters, 1.16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Catullus, Poems, 1.9-1.10, 64.1-64.22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Horace, Odes, 1.3, 1.5.13, 1.12.46-1.12.48, 3.1-3.6, 3.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations]. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. 3.1. 1. When Nero was informed of the Romans’ ill success in Judea, a concealed consternation and terror, as is usual in such cases, fell upon him; although he openly looked very big, and was very angry 3.1. They also esteem any errors they commit upon taking counsel beforehand to be better than such rash success as is owing to fortune only; because such a fortuitous advantage tempts them to be inconsiderate, while consultation, though it may sometimes fail of success, hath this good in it, that it makes men more careful hereafter; 3.1. This is an ancient city that is distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs, and was always an enemy to the Jews; on which account they determined to make their first effort against it, and to make their approaches to it as near as possible. 3.2. and said that what had happened was rather owing to the negligence of the commander, than to any valor of the enemy: and as he thought it fit for him, who bare the burden of the whole empire, to despise such misfortunes, he now pretended so to do, and to have a soul superior to all such sad accidents whatsoever. Yet did the disturbance that was in his soul plainly appear by the solicitude he was in [how to recover his affairs again]. 3.2. That he did not see what advantage he could bring to them now, by staying among them, but only provoke the Romans to besiege them more closely, as esteeming it a most valuable thing to take him; but that if they were once informed that he was fled out of the city, they would greatly remit of their eagerness against it. 3.2. and the greater part of the remainder were wounded, with Niger, their remaining general, who fled away together to a small city of Idumea, called Sallis. 3.3. 2. And as he was deliberating to whom he should commit the care of the East, now it was in so great a commotion, and who might be best able to punish the Jews for their rebellion, and might prevent the same distemper from seizing upon the neighboring nations also,— 3.3. So he came quickly to the city, and put his army in order, and set Trajan over the left wing, while he had the right himself, and led them to the siege: 3.3. At this city also the inhabitants of Sepphoris of Galilee met him, who were for peace with the Romans. 3.4. he found no one but Vespasian equal to the task, and able to undergo the great burden of so mighty a war, seeing he was growing an old man already in the camp, and from his youth had been exercised in warlike exploits: he was also a man that had long ago pacified the west, and made it subject to the Romans, when it had been put into disorder by the Germans; he had also recovered to them Britain by his arms 3.4. “Thou, O Vespasian, thinkest no more than that thou hast taken Josephus himself captive; but I come to thee as a messenger of greater tidings; for had not I been sent by God to thee, I knew what was the law of the Jews in this case? and how it becomes generals to die. 3.4. its length is also from Meloth to Thella, a village near to Jordan. 3.5. which had been little known before whereby he procured to his father Claudius to have a triumph bestowed on him without any sweat or labor of his own. 3.5. and for those rivers which they have, all their waters are exceedingly sweet: by reason also of the excellent grass they have, their cattle yield more milk than do those in other places; and, what is the greatest sign of excellency and of abundance, they each of them are very full of people. 3.5. There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not fled away already made opposition; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting: for in hopes of Titus’s giving them his right hand for their security, and out of a consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting 3.6. 3. So Nero esteemed these circumstances as favorable omens, and saw that Vespasian’s age gave him sure experience, and great skill, and that he had his sons as hostages for his fidelity to himself, and that the flourishing age they were in would make them fit instruments under their father’s prudence. Perhaps also there was some interposition of Providence, which was paving the way for Vespasian’s being himself emperor afterwards. 3.6. These last, by marching continually one way or other, and overrunning the parts of the adjoining country, were very troublesome to Josephus and his men; they also plundered all the places that were out of the city’s liberty, and intercepted such as durst go abroad.
15. Horace, Epodes, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Ovid, Amores, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Ovid, Fasti, 1.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. And direct the voyage of my uncertain vessel:
18. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.452-1.465, 11.428-11.429 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Ovid, Tristia, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Propertius, Elegies, 1.1, 2.14, 2.14.9, 2.16, 2.34.63-2.34.64, 2.34.66, 3.4, 3.4.1-3.4.6, 3.21, 3.24 (1st cent. BCE

21. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.2-1.756, 2.7, 2.44, 2.90, 2.97-2.99, 2.137, 2.261, 2.363, 2.631, 2.762, 3.11, 3.273, 3.294-3.295, 3.590-3.654, 4.34, 4.38, 4.279-4.290, 4.311-4.312, 4.532, 5.301, 5.333-5.334, 5.499, 5.521, 5.533, 5.541-5.542, 5.553-5.554, 5.573, 5.592-5.593, 5.864, 6.345, 6.528-6.529, 7.54-7.55, 7.446-7.466, 7.474, 7.781-7.792, 9.446-9.449, 11.246-11.247, 12.15, 12.206-12.211, 12.794-12.795, 12.952 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2. predestined exile, from the Trojan shore 1.3. to Italy, the blest Lavinian strand. 1.4. Smitten of storms he was on land and sea 1.5. by violence of Heaven, to satisfy 1.6. tern Juno's sleepless wrath; and much in war 1.7. he suffered, seeking at the last to found 1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods 1.9. to safe abode in Latium ; whence arose 1.10. the Latin race, old Alba's reverend lords 1.12. O Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege 1.13. or vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen 1.14. to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil 1.15. a man whose largest honor in men's eyes 1.17. In ages gone an ancient city stood— 1.18. Carthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar 1.19. made front on Italy and on the mouths 1.20. of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues 1.21. were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war. 1.22. 'T is said that Juno, of all lands she loved 1.23. most cherished this,—not Samos ' self so dear. 1.24. Here were her arms, her chariot; even then 1.25. a throne of power o'er nations near and far 1.26. if Fate opposed not, 't was her darling hope 1.27. to 'stablish here; but anxiously she heard 1.28. that of the Trojan blood there was a breed 1.29. then rising, which upon the destined day 1.30. hould utterly o'erwhelm her Tyrian towers 1.31. a people of wide sway and conquest proud 1.32. hould compass Libya 's doom;—such was the web 1.33. the Fatal Sisters spun. Such was the fear 1.34. of Saturn's daughter, who remembered well 1.35. what long and unavailing strife she waged 1.36. for her loved Greeks at Troy . Nor did she fail 1.37. to meditate th' occasions of her rage 1.38. and cherish deep within her bosom proud 1.39. its griefs and wrongs: the choice by Paris made; 1.40. her scorned and slighted beauty; a whole race 1.41. rebellious to her godhead; and Jove's smile 1.42. that beamed on eagle-ravished Ganymede. 1.43. With all these thoughts infuriate, her power 1.44. pursued with tempests o'er the boundless main 1.45. the Trojans, though by Grecian victor spared 1.46. and fierce Achilles; so she thrust them far 1.47. from Latium ; and they drifted, Heaven-impelled 1.48. year after year, o'er many an unknown sea— 1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.223. rises a straight-stemmed grove of dense, dark shade. 1.224. Fronting on these a grotto may be seen 1.225. o'erhung by steep cliffs; from its inmost wall 1.226. clear springs gush out; and shelving seats it has 1.227. of unhewn stone, a place the wood-nymphs love. 1.228. In such a port, a weary ship rides free 1.230. Hither Aeneas of his scattered fleet 1.231. aving but seven, into harbor sailed; 1.232. with passionate longing for the touch of land 1.233. forth leap the Trojans to the welcome shore 1.234. and fling their dripping limbs along the ground. 1.235. Then good Achates smote a flinty stone 1.236. ecured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves 1.237. and with dry branches nursed the mounting flame. 1.238. Then Ceres' gift from the corrupting sea 1.239. they bring away; and wearied utterly 1.240. ply Ceres' cunning on the rescued corn 1.241. and parch in flames, and mill 'twixt two smooth stones. 1.242. Aeneas meanwhile climbed the cliffs, and searched 1.243. the wide sea-prospect; haply Antheus there 1.244. torm-buffeted, might sail within his ken 1.245. with biremes, and his Phrygian mariners 1.246. or Capys or Caicus armor-clad 1.247. upon a towering deck. No ship is seen; 1.248. but while he looks, three stags along the shore 1.249. come straying by, and close behind them comes 1.250. the whole herd, browsing through the lowland vale 1.251. in one long line. Aeneas stopped and seized 1.252. his bow and swift-winged arrows, which his friend 1.253. trusty Achates, close beside him bore. 1.254. His first shafts brought to earth the lordly heads 1.255. of the high-antlered chiefs; his next assailed 1.256. the general herd, and drove them one and all 1.257. in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.258. the victory of his bow, till on the ground 1.259. lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260. Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends 1.261. distributed the spoil, with that rare wine 1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell 1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows 1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus 1.297. or mourns with grief untold the untimely doom 1.299. After these things were past, exalted Jove 1.300. from his ethereal sky surveying clear 1.301. the seas all winged with sails, lands widely spread 1.302. and nations populous from shore to shore 1.303. paused on the peak of heaven, and fixed his gaze 1.304. on Libya . But while he anxious mused 1.305. near him, her radiant eyes all dim with tears 1.306. nor smiling any more, Venus approached 1.307. and thus complained: “O thou who dost control 1.308. things human and divine by changeless laws 1.309. enthroned in awful thunder! What huge wrong 1.310. could my Aeneas and his Trojans few 1.311. achieve against thy power? For they have borne 1.312. unnumbered deaths, and, failing Italy 1.313. the gates of all the world against them close. 1.314. Hast thou not given us thy covet 1.315. that hence the Romans when the rolling years 1.316. have come full cycle, shall arise to power 1.317. from Troy 's regenerate seed, and rule supreme 1.318. the unresisted lords of land and sea? 1.319. O Sire, what swerves thy will? How oft have I 1.320. in Troy 's most lamentable wreck and woe 1.321. consoled my heart with this, and balanced oft 1.322. our destined good against our destined ill! 1.323. But the same stormful fortune still pursues 1.324. my band of heroes on their perilous way. 1.325. When shall these labors cease, O glorious King? 1.326. Antenor, though th' Achaeans pressed him sore 1.327. found his way forth, and entered unassailed 1.328. Illyria 's haven, and the guarded land 1.329. of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed 1.330. where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 1.331. a nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 1.332. and whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 1.333. He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes 1.334. for Troy 's far-exiled sons; he gave a name 1.335. to a new land and race; the Trojan arms 1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby 1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. 1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass 1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. 1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called 1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood) 1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build 1.370. Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 1.371. have kingly power; till a priestess queen 1.372. by Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 1.374. in tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 1.375. the sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 1.376. and on his Romans his own name bestow. 1.377. To these I give no bounded times or power 1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea 1.380. with her dread frown, will find a wiser way 1.381. and at my sovereign side protect and bless 1.382. the Romans, masters of the whole round world 1.383. who, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind. 1.384. Such my decree! In lapse of seasons due 1.385. the heirs of Ilium 's kings shall bind in chains 1.386. Mycenae 's glory and Achilles' towers 1.387. and over prostrate Argos sit supreme. 1.388. of Trojan stock illustriously sprung 1.389. lo, Caesar comes! whose power the ocean bounds 1.390. whose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name 1.391. Iulus nobly bore, great Julius, he. 1.392. Him to the skies, in Orient trophies dress 1.393. thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, like us 1.394. hall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow. 1.395. Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound 1.396. will be forgot; for olden Honor then 1.397. with spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain 1.398. Remus and Romulus, at strife no more 1.399. will publish sacred laws. The dreadful gates 1.400. whence issueth war, shall with close-jointed steel 1.401. be barred impregnably; and prisoned there 1.402. the heaven-offending Fury, throned on swords 1.403. and fettered by a hundred brazen chains 1.405. These words he gave, and summoned Maia's son 1.406. the herald Mercury, who earthward flying 1.407. hould bid the Tyrian realms and new-built towers 1.408. welcome the Trojan waifs; lest Dido, blind 1.409. to Fate's decree, should thrust them from the land. 1.410. He takes his flight, with rhythmic stroke of wing 1.411. across th' abyss of air, and soon draws near 1.412. unto the Libyan mainland. He fulfils 1.413. his heavenly task; the Punic hearts of stone 1.414. grow soft beneath the effluence divine; 1.415. and, most of all, the Queen, with heart at ease 1.417. But good Aeneas, pondering all night long 1.418. his many cares, when first the cheerful dawn 1.419. upon him broke, resolved to take survey 1.420. of this strange country whither wind and wave 1.421. had driven him,—for desert land it seemed,— 1.422. to learn what tribes of man or beast possess 1.423. a place so wild, and careful tidings bring 1.424. back to his friends. His fleet of ships the while 1.425. where dense, dark groves o'er-arch a hollowed crag 1.426. he left encircled in far-branching shade. 1.427. Then with no followers save his trusty friend 1.428. Achates, he went forth upon his way 1.429. two broad-tipped javelins poising in his hand. 1.430. Deep to the midmost wood he went, and there 1.431. his Mother in his path uprose; she seemed 1.432. in garb and countece a maid, and bore 1.433. like Spartan maids, a weapon; in such guise 1.434. Harpalyce the Thracian urges on 1.435. her panting coursers and in wild career 1.436. outstrips impetuous Hebrus as it flows. 1.437. Over her lovely shoulders was a bow 1.438. lender and light, as fits a huntress fair; 1.439. her golden tresses without wimple moved 1.440. in every wind, and girded in a knot 1.441. her undulant vesture bared her marble knees. 1.442. She hailed them thus: “Ho, sirs, I pray you tell 1.443. if haply ye have noted, as ye came 1.444. one of my sisters in this wood astray? 1.445. She bore a quiver, and a lynx's hide 1.446. her spotted mantle was; perchance she roused 1.448. So Venus spoke, and Venus' son replied: 1.449. “No voice or vision of thy sister fair 1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess 1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph 1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art 1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies 1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! 1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand 1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold 1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell 1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there 1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity 1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; 1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed 1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love 1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly 1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul 1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept 1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came 1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was 1.494. to fly, self-banished, from her ruined land 1.495. and for her journey's aid, he whispered where 1.496. his buried treasure lay, a weight unknown 1.497. of silver and of gold. Thus onward urged 1.498. Dido, assembling her few trusted friends 1.499. prepared her flight. There rallied to her cause 1.500. all who did hate and scorn the tyrant king 1.501. or feared his cruelty. They seized his ships 1.502. which haply rode at anchor in the bay 1.503. and loaded them with gold; the hoarded wealth 1.504. of vile and covetous Pygmalion 1.505. they took to sea. A woman wrought this deed. 1.506. Then came they to these lands where now thine eyes 1.507. behold yon walls and yonder citadel 1.508. of newly rising Carthage . For a price 1.509. they measured round so much of Afric soil 1.510. as one bull's hide encircles, and the spot 1.511. received its name, the Byrsa. But, I pray 1.512. what men are ye? from what far land arrived 1.513. and whither going?” When she questioned thus 1.514. her son, with sighs that rose from his heart's depths 1.516. “Divine one, if I tell 1.517. my woes and burdens all, and thou could'st pause 1.518. to heed the tale, first would the vesper star 1.519. th' Olympian portals close, and bid the day 1.520. in slumber lie. of ancient Troy are we— 1.521. if aught of Troy thou knowest! As we roved 1.522. from sea to sea, the hazard of the storm 1.523. cast us up hither on this Libyan coast. 1.524. I am Aeneas, faithful evermore 1.525. to Heaven's command; and in my ships I bear 1.526. my gods ancestral, which I snatched away 1.527. from peril of the foe. My fame is known 1.528. above the stars. I travel on in quest 1.529. of Italy, my true home-land, and I 1.530. from Jove himself may trace my birth divine. 1.531. With twice ten ships upon the Phryglan main 1.532. I launched away. My mother from the skies 1.533. gave guidance, and I wrought what Fate ordained. 1.534. Yet now scarce seven shattered ships survive 1.535. the shock of wind and wave; and I myself 1.536. friendless, bereft, am wandering up and down 1.537. this Libyan wilderness! Behold me here 1.538. from Europe and from Asia exiled still!” 1.539. But Venus could not let him longer plain 1.541. “Whoe'er thou art 1.542. I deem that not unblest of heavenly powers 1.543. with vital breath still thine, thou comest hither 1.544. unto our Tyrian town. Go steadfast on 1.545. and to the royal threshold make thy way! 1.546. I bring thee tidings that thy comrades all 1.547. are safe at land; and all thy ships, conveyed 1.548. by favoring breezes, safe at anchor lie; 1.549. or else in vain my parents gave me skill 1.550. to read the skies. Look up at yonder swans! 1.551. A flock of twelve, whose gayly fluttering file 1.552. erst scattered by Jove's eagle swooping down 1.553. from his ethereal haunt, now form anew 1.554. their long-drawn line, and make a landing-place 1.555. or, hovering over, scan some chosen ground 1.556. or soaring high, with whir of happy wings 1.557. re-circle heaven in triumphant song: 1.558. likewise, I tell thee, thy Iost mariners 1.559. are landed, or fly landward at full sail. 1.561. She ceased and turned away. A roseate beam 1.562. from her bright shoulder glowed; th' ambrosial hair 1.563. breathed more than mortal sweetness, while her robes 1.564. fell rippling to her feet. Each step revealed 1.565. the veritable goddess. Now he knew 1.566. that vision was his mother, and his words 1.567. pursued the fading phantom as it fled: 1.568. “Why is thy son deluded o'er and o'er 1.569. with mocking dreams,—another cruel god? 1.570. Hast thou no hand-clasp true, nor interchange 1.571. of words unfeigned betwixt this heart and thine?” 1.572. Such word of blame he spoke, and took his way 1.573. toward the city's rampart. Venus then 1.574. o'erveiled them as they moved in darkened air,— 1.575. a liquid mantle of thick cloud divine,— 1.576. that viewless they might pass, nor would any 1.577. obstruct, delay, or question why they came. 1.578. To Paphos then she soared, her Ioved abode 1.579. where stands her temple, at whose hundred shrines 1.580. garlands of myrtle and fresh roses breathe 1.582. Meanwhile the wanderers swiftly journey on 1.583. along the clear-marked road, and soon they climb 1.584. the brow of a high hill, which close in view 1.585. o'er-towers the city's crown. The vast exploit 1.586. where lately rose but Afric cabins rude 1.587. Aeneas wondered at: the smooth, wide ways; 1.588. the bastioned gates; the uproar of the throng. 1.589. The Tyrians toil unwearied; some up-raise 1.590. a wall or citadel, from far below 1.591. lifting the ponderous stone; or with due care 1.592. choose where to build, and close the space around 1.593. with sacred furrow; in their gathering-place 1.594. the people for just governors, just laws 1.595. and for their reverend senate shout acclaim. 1.596. Some clear the harbor mouth; some deeply lay 1.597. the base of a great theatre, and carve out 1.598. proud columns from the mountain, to adorn 1.599. their rising stage with lofty ornament. 1.600. o busy bees above a field of flowers 1.601. in early summer amid sunbeams toil 1.602. leading abroad their nation's youthful brood; 1.603. or with the flowing honey storing close 1.604. the pliant cells, until they quite run o'er 1.605. with nectared sweet; while from the entering swarm 1.606. they take their little loads; or lined for war 1.607. rout the dull drones, and chase them from the hive; 1.608. brisk is the task, and all the honeyed air 1.609. breathes odors of wild thyme. “How blest of Heaven. 1.610. These men that see their promised ramparts rise!” 1.611. Aeneas sighed; and swift his glances moved 1.612. from tower to tower; then on his way he fared 1.613. veiled in the wonder-cloud, whence all unseen 1.614. of human eyes,—O strange the tale and true!— 1.616. Deep in the city's heart there was a grove 1.617. of beauteous shade, where once the Tyrians 1.618. cast here by stormful waves, delved out of earth 1.619. that portent which Queen Juno bade them find,— 1.620. the head of a proud horse,—that ages long 1.621. their boast might be wealth, luxury and war. 1.622. Upon this spot Sidonian Dido raised 1.623. a spacious fane to Juno, which became 1.624. plendid with gifts, and hallowed far and wide 1.625. for potency divine. Its beams were bronze 1.626. and on loud hinges swung the brazen doors. 1.627. A rare, new sight this sacred grove did show 1.628. which calmed Aeneas' fears, and made him bold 1.629. to hope for safety, and with lifted heart 1.630. from his low-fallen fortunes re-aspire. 1.631. For while he waits the advent of the Queen 1.632. he scans the mighty temple, and admires 1.633. the city's opulent pride, and all the skill 1.634. its rival craftsmen in their work approve. 1.635. Behold! he sees old Ilium 's well-fought fields 1.636. in sequent picture, and those famous wars 1.637. now told upon men's lips the whole world round. 1.638. There Atreus' sons, there kingly Priam moved 1.639. and fierce Pelides pitiless to both. 1.640. Aeneas paused, and, weeping, thus began: 1.641. “Alas, Achates, what far region now 1.642. what land in all the world knows not our pain? 1.648. So saying, he received into his heart 1.649. that visionary scene, profoundly sighed 1.650. and let his plenteous tears unheeded flow. 1.651. There he beheld the citadel of Troy 1.652. girt with embattled foes; here, Greeks in flight 1.653. ome Trojan onset 'scaped; there, Phrygian bands 1.654. before tall-plumed Achilles' chariot sped. 1.655. The snowy tents of Rhesus spread hard by 1.657. in night's first watch burst o'er them unawares 1.658. with bloody havoc and a host of deaths; 1.659. then drove his fiery coursers o'er the plain 1.660. before their thirst or hunger could be stayed 1.661. on Trojan corn or Xanthus ' cooling stream. 1.662. Here too was princely Troilus, despoiled 1.663. routed and weaponless, O wretched boy! 1.664. Ill-matched against Achilles! His wild steeds 1.665. bear him along, as from his chariot's rear 1.666. he falls far back, but clutches still the rein; 1.667. his hair and shoulders on the ground go trailing 1.668. and his down-pointing spear-head scrawls the dust. 1.669. Elsewhere, to Pallas' ever-hostile shrine 1.670. daughters of Ilium, with unsnooded hair 1.671. and lifting all in vain her hallowed pall 1.672. walked suppliant and sad, beating their breasts 1.673. with outspread palms. But her unswerving eyes 1.674. the goddess fixed on earth, and would not see. 1.675. Achilles round the Trojan rampart thrice 1.676. had dragged the fallen Hector, and for gold 1.677. was making traffic of the lifeless clay. 1.678. Aeneas groaned aloud, with bursting heart 1.679. to see the spoils, the car, the very corpse 1.680. of his lost friend,—while Priam for the dead 1.681. tretched forth in piteous prayer his helpless hands. 1.682. There too his own presentment he could see 1.683. urrounded by Greek kings; and there were shown 1.684. hordes from the East, and black-browed Memnon's arms; 1.685. her band of Amazons, with moon-shaped shields 1.686. Penthesilea led; her martial eye 1.687. flamed on from troop to troop; a belt of gold 1.688. beneath one bare, protruded breast she bound— 1.690. While on such spectacle Aeneas' eyes 1.691. looked wondering, while mute and motionless 1.692. he stood at gaze, Queen Dido to the shrine 1.693. in lovely majesty drew near; a throng 1.694. of youthful followers pressed round her way. 1.695. So by the margin of Eurotas wide 1.696. or o'er the Cynthian steep, Diana leads 1.697. her bright processional; hither and yon 1.698. are visionary legions numberless 1.699. of Oreads; the regt goddess bears 1.700. a quiver on her shoulders, and is seen 1.701. emerging tallest of her beauteous train; 1.702. while joy unutterable thrills the breast 1.703. of fond Latona: Dido not less fair 1.704. amid her subjects passed, and not less bright 1.705. her glow of gracious joy, while she approved 1.706. her future kingdom's pomp and vast emprise. 1.707. Then at the sacred portal and beneath 1.708. the temple's vaulted dome she took her place 1.709. encompassed by armed men, and lifted high 1.710. upon a throne; her statutes and decrees 1.711. the people heard, and took what lot or toil 1.712. her sentence, or impartial urn, assigned. 1.713. But, lo! Aeneas sees among the throng 1.714. Antheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus bold 1.715. with other Teucrians, whom the black storm flung 1.716. far o'er the deep and drove on alien shores. 1.717. Struck dumb was he, and good Achates too 1.718. half gladness and half fear. Fain would they fly 1.719. to friendship's fond embrace; but knowing not 1.720. what might befall, their hearts felt doubt and care. 1.721. Therefore they kept the secret, and remained 1.722. forth-peering from the hollow veil of cloud 1.723. haply to learn what their friends' fate might be 1.724. or where the fleet was landed, or what aim 1.725. had brought them hither; for a chosen few 1.726. from every ship had come to sue for grace 1.729. and leave to speak, revered Ilioneus 1.730. with soul serene these lowly words essayed: 1.731. “O Queen, who hast authority of Jove 1.732. to found this rising city, and subdue 1.733. with righteous goverce its people proud 1.734. we wretched Trojans, blown from sea to sea 1.735. beseech thy mercy; keep the curse of fire 1.736. from our poor ships! We pray thee, do no wrong 1.737. unto a guiltless race. But heed our plea! 1.738. No Libyan hearth shall suffer by our sword 1.739. nor spoil and plunder to our ships be borne; 1.740. uch haughty violence fits not the souls 1.741. of vanquished men. We journey to a land 1.742. named, in Greek syllables, Hesperia : 1.743. a storied realm, made mighty by great wars 1.744. and wealth of fruitful land; in former days 1.745. Oenotrians had it, and their sons, 't is said 1.746. have called it Italy, a chieftain's name 1.747. to a whole region given. Thitherward 1.748. our ships did fare; but with swift-rising flood 1.749. the stormful season of Orion's star 1.750. drove us on viewless shoals; and angry gales 1.751. dispersed us, smitten by the tumbling surge 1.752. among innavigable rocks. Behold 1.753. we few swam hither, waifs upon your shore! 1.754. What race of mortals this? What barbarous land 1.755. that with inhospitable laws ye thrust 1.756. a stranger from your coasts, and fly to arms 2.7. the Greek flung down; which woeful scene I saw 2.44. that horse which loomed so large. Thymoetes then 2.90. a mark for every eye, defenceless, dazed 2.97. Such groans and anguish turned all rage away 2.98. and stayed our lifted hands. We bade him tell 2.99. his birth, his errand, and from whence might be 2.137. Ulysses smiles and Atreus' royal sons 2.261. inside your walls, nor anywise restore 2.363. and last, Epeus, who the fabric wrought. 2.631. till, fresh and strong, he sheds his annual scales 2.762. I stood there sole surviving; when, behold 3.11. a resting-place at last), and my small band 3.273. gave heed to sad Cassandra's voice divine? 3.294. or ken our way. Three days of blinding dark 3.295. three nights without a star, we roved the seas; 3.590. But Scylla, prisoned in her eyeless cave 3.591. thrusts forth her face, and pulls upon the rocks 3.592. hip after ship; the parts that first be seen 3.593. are human; a fair-breasted virgin she 3.594. down to the womb; but all that lurks below 3.595. is a huge-membered fish, where strangely join 3.596. the flukes of dolphins and the paunch of wolves. 3.597. Better by far to round the distant goal 3.598. of the Trinacrian headlands, veering wide 3.599. from thy true course, than ever thou shouldst see 3.600. that shapeless Scylla in her vaulted cave 3.601. where grim rocks echo her dark sea-dogs' roar. 3.602. Yea, more, if aught of prescience be bestowed 3.603. on Helenus, if trusted prophet he 3.604. and Phoebus to his heart true voice have given 3.605. o goddess-born, one counsel chief of all 3.606. I tell thee oft, and urge it o'er and o'er. 3.607. To Juno's godhead lift thy Ioudest prayer; 3.608. to Juno chant a fervent votive song 3.609. and with obedient offering persuade 3.610. that potent Queen. So shalt thou, triumphing 3.611. to Italy be sped, and leave behind 3.612. Trinacria . When wafted to that shore 3.613. repair to Cumae 's hill, and to the Lake 3.614. Avernus with its whispering grove divine. 3.615. There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess 3.616. who from beneath the hollow scarped crag 3.617. ings oracles, or characters on leaves 3.618. mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes 3.619. on leaves inscribing the portentous song 3.620. he sets in order, and conceals them well 3.621. in her deep cave, where they abide unchanged 3.622. in due array. Yet not a care has she 3.623. if with some swinging hinge a breeze sweeps in 3.624. to catch them as they whirl: if open door 3.625. disperse them flutterlig through the hollow rock 3.626. he will not link their shifted sense anew 3.627. nor re-invent her fragmentary song. 3.628. oft her uswered votaries depart 3.629. corning the Sibyl's shrine. But deem not thou 3.630. thy tarrying too Iong, whate'er thy stay. 3.631. Though thy companions chide, though winds of power 3.632. invite thy ship to sea, and well would speed 3.633. the swelling sail, yet to that Sibyl go. 3.634. Pray that her own lips may sing forth for thee 3.635. the oracles, uplifting her dread voice 3.636. in willing prophecy. Her rede shall tell 3.637. of Italy, its wars and tribes to be 3.638. and of what way each burden and each woe 3.639. may be escaped, or borne. Her favoring aid 3.640. will grant swift, happy voyages to thy prayer. 3.641. Such counsels Heaven to my lips allows. 3.642. arise, begone! and by thy glorious deeds 3.644. So spake the prophet with benigt voice. 3.645. Then gifts he bade be brought of heavy gold 3.646. and graven ivory, which to our ships 3.647. he bade us bear; each bark was Ioaded full 3.648. with messy silver and Dodona 's pride 3.649. of brazen cauldrons; a cuirass he gave 3.650. of linked gold enwrought and triple chain; 3.651. a noble helmet, too, with flaming crest 3.652. and lofty cone, th' accoutrement erewhile 3.653. of Neoptolemus. My father too 3.654. had fit gifts from the King; whose bounty then 4.34. But may the earth gape open where I tread 4.38. before, O Chastity! I shall offend 4.279. the filthy goddess spread; and soon she hied 4.280. to King Iarbas, where her hateful song 4.282. Him the god Ammon got by forced embrace 4.283. upon a Libyan nymph; his kingdoms wide 4.284. possessed a hundred ample shrines to Jove 4.285. a hundred altars whence ascended ever 4.286. the fires of sacrifice, perpetual seats 4.287. for a great god's abode, where flowing blood 4.288. enriched the ground, and on the portals hung 4.289. garlands of every flower. The angered King 4.290. half-maddened by maligt Rumor's voice 4.311. his stolen prize. But we to all these fanes 4.312. though they be thine, a fruitless offering bring 4.532. for gods, I trow, that such a task disturbs 5.301. contriving to move on. Then Mnestheus ran 5.333. Cloanthus victor, and arrayed his brows 5.334. with the green laurel-garland; to the crews 5.499. believing none now dare but yield the palm 5.521. in all my body are but slack and chill. 5.533. high-souled Anchises' son, this way and that 5.541. with blood, with dashed-out brains! In these he stood 5.542. when he matched Hercules. I wore them oft 5.553. and towered gigantic in the midmost ring. 5.554. Anchises' son then gave two equal pairs 5.573. parries attack. Dares (like one in siege 5.592. rushed fiercer to the fight, his strength now roused 5.593. by rage, while shame and courage confident 5.864. nor could his guards restrain . “What madness now? 6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 7.54. and all Hesperia gathered to the fray. 7.55. Events of grander march impel my song 7.446. the Gorgon poison, took her viewless way 7.447. to Latium and the lofty walls and towers 7.448. of the Laurentian King. Crouching she sate 7.449. in silence on the threshold of the bower 7.450. where Queen Amata in her fevered soul 7.451. pondered, with all a woman's wrath and fear 7.452. upon the Trojans and the marriage-suit 7.453. of Turnus. From her Stygian hair the fiend 7.454. a single serpent flung, which stole its way 7.455. to the Queen's very heart, that, frenzy-driven 7.456. he might on her whole house confusion pour. 7.457. Betwixt her smooth breast and her robe it wound 7.458. unfelt, unseen, and in her wrathful mind 7.459. instilled its viper soul. Like golden chain 7.460. around her neck it twined, or stretched along 7.461. the fillets on her brow, or with her hair 7.462. enwrithing coiled; then on from limb to limb 7.463. lipped tortuous. Yet though the venom strong 7.464. thrilled with its first infection every vein 7.465. and touched her bones with fire, she knew it not 7.466. nor yielded all her soul, but made her plea 7.474. that wretch will leave deserted, bearing far 7.781. dread Juno's will, then with complaining prayer 7.782. the aged sire cried loud upon his gods 7.783. and on th' unheeding air: “Alas,” said he 7.784. “My doom is shipwreck, and the tempest bears 7.785. my bark away! O wretches, your own blood 7.786. hall pay the forfeit for your impious crime. 7.787. O Turnus! O abominable deed! 7.788. Avenging woes pursue thee; to deaf gods 7.789. thy late and unavailing prayer shall rise. 7.790. Now was my time to rest. But as I come 7.791. close to my journey's end, thou spoilest me 7.792. of comfort in my death.” With this the King 9.446. that no man smite behind us. I myself 9.447. will mow the mighty fieid, and lead thee on 9.448. in a wide swath of slaughter.” With this word 9.449. he shut his lips; and hurled him with his sword 11.246. all ancient ritual. The fuming fires 11.247. burned from beneath, till highest heaven was hid 12.15. constrains the Teucrian cowards and their King 12.206. in our Olympian realm. So blame not me 12.207. but hear, Juturna, what sore grief is thine: 12.208. while chance and destiny conceded aught 12.209. of strength to Latium 's cause, I shielded well 12.210. both Turnus and thy city's wall; but now 12.211. I see our youthful champion make his war 12.794. the King himself to parley; others fly 12.795. to arms, and at the rampart make a stand. 12.952. were battering the foundations, now laid by
22. Vergil, Eclogues, 1.40-1.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.40. I serve but Amaryllis: for I will own 1.41. while Galatea reigned over me, I had 1.42. no hope of freedom, and no thought to save.
23. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.42, 2.39-2.45, 2.108, 3.16-3.39, 4.559-4.566 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed 1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear 1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift 1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun 1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun 1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing. 1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first 1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke 1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom 1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes 1.19. The fertile brakes of placeName key= 1.20. Thy native forest and Lycean lawns 1.21. Pan, shepherd-god, forsaking, as the love 1.22. of thine own Maenalus constrains thee, hear 1.23. And help, O lord of placeName key= 1.24. Minerva, from whose hand the olive sprung; 1.25. And boy-discoverer of the curved plough; 1.26. And, bearing a young cypress root-uptorn 1.27. Silvanus, and Gods all and Goddesses 1.28. Who make the fields your care, both ye who nurse 1.29. The tender unsown increase, and from heaven 1.30. Shed on man's sowing the riches of your rain: 1.31. And thou, even thou, of whom we know not yet 1.32. What mansion of the skies shall hold thee soon 1.33. Whether to watch o'er cities be thy will 1.34. Great Caesar, and to take the earth in charge 1.35. That so the mighty world may welcome thee 1.36. Lord of her increase, master of her times 1.37. Binding thy mother's myrtle round thy brow 1.38. Or as the boundless ocean's God thou come 1.39. Sole dread of seamen, till far placeName key= 1.40. Before thee, and Tethys win thee to her son 1.41. With all her waves for dower; or as a star 1.42. Lend thy fresh beams our lagging months to cheer 2.39. Shrink to restore the topmost shoot to earth 2.40. That gave it being. Nay, marvellous to tell 2.41. Lopped of its limbs, the olive, a mere stock 2.42. Still thrusts its root out from the sapless wood 2.43. And oft the branches of one kind we see 2.44. Change to another's with no loss to rue 2.45. Pear-tree transformed the ingrafted apple yield 2.108. Are set herein, and—no long time—behold! 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, placeName key= 3.18. of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19. On thy green plain fast by the water-side 3.20. Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils 3.21. And rims his margent with the tender reed. 3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell. 3.23. To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24. In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25. A hundred four-horse cars. All placeName key= 3.26. Leaving Alpheus and Molorchus' grove 3.27. On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28. Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned 3.29. Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy 3.30. To lead the high processions to the fane 3.31. And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32. Sunders with shifted face, and placeName key= 3.33. Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door 3.35. I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides 3.36. And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there 3.37. Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the placeName key= 3.38. And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39. And placeName key= 4.559. With a great cry leapt on him, and ere he rose 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing 4.563. Fire and a fearful beast, and flowing stream. 4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned 4.566. With human lips he spake, “Who bade thee, then
24. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.1-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Martial, Epigrams, 14.186 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Martial, Epigrams, 14.186 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill.
28. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 6.96-6.105 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Seneca The Younger, Apocolocyntosis, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Seneca The Younger, Hercules Furens, 940-952, 990-995, 939 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Seneca The Younger, Medea, 302, 301 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Statius, Thebais, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 1.1-1.21, 2.375-2.392, 3.224-3.228, 3.578-3.593, 3.637-3.645, 3.697-3.714, 4.2, 4.5-4.8, 4.13-4.19, 4.391-4.418, 5.154-5.176 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 5.2.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 5.2.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

36. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 1.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

37. Epigraphy, Cil, 4.2361, 9.2845-9.2846

38. Epigraphy, Ils, 915



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acestes and nestor Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
achaemenides Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 193
achilles, successors, aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
achilles Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
acrisius Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64
acropolis, in the aeneid Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
acrostics, boustrophedon Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
acrostics Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
aemulatio Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192, 193
aeneas, and antenor Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 165
aeneas, and dido Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 166
aeneas, as dido Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 247
aeneas, as virgil Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 165, 166
aeneas, betrayal Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 165, 166
aeneas, in iliad Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192
aeneas, meeting Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
aeneas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41, 42, 116, 119, 126, 155; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 96, 216, 302, 314; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
aeneas and odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 192, 193
aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190, 191, 192, 193
aeolus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 94
aeschylus, persae Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
aethiopis Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119
aetiology Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
agamemnon Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95
allecto Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
allusion Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 96
amata Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64; Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
ambition Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119, 127
amor Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134, 311
amores (ovid) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
analogues Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
anchises Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
anchoring allusions Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 45
ancilla Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
anna Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
antenor Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 165
antiphony Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
apollo Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 46, 127
apollonius of rhodes, argonautica Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
apollonius rhodius Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52, 53, 178
apulia Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
argo Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
argus, dog Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
aristotle Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117, 155
arma Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 134, 216
arms (arma) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 117, 119, 126
augustus, as triumphator Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 62
augustus, augustan Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42
augustus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 311
augustus (see also octavian) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
augustus octavian Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
aural signals Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 245
authority, narrative Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
autun Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
barthes, roland Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 90
beginnings, importance of Goldhill, Preposterous Poetics: The Politics and Aesthetics of Form in Late Antiquity (2020) 71
beginnings, in epic Goldhill, Preposterous Poetics: The Politics and Aesthetics of Form in Late Antiquity (2020) 71
black sea Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
book, and immortality of poet Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
bookroll, damage to from use Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
bovillae, perenna Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
britain Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
broch, hermann, and the donatan life of virgil Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 165
broch, hermann, der tod des vergil Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 165, 166
broch, hermann, plotia hieria as character in Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 166
broch, hermann, virgilian intertexts in Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 165, 166
brooks, peter Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 90
caieta Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
callimachus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117, 119, 127, 155
camena Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
carthage, as persia Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
carthage, as troy Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
carthage, etymology Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
carthage, in the aeneid Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 247
carthage, mirror of rome Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
carthage Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 311
carthaginians, in the aeneid Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
carthaginians, portrait of Giusti, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (2018) 100
catullus, and anxiety over books fate Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
catullus, passer Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
catullus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 127; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
causes (origines, aetia) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119, 126
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
chimaera Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
choice Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42, 116
cicero (marcus tullius cicero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41
civil war Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
columbaria Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
comedy, comic, comic mode Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
concord, in games Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
concord Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 94, 190
constantine i Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
contradiction Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119
cornelii scipiones, senatorial family Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
correction Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 191, 193
creusa Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
cursus honorum Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
cynic, philosophy, view of odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190
cynic, philosophy Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190
cynthia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 96, 216
cypria Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117, 119
cyzicus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178
daunian Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
death, by drowning Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 127
death Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42, 45, 155
defixiones Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
deus praesens Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
didactic, persona Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
dido Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216
dilemma Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
diomedes Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
distance Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
doliones Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178
domitian Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
dreams Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119
education, instruction Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 46
elegy, erotic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95, 96, 134, 216, 302, 314
elegy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
elogia Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
emotions, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 46, 116, 119
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
emotions, confidence Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 119
emotions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 46, 116, 119
epic Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 45, 46, 116, 117, 126, 127, 155; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 96, 134, 216, 302, 311, 314
epic cycle Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116, 117, 119, 127, 155
epigrams, of ovid Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
epigraphic habit, Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
epigraphs Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
epitaph Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134, 302, 311
erato Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
errare, error Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
ethical qualities, anger, wrath (ira, mênis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 46, 116, 119
ethical qualities, intelligence (sapientia, mêtis) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
ethical qualities, resourcefulness Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
ethics Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116, 155
euryalus, mother of Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
euryalus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
eurystheus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
evander Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
exile Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
failure Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116, 126, 127
fame Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 311
fate, fates Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
fate (fata) Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 193
feminist theory Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
focalization Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 126
formalism, literary Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41
funerary Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
funerary inscriptions/epitaphs Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
gallus, cornelius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 311; Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 62
games, in homer and virgil Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
genre, viii- Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
genre Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
ghosts Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88
gods Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 45, 46, 117, 155
golden age Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
golden fleece Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 322
gospels, waiting in Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 90
graffiti, literary Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
hector Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
heracleid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles, baby heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles, in callimachus aetia Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles, in greek tragedy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles, in the argonautica Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles, labors Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
heracles/hercules, latin hercules de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
heracles Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 155
hercules Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178, 322
hermes Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88
hero Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 45, 46, 126, 127, 155
hesitation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
hexameters Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
histonium, samnium Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
home Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88
homecoming Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
homecomings (nostoi) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
homer, ancient scholarship Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
homer, iliad Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
homer, lucans use of Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
homer, model / anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 45
homer, odyssey Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 95, 96
homer Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 96, 314
homeric epics, ancient comparisons, concord/discord in Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190
horace, odes Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
horace Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 117, 126
hylas Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155; Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 322
hypsipyle Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178
identity Blum and Biggs, The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature (2019) 130
ideology Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 127
iliad Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117, 119
image Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
imperial, tetrarchy Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
inachus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
india Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
inscriptions, typology of Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
intentions Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
intertextuality, allusion, genre model (modello genere) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
intertextuality, allusion, two-tier intertextuality, model Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
intertextuality, allusion de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
intertextuality, combination (contaminatio) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117, 155
intertextuality, imitation Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42, 44, 45
intertextuality, in hermann brochs der tod des vergil Goldschmidt, Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry (2019) 165, 166
intertextuality, metrical Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 45, 46
intertextuality, rivalry (aemulatio) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116
intertextuality Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
io Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
italy Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42, 44, 117
ithaca/ithaka Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
jason Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52, 53
journey Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
juno Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65; Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 94; Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 46, 119, 126, 127
juno (see also hera) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 322
jupiter (see also zeus) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 322
katabasis Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
king, martin luther Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 90
labor, labors (labor, labores) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 155
lament Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134, 302, 311
latium Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88
lavinia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 96; Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
lemnos Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178
letter openings' Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 22
libertas Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 62
livius andronicus, model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
livius andronicus Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
looking through, acestes through odysseus to nestor Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
loss Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
lucan Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52, 53
maecenas Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
marcellus (son of gaius) Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302, 311
martial, on bookrolls Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
masks Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
mausolea Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
meleager de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
memory, remembering, etc. Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
mercury Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 178
metalepsis de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
metamorphoses (ovid) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
metapoetics Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 126, 127; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 588
mors Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
mothers, and adult children, as metaphors Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
muses Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 117, 119; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
mysia Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 322
naevius, model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
narratives Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 42, 116, 117, 155
narrator Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
narrators, aeneid Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41, 116, 117, 119, 126, 127
nepos, cornelius Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
nero Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
nestor Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
nisus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
nostos Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 95, 96
octavia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
octavian Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 302
odysseus, boasts of athletic prowess Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 245
odysseus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 116; Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88, 95, 96; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
oikos Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 88
orpheus Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
otium Xinyue, Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry (2022) 62
ovid, amores Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
ovid, and epigram Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
ovid, as model and anti-model for lucan Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42
ovid, metamorphoses Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
ovid, on immortality of poet Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
ovid Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 314
palatine hill Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
panegyric Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130
papyrus Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 127
paraclausithyron Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95
paris Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 117
passer (catullus) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 167
pastoral, song Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 311
phoebus (see also apollo) Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
planks, tablets (tabulae) Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 126, 127
plots Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 41, 117, 155
poet, immortality of through book Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 168
politics, waiting as politicized issue Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 90
pompilius Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
populus romanus, as central character in the pharsalia Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 42, 45
poseidon, enmity for odysseus Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 193
poseidon Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 46; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95, 96
prologues, of aeneid and odyssey Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 190, 191, 192, 193
propertius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95, 96
public inscriptions Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
puella(e) Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95, 96, 216
reception, literary Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44
recusatio Heerking and Manuwald, Brill’s Companion to Valerius Flaccus (2014) 52
reditus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 96
return Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 95, 96
returns (noatoi) Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic (1989) 192, 193
roma, as a character Joseph, Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic (2022) 45
romans Farrell, Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity (2021) 44, 126, 127
rome, foundation of Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
rome, necropolis on the via triumphalis Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
rome, tomb of the scipios Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96
rome Burgersdijk and Ross, Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire (2018) 130; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 216; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 463
romulus, and remus Sharrock and Keith, Maternal Conceptions in Classical Literature and Philosophy (2020) 35
roses Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 134
rutulian Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 64, 65
sarcophagi Bruun and Edmondson, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2015) 96