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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10975
Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.4-23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25-9.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 31.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.19. וְאַתֶּם חֲנוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ וְכֹל נֹגֵעַ בֶּחָלָל תִּתְחַטְּאוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶם׃ 31.19. And encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day, ye and your captives."
5. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises."
6. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages."
7. Mishnah, Gittin, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.8. A get which was written in Hebrew and whose signatures are in Greek, or was written in Greek and whose signatures are in Hebrew, or which has one Hebrew signature and one Greek signature, or which was written by a scribe and signed by one witness, is valid. [If a man signs], “So-and-so, witness,” it is valid. [If he signs,] “Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. [If he signs,] “So-and-so son of so-and-so” and he didn’t write “witness”, it is valid. If he wrote his own family name and hers, the get is valid. And this is how the scrupulous in Jerusalem would do. A get given imposed by court: in the case of a Jewish court is valid, and in the case of a Gentile court is invalid. And with regard to Gentiles, if they beat him and say to him, “Do what the Israelites say to you,” (and it is valid)."
8. Mishnah, Negaim, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The following bright spots are clean:Those that one had before the Torah was given, Those that a non-Jew had when he converted; Or a child when it was born, Or those that were in a crease and were subsequently uncovered. If they were on the head or the beard, on a boil, a burn or a blister that is festering, and subsequently the head or the beard became bald, and the boil, burn or blister turned into a scar, they are clean. If they were on the head or the beard before they grew hair, and they then grew hair and subsequently became bald, or if they were on the body before the boil, burn or blister before they were festering and then these formed a scar or were healed: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said that they are unclean since at the beginning and at the end they were unclean, But the sages say: they are clean."
9. Mishnah, Pesahim, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. An onen immerses [in a mikveh] and eats his pesah in the evening, but not [other] sacred food. One who hears about his dead [for the first time], and one who gathers the bones [of his dead relative] immerses and eats sacred food. A convert who converts on the eve of Pesah: Bet Shammai say: he immerses and eats his pesah in the evening. Bet Hillel say: anyone who separates from the foreskin is like one who separates from the grave."
10. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. Both non-capital and capital cases require examination and inquiry [of the witnesses], as it says, “You shall have one manner of law” (Lev. 24:22). How do non-capital cases differ from capital cases? Non-capital cases [are decided] by three and capital cases by twenty three. Non-capital cases may begin either with reasons for acquittal or for conviction; capital cases begin with reasons for acquittal and do not begin with reasons for conviction. In non-capital cases they may reach a verdict of either acquittal or conviction by the decision of a majority of one; in capital cases they may reach an acquittal by the majority of one but a verdict of conviction only by the decision of a majority of two. In non-capital cases they may reverse a verdict either [from conviction] to acquittal or [from acquittal] to conviction; in capital cases they may reverse a verdict [from conviction] to acquittal but not [from acquittal] to conviction. In non-capital cases all may argue either in favor of conviction or of acquittal; in capital cases all may argue in favor of acquittal but not all may argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal, or he that had argued in favor of acquittal may afterward argue in favor of conviction; in capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal but he that had argued in favor of acquittal cannot afterward argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict may be reached during the night; in capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict also must be reached during the daytime. In non-capital cases the verdict, whether of acquittal or of conviction, may be reached the same day; in capital cases a verdict of acquittal may be reached on the same day, but a verdict of conviction not until the following day. Therefore trials may not be held on the eve of a Sabbath or on the eve of a Festival."
11. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females."
12. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 3.3-3.4, 4.6, 4.8, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Tosefta, Demai, 2.4-2.7, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
16. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tosefta, Pesahim, 1.7, 7.4, 7.13-7.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Qiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
19. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.22, 7.5, 7.23, 13.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Zevahim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Terumot, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Palestinian Talmud, Demai, 2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. חשוד על המעשר ומאן חכמים ר' יהודה וחד אמר החשוד על המעשר חשוד על השביעית ומאן חכמים ר' מאיר,דתניא עם הארץ שקיבל עליו דברי חבירות ונחשד לדבר אחד נחשד לכל התורה כולה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים אינו נחשד אלא לאותו דבר בלבד,הגר שקיבל עליו דברי תורה אפי' נחשד לדבר אחד הוי חשוד לכל התורה כולה והרי הוא כישראל משומד נפקא מינה דאי קדיש קידושיו קידושין,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו עובד כוכבים שבא לקבל דברי תורה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אפי' דקדוק אחד מדברי סופרים,וכן בן לוי שבא לקבל דברי לויה וכהן שבא לקבל דברי כהונה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא ז, לג) המקריב את דם השלמים וגו' העבודה המסורה לבני אהרן כל כהן שאינו מודה בה אין לו חלק בכהונה,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות אם ראינוהו שנוהג בצינעה בתוך ביתו מקבלין אותו ואחר כך מלמדין אותו ואם לאו מלמדין אותו ואחר כך מקבלין אותו ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בין כך ובין כך מקבלין אותו והוא למד כדרכו והולך:,ת"ר מקבלין לכנפים ואח"כ מקבלין לטהרות ואם אמר איני מקבל אלא לכנפים מקבלין אותו קיבל לטהרות ולא קיבל לכנפים אף לטהרות לא קיבל:,ת"ר עד כמה מקבלין אותו בית שמאי אומרים למשקין שלשים יום לכסות שנים עשר חודש ובית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשנים עשר חודש,אם כן הוה ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל אלא בית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשלשים:,(סימן חב"ר תלמי"ד תכל"ת מכ"ם חז"ר גבא"י בעצמ"ו),תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ובניו ובני ביתו אינן צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף בניו ובני ביתו צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים לפי שאינו דומה חבר שקיבל לבן חבר שקיבל:,תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני ג' חבירים ואפילו תלמיד חכם צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים זקן ויושב בישיבה אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים שכבר קיבל עליו משעה שישב אבא שאול אומר אף תלמיד חכם אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ולא עוד אלא שאחרים מקבלין לפניו,אמר רבי יוחנן בימי בנו של רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס נשנית משנה זו רבי יהודה ור' יוסי איסתפק להו מילתא בטהרות שדרו רבנן לגבי בנו של ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אזילו אמרו ליה לעיין בה אשכחוה דקא טעין טהרות אותיב רבנן מדידיה לגבייהו וקאי איהו לעיוני בה,אתו אמרי ליה לר' יהודה ור' יוסי אמר להו ר' יהודה אביו של זה ביזה תלמידי חכמים אף הוא מבזה תלמידי חכמים,אמר לו ר' יוסי כבוד זקן יהא מונח במקומו אלא מיום שחרב בית המקדש נהגו כהנים סילסול בעצמן שאין מוסרין את הטהרות לכל אדם:,תנו רבנן חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי היא בחזקתה עד שתיפסל:,תנו רבנן אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אין צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה,ר"מ אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל עליהן דברי חבירות לכתחלה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קומעת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת לעם הארץ והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו: 30b. is bsuspect with regard to tithe. And whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Yehuda,as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. bAndthe other bone says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard toproduce of the bSabbaticalYear. bAnd whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ban iam ha’aretz /i,i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, bwho accepts upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus,i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by iḥaverim /i, including iteruma /i, tithes, and iḥalla /i, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy bbutsubsequently he bwas suspected with regard to one matterin which others saw him act improperly, bhe is suspected with regard to the entire Torah.This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter. /b,It is also taught in a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ba convert who accepted upon himselfupon his conversion bmatters of Torah,i.e., all of the mitzvot, beven if he is suspect with regard to one matteralone, bhe is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he isconsidered blike a Jewish transgressor [ imeshummad /i],who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical bdifferenceresulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is bthat if he betrothsa woman, bhis betrothal isa valid bbetrothal,and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus except for one matter,which he does not wish to observe, bhe is not accepted,and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of ba gentile who comes toconvert and takes upon himself to baccept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not acceptedas a convert. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Evenif he refuses to accept bone detail of rabbinic law,he is not accepted.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd similarly,in the case of ba Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated:“He among the sons of Aaron, bthat sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings,and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to btheTemple bservice, which is handedover bto the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to itin its entirety bhas no share in the priesthood. /b,The Gemara continues on a similar topic. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus, if we have seen that he practicessuch matters bin private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taughtthe precise details of being a iḥaver /i. bBut ifwe have bnotseen him act as a iḥaverin his home, bhe is taughtfirst band afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Whetherin bthiscase bor thatcase, bhe isfirst baccepted, and hethen bcontinues to learn inthe busual manner,i.e., as a iḥaverhe learns from others how to behave., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: An iam ha’aretzwho wishes to become a iḥaver bis acceptedfirst bwith regard to hands,i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, band afterward he is acceptedas trustworthy bfor purityin general. bAnd if he says: Iwish to bacceptpurity bonly with regard to hands, he is acceptedfor this. If he wishes to bacceptupon himself the stringencies of a iḥaver bwith regard to ritual purity but he does not acceptupon himself the stringencies bwith regard to hands,i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, bhe is not accepted even for purityin general., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil when is he accepted,i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a iḥaver /i? bBeit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard toimpurity of bclothing,about which iḥaverimwould be careful as well, btwelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids, band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor twelve monthsbefore he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bIf so, this isone bofthe rare cases of bthe leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel,and yet it is not included in tractate iEduyyot /i, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. bRather,the text of the ibaraitamust be emended so that it reads: bBeit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor thirtydays before he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicto remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: iḤaver /i; student; sky-blue dye [ itekhelet /i]; tax; return;tax bcollector; by himself. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. But his children andthe bmembers of his household are not required to acceptthe status of iḥaverseparately bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children andthe bmembers of his household must acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, because a iḥaver /i, who accepted ithimself in the presence of three others, bis not comparable to the son of a iḥaver /i,who bacceptedthat status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, and even a Torah scholarwho wishes to become a iḥaver bmust acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i.But ban elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he satand dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. bAbba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i; and not onlydoes he have the status of iḥaverwithout an explicit declaration in the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bbut otherscan bacceptthat they wish to become a iḥaver bin his presence. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna,i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a iḥaverin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bwas taught in the days of the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus.At that time, bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain abouta certain bmatter of ritual purity. The Sages senta delegation of their students bto the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonusand told them to bgoand btell him to examinethis matter. The students bfound him while he was carryingitems that were ritually bpure.The son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bseated Sages from his ownyeshiva bnext tothe students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. bAnd he stood and examinedthe matter.,The students returned and bcame and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yoseithat the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of iamei ha’aretz /i. bRabbi Yehuda said to themin anger: bThis one’s father,i.e., Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegraded Torah scholarsby not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And bhe too,the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegrades Torah scholars. /b, bRabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder,i.e., both the father and son, bbe left in its place.He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. bRather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves,and they decided bthat they will not pass ritually pureitems bto anyother bperson.Therefore, the son of Rabbi Ḥanina, as a priest, acted appropriately., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba iḥaverthat died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptivestatus buntil they are suspectedof engaging in inappropriate deeds. bAnd similarly,in the case of ba courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptivestatus as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold buntil it is disqualifieddue to the merchant’s unscrupulous behavior., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTheformer bwife an iam ha’aretzwholater bmarries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the daughter of an iam ha’aretzwho marries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the slave of an iam ha’aretzwho is sold to a iḥaver /i, must all acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus. Butwith regard to btheformer bwife of a iḥaverwholater bmarries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the daughter of a iḥaverwho marries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the slave of a iḥaverwho was sold to an iam ha’aretz /i,these people bneed not acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i,as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a iḥaver /i.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Meir says: They too must acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar wouldillustrate this point and bsay in the name of Rabbi Meir:There was ban incident involving a certain woman who married a iḥaverand would tie [ ikoma’at /i] for him phylacteries on his hand,and she later bmarried a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand,which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. אף אנו נאמר איילונית דוכרנית דלא ילדה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ויש להן טענת בתולין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב הונא גר קטן מטבילין אותו על דעת בית דין,מאי קמ"ל דזכות הוא לו וזכין לאדם שלא בפניו תנינא זכין לאדם שלא בפניו ואין חבין לאדם שלא בפניו,מהו דתימא עובד כוכבים בהפקירא ניחא ליה דהא קיימא לן דעבד ודאי בהפקירא ניחא ליה,קמ"ל דהני מילי גדול דטעם טעם דאיסורא אבל קטן זכות הוא לו,לימא מסייע ליה הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד מאי לאו דאטבלינהו על דעת בית דין,לא הכא במאי עסקינן בגר שנתגיירו בניו ובנותיו עמו דניחא להו במאי דעביד אבוהון,אמר רב יוסף הגדילו יכולין למחות איתיביה אביי הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ואי ס"ד הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה כתובה דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,מתיב רבא אלו נערות שיש להן קנס הבא על הממזרת ועל הנתינה ועל הכותית ועל הגיורת ועל השבויה ועל השפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד יש להן קנס ואי אמרת הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה קנס דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,אביי לא אמר כרבא התם קנסא היינו טעמא שלא יהא חוטא נשכר,רבא לא אמר כאביי כתובה היינו טעמא שלא תהא קלה בעיניו להוציאה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגדול שבא על הקטנה וקטן שבא על הגדולה ומוכת עץ כתובתן מאתים דברי רבי מאיר וחכ"א מוכת עץ כתובתה מנה,בתולה אלמנה גרושה וחלוצה מן הנישואין כתובתן מנה 11a. bWe too will say: iAilonit /i,a sexually underdeveloped woman, is a term meaning: Like a bram [ idukhranit /i], becauselike a male sheep [ iayyil /i] bshe does not bear children. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their presumptive status is that of a virgin. Even if they were subject to intercourse when they were younger than that age, the hymen remains intact. bAnd they aresubject to ba claimconcerning their bvirginity. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Huna said:With regard to ba convertwho is ba minor, one immerses himin a ritual bath bwith the consent of the court.As a minor lacks the capacity to make halakhic decisions, the court is authorized to make those decisions in his stead., bWhat isRav Huna bcoming to teach us?Is he teaching bthat it is a privilege forthe minor to convert, band one may act in a person’s interestseven bin his absence? Wealready blearnedthat explicitly in a mishna ( iEiruvin81b): One bmay act in a person’s interests in his absence, but one may not act against a person’s interests in his absence. /b,Rav Huna’s statement was necessary blest you say:With regard to ba gentile, licentiousness is preferable for him,so conversion is contrary to his interests, just bas we maintain thatwith regard to ba slave, licentiousness is certainly preferable.Just as a slave has no interest in assuming the restrictions that come with freedom, in that a freed Canaanite slave is a convert to Judaism, a gentile would have the same attitude toward conversion.,Therefore, Rav Huna bteaches us: That appliesonly with regard to ban adult, who has experienced a taste of prohibition.Therefore, presumably he prefers to remain a slave and indulge in licentiousness. bHowever,with regard to a bminor,who did not yet engage in those activities, bit is a privilege for himto convert.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat the mishna bsupportsRav Huna’s statement: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old; what, is it notreferring to a case where bthey immersedthe minor converts and the maidservants bwith the consent of the court?Apparently, a conversion of that sort is valid.,The Gemara rejects that proof: bNo, with what are we dealing here?It is bwith a convert whoseminor bsons and daughters converted with him, as they are content with whatever their father doesin their regard. However, that does not apply to a child who is converting on his own., bRav Yosef said:In any case where minors convert, when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion. bAbaye raised an objection to hisopinion from the mishna: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant who were ransomed,or bwho converted, or who were freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herthe payment of the bmarriage contract that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: She receives payment of her marriage contract bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest.This mishna poses no difficulty to the opinion of Rav Yosef., bRava raised an objectionfrom a mishna (29a): bTheseare the cases of byoung women for whom there is a finepaid to their fathers by one who rapes them: bOne who engages in intercourse with a imamzeret /i; or with a Gibeonite woman [ inetina /i],who are given [ inetunim /i] to the service of the people and the altar (see Joshua 9:27); bor with a Samaritan woman [ ikutit /i].In addition, the same applies to one who engages in intercourse bwith a female convert, or with a captive woman, or with a maidservant,provided bthatthe captives bwere ransomed or thatthe converts bconverted, or thatthe maidservants bwere freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old,as only in that case do they maintain the presumptive status of a virgin. In all of these cases, bthere is a finepaid bto theirfathers if they are raped. bAnd if you saythat bwhen they reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herpayment of the bfine that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: Her father receives payment of the fine bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while she is still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest. /b, bAbaye did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bRava,because bthere,in the mishna cited by Rava, it is referring to ba fine,and in that case bthis is the reason: So that the sinner will not profit.The Sages did not absolve the rapist from payment of the fine merely due to the concern that the woman he raped may ultimately negate the conversion., bRava did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bAbaye, aswith regard to ba marriage contract, this is the reasonthat the Sages instituted it: bSo thathis wife bwill not be inconsequential in his eyes,enabling him btoeasily bdivorce her.As long as this woman does not negate her conversion, she is a Jewish woman and the Sages saw to her interests., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ban adult man who engaged in intercourse with a minor girlless than three years old; bor a minor boyless than nine years old bwho engaged in intercourse with an adult woman; or awoman who had her hymen bruptured by woodor any other foreign object, for all these women btheir marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their legal status is that of a virgin. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: The marriage contractof a woman whose hymen was bruptured by wood is one hundred dinars,as physically, since her hymen is not intact, she is no longer a virgin.,With regard to ba virginwho is either a bwidow,a bdivorcée, or a iḥalutza /iwho achieved that status bfroma state of bmarriage,for all these women btheir marriage contract is one hundred dinars, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39a. שכל העולם כולו נזדעזע בשעה שאמר הקב"ה בסיני (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לשוא,וכל עבירות שבתורה נאמר בהן ונקה וכאן נאמר לא ינקה וכל עבירות שבתורה נפרעין ממנו וכאן ממנו וממשפחתו שנאמר (קהלת ה, ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך ואין בשרו אלא קרובו שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ז) ומבשרך לא תתעלם,וכל עבירות שבתורה נפרעין ממנו וכאן ממנו ומכל העולם כולו שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) אלה וכחש,ואימא עד דעביד להו לכולהו לא ס"ד דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, י) מפני אלה אבלה הארץ וכתיב (הושע ד, ג) על כן תאבל הארץ ואומלל כל יושב בה,וכל עבירות שבתורה אם יש לו זכות תולין לו שנים ושלשה דורות וכאן נפרעין ממנו לאלתר שנאמר (זכריה ה, ד) הוצאתיה נאם ה' צבאות ובאה אל בית הגנב ואל בית הנשבע בשמי לשקר ולנה בתוך ביתו וכלתו ואת עציו ואת אבניו,הוצאתיה לאלתר ובאה אל בית הגנב זה הגונב דעת הבריות שאין לו ממון אצל חבירו וטוענו ומשביעו ואל בית הנשבע בשמי לשקר כמשמעו ולנה בתוך ביתו וכלתו ואת עציו ואת אבניו הא למדת דברים שאין אש ומים מכלין אותן שבועת שקר מכלה אותן,אם אמר איני נשבע פוטרין אותו מיד ואם אמר הריני נשבע העומדין שם אומרים זה לזה (במדבר טז, כו) סורו נא מעל אהלי האנשים הרשעים האלה וגו' וכשמשביעין אותו אומרים לו הוי יודע שלא על דעתך אנו משביעין אותך אלא על דעת המקום ועל דעת ב"ד,שכן מצינו במשה רבינו כשהשביע את ישראל אמר להן דעו שלא על דעתכם אני משביע אתכם אלא על דעת המקום ועל דעתי שנאמר (דברים כט, יג) ולא אתכם לבדכם וגו',כי את אשר ישנו פה אין לי אלא אותן העומדין על הר סיני דורות הבאים וגרים העתידין להתגייר מנין ת"ל (דברים כט, יד) ואת אשר איננו,ואין לי אלא מצוה שקיבלו עליהם מהר סיני מצות העתידות להתחדש כגון מקרא מגילה מנין ת"ל (אסתר ט, כז) קימו וקבלו קיימו מה שקבלו כבר,מאי אף היא בלשונה נאמרה,כדתנן אלו נאמרין בכל לשון פרשת סוטה וידוי מעשר קריאת שמע ותפלה וברכת המזון ושבועת העדות ושבועת הפקדון וקאמר נמי שבועת הדיינין אף היא בלשונה נאמרה,אמר מר אומרין לו הוי יודע שכל העולם כולו נזדעזע בשעה שאמר הקב"ה לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לשוא מ"ט אילימא משום דאתיהב בסיני עשר דברות נמי אתיהב,ואלא משום דחמירא ומי חמירא והתנן אלו הן קלות עשה ולא תעשה חוץ מלא תשא חמורות זו כריתות ומיתות ב"ד ולא תשא עמהן,אלא כדקתני טעמא וכל עבירות שבתורה נאמר בהן ונקה וכאן נאמר לא ינקה,וכל עבירות שבתורה לא נאמר בהן לא ינקה והכתיב (שמות לד, ז) ונקה לא ינקה,ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדרבי אלעזר דתניא רבי אלעזר אומר אי אפשר לומר ונקה שכבר נאמר לא ינקה א"א לומר לא ינקה שכבר נאמר ונקה הא כיצד מנקה הוא לשבים ואינו מנקה לשאינן שבים,כל עבירות שבתורה נפרעין ממנו וכאן ממנו וממשפחתו וכל עבירות שבתורה ממשפחתו לא,והכתיב (ויקרא כ, ה) ושמתי אני את פני באיש ההוא ובמשפחתו ותניא אמר ר"ש אם הוא חטא משפחתו מה חטאת לומר לך אין לך משפחה שיש בה מוכס שאין כולה מוכסין ושיש בה לסטים שאין כולה לסטים מפני שמחפין עליו,התם בדינא אחרינא הכא בדינא דידיה כדתניא רבי אומר והכרתי אותו מה ת"ל לפי שנאמר ושמתי אני את פני יכול כל המשפחה כולה בהיכרת ת"ל אותו אותו בהיכרת ולא כל המשפחה כולה בהיכרת,וכל עבירות שבתורה נפרעין ממנו וכאן ממנו ומכל העולם כולו (שנאמר אלה וכחש וכתיב על כן תאבל הארץ ואימא עד דעביד להו לכולהו לא ס"ד דכתיב מפני אלה אבלה הארץ),וכל עבירות שבתורה מכל העולם לא והכתיב (ויקרא כו, לז) וכשלו איש באחיו איש בעון אחיו מלמד שכל ישראל ערבים זה בזה 39a. bthat the entire world trembled when the Holy One, Blessed be He, said atMount bSinai: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain,for the Lord will not hold guiltless one who takes His name in vain” (Exodus 20:7)., bAndbe aware that bwith regard to all of theother btransgressions in the Torah it is stated: “And will…clear the guilty [ ivenakkeh /i]”(Exodus 34:7); bwhereas here,with regard to taking a false oath, bit is stated: “Will not hold guiltless [ ilo yenakkeh /i].” Andbe aware that with regard to ball of theother btransgressions in the Torah, punishment is exactedonly bfromthe transgressor, whereas bhere,punishment is exacted bfrom him and from his family, as it is stated: “Do not allow your mouth to bring your flesh into guilt”(Ecclesiastes 5:5). The verse indicates that one who sins with his mouth, by taking a false oath, causes his flesh to be punished as well; band one’s flesh is nothing other than his relative, as it is stated: “And that you not hide yourself from your own flesh”(Isaiah 58:7)., bAndbe aware that with regard to ball of theother btransgressions in the Torah, punishment is exactedonly bfromthe transgressor; whereas bhere,punishment is exacted bfrom him and from the entire world, as it is stated: “Swearing, and lying,and murdering, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break all bounds…Therefore, the land mourns, and everyone who dwells therein languishes” (Hosea 4:2–3).,The Gemara suggests: bAndwhy not bsaythat punishment is not exacted from the entire world bunless he commits all ofthe sins mentioned in the verse? The Gemara answers: This should bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Because of swearing the land mourns”(Jeremiah 23:10), indicating that taking a false oath is sufficient to cause the land to mourn. bAnd it issimilarly bwrittenin the verse in Hosea: b“Therefore, the land mourns, and everyone who dwells therein languishes.”Both verses employ a term of mourning.,The ibaraitacontinues with the judges’ forewarning: bAndbe aware that with regard to ball theother btransgressions in the Torah, ifthe transgressor bhas merit,God bsuspends hispunishment for btwo or three generations,and only if his descendants follow in his ways are they punished. Whereas bhere, punishment is exacted from him immediately, as it is stated:“This is the curse that goes forth over the face of the whole land… bI cause it to go forth, says the Lord of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of he who swears falsely by My name; and it shall abide in the midst of his house and shall consume it, with its timber and its stones”(Zechariah 5:3–4).,The ibaraitaanalyzes the verse: b“I cause it to go forth”means bimmediately. “And it shall enter into the house of the thief”; thisis referring to bone who deceives people,e.g., one bwho has no money in the possession of another, but claimsmoney from bhim and administers an oath to himin court, thereby causing an oath to be taken in vain. b“And into the house of he who swears falsely by My name”is bas it indicates,in accordance with its straightforward meaning. From the end of the verse: b“And it shall abide in the midst of his house and shall consume it, with its timber and its stones,” you have therefore learnedthat ba false oath consumes things thateven bfire and water do not consume,such as stones.,The ibaraitacontinues: bIfthe defendant bsaysat this point: bI will not take an oath,the court bdismisses him immediately,and rules him liable to pay. bAnd if he says: I will take an oath, thepeople bstanding there say to each other: “Depart, I pray you, from the tents of these wicked men,and touch nothing of theirs, lest you be swept away in all their sins” (Numbers 16:26). bAnd whenthe judges badminister the oath to him, they say to him: Be aware that we administer an oath to you not according to your understandingof the oath, bbut according to theobjective bunderstanding of the Omnipresent and according to the understanding of the court,i.e., the judges’ intention.,This is bas wehave bfoundwritten bwith regard to Moses, our teacher. When he administered an oath to the Jewish peoplein the plains of Moab so that they would accept the Torah upon themselves, bhe said to them: Know thatit is bnot according to your understanding that I administer an oath to you, but according to the understanding of the Omnipresent and according to my understanding. As it is stated: “Neither with you onlydo I make this covet and this oath” (Deuteronomy 29:13), which is homiletically interpreted to mean: Not only according to your intention.,Having quoted a verse, the ibaraitatangentially interprets the subsequent verse. From the phrase: b“But with he who stands herewith us this day” (Deuteronomy 29:14), bI havederived bonlythat bthose who stood at Mount Sinaiwere included in this covet. bFrom wheredo I derive that bthe subsequent generations, and the converts who will convert in the future,were also included? bThe verse states: “And also with he who is not herewith us this day” (Deuteronomy 29:14)., bAnd I havederived bonlythat the bmitzvot thatthe Jewish people baccepted upon themselves at Mount Sinaiwere included in the oath. bFrom whereis it derived that bmitzvot that were to be initiated in the future, for example, the reading of the Megilla,the Scroll of Esther, on Purim, were also included? bThe verse states:“The Jews bordained and tookupon themselves…that they would keep these two days” (Esther 9:27), which is homiletically interpreted to mean: bThey ordained,in the generation of Esther, mitzvot bthat they had already acceptedupon themselves by oath in the plains of Moab.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bWhatis the precise meaning of the statement: An oath imposed by the judges bmay alsobe brecited in its language? /b,The Gemara answers: It is bas we learnedin a mishna ( iSota32a): bThese are recited in any languageand it is not required that they be recited in Hebrew: bThe portion ofthe warning and the oath administered by the priest to ba woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [ isota /i]; the declaration of tithes,which occurs after the third and the sixth year of the seven-year Sabbatical cycle, when one declares that he has given his tithes appropriately; bthe recitation of iShema /i; andthe iAmida bprayer; and Grace after Meals; and the oath of testimony,where one takes an oath that he does not have any testimony to provide on a given issue; band the oath on a deposit,where one takes an oath that he does not have possession of another’s deposit. All these may be recited in any language. bAndthe ibaraita balso states,as an addendum to this ihalakha /i, that ban oathimposed bby the judges may alsobe brecited in its language,i.e., in any language.,§ bThe Master saidin the ibaraitaabove that the judges bsay to him: Be aware that the entire world trembled when the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.” What is the reasonthat the entire world trembled? bIf we sayit was bbecausethis prohibition bwas given atMount bSinai,this is difficult, as when the entire world trembled, the rest of the bTen Commandments were also givenat Mount Sinai. This quality is not unique to this specific prohibition., bAndif it is brather due tothe fact bthatthis prohibition is bsevere, is itmore bseverethan all the other prohibitions? bBut didn’t we learnin a ibaraita /i: bThese are minortransgressions: Violation of an ordinary bpositivemitzva bandan ordinary bnegativemitzva, bexcept for: “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain.” And these are bmajortransgressions: Those for which one is liable to receive bexcision from the World-to-Come [ ikaret /i] or a court /b-imposed bdeathpenalty; band “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” is also bamong them.Evidently, this transgression is no more severe than transgressions that incur ikaretor the death penalty., bRather, the reasonthe world trembled particularly when this prohibition was given is bas it is taughtsubsequently in the ibaraita /i: bAnd with regard to all of theother btransgressions in the Torah it is stated: “And will…clear the guilty,” whereas here, it is stated: “Will not hold guiltless.” /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd is it not stated with regard to all of theother btransgressions in the Torahthat God b“will not hold guiltless [ ilo yenakkeh /i]”one who transgresses? bBut isn’t it written: “And Who will by no means clear the guilty [ ivenakkeh lo yenakkeh /i]”(Exodus 34:7)?,The Gemara answers: bThatverse is bnecessary forthat which is derived through the homiletic interpretation bof Rabbi Elazar, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar says: It is not possible to say: And will clear the guilty [ ivenakkeh /i],about all transgressions, bsince: Will not clear the guilty [ ilo yenakkeh /i], is already stated.And bit is not possible to say: Will not clear the guilty [ ilo yenakkeh /i], since: And will clear the guilty [ ivenakkeh /i], is already stated. Howcan bthesetexts be reconciled? The Holy One, Blessed be bHe, clears thoseguilty ones bwho repent and does not clear those who do not repent. /b,§ It is stated in the ibaraitathat with regard to ball of the transgressions in the Torah, punishment is exactedonly bfromthe transgressor, whereas bhere,punishment is exacted bfrom him and from his family.The Gemara asks: bAndis punishment bnotexacted bfromthe transgressor’s bfamilywith regard to ball of theother btransgressions in the Torah? /b, bBut isn’t it writtenin the Torah with regard to one who worships Molech: b“Then I will set My face against that man, and against his family,and I will cut him off” (Leviticus 20:5)? bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon said: If he sinned, how did his family sin?Why are they punished? This serves bto tell youthat bthere is no family that hasan unauthorized btax collector among themin bwhich all ofthe family members bare notregarded as unauthorized btax collectors, andsimilarly, there is no family bthat has a bandit [ ilistim /i] among themin bwhich all ofthe family members bare notregarded as bbandits.This is bbecause they cover for him.Evidently, punishment is exacted from the transgressor’s family with regard to transgressions other than taking a false oath.,The Gemara answers: bThere,with regard to other transgressions, the transgressor’s family is punished bwith another punishment,less severe than the one the transgressor receives, whereas bhere,with regard to a false oath, the transgressor’s family is punished bwith his punishment. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Whymust bthe verse statewith regard to one who worships Molech: b“And I will cut him off”? Since it is statedearlier in the verse: b“Then I will set My faceagainst that man, and against his family,” one bmighthave thought that bthe entire familyis liable btobe punished with ikaret /i.Therefore, bthe verse states:“And I will cut bhimoff,” indicating that only bheis liable btobe punished with ikaret /i,whereas bhis entire family is notliable btobe punished with ikaret /i. /b,§ The ibaraitateaches: bAndwith regard to ball of theother btransgressions in the Torah, punishment is exactedonly bfrom him,whereas bhere,punishment is exacted bfrom him and from the entire world, as it is stated: “Swearing and lying,and murdering, and stealing, and committing adultery,” band it is written: “Therefore, the land mourns.”The Gemara suggests: bAndwhy not bsaythat punishment is not exacted from the entire world bunless he commits allthe sins mentioned in the verse? The Gemara answers: This should bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Because of swearing the land mourns”(Jeremiah 23:10), indicating that a false oath is sufficient to cause the land to mourn.,The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to ball of theother btransgressions in the Torah,is punishment bnotexacted bfrom the entire world? But isn’t it written: “And they shall stumble one upon another”(Leviticus 26:37)? This verse is homiletically interpreted to mean that they shall stumble spiritually, bone due to the iniquity of another,which bteaches that the entire Jewish people areconsidered bguarantors for one another.Apparently, any transgression makes the entire world liable to be punished.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

46b. בטבל ולא מל כולי עלמא לא פליגי דמהני כי פליגי במל ולא טבל רבי אליעזר יליף מאבות ורבי יהושע באבות נמי טבילה הוה,מנא ליה אילימא מדכתיב (שמות יט, י) לך אל העם וקדשתם היום ומחר וכבסו שמלותם ומה במקום שאין טעון כבוס טעון טבילה מקום שטעון כבוס אינו דין שטעון טבילה,ודלמא נקיות בעלמא,אלא מהכא (שמות כד, ח) ויקח משה את הדם ויזרוק על העם וגמירי דאין הזאה בלא טבילה,ורבי יהושע טבילה באמהות מנלן סברא הוא דאם כן במה נכנסו תחת כנפי השכינה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אינו גר עד שימול ויטבול פשיטא יחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים,מאן חכמים רבי יוסי,דתניא הרי שבא ואמר מלתי ולא טבלתי מטבילין אותו ומה בכך דברי ר' יהודה רבי יוסי אומר אין מטבילין,לפיכך מטבילין גר בשבת דברי ר' יהודה ור' יוסי אומר אין מטבילין,אמר מר לפיכך מטבילין גר בשבת פשיטא כיון דא"ר יהודה בחדא סגיא היכא דמל לפנינו מטבילין מאי לפיכך,מהו דתימא לרבי יהודה טבילה עיקר וטבילה בשבת לא דקא מתקן גברא קמ"ל דר' יהודה או הא או הא בעי,ר' יוסי אומר אין מטבילין פשיטא דכיון דאמר רבי יוסי תרתי בעינן תקוני גברא בשבת לא מתקנינן,מהו דתימא לר' יוסי מילה עיקר והתם הוא דלא הואי מילה בפנינו אבל היכא דהויא מילה בפנינו אימא ליטבל זה בשבתא קמ"ל דרבי יוסי תרתי בעי,אמר רבה עובדא הוה בי רבי חייא בר רבי ורב יוסף מתני רבי אושעיא בר רבי ורב ספרא מתני ר' אושעיא בר' חייא דאתא לקמיה גר שמל ולא טבל א"ל שהי כאן עד למחר ונטבלינך,ש"מ תלת ש"מ גר צריך שלשה וש"מ אינו גר עד שימול ויטבול וש"מ אין מטבילין גר בלילה ונימא ש"מ נמי בעינן מומחין דלמא דאיקלעו,אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן גר צריך ג' משפט כתיב ביה,ת"ר מי שבא ואמר גר אני יכול נקבלנו ת"ל אתך במוחזק לך בא ועדיו עמו מנין ת"ל (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם 46b. bWith regard to one who immersed but was not circumcised, everyone,i.e., both Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Eliezer, bagrees thatthe ihalakhais derived from the foremothers that immersion alone bis effective. Where they disagreeis bwith regard to one who was circumcised but had not immersed; Rabbi Eliezer derivesthat it is effective bfrom the forefathers, and Rabbi Yehoshuadisagrees because he maintains that binthe conversion of the bforefathers there was also an immersion. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where did hederive this? bIf we saythat he derived it bfromthe fact bthat it is writtenthat in preparation for the revelation at Sinai, God commanded Moses: b“Go unto the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments”(Exodus 19:10), as Rabbi Yehoshua understands that the washing mentioned in this verse is the ritual immersion of clothes, this leads to the following ia fortioriinference: bJust as in a case whereone became impure through contact with some source of impurity, bwashing,i.e., immersion, of clothes bis not requiredbut bimmersionof one’s body bis required,then bin a case where washingof clothes bis required,as in the preparation for the revelation at Sinai, bisn’t it logical that immersionof one’s body bshouldalso bbe required? /b,The Gemara rejects the proof: bBut perhapswhen the verse states that they had to wash their clothes, it was bmerely for cleanlinessand not for the sake of ritual purity. If so, no ia fortioriinference can be drawn from it to the case of immersion for ritual purity., bRather,Rabbi Yehoshua derived it bfrom here,where the verse states with regard to the formation of the covet at Sinai: b“And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it upon the people”(Exodus 24:8), band it is learnedas a tradition bthat there is noritual bsprinkling without immersion.Therefore, our forefathers also must have immersed at Sinai, and consequently that is also an essential requirement for all conversions.,The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to the opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua, from where do wederive that also binthe case of our bforemothersthere was bimmersion?The Gemara answers: bIt isbased on blogical reasoning, as, if so,that they did not immerse, then bwith what were they brought under the wings of the Divine Presence?Therefore, they also must have immersed., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:A man is bneverconsidered ba convert until he isboth bcircumcised and has immersed.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis bobvious?In all disputes between ban individualSage band manySages the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bthe manySages; it is therefore obvious that the ihalakhais in accordance with the Rabbis.,The Gemara explains: bWho are the Rabbisreferred to in the ibaraita /i? It is bRabbi Yosei.Since Rabbi Yosei is merely an individual Sage, it was necessarily for Rabbi Yoḥa to state explicitly that the ihalakhais ruled in accordance with his opinion.,Rabbi Yosei’s opinion is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to a convert bwho came and said: I was circumcisedfor the sake of conversion bbut I did not immerse,the court bshould immerse him,as bwhatwould be the problem bwith that;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda.Since in any case the court immerses him, Rabbi Yehuda does not require proof of the convert’s claim that he was circumcised for the sake of conversion because he holds that it is sufficient to be either circumcised or immersed for the sake of conversion. bRabbi Yosei says:The court bdoes not immersehim. He holds that both circumcision and immersion must be performed specifically for the sake of conversion and are indispensable parts of the conversion process. Therefore, since it is impossible to verify the convert’s claim with regard to his circumcision, there is no benefit to having him immerse.,The ibaraitastates a ramification of their dispute: bTherefore,the court bmay immerse a convertwho was already circumcised bon Shabbat;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda.Since he holds that circumcision alone effected conversion, the immersion will not effect any further change in his status, and so it is permitted on Shabbat. bAnd Rabbi Yosei says:The court bmay not immersehim. Since he holds that both circumcision and immersion are necessary to effect a conversion, the immersion will effect a change in his status by making him Jewish. Therefore it is prohibited to do so on Shabbat by rabbinic decree, because it appears similar to preparing a vessel for use.,The Gemara analyzes the latter clause: bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: bTherefore,the court bmay immerse a convertwho was already circumcised bon Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis an bobviousextension of his opinion; bsince Rabbi Yehuda said thateither boneof circumcision or immersion bis sufficient, wherea convert bwas circumcised in our presencethe court may certainly bimmersehim, even on Shabbat. bWhat,then, is the need for the ibaraitato include the clause that begins with: bTherefore? /b,The Gemara explains: It is necessary to explicitly teach this ramification blest you saythat baccording to Rabbi Yehuda the immersion isin fact bthe principalact that effects conversion, and when he said in the first clause that a convert who claims to have been circumcised should be immersed since there is no problem with that, his reasoning was that he holds it is only immersion that effects the conversion. bAndtherefore performing the bimmersion on Shabbatwould bnotbe permitted, bas it establishes the personwith a new status and so would be prohibited by a rabbinic decree because it appears similar to preparing a vessel for use. The latter clause is therefore necessary to bteach us that Rabbi Yehuda requires either this or that,i.e., either immersion or circumcision alone is sufficient to effect a conversion.,The Gemara analyzes the next statement in the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says:The court bmay not immersehim. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis an bobviousextension of his opinion? bAs, since Rabbi Yosei requires twoacts, both circumcision and immersion, to effect conversion, bwe maycertainly bnot establishthat bpersonwith a new status bon Shabbatby completing his conversion by immersing him.,The Gemara explains: It is necessary to explicitly teach this ramification blest you saythat baccording to Rabbi Yosei circumcision isin fact bthe principalact that effects conversion, bandit is only bthere,in the first clause of the ibaraita /i, bwhere the circumcision was not performed in our presenceand so there is no way to verify whether it was done for the sake of conversion, that Rabbi Yosei states that the court should not proceed to immerse him; bhowever, where the circumcision was performed in our presence,one might bsaythat the conversion was already effected by the circumcision, and therefore blet us immerse thisconvert bon Shabbat.The latter clause is therefore necessary to bteach us that Rabbi Yosei requires twoacts, both circumcision and immersion, to effect conversion., bRabba said: There was an incident in the house of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Rabbi, andas bRav Yosef teachesit, bRabbi Oshaya bar Rabbiwas also present, bandas bRav Safra teachesit, a third Sage, bRabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya,was also present, in bwhich a convert came before him who was circumcised but had not immersed. He said tothe convert: bRemain herewith us buntil tomorrow, andthen bwe will immerse you. /b,Rabba said: bLearn fromthis incident bthreeprinciples: bLearn from itthat ba convert requiresa court of bthreepeople to preside over the conversion, as Rav Safra taught that the case involved three Sages. bAnd learn from itthat bone is notconsidered to be ba convert until he has beenboth bcircumcised and immersed. And learn from itthat the court bmay not immerse a convert at night,as they instructed him to remain there until the following day. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let us saythat one should balso learn from itthat bwe requirea court of bexpertsto preside over the conversion, as Rav Safra identified that three expert Sages were present. The Gemara rejects this: bPerhaps theysimply bhappened to bethere, but in fact three laymen would suffice., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: A convert requiresa court of bthreeto preside over conversion, because b“judgment,” is written with regard to him,as the verse states: “And one judgment shall be both for you and for the convert that sojourns with you” (Numbers 15:16), and legal judgments require a court of three judges., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bsomeone who came and said: I am a convert,one bmighthave thought that bwe should accept him;therefore, bthe verse states:“And if a convert sojourns bwith youin your land, you shall not oppress him” (Leviticus 19:33). The emphasis on “with you” suggests that only someone who was already bpresumed by youto be a valid convert should be accepted as a convert. If bhe came andbrought bwitnessesto his conversion bwith him, from whereis it derived that he is to be accepted? It is from bthebeginning of that bverse,which bstates: “And if a convert sojourns with you in your land.” /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
a convert requires three (statement)' Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
a convert requires three (statement) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 52, 53
abba yudan of sidon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
aborted fetuses Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 139
abraham, circumcision Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 91, 166
albeck, h. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 139
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 85, 139, 222, 286
amorarim, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191, 263
amorarim, palestinian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
amorites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 132, 166, 222
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 160
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 286
babylonian agenda Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), fifth (protocol of the conversion procedure) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), fourth (conversion court / witnesses) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263, 281
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), third (acceptance of someone who claims to be a convert) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247, 250
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
ben petera Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160, 161
birds Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 139
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 85, 166, 286
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 91, 286
captives (prisoners) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 85
carrying Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 139
circumcision, abrahams Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
circumcision, conversion without Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 52
circumcision, improper Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247
circumcision, paschal offering and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 250
circumcision, slaves and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72, 247, 250
circumcision, with immersion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247, 250
circumcision, without immersion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
circumcision Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
city/town Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 139
commandments, acceptance of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72, 191, 263
commandments Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
conversion, mini-tractate on (bt yevamot, annotated texts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247, 250, 263, 281, 282
conversion court, authority over the procedure shifts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53
conversion court, bavli roots of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
conversion court, conversion at night and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 281, 282
conversion court, fourth baraita (conversion court / witnesses) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263, 281
conversion court, invention of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 47, 52, 53
conversion court, rabbi yehudah and the Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 52, 53
conversion procedure, fifth baraita (protocol of the conversion procedure in the bavli) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
conversion procedure, shift towards institutionalization of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
court Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
crops Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 91
cult Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 91
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 222, 286
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166, 286
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 91, 132
dominantization Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 85, 139, 222, 286
egyptians Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 85, 139, 222, 286
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 160, 161
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. r. sadoq Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160, 161
eliezer Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245; Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160, 161
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eliezer hisma Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
ger toshav, definitions Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191, 263
ger toshav Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53
gerim Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
governing voice, bavli Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
governing voice, talmud Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191, 245, 247, 250, 263
hillel and shammai Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
hiyya bar abba Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 281, 282
hoshaya Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
huna Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53
immersion, baraita (first) (circumcision and immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247, 250
immersion, intent Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53
immersion, supervision of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 47, 52, 53
impurity, menstrual Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53
impurity, non-jewish Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
isaac ben nahman Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
non-jews, immersion and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
non-jews, impurity and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
non-jews, slaves Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
non-jews, transition to a jew Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 47, 53
non-jews Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72
paschal sacrifice (offering) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247, 250
rabbi yehudah ha-nasi, conversion court in second-century palestine Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 52
rava Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
safra Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
second temple period Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191, 250
sheshet Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
slaves, circumcision of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72, 245, 247, 250
slaves, converts and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247
slaves, immersion and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247, 250
slaves, paschal sacrifice and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247
slaves, purchase of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247
slaves, uncircumcised Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 247, 250
slaves Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72, 250
statutory language, mini-tractate of conversion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
sugiah (sugiot), fourth baraita Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 281
sugiah (sugiot), parallel in both talmuds Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 72, 247
sugiah (sugiot), second baraita Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 281
sugiah (sugiot), uncircumcised Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
sugiah (sugiot) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 263
talmud yerushalmi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 53, 72, 245, 250, 263, 281, 282
tannaim Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 191
timna Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 52
uncircumcised, slaves Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 250
uncircumcised Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245, 247, 250
yehoshua ben levi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
yohanan Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 47, 281, 282
yosi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282
yudan nasia Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 282