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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10972
Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.5


ולוים בכנורות [ובנבלים] וכל כלי שיר מהן אומרים (תהילים קל״ד:א׳) שיר המעלות הנה ברכו וגו' [יש מהן] שהיו אומרים (שם) שאו ידיכם קדש וגו' וכשנפטרין זה מזה היו אומרים (שם) יברכך ה' מציון וגו' וראה בנים וגו' שתי חצוצרות בידם קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לשער המים תקעו והריעו ותקעו רבי יהודה אומר אין פחות משבע ולא יותר על עשרה שלש לפתיחת שערים האומר על פתיחתן אינו אומר על נעילתן האומר על נעילתן אינו אומר על פתיחתן שלש [לפני מזבח האומר לפני מזבח אינו אומר למעלה העשירי האומר למעלה העשירי אינו אומר לפני מזבח].And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.235, 14.259-14.261, 16.171 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.259. 24. The decree of the Sardians. “This decree was made by the senate and people, upon the representation of the praetors: Whereas those Jews who are fellowcitizens, and live with us in this city, have ever had great benefits heaped upon them by the people, and have come now into the senate 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 16.171. 6. “Caius Norbanus Flaccus, proconsul, to the magistrates of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Caesar hath written to me, and commanded me not to forbid the Jews, how many soever they be, from assembling together according to the custom of their forefathers, nor from sending their money to Jerusalem. I have therefore written to you, that you may know that both Caesar and I would have you act accordingly.”
2. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.3-3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Those who lived near [Jerusalem] would bring fresh figs and grapes, while those who lived far away would bring dried figs and raisins. An ox would go in front of them, his horns bedecked with gold and with an olive-crown on its head. The flute would play before them until they would draw close to Jerusalem. When they drew close to Jerusalem they would send messengers in advance, and they would adorn their bikkurim. The governors and chiefs and treasurers [of the Temple] would go out to greet them, and according to the rank of the entrants they would go forth. All the skilled artisans of Jerusalem would stand up before them and greet them saying, “Our brothers, men of such and such a place, we welcome you in peace.”" 3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)."
3. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. On Rosh Hodesh and on the intermediate days of festivals four read. They do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it. This is the general rule: on any day which has a musaf and is not a festival four read. On a festival five. On Yom Hakippurim six. On Shabbat seven; they may not decrease [from this number] but they may add [to it], and they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it."
4. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
5. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 5.1-5.2, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. [The rituals of] the lulav and the aravah are for six or seven [days]; The Hallel and the rejoicing are for eight [days]; The sukkah and the water libation are for seven [days]; The flute is for five or six [days]." 4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”" 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs." 5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
6. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
7. New Testament, Acts, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.
8. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward.
9. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.1, 4.1-4.4, 4.6-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. The lulav suspends the Sabbath in the beginning of its duty, and the willow in the end of its duty. There is a story that some Boethusians once hid the willows under some great stones on the Sabbath eve; but when this had become known to the common people they came and dragged them out from under the stones on the Sabbath, for the Boethusians do not acknowledge that the beating of the willow suspends the Sabbath." 4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together." 4.2. Saints and pious men were dancing before them with torches, and saying words of praise. What were they saying? Happy is he who has not sinned, and whoever has sinned shall be forgiven. Some of them were saying, Happy am I whose youth has not shamed my old age, this was said by the pious men. And others of them were saying, Happy am I whose old age can atone for my youth, this was said by the penitents.Hillel the Elder used to say : To the place which my heart loves, there my feet lead me. If you come to my house (says God), I will go to there. If you do not come to My house, then I will not go to there. For it is said, “In every place where I record My name I will come unto you, and I will bless you.”" 4.3. There is a story of Rabbi Shim’on ben Gamliel: he was dancing with eight lighted torches, and as he did so none of them fell to the ground. And when he prostrated himself he put his finger on the pavement, bending himself and kissing it, and then stood upright again. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Haiah said: All the days of the rejoicing at the water-drawing our eyes had no sleep, for we rose early in the morning for the morning sacrifice. We went to the synagogue, then to the college, then to do additional prayers, then to eat and drink, then to afternoon prayer, then to the evening sacrifice, then to the rejoicing of the water-drawing." 4.4. Rabbi Yehudah said: Whoever has not seen the basilica-synagogue of Alexandria has never seen the great glory of Israel. It is something like a large colonnade, with porches within porches, and accommodating sometimes double the number of those that followed Moses from Egypt. There were seventy-one golden chairs there, corresponding to the seventy-one elders, and each of the chairs was worth twenty-five myriad talents of gold. In the center was a wooden dais, and the sexton stood upon it with a scarf (as a flag) in his hand. At the close of each benediction he waved the scarf, and all the people answered “Amen”. The people were not seated together, but the goldsmiths were by themselves, the blacksmiths by themselves, the embroiderers by themselves, so that when a poor man came in he joined his fellow tradesmen, and in this way was enabled to obtain a means of livelihood." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. " 4.7. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the distinction between the holy and the mundane day. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city. When he sounded, those who were removing broth from a pot, or were keeping warm a boiler, or were lighting a lamp, ceased to do so, even if the boiler were in one's hand he did not keep it warm, but put it on the ground, even if the lamp were in one's hand, he did not put it on the lamp-stand, but lay it on the ground. The sexton lay the trumpets on the top of the roof, came down, and went away. Rabbi Yose said, “He who wishes to light his lamp after six soundings may do so.” The (sages) said to him, “Your rule would vary according to circumstances, but there was a place on the top of the roof where the sexton lay the trumpets.”" 4.8. Should the first day fall on the eve of Sabbath they sound a plain note, but do not sound a tremolo. How do they sound? With a single plain, and not a tremulous, note. “The flute-playing supersedes the Sabbath” - the words of Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehudah. But the sages say, “It does not supersede even the festival itself.”" 4.9. All the divisions on duty were treated alike and divided into three lots for the bullocks, except two who were treated alike but not divided into three lots. Rabbi Eleazar ben Parata and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yacov said, “There was no balloting for the fat of the goat, but whoever offered the limbs offered also the fat.” Rabbi Haninah ben Antigonus said, “There was no balloting except for the leaders of the guards. The rest of all the guards took turns all round.” Abba Yose ben Hanin said, “There was balloting on the first day of the festival only, and all the remaining days they were taking turns all round.” How was the ballot conducted? They gathered at the cell of Gazith, where they stood closely together like a cochlear. An officer came and took the turban of one of them, for they knew that from him the lot began. Individuals among them drew out two, but did not count them more than one."
12. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. משום חשבונות,אמר ליה אביי וחשבונות של מצוה מי אסירי והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת וא"ר אלעזר פוסקין צדקה לעניים בשבת ואמר ר' יעקב אמר ר' יוחנן הולכין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ואמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש בשבת,ואמר רב שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הולכין לטרטייאות ולקרקייאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשיא משדכין על התינוקת ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות,אלא אמר רבי זירא גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף א"ל אביי אלא מעתה יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשני בשבת ידחה גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף התם דלנפשיה לא טריד הכא דלאחרים טריד אי נמי התם אית ליה רווחא הכא לית ליה רווחא,השתא דאתית להכי ערב שבת נמי גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף,איבעיא להו בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת ברביעי ולא חיישינן לאיקרורי דעתא או דלמא בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת בחמישי דחיישינן לאיקרורי דעתא,ת"ש דתני בר קפרא בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת בחמישי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לדגים אלמנה נשאת בחמישי ונבעלת בששי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לאדם טעמא משום ברכה אבל משום איקרורי דעתא לא חיישינן,אי הכי אלמנה נמי תיבעל בחמישי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לדגים ברכה דאדם עדיפא ליה,ואי נמי משום שקדו דתניא מפני מה אמרו אלמנה נשאת בחמישי ונבעלת בששי שאם אתה אומר תיבעל בחמישי למחר משכים לאומנתו והולך לו שקדו חכמים על תקנת בנות ישראל שיהא שמח עמה שלשה ימים חמישי בשבת וערב שבת ושבת,מאי איכא בין ברכה לשקדו איכא בינייהו אדם בטל אי נמי יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת,דרש בר קפרא גדולים מעשה צדיקים יותר ממעשה שמים וארץ דאילו במעשה שמים וארץ כתיב (ישעיהו מח, יג) אף ידי יסדה ארץ וימיני טפחה שמים ואילו במעשה ידיהם של צדיקים כתיב (שמות טו, יז) מכון לשבתך פעלת ה' מקדש אדני כוננו ידיך,השיב בבלי אחד ור' חייא שמו (תהלים צה, ה) ויבשת ידיו יצרו ידו כתיב והכתיב יצרו א"ר נחמן בר יצחק יצרו אצבעותיו כדכתיב (תהלים ח, ד) כי אראה שמיך מעשה אצבעותיך ירח וכוכבים אשר כוננת,מיתיבי (תהלים יט, ב) השמים מספרים כבוד אל ומעשה ידיו מגיד הרקיע הכי קאמר מעשה ידיהם של צדיקים מי מגיד הרקיע ומאי ניהו מטר,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזנך אל תקרי אזנך אלא על אוזנך שאם ישמע אדם דבר שאינו הגון 5a. It is bdue to calculationsperformed on Shabbat to prepare for the wedding. He would thereby engage in weekday matters on Shabbat., bAbaye said to him: And are calculations for a mitzva prohibitedon Shabbat? bBut wasn’t it Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna who both said:With regard to bcalculations for a mitzva,it is bpermitted to reckon them on Shabbat? And Rabbi Elazar said: One may allocate charity to the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One goes to synagogues and study halls to supervise mattersaffecting the bmultitudes on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One supervises matters of saving a life on Shabbat. /b, bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One goes to theaters [ itartiyyaot /i] and circuses [ ikarkiyyaot /i] to supervise mattersaffecting the bmultitudes on Shabbat,because the fate of the Jewish people or of individual Jews is often decided there and one’s presence could prevent calamity. bAndthe Sage bof the school of Menashya taught:One bmakes matches [ imeshadkhin /i]among the families concerned bfor a young girl to be betrothed on Shabbat, andsimilarly one may make arrangements bfor a young boy to teach him Torah and to teach him a craft.Apparently, calculations for a mitzva may be reckoned on Shabbat, including calculations for a wedding. Therefore, this cannot be the reason for the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat., bRather, Rabbi Zeira said: It is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl onShabbat, due to his preoccupation with the preparations for that night’s wedding feast. bAbaye said to him: Ifthat is bso, Yom Kippur that occurs on Monday should be postponedwhen fixing the calendar, due to ba decree lest one slaughter a young fowlon Shabbat for the meal on Yom Kippur eve, which is a mitzva. The Gemara distinguishes between the cases. bThere,with regard to Yom Kippur eve, when one is preparing a meal bfor himself, he is not preoccupied,and he will not overlook the fact that it is Shabbat. bHere,in the case of a wedding, one is preparing a meal bfor othersand is bpreoccupied. Alternatively, there,on Yom Kippur eve, bhe has an intervalof time during which he can slaughter the bird, as the mitzva is to eat the meal on Yom Kippur eve the next day. bHere, he does not have an intervalof time, because the wedding and the feast take place at night at the conclusion of Shabbat.,The Gemara says: bNow that we have come to thisunderstanding of the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat, the prohibition not to engage in sexual intercourse on bShabbat evening, too,is not due to the intercourse. Rather, it is ba decree lest one slaughter a young fowlfor the wedding feast.,§ The Gemara braises a dilemma: Is a virgin married on Wednesday anddoes she bengage in intercourse onthat bWednesday, and we are not concernedlest bhis resolveto take his bride to court upon discovering that she was not a virgin bcoolovernight? Rather, he will certainly go to court the next morning. bOr perhaps, a virgin is married on Wednesday but engages in intercourse on Thursday, as we are concerned that his resolve will cool. /b, bCome and hearproof, bas bar Kappara taught: A virgin is married on Wednesday and engages in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish:Be fruitful and multiply, bwas statedon the fifth day of Creation. bA widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday, since the blessingof procreation bwas stated to manon the sixth day of Creation. It may be inferred that bthe reason is due to the blessing, but with regard tothe possibility lest bhis resolve cool, we are not concerned. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, a widow should also engage in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish was stated then.The Gemara answers: Since there is the option to postpone engaging in relations to the day on which bthe blessing of manwas stated, doing so bis preferable for him. /b, bAlternatively,that day was established as the day for a widow to engage in sexual relations bdue tothe fact that the Sages bwere assiduousin seeing to the well-being of Jewish women, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhy didthe Sages bsay that a widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday?It is bbecause if you say that she should engage in intercourse on Thursday, on the next daythe groom will bgo toply bhis craft earlyand leave his wife alone. When a man marries a widow, there is no observance of the seven days of rejoicing, whose legal status is like that of a Festival, during which he does not go to work. Therefore, bthe Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish womenand ensured bthatthe groom brejoice with herfor bthree days: Thursday,the day of the wedding; band Shabbat eve,the day when they engage in sexual relations; band Shabbat. /b, bWhatpractical difference bis there betweenthe two reasons given to engage in relations on Friday, i.e., the bblessingof procreation for man bandthe fact that the Sages bwere assiduous?The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themin the case of ban idle person,who has no job, in which case the reason of blessing applies and the reason that the Sages were assiduous does not, as no matter what he will not go to work early. bAlternatively,there is a practical difference in the case of ba Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve.There too, the reason of blessing applies but the Sages’ assiduousness does not apply, as one does not work on a Festival.,§ The Gemara cites additional aggadic statements of bar Kappara. bBar Kappara taught: The handiwork of the righteous is greater than the creation of heaven and earth, as with regard to the creation of heaven and earth it is written: “My hand also has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spanned the heavens”(Isaiah 48:13). There, hand is written in the singular. bWhereas with regard to the handiwork of the righteous it is written: “The place which You have made for Yourself to dwell in, Lord, the Sanctuary, Lord, which your hands have established” (Exodus 15:17).The reference is to the Temple, which is the handiwork of man, and hand is written in the plural., bA certain Babylonian, and his name is Rabbi Ḥiyya, respondedwith a challenge. It is written with regard to creation of the earth: b“And His hands formed the dry land”(Psalms 95:5). The Gemara answers: b“His hand”is the way it bis written.Although the word is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular, without the letter iyod /i. bBut isn’t it written: “Formed,”in the plural? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The plural is referring to bHis fingers, as it is written: “When I see Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and stars, which You have established”(Psalms 8:4)., bThe Gemara raises an objection: “The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims the work of His hands”(Psalms 19:2). The heavens were created by His hands. The Gemara answers that bthisis what the verse bis saying: Who attests to the handiwork of the righteous,that they are performing the will of God? It is bthe heavens. And what isthe avenue through which the heavens do so? It is by means of brainthat falls due to the prayers of the righteous., bBar Kappara taught: What isthe meaning of that which bis written: And you shall have a peg among your weapons [ iazenekha /i]”(Deuteronomy 23:14)? bDo not readit as: bYour weapons [ iazenekha /i]. Rather,read it: bOn your ear [ ioznekha /i],meaning bthat if a person hears an inappropriate matter, /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

150a. מדוד והבא ואיכא דאמרי שאמרה מאד מאד הביא בלא מדה,(דניאל ד, לג) ורבו יתירה הוספת לי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירמיה בר אבא מלמד שרכב על ארי זכר וקשר תנין בראשו לקיים מה שנא' (ירמיהו כז, ו) וגם את חית השדה נתתי לו לעבדו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא ישכור אדם פועלים בשבת ולא יאמר אדם לחבירו לשכור לו פועלים אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור לו פועלים ולהביא פירות אבל מחשיך הוא לשמור ומביא פירות בידו כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני זכאי באמירתו רשאי אני להחשיך עליו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big (פשיטא) מ"ש הוא ומ"ש חבירו אמר רב פפא חבר נכרי מתקיף לה רב אשי אמירה לנכרי שבות,אלא אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא חבירו ישראל הא קמ"ל לא יאמר אדם לחבירו שכור לי פועלים אבל אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב ומתני' מני כרבי יהושע בן קרחה דתניא לא יאמר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מ"ט דרבי יהושע בן קרחה דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יג) ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר דיבור אסור הרהור מותר,רמי ליה רב אחא בר רב הונא לרבא מי אמר ר' יוחנן דיבור אסור הרהור מותר אלמא הרהור לאו כדיבור דמי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא שאני התם דבעינן (דברים כג, טו) והיה מחניך קדוש וליכא,הכא נמי כתיב (דברים כג, טו) ולא יראה בך ערות דבר ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה עכו"ם ערום אסור לקרות קרית שמע כנגדו,מאי איריא עכו"ם אפי' ישראל נמי לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא ישראל דאסור אבל עכו"ם כיון דכתיב ביה (יחזקאל כג, כ) אשר בשר חמורים בשרם אימא שפיר דמי קמ"ל,אימא הכי נמי אמר קרא (בראשית ט, כג) וערות אביהם לא ראו,ודיבור מי אסיר והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת וא"ר אלעזר פוסקים צדקה לעניים בשבת וא"ר יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש ופיקוח רבים בשבת והולכין לבתי כנסיות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת,וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסאות ולבסילקאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשה משדכין על התינוקות ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות אמר קרא ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר חפציך אסורים חפצי שמים מותרין,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל חשבונות של [מלך] ושל מה בכך מותר לחשבן בשבת תנ"ה חשבונות שעברו ושעתידין להיו' אסור לחשבן של) מלך 150a. bMeasure and bringa lot of money, bhas ceased. And some saythat the meaning of the statement is that this nation bsaid: Bring very, very much, without measure. /b,The Gemara cites another verse pertaining to Nebuchadnezzar: b“And surpassing greatness was added unto me”(Daniel 4:33), about which bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav Yirmeya bar Abba said: This teaches thatNebuchadnezzar brode atop a male lion and tied a serpent to its head, fulfilling what was saidof him: b“And the beasts of the field I have also given him to serve him”(Jeremiah 27:6)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA person may not hire workers on Shabbatto work for him after Shabbat because even speaking about weekday matters is prohibited on Shabbat. Similarly, ba person may not tell anotheron Shabbat bto hire workers for him. One may noteven bwait for nightfall atthe edge of bthe Shabbat boundaryin order to leave the boundary immediately after Shabbat bto hire workers for himself or to bring producefrom his field. bBut he may wait for nightfallat the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order bto guardhis produce that is outside the Shabbat boundary, bandhe may then bbring produceback bin his hand,since he did not initially intend to wait at the edge of the boundary for this purpose. bAbba Shaul stated ageneral bprinciple:With regard to banything that I am permitted to discusson Shabbat, bI am permitted to wait for nightfallat the edge of the Shabbat boundary bfor its sake. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The beginning of the mishna taught that one may not hire workers on Shabbat, and one may not tell another to hire workers for him. The Gemara finds this puzzling and states: This is bobvious. What is the difference between him and another?Just as he is prohibited from hiring workers on Shabbat, others are also prohibited from doing so. bRav Pappa said: Anotheris referring to ba gentile. Rav Ashi strongly objects to this:This is itself a prohibition, for btelling a gentileto do something that is prohibited for a Jew on Shabbat violates a brabbinic prohibition. /b, bRather, Rav Ashi said: Even if you saythat it is referring to banother Jew,it can be said that the novel element of this ruling is not the statement itself but what can be derived from it. bThis is what it is teaching us: One may not say to anotherexplicitly on Shabbat: bHire workers for me, but one may say to another: Does it seem that you will join me this evening?This is permitted even though both of them understand that the questioner intends to hire the other person to work for him. bAndin accordance with bwhoseopinion is bthe mishna?It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person may not say to anotheron Shabbat: bDoes it seem that you will join me this evening? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: A person may say to anotheron Shabbat: bDoes it seem that you will join me this evening? /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’sruling? bAs it is writtenin the verse from which we derive the prohibition to speak on Shabbat about activities that one may not perform on that day: “And you shall honor it by not doing your ways, bnor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it”(Isaiah 58:13). We derive from this verse that bspeaking is prohibited,but merely bcontemplatingthese matters bis permitted. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Rav Huna raised a contradiction to Rava: Did Rabbi Yoḥareally bstateas a general principle that bspeaking is prohibited,but bcontemplating is permitted? Consequently,we can derive from here that bcontemplation is not tantamount to speech. But Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is permitted to thinkabout Torah bin any place except for a bathhouse and a bathroom.This statement indicates that contemplation is tantamount to speech, as even thought is prohibited in these locations. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, forwith regard to Torah bwe needto fulfill the verse: “For the Lord your God walks in the midst of your camp to deliver you and to give your enemies before you; btherefore, your camp shall be sacredso that He see no unseemly thing in you and turn away from you” (Deuteronomy 23:15); bandthe requirement to be sacred is bnotfulfilled if one thinks about Torah while in the bathhouse or bathroom.,The Gemara challenges this: But bhere, too,with regard to a bathhouse and a bathroom, bit is written: “So that He see no unseemly thing [ idavar /i] in you”(Deuteronomy 23:15). We can infer that this prohibits speech [ idibbur /i] but not contemplation. The Gemara answers: bThatverse is not referring to speech. bIt is needed forthe ruling of bRav Yehuda, for Rav Yehuda said: Opposite a naked gentile, it is prohibited to recite iShema /i,as this is included in the prohibition of unseemly things mentioned above.,The Gemara asks: bWhy didRav Yehuda bteachthis prohibition bparticularlywith regard to ba gentile? Evenin the presence of a naked bJew,reciting iShemais balsoprohibited. The Gemara answers: That ruling bis statedemploying the style of: bThere is no need.The Gemara explains: bThere is no needto state this ihalakhawith regard to ba Jew,as it is certainly bprohibitedto recite iShemain the presence of a naked Jew. bHowever,with regard to ba gentile, since it is written about him: “Whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys”(Ezekiel 23:20), perhaps his flesh is not considered nakedness, and one may bsay that it seems welland permitted. Therefore, Rav Yehuda bteaches usthat it is also prohibited to recite iShemabefore a naked gentile.,The Gemara asks: Why not bsaythat bit is indeed so,that gentile flesh is not considered nakedness? The Gemara rejects this idea: bThe versealready bsaidwith regard to the sons of Noah: “And they walked backward and covered their father’s nakedness, and their faces were turned backward, band they did not see their father’s nakedness”(Genesis 9:23). The verse uses the term nakedness with regard to Noah, who was a gentile.,The Gemara addresses the basis of the ihalakhamentioned above: bAnd is it speakingabout proscribed activities bprohibitedon Shabbat? bBut Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna both said: It is permitted to make calculations pertaining to a mitzva on Shabbat, and Rabbi Elazar saidthat this means that bone may apportion charity for the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One may attend toactivities necessary for bsaving a life or for communal needs on Shabbat, and one may go to a synagogue to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat. /b, bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One may go to theaters [ itarteiot /i], and circus performances [ ikirkesaot /i], and courthouses [ ibasilkaot /i] to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat. Andone of the Sages in bthe school of Menashe taught: One maymake the necessary arrangements to bpair off childrenso that they will bbe betrothed on Shabbat, andone may likewise make arrangements bfor a childby finding someone bto teach himhow to read bbooks and to teach him a craft.If speaking about monetary matters is prohibited on Shabbat, how is it possible to participate in all these activities? The Gemara answers that although speaking about similar things is generally prohibited on Shabbat, it is permitted in these cases because bthe verse said: “Nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it”(Isaiah 58:13), which indicates that byour businessmatters bare prohibitedto speak of on Shabbat, but bthe business of Heaven,matters which have religious significance, bis permittedto speak of., bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:With regard to bcalculations of: What is it to you, [ imallakh /i],calculations that are in no way relevant to the person making them, band of: Whatsignificance bdoes it have [ ima bekhakh /i],calculations that do not have any practical significance, it is bpermitted to make them on Shabbat.This bwas also taughtin the iTosefta /i: bCalculationswith regard to matters bthat have passedor bthat will be in the future may not be calculatedon Shabbat. However, with regard to calculations of: bWhat is it to you, /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts, prayers in temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
altar Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
animal sacrifices Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
antiquities (josephus), insertions Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
apostles (apostoli), of patriarch Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
atonement Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
eating Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
eleusis Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
janneus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
matthew, prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
music Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
patriarch, patriarchate, appointments Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
pesaḥ, passover Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, communal vs. individual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, diaspora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
prayer, pre- Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, egypt Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 140
rabbi akiba Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
reading, and sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
reading, blessings before and after Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
sabbath, jesus in synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
sadducaean priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
sambathic association Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 140
sebomenoi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 140
sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
siloam Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
sleeping Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 144
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
stone moldings/carvings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
study, communal, tamid (daily) sacrifice Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
sukkot Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
synagogue Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 144
temple mount, academy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
temple mount, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 60
trumpet Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 144
water libation ceremony' Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128