Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10972
Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.1


בראשונה [כשהיה שמחת בית השואבה אנשים רואים מבפנים ונשים רואות מבחוץ וכשראו בית דין שהן באין לידי קלות ראש עשו שלש] גזוזטראות בעזרה כנגד שלש רוחות [ששם נשים יושבות ורואות בשמחת בית השואבה ולא היו מעורבין].Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together.


רבי יהודה אומר לא היה פייס למחתה אלא [מי] שזכה בקטורת אומר לזה שעמו [אף אתה למחתה] יו\"ט אחרון של חג פייס לעצמו זמן לעצמו רגל לעצמו קרבן לעצמו [שיר לעצמו] ברכה לעצמו שנאמר (מלכים א ח׳:ס״ו) ביום השמיני שלח את העם ויברכו את המלך יכול לא היו טעונין לינה ת\"ל (דברי הימים ב ז׳:י׳) ביום עשרים ושלשה לחודש השביעי שלח את העם וילכו לאהליהם הא כיצד נפטרו מבעוד יום והשכימו והלכו להם.Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 122.3, 128.6, 134.1-134.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

122.3. יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַבְּנוּיָה כְּעִיר שֶׁחֻבְּרָה־לָּהּ יַחְדָּו׃ 128.6. וּרְאֵה־בָנִים לְבָנֶיךָ שָׁלוֹם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 134.1. שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת הִנֵּה בָּרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כָּל־עַבְדֵי יְהוָה הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה בַּלֵּילוֹת׃ 134.2. שְׂאוּ־יְדֵכֶם קֹדֶשׁ וּבָרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 122.3. Jerusalem, that art builded as a city that is compact together;" 128.6. And see thy children's children. Peace be upon Israel!" 134.1. A Song of Ascents. Behold, bless ye the LORD, all ye servants of the LORD, That stand in the house of the LORD in the night seasons." 134.2. Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, And bless ye the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ שָׁם חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה׃ 7.6. And they gathered together to Miżpa, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the Lord. And Shemu᾽el judged the children of Yisra᾽el in Miżpa."
3. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 14.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14.17. וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם׃ 14.17. And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain."
4. Septuagint, Judith, 15.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

15.12. Then all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her;
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.418-15.419 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God.
6. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.103-2.104 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it; 2.104. all the Jews went into the second court, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments;
7. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.13, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. Whoever is half a slave and half a free man should work one day for his master and one day for himself, according to Beth Hillel. Beth Shammai said to them: “You have set matters in order with regards to his master, but you have not set matters in order with regards to himself. He is not able to marry a slave-woman, nor is he able [to marry] a woman who is free. Is he to refrain [from marrying]? [How can he] for is it not the case that the world was created in order for people to be fruitful and multiply? For it is said, “He did not create it to be a waste; but formed it for inhabitation” (Isaiah 45:18). But for the rightful ordering of the world his master is compelled to make him free, and he writes out a bond for half his value.” Then Beth Hillel changed their mind and taught according to the opinion of Beth Shammai." 7.9. Rabbi Nehunia ben Gudgada testified concerning a deaf-mute whose father had given her in marriage, that she could be sent away with a bill of divorcement; And concerning a minor, daughter of an Israelite who married a priest, that she could eat terumah, and if she died her husband inherited from her; And concerning a stolen beam that had been built into a palace, that it might be restored by the payment of its value; And concerning a sin-offering that had been stolen, and this was not known to many, that it caused atonement because of the welfare of the altar."
8. Mishnah, Gittin, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. Rabbi Nehunia ben Gudgada testified concerning a deaf-mute whose father had given her in marriage, that she could be sent away with a bill of divorcement; And concerning a minor, daughter of an Israelite who married a priest, that she could eat terumah, and if she died her husband inherited from her; And concerning a stolen beam that had been built into a palace, that it might be restored by the payment of its value, because of the enactment to encourage repentance. And concerning a sin-offering that had been stolen, and this was not known to many, that it caused atonement because of the welfare of the altar."
9. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor." 4.6. The Hekhal was a hundred cubits by a hundred with a height of a hundred. The foundation was six cubits, then it rose forty, then a cubit for the ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling and a cubit for the plastering. The height of the upper chamber was forty cubits, there was a cubit for its ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling, a cubit for the plastering, three cubits for the parapet and a cubit for the spikes. Rabbi Judah says the spikes were not included in the measurement, but the parapet was four cubits."
10. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain."
11. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5, 4.9-4.10, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”" 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs." 4.10. As it was performed on weekdays, so was it was performed on Shabbat, save that on the eve of Shabbat he would fill a non-sanctified golden barrel from the Shiloah, and place it in the chamber. If it was poured away or uncovered, he would refill it from the laver, for wine or water which has become uncovered is invalid for the altar." 5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
12. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. Section one: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel said: There were no days of joy in Israel greater than the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur. Section two: On these days the daughters of Jerusalem would go out in borrowed white garments in order not to shame any one who had none. All these garments required immersion. The daughters of Jerusalem come out and dance in the vineyards. What would they say? Young man, lift up your eyes and see what you choose for yourself. Do not set your eyes on beauty but set your eyes on the family. “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman that fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). And it further says, “Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her works praise her in the gates” (ibid, 31:31). Section three: Similarly it says, “O maidens of Zion, go forth and gaze upon King Solomon wearing the crown that his mother gave him on his wedding day, on the day of the gladness of his heart” (Song of Songs 3:11). “On his wedding day”: this refers to Matan Torah (the Giving of the Torah). “And on the day of the gladness of his heart”: this refers to the building of the Temple; may it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
13. Mishnah, Zevahim, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. The hatat of a bird was sacrificed by the southwest horn [of the altar]. It is valid [if done] in any place, but this was its [particular] place. That horn served for three things below, and three things above: Below: for the hatat of the bird, For the presenting [of meal-offerings]. And for the residue of the blood. Above: for the pouring out of wine and water, and for the olah of a bird when there was too much on the east."
14. New Testament, John, 7.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water.
15. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.1, 3.3, 3.8, 3.11-3.12, 3.14-3.16, 3.18, 4.2-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. The lulav suspends the Sabbath in the beginning of its duty, and the willow in the end of its duty. There is a story that some Boethusians once hid the willows under some great stones on the Sabbath eve; but when this had become known to the common people they came and dragged them out from under the stones on the Sabbath, for the Boethusians do not acknowledge that the beating of the willow suspends the Sabbath." 3.3. Why is the name \"Water Gate\"? It is so called because through it they take the flask of water used for the libation at the Feast. R. Eliezer b. Jacob says of it, \"The waters are dripping, intimating that water oozing out and rising, as if from this flask, will in future days come forth from under the threshold of the Temple, and so it says, ‘When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his ankles ; and again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his knees.’”Another interpretation of waters that were to the knees, \"intimating that after they have been blessed, they flow out. Again, he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the loins, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his loins. Afterwards he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through. Though one cannot cross it on foot, yet one may be able to do so by swimming; though one cannot cross it in a small boat, as we learn from the Scripture, For the waters were risen, waters to swim in they were risen too high for swimming. Though one cannot cross it in a small boat, yet one may be able to do so in a large boat, as we learn from the Scripture, There shall not go thereon any rowing ship. Though one cannot cross it in a large boat, yet one may be able to do so in a fast sailing vessel, as we learn from the Scripture, And gallant ship shall not pass over it. 2 And so it is said, And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea ; in summer and in winter shall it be. It may be other fountains will be mixed with them, as we learn from the Scripture, In that day shall there be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Whither do the waters go ? To the Mediterranean, and to the sea of Tiberias, and to the Dead Sea, that their waters may be healed, as it is said : And he said to me, These waters issue forth towards the eastern region that is the Dead Sea ; and shall go down into the Arabah that is the Sea of Tiberias ; and they shall go towards the other sea that is the Mediterranean Sea ; and the waters shall be healed ; and it shall come to pass that every living creature that swarms, in every place whither the river comes, shall live ; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come hither, that all things may be healed and live, whithersoever the river cometh. And it also says : And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand by it ; from Engedi even unto Englaim shall be a place for the spreading of nets ; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many. And it also says : But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof, shall not be healed ; they shall be given for salt. And also : By the river, upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail ; it shall bring forth first-fruits every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary ; and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for healing intimating that all \"the waters of creation\" will come forth as from the mouth of this flask. So the well, which was with Israel in the wilderness, was like a rock of the size of a k'bara, 6 and was oozing out and rising as from the mouth of this flask, travelling with them up the mountains and going down with them to the valleys. Wherever Israel encamped it encamped opposite them before the door of the Tabernacle. The princes of Israel with their slaves surrounded it, and said over it this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it. Then the waters bubbled forth, and rose on high like a pillar; and every one drew out the staff of his tribe and family, as it is said, The well which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre and with their staves. And from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; and from Bamoth to the valley, etc. going round every camp of the Lord, and watering all Jeshimon ; and it made mighty streams, as it is said, And streams overflowed. 3 And they were sitting in skiffs, going from place to place, as it is written, They ran in the dry places like a river. If Israel went up on the right, it would come down on the right ; if on the left, it would come down on the left. The waters which emptied themselves from it became a great river, pouring themselves into the Mediterranean, and bringing thence all the precious things of the world, as it is said, These forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee ; thou hast lacked nothing." 4.2. Saints and pious men were dancing before them with torches, and saying words of praise. What were they saying? Happy is he who has not sinned, and whoever has sinned shall be forgiven. Some of them were saying, Happy am I whose youth has not shamed my old age, this was said by the pious men. And others of them were saying, Happy am I whose old age can atone for my youth, this was said by the penitents.Hillel the Elder used to say : To the place which my heart loves, there my feet lead me. If you come to my house (says God), I will go to there. If you do not come to My house, then I will not go to there. For it is said, “In every place where I record My name I will come unto you, and I will bless you.”" 4.3. There is a story of Rabbi Shim’on ben Gamliel: he was dancing with eight lighted torches, and as he did so none of them fell to the ground. And when he prostrated himself he put his finger on the pavement, bending himself and kissing it, and then stood upright again. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Haiah said: All the days of the rejoicing at the water-drawing our eyes had no sleep, for we rose early in the morning for the morning sacrifice. We went to the synagogue, then to the college, then to do additional prayers, then to eat and drink, then to afternoon prayer, then to the evening sacrifice, then to the rejoicing of the water-drawing." 4.4. Rabbi Yehudah said: Whoever has not seen the basilica-synagogue of Alexandria has never seen the great glory of Israel. It is something like a large colonnade, with porches within porches, and accommodating sometimes double the number of those that followed Moses from Egypt. There were seventy-one golden chairs there, corresponding to the seventy-one elders, and each of the chairs was worth twenty-five myriad talents of gold. In the center was a wooden dais, and the sexton stood upon it with a scarf (as a flag) in his hand. At the close of each benediction he waved the scarf, and all the people answered “Amen”. The people were not seated together, but the goldsmiths were by themselves, the blacksmiths by themselves, the embroiderers by themselves, so that when a poor man came in he joined his fellow tradesmen, and in this way was enabled to obtain a means of livelihood." 4.5. And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. " 4.7. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the distinction between the holy and the mundane day. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city. When he sounded, those who were removing broth from a pot, or were keeping warm a boiler, or were lighting a lamp, ceased to do so, even if the boiler were in one's hand he did not keep it warm, but put it on the ground, even if the lamp were in one's hand, he did not put it on the lamp-stand, but lay it on the ground. The sexton lay the trumpets on the top of the roof, came down, and went away. Rabbi Yose said, “He who wishes to light his lamp after six soundings may do so.” The (sages) said to him, “Your rule would vary according to circumstances, but there was a place on the top of the roof where the sexton lay the trumpets.”" 4.8. Should the first day fall on the eve of Sabbath they sound a plain note, but do not sound a tremolo. How do they sound? With a single plain, and not a tremulous, note. “The flute-playing supersedes the Sabbath” - the words of Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehudah. But the sages say, “It does not supersede even the festival itself.”" 4.9. All the divisions on duty were treated alike and divided into three lots for the bullocks, except two who were treated alike but not divided into three lots. Rabbi Eleazar ben Parata and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yacov said, “There was no balloting for the fat of the goat, but whoever offered the limbs offered also the fat.” Rabbi Haninah ben Antigonus said, “There was no balloting except for the leaders of the guards. The rest of all the guards took turns all round.” Abba Yose ben Hanin said, “There was balloting on the first day of the festival only, and all the remaining days they were taking turns all round.” How was the ballot conducted? They gathered at the cell of Gazith, where they stood closely together like a cochlear. An officer came and took the turban of one of them, for they knew that from him the lot began. Individuals among them drew out two, but did not count them more than one."
16. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

17. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 150, 143 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34a. אבא שאול אומר ערבי שתים אחת ללולב ואחת למקדש,ורבנן למקדש מנא להו הלכתא גמירי להו דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,ת"ר ערבי נחל הגדילות על הנחל פרט לצפצפה הגדילה בין ההרים א"ר זירא מאי קראה (יחזקאל יז, ה) קח על מים רבים צפצפה שמו,א"ל אביי ודילמא פרושי קא מפרש קח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו צפצפה א"כ מאי שמו א"ר אבהו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי שיהו ישראל לפני כקח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו ערבה והן שמו עצמן כצפצפה שבהרים,איכא דמתני לה להאי קרא אמתניתא קח על מים רבים צפצפה שמו מתקיף לה ר' זירא ודילמא פרושי קא מפרש קח על מים רבים מאי ניהו צפצפה אם כן מאי שמו א"ר אבהו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי שיהו ישראל לפני כקח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו ערבה והן שמו עצמן כצפצפה שבהרים,ת"ר אי זהו ערבה ואיזהו צפצפה ערבה קנה שלה אדום ועלה שלה משוך ופיה חלק צפצפה קנה שלה לבן ועלה שלה עגול ופיה דומה למגל והא תניא דומה למגל כשר דומה למסר פסול אמר אביי כי תניא ההיא בחילפא גילא,אמר אביי שמע מינה האי חילפא גילא כשר להושענא פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואית ליה שם לווי לא נתכשר קמ"ל,ואימא הכי נמי ערבי נחל אמר רחמנא מכל מקום,אמר רב חסדא הני תלת מילי אשתני שמייהו מכי חרב בית המקדש חלפת' ערבתא ערבתא חלפתא מאי נ"מ ללולב,שיפורא חצוצרתא חצוצרתא שיפורא מאי נפקא מינה לשופר של ראש השנה,פתורתא פתורא פתורא פתורתא למאי נפקא מינה למקח וממכר,אמר אביי אף אני אומר בי כסי הובלילא הובלילא בי כסי,למאי נפקא מינה למחט הנמצא בעובי בית הכוסות,אמר רבא בר יוסף אף אני אומר בבל בורסיף בורסיף בבל למאי 34a. bAbba Shaul says: “Willows”in the plural teaches that there are btwomitzvot that involve use of the willow branch. bOneis the willow branch bfor the ilulav /i, and one isthe willow branch taken bfor the Temple,with which the people would circle the altar on iSukkot /i., bAnd the Rabbis,who do not interpret the verse that way, bfrom wheredo btheyderive the mitzva of the willow branch bfor the Temple?It is ba ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai that bthey learned through traditionand not from a verse, bas Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:There are three ihalakhotfor which the Sages unsuccessfully sought a Torah source. The first is the ihalakha of bten saplings.There is a mitzva by Torah law to extend the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year and to begin refraining from plowing thirty days before the Sabbatical Year begins. However, one may plow around individual saplings to sustain them. In a field that is one ibeit se’a /i, fifty by fifty cubits, in which there are ten evenly spaced saplings, it is permitted to plow the entire field until the onset of the Sabbatical Year to sustain the saplings. The second ihalakhais the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple. bAndthe third ihalakhais the mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar, which accompanies the daily offerings each day of iSukkot /i, together with the daily wine libation. No Torah source was found for these ihalakhot /i, as each is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bThe Sages taughtan additional ibaraita /i: b“Willows of the brook”is referring to those bthat grow by the river,which comes bto exclude a itzaftzafa /i, which grows among the mountainsand not near a brook. bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which the fact that the itzaftzafais unfit is derived? It is derived from the reprimand that is written: b“He placed it by great waters, and set it as a itzaftzafa /i”(Ezekiel 17:5). The Jewish people were planted like a willow on great waters, but ultimately became like a itzaftzafa /i. Apparently, a itzaftzafadoes not grow on great waters., bAbaye said toRabbi Zeira: bAnd perhapsthe second part of the verse bismerely bexplainingthe first part, and it means: bHe placed it by great waters, and what is itthat He placed there? It is ba itzaftzafa /i.Rabbi Zeira answered: bIf so,and that is the meaning of the verse, bwhat isthe meaning of the term b“set it”?Rather, the verse means that the willow branch was transformed into a itzaftzafa /i. That is how Rabbi Abbahu explained the verse, as bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I said that the Jewish people should be before Me asa plant bplaced by great waters, and what isthat plant? It is ba willow. And they set themselves as a itzaftzafaof the mountains. /b, bSome taught this verse asthe conclusion of bthe ibaraita /iand Rabbi Zeira raised the objection, and the response to his objection is unattributed: bHe placed it by great waters, and set it as a itzaftzafa /i. Rabbi Zeira strongly objects: And perhapsthe second part of the verse bismerely bexplainingthe first part, and it means: bHe placed it by great waters, and what is itthat He placed there? It is ba itzaftzafa /i.The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bIf so,and that is the meaning of the verse, bwhat isthe meaning of the term b“set it”? Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I said that the Jewish people should be before Me asa plant bplaced by great waters, and what isthat plant? It is ba willow. And they set themselves as a itzaftzafaof the mountains. /b,Apropos the defining characteristics of the willow branch, in contrast to similar species that are unfit, bthe Sages taught: What is a willow and what is a itzaftzafa /i?With regard to ba willowbranch, bits stem is red, and its leaf is elongated, andthe bedgeof bitsleaf bis smooth.With regard to ba itzaftzafa /i, its stem is white, its leaf is round, andthe bedgeof bitsleaf bis serrated like a sickle.The Gemara objects: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: If the edge of its leaf is serrated blike a sickle it is fit,but if it is serrated blike a saw,whose teeth are uneven in both size and sequence, bit is unfit? Abaye said: When that ibaraita bwas taught, it wasreferring btoa particular type of willow called iḥilfa gila /i,whose leaves are serrated. However, all other types of willow branches have leaves with a smooth edge., bAbaye said: Conclude from itthat bthis iḥilfa gilais fit foruse in bthe ihoshana /iof the four species. The Gemara wonders: That is bobvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you say that since itsname is accompanied by ba modifier,as it is called iḥilfa gila /i, bit should not be fit.Therefore, Abaye bteaches usthat it is fit.,The Gemara asks: bAnd say it is indeed so,that since its name is accompanied by a modifier it is unfit. The Gemara answers: bThe Merciful One states: “Willows of the brook,”in the plural, teaching that the branches of willows are fit bin any case. /b,Apropos the branches of the willow and the itzaftzafa /i, the Gemara cites what bRav Ḥisda said: These three objects’ names changed since the Temple was destroyed.That which was called bwillowwas called in later generations iḥalfata /i,which is another name for itzaftzafa /i, and that which was called iḥalfatawascalled bwillow.The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from the name change? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btothe mitzva of taking the ilulav /i,as one of the species bound with the ilulavis a willow branch, which is now called itzaftzafa /i.,In addition, that which was called btrumpetwas called ishofar /iin later generations, and that which was called ishofar /iwas called btrumpetin later generations. The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencewhether a ishofaris called ishofaror trumpet? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard btothe ihalakhotof ishofarof Rosh HaShana.On Rosh HaShana, one fulfills his obligation only by sounding a ishofar /i. If one comes today and asks what instrument he should use to sound the requisite blasts, he should be told to use a trumpet.,Also, that which was called ipetorata/b, originally meaning a small table, was called in later generations ipetora /i,and that which was called ipetora /i, originally meaning a large table, was called ipetorata /iin later generations.The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from the change of name? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btothe laws of bbuying and selling.One who orders a ipetorashould know that he ordered a small table and not a large one., bAbaye said: I tooshall bspeakof changes in the meaning of terms in this generation. That which was called ihuvlila /i,the first compartment of the stomach of animals that chew their cud, is, in recent generations, called ibei kasei /i,the name of the second compartment of the animal’s stomach. Similarly, that which was once called ibei kasei /iis called ihuvlila /iin recent generations., bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from this change of names? It is bwith regard to a needle that is found in the thickwall bof the second compartment of the stomach.In the ihalakhotof itereifot /i, it is prohibited to eat animals with a life expectancy of less than a year. It was established that if a needle punctures the wall of the second compartment of the stomach from only one side, the animal is kosher. If the needle penetrates the wall in a manner visible from both sides, the animal assumes the halakhic status of a itereifa /i. In the first stomach, even if the needle penetrated only one side of the wall, the animal assumes the halakhic status of a itereifa /i. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish between the first and the second compartments of the stomach., bRava bar Yosef said: I tooshall bspeakof changes in the meaning of terms in this generation. The city that in biblical times was called bBabylonwas called bBursifin later generations, and bBursifwas called bBabylonin later generations. The Gemara asks: bWhat is /b
20. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
altar Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
amora Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
animal sacrifices Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
antiquities (josephus), insertions Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
arôn" '239.0_260.0@alexandrian diplostoon Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 260
atonement Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 135
eating Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
eleusis Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
fox, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
janneus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 136
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135, 136
maimonides Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135, 136
mixed/separate, of men and women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
music Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
neusner, j. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136, 137
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
prayer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135
priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
rabbi akiba Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
rome, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
sadducaean priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
safrai, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
separation of men and women, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
separation of men and women, therapeutae sanctuary Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135, 136, 137
sleeping Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134
sukkot Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 121
synagogue Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 136
synagogue architecture, balcony Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
temple, holy vessels of; the sancta Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 134, 135, 136, 137
water libation ceremony' Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 128
women, seating, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
womens court Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
womens gallery Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504