|1. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.17-21.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃
| 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;"
|2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 7.6. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ שָׁם חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה׃
| 7.6. And they gathered together to Miżpa, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the Lord. And Shemu᾽el judged the children of Yisra᾽el in Miżpa."
|3. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 14.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
| 14.17. וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם׃
| 14.17. And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain."
|4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 6.2-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
|5. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.2-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
|6. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 113. But it is not entrusted to any person who is not initiated in wisdom to dig this well, but only to kings, on which account it is said, "Kings hewed it out of Stone." For it is the office of mighty rulers to investigate and to establish wisdom, not meaning those who with their arms have subdued sea and land, but those who with the powers of the soul have fought against and subdued its diversified, and mingled, and confused multitude. XXX.
|7. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.271 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.271. for then, says the scripture, "Israel sang this song at the Well;" that is to say, in triumph for the fact that knowledge, which had long been hidden but which was sought for, had at length been found by all men, though lying deep by nature; the duty of which was to irrigate the rational fields existing in the souls of those men who are fond of contemplation.
|8. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 1.2. At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain."
|9. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9-4.10, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs." 4.10. As it was performed on weekdays, so was it was performed on Shabbat, save that on the eve of Shabbat he would fill a non-sanctified golden barrel from the Shiloah, and place it in the chamber. If it was poured away or uncovered, he would refill it from the laver, for wine or water which has become uncovered is invalid for the altar." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
|10. Mishnah, Zevahim, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 6.2. The hatat of a bird was sacrificed by the southwest horn [of the altar]. It is valid [if done] in any place, but this was its [particular] place. That horn served for three things below, and three things above: Below: for the hatat of the bird, For the presenting [of meal-offerings]. And for the residue of the blood. Above: for the pouring out of wine and water, and for the olah of a bird when there was too much on the east."
|11. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.1-10.4, 10.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.24. Let no one seek his own, but each one his neighbor's good.
|12. New Testament, John, 7.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water.
|13. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.7, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
|14. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.3, 3.8, 3.12, 3.14-3.16, 3.18, 4.1, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
| 3.3. Why is the name \"Water Gate\"? It is so called because through it they take the flask of water used for the libation at the Feast. R. Eliezer b. Jacob says of it, \"The waters are dripping, intimating that water oozing out and rising, as if from this flask, will in future days come forth from under the threshold of the Temple, and so it says, ‘When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his ankles ; and again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his knees.’”Another interpretation of waters that were to the knees, \"intimating that after they have been blessed, they flow out. Again, he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the loins, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his loins. Afterwards he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through. Though one cannot cross it on foot, yet one may be able to do so by swimming; though one cannot cross it in a small boat, as we learn from the Scripture, For the waters were risen, waters to swim in they were risen too high for swimming. Though one cannot cross it in a small boat, yet one may be able to do so in a large boat, as we learn from the Scripture, There shall not go thereon any rowing ship. Though one cannot cross it in a large boat, yet one may be able to do so in a fast sailing vessel, as we learn from the Scripture, And gallant ship shall not pass over it. 2 And so it is said, And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea ; in summer and in winter shall it be. It may be other fountains will be mixed with them, as we learn from the Scripture, In that day shall there be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Whither do the waters go ? To the Mediterranean, and to the sea of Tiberias, and to the Dead Sea, that their waters may be healed, as it is said : And he said to me, These waters issue forth towards the eastern region that is the Dead Sea ; and shall go down into the Arabah that is the Sea of Tiberias ; and they shall go towards the other sea that is the Mediterranean Sea ; and the waters shall be healed ; and it shall come to pass that every living creature that swarms, in every place whither the river comes, shall live ; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come hither, that all things may be healed and live, whithersoever the river cometh. And it also says : And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand by it ; from Engedi even unto Englaim shall be a place for the spreading of nets ; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many. And it also says : But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof, shall not be healed ; they shall be given for salt. And also : By the river, upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail ; it shall bring forth first-fruits every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary ; and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for healing intimating that all \"the waters of creation\" will come forth as from the mouth of this flask. So the well, which was with Israel in the wilderness, was like a rock of the size of a k'bara, 6 and was oozing out and rising as from the mouth of this flask, travelling with them up the mountains and going down with them to the valleys. Wherever Israel encamped it encamped opposite them before the door of the Tabernacle. The princes of Israel with their slaves surrounded it, and said over it this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it. Then the waters bubbled forth, and rose on high like a pillar; and every one drew out the staff of his tribe and family, as it is said, The well which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre and with their staves. And from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; and from Bamoth to the valley, etc. going round every camp of the Lord, and watering all Jeshimon ; and it made mighty streams, as it is said, And streams overflowed. 3 And they were sitting in skiffs, going from place to place, as it is written, They ran in the dry places like a river. If Israel went up on the right, it would come down on the right ; if on the left, it would come down on the left. The waters which emptied themselves from it became a great river, pouring themselves into the Mediterranean, and bringing thence all the precious things of the world, as it is said, These forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee ; thou hast lacked nothing." 4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
|15. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
|16. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 34a. אבא שאול אומר ערבי שתים אחת ללולב ואחת למקדש,ורבנן למקדש מנא להו הלכתא גמירי להו דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,ת"ר ערבי נחל הגדילות על הנחל פרט לצפצפה הגדילה בין ההרים א"ר זירא מאי קראה (יחזקאל יז, ה) קח על מים רבים צפצפה שמו,א"ל אביי ודילמא פרושי קא מפרש קח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו צפצפה א"כ מאי שמו א"ר אבהו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי שיהו ישראל לפני כקח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו ערבה והן שמו עצמן כצפצפה שבהרים,איכא דמתני לה להאי קרא אמתניתא קח על מים רבים צפצפה שמו מתקיף לה ר' זירא ודילמא פרושי קא מפרש קח על מים רבים מאי ניהו צפצפה אם כן מאי שמו א"ר אבהו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי שיהו ישראל לפני כקח על מים רבים ומאי ניהו ערבה והן שמו עצמן כצפצפה שבהרים,ת"ר אי זהו ערבה ואיזהו צפצפה ערבה קנה שלה אדום ועלה שלה משוך ופיה חלק צפצפה קנה שלה לבן ועלה שלה עגול ופיה דומה למגל והא תניא דומה למגל כשר דומה למסר פסול אמר אביי כי תניא ההיא בחילפא גילא,אמר אביי שמע מינה האי חילפא גילא כשר להושענא פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואית ליה שם לווי לא נתכשר קמ"ל,ואימא הכי נמי ערבי נחל אמר רחמנא מכל מקום,אמר רב חסדא הני תלת מילי אשתני שמייהו מכי חרב בית המקדש חלפת' ערבתא ערבתא חלפתא מאי נ"מ ללולב,שיפורא חצוצרתא חצוצרתא שיפורא מאי נפקא מינה לשופר של ראש השנה,פתורתא פתורא פתורא פתורתא למאי נפקא מינה למקח וממכר,אמר אביי אף אני אומר בי כסי הובלילא הובלילא בי כסי,למאי נפקא מינה למחט הנמצא בעובי בית הכוסות,אמר רבא בר יוסף אף אני אומר בבל בורסיף בורסיף בבל למאי
| 34a. bAbba Shaul says: “Willows”in the plural teaches that there are btwomitzvot that involve use of the willow branch. bOneis the willow branch bfor the ilulav /i, and one isthe willow branch taken bfor the Temple,with which the people would circle the altar on iSukkot /i., bAnd the Rabbis,who do not interpret the verse that way, bfrom wheredo btheyderive the mitzva of the willow branch bfor the Temple?It is ba ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai that bthey learned through traditionand not from a verse, bas Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:There are three ihalakhotfor which the Sages unsuccessfully sought a Torah source. The first is the ihalakha of bten saplings.There is a mitzva by Torah law to extend the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year and to begin refraining from plowing thirty days before the Sabbatical Year begins. However, one may plow around individual saplings to sustain them. In a field that is one ibeit se’a /i, fifty by fifty cubits, in which there are ten evenly spaced saplings, it is permitted to plow the entire field until the onset of the Sabbatical Year to sustain the saplings. The second ihalakhais the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple. bAndthe third ihalakhais the mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar, which accompanies the daily offerings each day of iSukkot /i, together with the daily wine libation. No Torah source was found for these ihalakhot /i, as each is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bThe Sages taughtan additional ibaraita /i: b“Willows of the brook”is referring to those bthat grow by the river,which comes bto exclude a itzaftzafa /i, which grows among the mountainsand not near a brook. bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which the fact that the itzaftzafais unfit is derived? It is derived from the reprimand that is written: b“He placed it by great waters, and set it as a itzaftzafa /i”(Ezekiel 17:5). The Jewish people were planted like a willow on great waters, but ultimately became like a itzaftzafa /i. Apparently, a itzaftzafadoes not grow on great waters., bAbaye said toRabbi Zeira: bAnd perhapsthe second part of the verse bismerely bexplainingthe first part, and it means: bHe placed it by great waters, and what is itthat He placed there? It is ba itzaftzafa /i.Rabbi Zeira answered: bIf so,and that is the meaning of the verse, bwhat isthe meaning of the term b“set it”?Rather, the verse means that the willow branch was transformed into a itzaftzafa /i. That is how Rabbi Abbahu explained the verse, as bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I said that the Jewish people should be before Me asa plant bplaced by great waters, and what isthat plant? It is ba willow. And they set themselves as a itzaftzafaof the mountains. /b, bSome taught this verse asthe conclusion of bthe ibaraita /iand Rabbi Zeira raised the objection, and the response to his objection is unattributed: bHe placed it by great waters, and set it as a itzaftzafa /i. Rabbi Zeira strongly objects: And perhapsthe second part of the verse bismerely bexplainingthe first part, and it means: bHe placed it by great waters, and what is itthat He placed there? It is ba itzaftzafa /i.The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bIf so,and that is the meaning of the verse, bwhat isthe meaning of the term b“set it”? Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I said that the Jewish people should be before Me asa plant bplaced by great waters, and what isthat plant? It is ba willow. And they set themselves as a itzaftzafaof the mountains. /b,Apropos the defining characteristics of the willow branch, in contrast to similar species that are unfit, bthe Sages taught: What is a willow and what is a itzaftzafa /i?With regard to ba willowbranch, bits stem is red, and its leaf is elongated, andthe bedgeof bitsleaf bis smooth.With regard to ba itzaftzafa /i, its stem is white, its leaf is round, andthe bedgeof bitsleaf bis serrated like a sickle.The Gemara objects: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: If the edge of its leaf is serrated blike a sickle it is fit,but if it is serrated blike a saw,whose teeth are uneven in both size and sequence, bit is unfit? Abaye said: When that ibaraita bwas taught, it wasreferring btoa particular type of willow called iḥilfa gila /i,whose leaves are serrated. However, all other types of willow branches have leaves with a smooth edge., bAbaye said: Conclude from itthat bthis iḥilfa gilais fit foruse in bthe ihoshana /iof the four species. The Gemara wonders: That is bobvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you say that since itsname is accompanied by ba modifier,as it is called iḥilfa gila /i, bit should not be fit.Therefore, Abaye bteaches usthat it is fit.,The Gemara asks: bAnd say it is indeed so,that since its name is accompanied by a modifier it is unfit. The Gemara answers: bThe Merciful One states: “Willows of the brook,”in the plural, teaching that the branches of willows are fit bin any case. /b,Apropos the branches of the willow and the itzaftzafa /i, the Gemara cites what bRav Ḥisda said: These three objects’ names changed since the Temple was destroyed.That which was called bwillowwas called in later generations iḥalfata /i,which is another name for itzaftzafa /i, and that which was called iḥalfatawascalled bwillow.The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from the name change? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btothe mitzva of taking the ilulav /i,as one of the species bound with the ilulavis a willow branch, which is now called itzaftzafa /i.,In addition, that which was called btrumpetwas called ishofar /iin later generations, and that which was called ishofar /iwas called btrumpetin later generations. The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencewhether a ishofaris called ishofaror trumpet? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard btothe ihalakhotof ishofarof Rosh HaShana.On Rosh HaShana, one fulfills his obligation only by sounding a ishofar /i. If one comes today and asks what instrument he should use to sound the requisite blasts, he should be told to use a trumpet.,Also, that which was called ipetorata/b, originally meaning a small table, was called in later generations ipetora /i,and that which was called ipetora /i, originally meaning a large table, was called ipetorata /iin later generations.The Gemara asks: bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from the change of name? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btothe laws of bbuying and selling.One who orders a ipetorashould know that he ordered a small table and not a large one., bAbaye said: I tooshall bspeakof changes in the meaning of terms in this generation. That which was called ihuvlila /i,the first compartment of the stomach of animals that chew their cud, is, in recent generations, called ibei kasei /i,the name of the second compartment of the animal’s stomach. Similarly, that which was once called ibei kasei /iis called ihuvlila /iin recent generations., bWhat is thepractical halakhic bdifferencethat emerges from this change of names? It is bwith regard to a needle that is found in the thickwall bof the second compartment of the stomach.In the ihalakhotof itereifot /i, it is prohibited to eat animals with a life expectancy of less than a year. It was established that if a needle punctures the wall of the second compartment of the stomach from only one side, the animal is kosher. If the needle penetrates the wall in a manner visible from both sides, the animal assumes the halakhic status of a itereifa /i. In the first stomach, even if the needle penetrated only one side of the wall, the animal assumes the halakhic status of a itereifa /i. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish between the first and the second compartments of the stomach., bRava bar Yosef said: I tooshall bspeakof changes in the meaning of terms in this generation. The city that in biblical times was called bBabylonwas called bBursifin later generations, and bBursifwas called bBabylonin later generations. The Gemara asks: bWhat is /b