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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10969
Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.5
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

55 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 139.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

139.22. תַּכְלִית שִׂנְאָה שְׂנֵאתִים לְאוֹיְבִים הָיוּ לִי׃ 139.22. I hate them with utmost hatred; I count them mine enemies."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 57.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

57.8. וְאַחַר הַדֶּלֶת וְהַמְּזוּזָה שַׂמְתְּ זִכְרוֹנֵךְ כִּי מֵאִתִּי גִּלִּית וַתַּעֲלִי הִרְחַבְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבֵךְ וַתִּכְרָת־לָךְ מֵהֶם אָהַבְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבָם יָד חָזִית׃ 57.8. And behind the doors and the posts Hast thou set up thy symbol; For thou hast uncovered, and art gone up from Me, Thou hast enlarged thy bed, And chosen thee of them Whose bed thou lovedst, Whose hand thou sawest."
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him."
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.9, 18.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.9. Such were the consequences of this, that the customs of our fathers were altered, and such a change was made, as added a mighty weight toward bringing all to destruction, which these men occasioned by their thus conspiring together; for Judas and Sadduc, who excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries, by this system of philosophy, which we were before unacquainted withal 18.9. 3. But Vitellius came into Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; it was at the time of that festival which is called the Passover. Vitellius was there magnificently received, and released the inhabitants of Jerusalem from all the taxes upon the fruits that were bought and sold, and gave them leave to have the care of the high priest’s vestments, with all their ornaments, and to have them under the custody of the priests in the temple, which power they used to have formerly 18.16. 4. But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies; nor do they regard the observation of any thing besides what the law enjoins them; for they think it an instance of virtue to dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom they frequent: 18.16. o she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay them the rest of that sum at Dicearchia [Puteoli]; and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
8. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted.
9. Mishnah, Avot, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.20. Judah ben Tema said: Be strong as a leopard, and swift as an eagle, and fleet as a gazelle, and brave as a lion, to do the will of your Father who is in heaven. He used to say: the arrogant is headed for Gehinnom and the blushing for the garden of Eden. May it be the will, O Lord our God, that your city be rebuilt speedily in our days and set our portion in the studying of your Torah."
10. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.3, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. The one who says, “On a bird’s nest may Your mercy be extended,” [or] “For good may Your name be blessed” or “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who was passing before the ark and made a mistake, another should pass in his place, and he should not be as one who refuses at that moment. Where does he begin? At the beginning of the blessing in which the other made a mistake." 9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
11. Mishnah, Eruvin, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.2. What is the minimum measure [for Shabbat border eruvin]?Food for two meals for each person, for weekdays and not for Shabbat, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: for Shabbat and not for weekdays. And both intended to give a leniency. Rabbi Yoha ben Beroka says: not less than a loaf that is purchased for a pondium when the price of wheat is four se’ah for a sela. Rabbi Shimon says: two thirds of a loaf, when three [loaves] are made from a kav [of wheat]. Half of this loaf is the size prescribed for a leprous house, and half of its half is the size that disqualifies one’s body [from eating terumah]."
12. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!" 2.8. If one slaughtered [an animal] as a sacrifice to mountains, hills, seas, rivers, or deserts, the slaughtering is invalid. If two persons held a knife and slaughtered [an animal], one intending it as a sacrifice to one of these things and the other for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid." 2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics." 2.10. If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be an olah or a shelamim or an asham for a doubtful sin or as a Pesah or a todah, the slaughtering is invalid. But Rabbi Shimon declares it valid. If two persons held one knife and slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court], one declaring it to be one of the above and the other intending it for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid. If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be a hatat or an asham or a first-born or the tithe [of cattle] or a substitute offering, the slaughtering is valid. This is the general rule: if one slaughtered an animal declaring it to be a sacrifice which can be brought either as a voluntary or a freewill-offering it is invalid, but if he declares it to be a sacrifice which cannot be brought either as a votive or a freewill-offering it is valid."
13. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders." 4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
14. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
15. Mishnah, Peah, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.7. They may not give a poor person wandering from place to place less than a loaf worth a pundion at a time when four seahs [of wheat cost] one sela. If he spends the night [at a place], they must give him the cost of what he needs for the night. If he stays over Shabbat they must give him enough food for three meals. He who has the money for two meals, he may not take anything from the charity dish. And if he has enough money for fourteen meals, he may not take any support from the communal fund. The communal fund is collected by two and distributed by three people."
16. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. On the eve of Pesah close to minhah one may not eat until nightfall. Even the poorest person in Israel must not eat [on the night of Pesah] until he reclines. And they should give him not less than four cups [of wine], and even from the charity plate."
17. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If they don’t know him [the one who came to testify], they send another with him to testify concerning [his reliability]. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the court]."
18. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
19. Mishnah, Shabbat, 16.1, 17.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All sacred writings may be saved from a fire, whether we read from them or not [on Shabbat]. And even if they are written in any language, they must be stored. And why do we not read them? Because of the neglect of the study house. One may save the container of a scroll together with the scroll, and the container of tefillin together with the tefillin, even if it [also] contains money. And to where may one rescue them? Into a closed alley. Ben Batera says: even into an open one." 17.1. All utensils may be carried on Shabbat and their doors with them, even if they became detached on Shabbat, for they are not like the doors of a house, which are not set aside for use."
20. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
21. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
22. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5, 4.6-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision." 4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands." 4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?" 4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.9, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person.
24. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.14. If any man doesn't obey our word in this letter, note that man, that you have no company with him, to the end that he may be ashamed.
25. New Testament, Acts, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
26. New Testament, Matthew, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.19. I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.
27. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 2.33 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.25. Eighteen Berachot (blessings) that the Sages have established [for the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh have been established] corresponding to eighteen mentionings [of God’s name] that are in [the chapter of Tehillim that begins with] “Ascribe to God, children of princes…” (Tehillim 29) And [a person] should include [the Beracha against] the heretics into [the Beracha] for the Rabbinical Jews, and [the Beracha] for the converts into [the Beracha] for the elders, and [the Beracha] for [King] David into [the Beracha] for [the rebuilding of] Jerusalem. But if he said each one of them separately he has fulfilled his obligation [of praying Shemoneh Esreh]."
30. Tosefta, Hulin, 1.1, 2.19-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Tosefta, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Tosefta, Peah, 4.8, 4.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 8.7, 8.9, 12.9-13.12, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.2-13.4, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Shekalim, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 14.7, 25.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.7. עָפָר, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן אוֹמֵר, עוֹפֶר עוֹלָם עַל מְלֵיאָתוֹ נִבְרָא. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר שִׁמְעוֹן אַף חַוָּה עַל מְלֵיאָתָהּ נִבְרֵאת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָדָם וְחַוָּה כִּבְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה נִבְרְאוּ. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר עָפָר זָכָר, אֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, הַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה מֵבִיא עָפָר זָכָר, וַאֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֵּלָיו בְּרִיאִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד בְּצִפּוֹרִי שֶׁמֵּת בְּנוֹ, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִינָאִי הֲוָה יָתִיב גַּבֵּיהּ, סְלֵק רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא לְמֶחֱמֵי לֵיהּ אַנְפִּין, חַמְתֵיהּ יָתֵיב וְשָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה אַתָּה שָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַן רְחִיצָן בְּמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא, דְּאִתְחַמֵי לְאַפּוּיֵי לְעָלְמָא דְאָתֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא מִסְתְּיֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא עָקְתֵיהּ אֶלָּא דַאֲתֵית מְעָקָא לֵיהּ, אִית חַסְפִּין מִתְדַּבְּקִין, לֹא כָּךְ כְּתִיב (תהלים ב, ט): כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר, כְּלִי זְכוּכִית בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הָאוּר וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר. זֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְיֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, וְזֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָה. אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמְעוּ אָזְנֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁפִּיךָ אוֹמֵר, מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁעָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל בָּשָׂר וָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כִּכְלִי חֶרֶס תְּנַפְּצֵם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, כְּלִי יוֹצֵר שֶׁלֹא הוּסְקוּ יְכוֹלִין הֵן לַחֲזֹר. 25.1. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ה, כד), אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר הוֹשַׁעְיָא אֵינוֹ נִכְתַּב בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ חֲנוֹךְ חָנֵף הָיָה, פְּעָמִים צַדִּיק פְּעָמִים רָשָׁע, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁהוּא בְּצִדְקוֹ אֲסַלְּקֶנּוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דָּנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא דָן כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם. אֶפִּיקוֹרְסִים שָׁאֲלוּ לְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה לַחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לָמָּה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֶמְרָה לְהַלָּן (מלכים ב ב, ה): כִּי הַיּוֹם ה' לֹקֵחַ אֶת אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִם לִלְּקִיחָה אַתֶּם דּוֹרְשִׁים, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (יחזקאל כד, טז): הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא יָפֶה הֵשִׁיבָן רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמְרָה לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה בַּחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהּ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כד): וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁתַק, הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר כִּדְבָרַיִךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵינֶנּוּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים. 14.7. ... dirt from the ground / afar min ha’adamah,[ explains]: ‘Afar’—male, ‘adamah’—female..."
40. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48, 320 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 143, 119 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 4.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ואליבא דרבי יהודה רב אשי אמר סתם ארי שבור הוא אצל מלאכה,מיתיבי כשם שאין מוכרין להן בהמה גסה כך אין מוכרין להן חיה גסה ואפילו במקום שמוכרין להן בהמה דקה חיה גסה אין מוכרין להן תיובתא דרב חנן בר רבא תיובתא,רבינא רמי מתניתין אברייתא ומשני תנן אין מוכרין להן דובין ואריות ולא כל דבר שיש בו נזק לרבים טעמא דאית ביה נזק הא לית ביה נזק מוכרין,ורמינהי כשם שאין מוכרין בהמה גסה כך אין מוכרין חיה גסה ואפילו במקום שמוכרין בהמה דקה חיה גסה אין מוכרין ומשני בארי שבור ואליבא דר' יהודה רב אשי אמר סתם ארי שבור הוא אצל מלאכה,מתקיף לה רב נחמן מאן לימא לן דארי חיה גסה היא דלמא חיה דקה היא,רב אשי דייק מתניתין ומותיב תיובתא תנן אין מוכרין להן דובים ואריות ולא כל דבר שיש בו נזק לרבים טעמא דאית ביה נזק הא לית ביה נזק מוכרין,וטעמא ארי דסתם ארי שבור הוא אצל מלאכה אבל מידי אחרינא דעביד מלאכה לא תיובתא דרב חנן בר רבא תיובתא,וחיה גסה מיהת מאי מלאכה עבדא אמר אביי אמר לי מר יהודה דבי מר יוחני טחני ריחים בערודי,א"ר זירא כי הוינן בי רב יהודה אמר לן גמירו מינאי הא מילתא דמגברא רבה שמיע לי ולא ידענא אי מרב אי משמואל חיה גסה הרי היא כבהמה דקה לפירכוס,כי אתאי לקורקוניא אשכחתיה לרב חייא בר אשי ויתיב וקאמר משמיה דשמואל חיה גסה הרי היא כבהמה דקה לפירכוס אמינא ש"מ משמיה דשמואל איתמר כי אתאי לסורא אשכחתיה לרבה בר ירמיה דיתיב וקא"ל משמיה דרב חיה גסה הרי היא כבהמה דקה לפירכוס אמינא ש"מ איתמר משמיה דרב ואיתמר משמיה דשמואל,כי סליקת להתם אשכחתיה לרב אסי דיתיב וקאמר אמר רב חמא בר גוריא משמיה דרב חיה גסה הרי היא כבהמה דקה לפירכוס אמרי ליה ולא סבר לה מר דמאן מרא דשמעתתא רבה בר ירמיה א"ל פתיא אוכמא מינאי ומינך תסתיים שמעתא,איתמר נמי א"ר זירא אמר רב אסי אמר רבה בר ירמיה אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב חיה גסה הרי היא כבהמה דקה לפירכוס:,אין בונין כו': אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ג' בסילקאות הן של מלכי עובדי כוכבים ושל מרחצאות ושל אוצרות אמר רבא ב' להיתר ואחד לאיסור וסימן (תהלים קמט, ח) לאסור מלכיהם בזיקים,ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבא כולם להיתר והתנן אין בונין עמהן בסילקי גרדום איצטדייא ובימה אימא של גרדום ושל איצטדייא ושל בימה,ת"ר כשנתפס ר"א למינות העלהו לגרדום לידון אמר לו אותו הגמון זקן שכמותך יעסוק בדברים בטלים הללו,אמר לו נאמן עלי הדיין כסבור אותו הגמון עליו הוא אומר והוא לא אמר אלא כנגד אביו שבשמים אמר לו הואיל והאמנתי עליך דימוס פטור אתה,כשבא לביתו נכנסו תלמידיו אצלו לנחמו ולא קיבל עליו תנחומין אמר לו ר"ע רבי תרשיני לומר דבר אחד ממה שלימדתני אמר לו אמור אמר לו רבי שמא מינות בא לידך 16b. bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yehudain the mishna on 14b, that it is permitted to sell to a gentile large livestock that are damaged. Yet, it is prohibited to sell large undamaged beasts, just as one may not sell large undamaged livestock. bRav Ashi says:It is not necessary to explain that the mishna is referring to such a specific case. Rather, ban ordinary lion isconsidered bdamaged with regard to labor,as lions are not generally used to perform labor. Therefore there is no concern that a lion will be used to perform prohibited labor on Shabbat.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bJust as one may not sell large livestock togentiles, bso too one may not sell large beasts to them. And even in a place wherethe people were accustomed to bsell small livestock togentiles; nevertheless, bone may not sell large beasts tothem. The Gemara concludes: bThe refutation ofthe opinion of bRav Ḥa bar Ravais ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara presents a different version of this discussion. bRavina raises a contradiction between the mishnahere band a ibaraitaand resolvesthe contradiction. bWe learnedin the mishna: bOne may not sell bears, or lions, or any item that can cause injury to the public, togentiles. Ravina analyzes the mishna: bThe reasona beast such as a lion cannot be sold to gentiles is bthat it can cause injury to the public,from which it may be inferred that with regard to another beast, which bdoes not cause injury to the public, one may sellit to gentiles., bAndRavina braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bJust as one may not sell large livestockto gentiles, bso too, one may not sell large beaststo them. bAnd even in a place wherethe people were accustomed to bsell small livestockto gentiles, bone may not sell large beaststo them. The ibaraitaindicates that one may never sell large beasts to gentiles, even if it poses no danger to the public. bAndRavina bresolvesthe contradiction between the mishna and the ibaraita /i: The ruling of the mishna is stated bwith regard to a damaged lion, in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda. Rav Ashi saysthere is a different explanation: bAn ordinary lion isconsidered bdamaged with regard to labor. /b, bRav Naḥman objects tothe inference drawn from the mishna: bWho will tell us that a lion isconsidered ba large beast? Perhaps it isconsidered ba small beast,in which case it cannot be inferred that the mishna permits the sale of large beasts.,The Gemara explains: bRav Ashi examined the mishnahere carefully, bandfrom it he braises a refutationof the opinion of Rav Ḥa bar Rava, who permitted the sale of large beasts. bWe learnedin the mishna: bOne may not sell bears, or lions, or any item that can cause injury to the public, togentiles. Rav Ashi inferred two conclusions from here. First, bthe reasona beast such as a lion cannot be sold to gentiles is bbecause it can cause injury to the public,whereas with regard to a beast that bdoes not cause injury to the public, one may sellit to gentiles. This inference was cited in contradiction of the opinion of Rav, as explained before., bAndRav Ashi then inferred, in resolution of Rav’s opinion, that bthe reasonthe mishna specifies that one may sell ba lionif it does not pose a danger to the public is bthat an ordinary lion isconsidered bdamaged with regard to labor. But a differentanimal bthat performs labormay bnotbe sold. This presents a difficulty to the opinion of Rav Ḥa bar Rava. The Gemara concludes: bThe refutation ofthe opinion of bRav Ḥa bar Ravais ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut in any event, what labor can a large beast perform?Why is it necessary to prohibit the sale of large beasts if they are not trained to perform any labor? bAbaye said: Mar Yehuda said to methat bin the house of Mar Yoḥani, they grind the mill with wild asses,which are considered large beasts.,§ bRabbi Zeira said: When we were in thestudy bhall of Rav Yehuda, he said to us: Learn from me this matter, which I heard from a great man, but I do not know ifI heard it bfrom Rav or from Shmuel:The status of ba large beast is likethat of bsmall livestock with regard to a spasm,i.e., the symptoms of vitality required at the time of slaughtering.,Rabbi Zeira continued: bWhen I came tothe city of bKorkoneya, I found Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi sitting and saying in the name of Shmuel:The status of ba large beast is likethat of bsmall livestock with regard to a spasm. I saidto myself: One can bconclude fromhere that this bwas stated in the name of Shmuel. When I came to Sura, I found Rabba bar Yirmeya sitting and saying in the name of Rav:The status of ba large beast is likethat of bsmall livestock with regard to a spasm. I saidto myself: One can bconclude fromhere that this bwas stated in the name of Rav, andit bwasalso bstated in the name of Shmuel. /b, bWhen I ascended to there,Eretz Yisrael, bI found Rav Asi sitting and sayingthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya says in the name of Rav:The status of ba large beast is likethat of bsmall livestock with regard to a spasm. I said to him: And doesn’t the Master hold that the Masterwho is responsible for dissemination bofthis ihalakha /iis bRabba bar Yirmeya?Why don’t you attribute the statement to him? Rav Asi bsaid to me: Black pot [ ipatya /i],a term of endearment for a scholar who works hard studying Torah: bFrom me and from youthis ihalakhamay be concluded.In other words, our two statements should be combined to form one accurate attribution of the ihalakha /i.,The Gemara notes that in fact this ruling bwas also stated: Rabbi Zeira saysthat bRav Asi saysthat bRabba bar Yirmeya saysthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saysthat bRav says:The status of ba large beast is likethat of bsmall livestock with regard to a spasm. /b,§ The mishna teaches that bone may not builda basilica in conjunction with gentiles. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: There are threetypes of bbasilicas:Those bof kings, andthose bof bathhouses, andthose bof storehouses. Rava says: Twoof these types bare permitted,as they are not used for inflicting the death penalty, band one is prohibited [ ile’isor /i]. And a mnemonicdevice for this ruling, that the basilica of kings is prohibited, is the verse: b“To bind [ ile’esor /i] their kings with chains”(Psalms 149:8)., bAnd there arethose bwho saythat this is what bRava says: Allthese types of basilica are bpermitted.The Gemara asks: How can it be permitted to build any type of basilica; bbut didn’t we learnin the mishna: bOne may not build with them a basilica, a tribunal, a stadium, or a platform?The Gemara answers: bSaythat the mishna means the following: One may not build in conjunction with gentiles a basilica bof a tribunal, or of a stadium, or of a platform.But it is permitted to build a basilica that is not used for sentencing and inflicting the death penalty.,§ Apropos the above discussion, the Gemara relates incidents involving Sages who were sentenced by the ruling authorities. bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer was arrestedand charged bwith heresyby the authorities, bthey brought him up to a tribunal to be judged. A certainjudicial bofficer [ ihegemon /i] said to him:Why bshould an elder like you engage in these frivolous mattersof heresy?,Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: The Judge is trusted by meto rule correctly. bThat officer thoughtthat Rabbi Eliezer bwas speaking about him; butin fact bhe saidthis bonly in reference to his Father in Heaven.Rabbi Eliezer meant that he accepted God’s judgment, i.e., if he was charged he must have sinned to God in some manner. The officer bsaid to him: Since youput byour trust in me,you are bacquitted [ idimos /i]; you are exempt. /b, bWhenRabbi Eliezer bcame home, his students entered to console himfor being accused of heresy, which he took as a sign of sin, band he did not accepttheir words of bconsolation. Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, allow me to say one matter fromall of bthat which you taught me.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Speak.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: My teacher, perhapssome statement of bheresy came before you /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
47. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe door to a rear court,i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; bandlikewise bbundles of thornsthat seal ba breach; andreed bmats, onemay bnot closean opening bwith themon Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, bunless theyremain babove the groundeven when they are open., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice [ ikankan /i] that dragalong the ground and are used for closing up openings, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to saythis is permitted bon a Festival.According to the ibaraita /i, the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring btoones bthat have a hinge.As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. bRava said:The ibaraitais referring even btodoors bthatonce bhad a hinge,even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice that dragalong the ground, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bandthey are held babove the ground even byas little as ba hairbreadth, onemay bclosean opening bwith them. However, ifthey are bnotraised in this manner, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith them.Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning.The Gemara elaborates: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoningby adding to the ibaraita /i: They must beither have a hinge orbe held babove the ground. Ravalikewise breconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning,as he reads: They must bhave had a hinge orelse be held babove the ground. /b, bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to bbranches of thorn bushes or bundlesof wood bthat were arrangedso that they sealed off ba breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspendedin place, bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to say,this is permitted bon a Festival. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to ba widowed door that dragsalong the ground, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith it.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof ba widowed door? Some sayit refers to a door built bfrom a single plank,which does not look like a door, band others sayit is ba door that does not have a lower doorsill( ige’onim /i) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that bRav Yehuda said:When arranging a pile of wood for ba fireon a Festival, if the logs are arranged bfrom the top down,i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, bit is permitted.However, if the wood is placed from bthe bottom up, it is prohibited,as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., bAnd the sameapplies to beggsthat are to be arranged in a pile, band the sameapplies to ba cauldronthat is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, band the sameapplies to a bbedthat will be placed on its frame, band the sameapplies to bbarrelsarranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: bA certain hereticonce bsaid to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier”(Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. bHe said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,”a derogatory expression meant as praise. bRather, what isthe meaning of bthe best of them is as a brier?It means that bjust as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ iḥedek /i]means bthat they grind [ imehaddekin /i] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ ivahadikot /i] many peoples;and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA personmay bnot stand in the private domain and opena door located bin the public domainwith a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand bin the public domain and opena door bin the private domainwith a key, bunlessin the latter case bhe erected a partition ten handbreadths higharound the door and stands inside it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Rabbis bsaid to him:There was ban incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem,where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), band they would lockthe doors to their shops band place the key in the window that was over the door,which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. bRabbi Yosei says:That place bwas a market of wool dealers. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAndthose bRabbis,who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, bRabbi Meir spoketo them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing bin the public domain, and they respondedwith an incident involving ba ikarmelit /i. As Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bJerusalem, were it notfor the fact that bits doors are locked at night, one would be liable forcarrying in biton Shabbat, bbecauseits thoroughfares have the status of bthe public domain.However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large ikarmelit /i, which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, bRav Pappa said: Here,in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a ikarmelitduring the period bbefore breaches were made in itswalls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas bthere,the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time bafter breaches had been made inthe walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., bRava said: In the latter clauseof the mishna bwe came toa different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers btothe bgates of a gardenwith an area greater than two ibeit se’ain size, whose legal status is that of a ikarmelit /i. Consequently, the mishna bis saying as follows: And likewise,one may bnot stand in the private domain and opena door bin a ikarmelit /i;neither may one stand bin a ikarmelitand opena door bin the private domain, /b
48. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. אינו מהם אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא מר לא בהסתר פנים איתיה ולא בוהיה לאכול איתיה אמר להו מי ידעיתו כמה משדרנא בצנעא בי שבור מלכא אפי' הכי יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו אדהכי שדור דבי שבור מלכא וגרבוהו אמר היינו דתניא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני,(דברים לא, יח) ואנכי הסתר אסתיר פני ביום ההוא אמר רבא אמר הקב"ה אף על פי שהסתרתי פני מהם בחלום אדבר בו רב יוסף אמר ידו נטויה עלינו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ובצל ידי כסיתיך,ר' יהושע בן חנניה הוה קאי בי קיסר אחוי ליה ההוא אפיקורוסא עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה אחוי ליה ידו נטויה עלינו אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע מאי אחוי לך עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה ואנא מחוינא ליה ידו נטויה עלינו,אמרו ליה לההוא מינא מאי אחויית ליה עמא דאהדרינהו מריה מיניה ומאי אחוי לך לא ידענא אמרו גברא דלא ידע מאי מחוו ליה במחוג יחוי קמי מלכא אפקוהו וקטלוהו,כי קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי יהושע בן חנניה אמרו ליה רבנן מאי תיהוי עלן מאפיקורוסין אמר להם (ירמיהו מט, ז) אבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתם כיון שאבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתן של אומות העולם,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית לג, יב) ויאמר נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך,רבי אילא הוה סליק בדרגא דבי רבה בר שילא שמעיה לינוקא דהוה קא קרי (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח ומגיד לאדם מה שיחו אמר עבד שרבו מגיד לו מה שיחו תקנה יש לו מאי מה שיחו אמר רב אפילו שיחה יתירה שבין איש לאשתו מגידים לו לאדם בשעת מיתה,איני והא רב כהנא הוה גני תותי פורייה דרב ושמעיה דסח וצחק ועשה צרכיו אמר דמי פומיה דרב כמאן דלא טעים ליה תבשילא אמר ליה כהנא פוק לאו אורח ארעא,לא קשיא כאן דצריך לרצויה הא דלא צריך לרצויה,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ואם לא תשמעוה במסתרים תבכה נפשי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מקום יש לו להקב"ה ומסתרים שמו מאי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מפני גאוותן של ישראל שניטלה מהם ונתנה לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני גאוותה של מלכות שמים,ומי איכא בכיה קמיה הקב"ה והאמר רב פפא אין עציבות לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (דברי הימים א טז, כז) הוד והדר לפניו עוז וחדוה במקומו לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי,ובבתי בראי לא והא כתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא אדני ה' צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה ולחגור שק שאני חרבן בית המקדש דאפילו מלאכי שלום בכו שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, ז) הן אראלם צעקו חוצה מלאכי שלום מר יבכיון:,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ודמע תדמע ותרד עיני דמעה כי נשבה עדר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שלש דמעות הללו למה אחת על מקדש ראשון ואחת על מקדש שני ואחת על ישראל שגלו ממקומן ואיכא דאמרי אחת על ביטול תורה,בשלמא למאן דאמר על ישראל שגלו היינו דכתיב כי נשבה עדר ה' אלא למאן דאמר על ביטול תורה מאי כי נשבה עדר ה' כיון שגלו ישראל ממקומן אין לך ביטול תורה גדול מזה,תנו רבנן שלשה הקב"ה בוכה עליהן בכל יום על שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק ועל שאי אפשר לעסוק בתורה ועוסק ועל פרנס המתגאה על הצבור,רבי הוה נקיט ספר קינות וקא קרי בגויה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (איכה ב, א) השליך משמים ארץ נפל מן ידיה אמר מאיגרא רם לבירא עמיקתא,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא כי מטו לההוא מתא אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא נזיל וניקביל אפיה אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא ומאור עינים הוא אמר ליה ר' חייא לרבי תיב את לא תזלזל בנשיאותך איזיל אנא ואקביל אפיה,תקפיה ואזל בהדיה כי הוו מיפטרי מיניה אמר להו אתם הקבלתם פנים הנראים ואינן רואין תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נראין אמר ליה איכו השתא מנעתן מהאי בירכתא,אמרו ליה ממאן שמיעא לך מפרקיה דרבי יעקב שמיע לי דרבי יעקב איש כפר חיטייא הוה מקביל אפיה דרביה כל יומא כי קש א"ל לא נצטער מר דלא יכיל מר,אמר ליה מי זוטר מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (תהלים מט, י) ויחי עוד לנצח לא יראה השחת כי יראה חכמים ימותו ומה הרואה חכמים במיתתן יחיה בחייהן על אחת כמה וכמה,רב אידי אבוה דרבי יעקב בר אידי הוה רגיל דהוה אזיל תלתא ירחי באורחא וחד יומא בבי רב והוו קרו ליה רבנן בר בי רב דחד יומא חלש דעתיה קרי אנפשיה (איוב יב, ד) שחוק לרעהו אהיה וגו' א"ל ר' יוחנן במטותא מינך לא תעניש להו רבנן,נפק ר' יוחנן לבי מדרשא ודרש (ישעיהו נח, ב) ואותי יום יום ידרשון ודעת דרכי יחפצון וכי ביום דורשין אותו ובלילה אין דורשין אותו אלא לומר לך כל העוסק בתורה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עסק כל השנה כולה,וכן במדת פורענות דכתיב (במדבר יד, לד) במספר הימים אשר תרתם את הארץ וכי ארבעים שנה חטאו והלא ארבעים יום חטאו אלא לומר לך כל העובר עבירה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עבר כל השנה כולה:,אי זהו קטן כל שאינו יכול לרכוב על כתפו של אביו: מתקיף לה רבי זירא 5b. bis not fromamong bthem. The Sages said to Rava: Master, you are not subject toHis bhidingof the bface,as your prayers are heard, band you are not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,”as the authorities take nothing from you. bHe said to them: Do you know how manygifts bI send in private to the house of King Shapur?Although it might seem that the monarchy does not take anything from me, in actuality I am forced to give many bribes. bEven so, the Sages looked uponRava with suspicion. bIn the meantime,messengers bfrom the house of King Shapur sentfor him band imprisoned himto extort more money from him. Rava bsaid: This is as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Wherever the Sages looked uponsomeone, it resulted in beither death or poverty. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And I will hide my face in that day”(Deuteronomy 31:18), bRava saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Even though I hid my face from themand My Divine Presence is not revealed, nevertheless: b“I speak with him in a dream”(Numbers 12:6). bRav Yosef said: His hand is outstretched,guarding bover us, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of my hand”(Isaiah 51:16).,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was standing inthe bhouse of the Caesar. A certain heretic,who was also present, bgestured to him,indicating that his was bthe nation whose Master,God, bturned His faceaway bfrom it.Rabbi Yehoshua bgestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over usin protection. bThe Caesar said to Rabbi Yehoshua: What did he gesture to you,and how did you respond? He replied: He indicated that mine is bthe nation whose Master turned His face from it, and I gestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over us. /b,The members of the Caesar’s household bsaid to that heretic: What did you gesture to him?He said to them: I gestured that his is bthe nation whose Master has turnedHis face bfrom it.They asked: bAnd what did he gesture to you?He said to them: bI don’t know;I did not understand. bThey said:How can ba man who does not know whatothers bgesture to himdare to bgesture in the presence of the king? They took him out and killed him. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was dying, the Sages said to him: What will become of us, fromthe threat of bthe heretics,when there is no scholar like you who can refute them? bHe said to themthat the verse states: “Is wisdom no more in Teiman? bHas counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished?”(Jeremiah 49:7). He explained: bSince counsel has perished from the prudent,from the Jewish people, the bwisdom of the nations of the world has vanishedas well, and there will be no superior scholars among them., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the same idea can be derived bfrom here: “And he said: Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go corresponding to you”(Genesis 33:12). Just as the Jewish people rise and fall, so too, the nations of the world simultaneously rise and fall, and they will never have an advantage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila,a children’s teacher. bHe heard a child who was readinga verse out loud: b“For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech”(Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila bsaid:With regard to ba servant whose master declares to him what is hisproper bspeech, is there a remedy for him?The Gemara asks. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wifebefore engaging in relations bis declared to a person at the time of death,and he will have to account for it.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it prohibited for a man to speak in this manner with his wife? bWasn’t Rav Kahana lying beneath Rav’s bed, and he heardRav bchatting and laughingwith his wife, band performing his needs,i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana bsaidout loud: bThe mouth of Rav is likeone who bhas never eaten a cooked dish,i.e., his behavior is lustful. Rav bsaid to him: Kahana, leave, asthis is bnot proper conduct.This shows that Rav himself engaged in frivolous talk before relations.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where this type of speech is permitted, it is referring to a situation bwhere he must appeasehis wife before relations, and therefore this speech is appropriate. However, bthisstatement, that it is prohibited, is referring to a situation bwhere he doesn’t need to appease her.In these circumstances, it is prohibited to engage in excessively lighthearted chatter with one’s wife.,The verse states: b“But if you will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret [ ibemistarim /i] for your pride”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has a placewhere He cries, band its name is Mistarim. Whatis the meaning of b“for your pride”? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said:God cries bdue to the pride of the Jewish people, which was taken from them and given tothe gentile bnations. Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:He cries bdue to the pride of the kingdom of Heaven,which was removed from the world.,The Gemara asks: bBut is there crying before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There is no sadness before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place”(I Chronicles 16:27)? The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that God cries, is referring to bthe innermost chambers,where He can cry in secret, whereas bthisstatement, that He does not cry, is referring to bthe outer chambers. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’tGod cry bin the outer chambers? Isn’t it written: “And on that day the Lord, the God of hosts, called to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth”(Isaiah 22:12)? The Gemara responds: bThe destruction of the Temple is different, as even the angels of peace cried, as it is stated: “Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the angels of peace weep bitterly”(Isaiah 33:7).,The verse continues: b“And my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRabbi Elazar said: Why these threereferences to btearsin the verse? bOneis bfor the First Temple; oneis bfor the Second Temple; and oneis bfor the Jewish people who were exiled from their place. And there arethose bwho say:The last boneis bforthe unavoidable bderelictionof the study of bTorahin the wake of the exile.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the last tear is bfor the Jewish people who were exiled, this is as it is written: “Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive.” However, according to the one who saidthat this tear is bfor the derelictionof the study of bTorah, whatis the meaning of: b“Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”?The Gemara answers: bSince the Jewish people were exiled from their place, there is no greaterinvoluntary bderelictionof the study of bTorah thanthat which was caused by bthis. /b, bThe Sages taughtthat there are bthreetypes of people bfor whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, cries every day: Forone bwho is able to engage in Torahstudy band does not engagein it; band forone bwho is unable to engage in Torahstudy and nevertheless he endeavors and bengagesin it; band for a leader who lords over the community. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas holdingthe bbook of Lamentations and was reading from it. When he reached the verse: “He has cast down from heaven to earththe beauty of Israel” (Lamentations 2:1), in his distress the book bfell from his hand. He said: From a high roof to a deep pit,i.e., it is terrible to tumble from the sky to the ground.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyya were walking along the road. When they arrived at a certain city, they said: Is there a Torah scholar here whom wecan bgo and greet?The people of the city bsaid: There is a Torah scholar here but he is blind. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bYou sithere; bdo not demean yourdignified status as iNasi /ito visit someone beneath your stature. bI will go and greet him. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bgrabbed him and went with himanyway, and together they greeted the blind scholar. bWhen they were leaving him, he said to them: You greetedone who is bseen and does not see; may you be worthy to greetthe One Who bsees and is not seen.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabbi Ḥiyya: bNow, ifI had listened to you and not gone to greet him, byou would have prevented me from receiving this blessing. /b, bThey said tothe blind scholar: bFrom whom did you hearthat we are worthy of this blessing? He said to them: bI heardit bfrom the instruction of Rabbi Ya’akov, as Rabbi Ya’akov of the village of Ḥitiyya would greet his teacher every day. WhenRabbi Ya’akov bgrew elderly,his teacher bsaid to him: Do not despair, my Master, that my Master is unableto make the effort to greet me. It is better that you should not visit me.,Rabbi Ya’akov bsaid to him: Is ita bminormatter, bthat which is written about the Sages: “That he should still live always, that he should not see the pit. For he sees that wise men die”(Psalms 49:10–11)? In this regard an ia fortiorireference applies: bJust as one who sees Sages in their death will live, all the more soone who sees them bin their lifetime.From here the blind scholar learned the importance of greeting Torah scholars, which is why he blessed the Sages who came to greet him.,The Gemara relates: bRav Idi, father of Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, would regularly travel three months on the roadto reach the study hall bandas he would immediately travel back again to arrive home for the festival of iSukkot /i, he spent only bone day in the school of Rav. And the Sages woulddisparagingly bcall him: A studentof Torah bfor one day. He was offendedand breadthe following verse babout himself: “I am as one that is a laughingstock to his neighbor,a man who calls upon God, and He answers him” (Job 12:4). bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Please do not punish the Sages,i.e., do not take offense and be harsh with them, as this will cause them to be punished by God., bRabbi Yoḥa leftRav Idi and went bto the study hall and taught: “Yet they seek Me daily, and delight to know My ways”(Isaiah 58:2). bBut isit possible that only bduring the day they seek Him and at night they do not seek Him?What is the meaning of daily? bRather,this verse comes bto say to youthat with regard to banyone who engages in Torahstudy beven one day a year, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he engagedin Torah study bthe entire year. /b, bAnd the sameapplies bto the attribute of punishment, as it is written: “After the number of the days in which you spied out the land,even forty days, for every day a year, shall you bear your iniquities” (Numbers 14:34). bBut did they sinfor bforty years? Didn’t they sinfor only bforty days? Rather,this comes bto say to youthat banyone who transgresses a sin even one day a year, the verse ascribes himliability bas though he transgressed the entire year. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWho is a minorwho is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple? bAnychild bwho is unable to ride on his father’s shouldersand ascend from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount. bRabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87a. הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר חייב לכסות כסהו ונתגלה פטור מלכסות כסהו הרוח חייב לכסות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי ששפך יכסה שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר מנין שחייב לכסות שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יד) ואומר לבני ישראל אזהרה לכל בני ישראל,תניא אידך ושפך וכסה במה ששפך בו יכסה שלא יכסנו ברגל שלא יהיו מצות בזויות עליו תניא אידך ושפך וכסה מי ששפך הוא יכסנו מעשה באחד ששחט וקדם חבירו וכסה וחייבו רבן גמליאל ליתן לו י' זהובים,איבעיא להו שכר מצוה או שכר ברכה למאי נפקא מינה לברכת המזון אי אמרת שכר מצוה אחת היא ואי אמרת שכר ברכה הויין ארבעים מאי,תא שמע דא"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי מי שיצר הרים לא ברא רוח ומי שברא רוח לא יצר הרים דכתיב (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אמר ליה שוטה שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ה' צבאות שמו,אמר ליה נקוט לי זימנא תלתא יומי ומהדרנא לך תיובתא יתיב רבי תלת תעניתא כי הוה קא בעי מיברך אמרו ליה צדוקי קאי אבבא אמר (תהלים סט, כב) ויתנו בברותי רוש וגו',א"ל רבי מבשר טובות אני לך לא מצא תשובה אויבך ונפל מן הגג ומת אמר לו רצונך שתסעוד אצלי אמר לו הן לאחר שאכלו ושתו א"ל כוס של ברכה אתה שותה או ארבעים זהובים אתה נוטל אמר לו כוס של ברכה אני שותה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כוס של ברכה ישוה ארבעים זהובים,אמר רבי יצחק עדיין שנה לאותה משפחה בין גדולי רומי וקוראין אותה משפחת בר לויאנוס:,כסהו ונתגלה: אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מאי שנא מהשבת אבדה דאמר מר (דברים כב, א) השב אפילו מאה פעמים,אמר ליה התם לא כתיב מיעוטא הכא כתיב מיעוטא וכסהו:,כסהו הרוח: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שחזר ונתגלה אבל לא חזר ונתגלה פטור מלכסות וכי חזר ונתגלה מאי הוי הא אידחי ליה אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת אין דיחוי אצל מצות,ומאי שנא מהא דתניא השוחט ונבלע דם בקרקע חייב לכסות התם כשרשומו ניכר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דם שנתערב במים אם יש בו מראית דם חייב לכסות נתערב ביין רואין אותו כאילו הוא מים נתערב בדם הבהמה 87a. The Gemara rejects this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? There,in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is bimpossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously.Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. bHere,when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is bpossible to slaughterthe bird bwith the onehand band coverthe blood of the undomesticated animal bwith theother bone.Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously., strongMISHNA: /strong If one bslaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band anotherperson bsawthe uncovered blood, the second person is bobligated to coverthe blood. If one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncovered,he is bexempt from covering itagain. If bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered it,and it was consequently uncovered, he is bobligated to coverthe blood., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that bthe one who poured outits blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, bshall cover it.If one bslaughteredthe animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band another person sawthe uncovered blood, bfrom whereis it derived bthatthe person who saw the blood bis obligated to coverit? It is derived from the following verse, bas it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel”(Leviticus 17:12), which is ba warning to all the children of Israelto fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bwith that which he poured outthe blood bhe shall cover it,i.e., he must use his hand, and bhemay bnot cover it withhis bfoot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bthe one who poured outthe blood bshall cover it. An incidentoccurred binvolving one who slaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band anotherindividual bpreemptedhim band coveredthe blood, band Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins tothe one who performed the act of slaughter., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Are these ten gold coins bcompensationfor the stolen bmitzva orare they bcompensationfor the stolen bblessingrecited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thepractical bdifference?The difference is bwith regard toa similar case involving bGrace after Meals. If you saythe coins are bcompensation for the mitzva,then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute bonemitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. bBut if you saythey are bcompensation for thelost bblessing,then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation bis fortygold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. bWhatis the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from an incident in bwhich a certain heretic said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bHe who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains;rather, each was created by a separate deity, bas it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind”(Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse,which states: b“The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.”The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bGive me three days’ time and I will respond to youwith ba rebuttalof your claim. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsatand fasted bthreedays of bfastingwhile awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. bWhenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwanted to have a mealat the conclusion of those three days, bthey said to him:That bheretic is standing at the doorway.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi brecitedthe following verse about himself: b“They put gall into my food,and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic bsaid to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, bwould you like to dine with me?The heretic bsaid to him: Yes. After they ate and drank,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Would byoulike to bdrink the cup of blessing,i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, borwould byoulike to btake forty gold coinsinstead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic bsaid to him: Iwill bdrink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins.Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: bRabbi Yitzḥak says: That familyof the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstill exists among the prominentfamilies bof Rome, andthat family bis called: The family of bar Luyyanus. /b,§ The mishna teaches that if one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncoveredhe is not obligated to cover it again. bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is differentabout this case from the mitzva of breturning a lost item, where the Master said:The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: b“You shall returnthem to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), beven one hundred times? /b,Rav Ashi bsaid toRav Aḥa: bThere,in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, ba restriction is not writtenin the verse to limit the obligation. bHere,in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, ba restriction is written,as the verse states: b“And he shall cover it.”The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered itone is obligated to cover the blood. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlyif the blood bwas again uncovered. Butif the blood bwas not again uncoveredone is bexempt fromthe obligation bto cover it.The Gemara asks: bAnd whenthe blood bwas again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t italready brejectedfrom the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? bRav Pappa said: That is to saythat bthere is no permanentrejection bwith regard to mitzvot.Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: bButeven if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? bWhat is differentabout this case bfrom that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In a case where bone slaughtersan undomesticated animal or a bird bandits bblood is absorbed by the ground,one is bobligated to coverthe blood? The Gemara responds: bThere,the ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere the impressionof the blood bisstill brecognizable,i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground., strongMISHNA: /strong In a case of the bbloodof an undomesticated animal or bird bthat was mixed with water, if there is inthe mixture bthe appearance of bloodone is bobligated to coverit. If the blood bwas mixed with wine one viewsthe wine bas though it is water,and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird bwas mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal,which one does not have to cover
50. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87b. דבלים דבה רעה בת דבה רעה ושמואל אמר שמתוקה בפי הכל כדבלה ורבי יוחנן אמר שהכל דשין בה כדבלה,דבר אחר גומר אמר רבי יהודה שבקשו לגמר ממונן של ישראל בימיה רבי יוחנן אמר בזזו וגמרו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, ז) כי אבדם מלך ארם וישימם כעפר לדוש,(הושע א, ג) ותהר ותלד לו בן ויאמר ה' אליו קרא שמו יזרעאל כי עוד מעט ופקדתי את דמי יזרעאל על בית יהוא והשבתי ממלכות בית ישראל ותהר עוד ותלד בת ויאמר לו קרא שמה לא רוחמה כי לא אוסיף עוד ארחם את בית ישראל כי נשא אשא להם ותהר ותלד בן ויאמר (ה' אליו) קרא שמו לא עמי כי אתם לא עמי ואנכי לא אהיה לכם,לאחר שנולדו [לו] שני בנים ובת אחת אמר לו הקב"ה להושע לא היה לך ללמוד ממשה רבך שכיון שדברתי עמו פירש מן האשה אף אתה בדול עצמך ממנה אמר לו רבש"ע יש לי בנים ממנה ואין אני יכול להוציאה ולא לגרשה,א"ל הקב"ה ומה אתה שאשתך זונה ובניך [בני] זנונים ואין אתה יודע אם שלך הן אם של אחרים הן כך ישראל שהן בני בני בחוני בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב אחד מארבעה קנינין שקניתי בעולמי,תורה קנין אחד דכתיב (משלי ח, כב) ה' קנני ראשית דרכו שמים וארץ קנין אחד דכתיב (בראשית יד, יט) קונה שמים וארץ בית המקדש קנין אחד דכתיב (תהלים עח, נד) הר זה קנתה ימינו ישראל קנין אחד דכתיב (שמות טו, טז) עם זו קנית ואתה אמרת העבירם באומה אחרת,כיון שידע שחטא עמד לבקש רחמים על עצמו אמר לו הקב"ה עד שאתה מבקש רחמים על עצמך בקש רחמים על ישראל שגזרתי עליהם שלש גזירות בעבורך,עמד ובקש רחמים ובטל גזירה והתחיל לברכן שנאמר (הושע ב, א) והיה מספר בני ישראל כחול הים וגו' והיה במקום אשר יאמר להם לא עמי אתם יאמר להם בני אל חי ונקבצו בני יהודה ובני ישראל יחדו וגו' (הושע ב, כה) וזרעתיה לי בארץ ורחמתי את לא רוחמה ואמרתי ללא עמי עמי אתה,אמר רבי יוחנן אוי לה לרבנות שמקברת את בעליה שאין לך כל נביא ונביא שלא קיפח ארבעה מלכים בימיו שנאמר (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ אשר חזה על יהודה וירושלים וגו',אמר ר' יוחנן מפני מה זכה ירבעם בן יואש מלך ישראל להמנות עם מלכי יהודה מפני שלא קבל לשון הרע על עמוס,מנלן דאימני דכתיב (הושע א, א) דבר ה' אשר היה אל הושע בן בארי בימי עוזיה יותם אחז יחזקיה מלכי יהודה ובימי ירבעם בן יואש מלך ישראל,ומנלן דלא קיבל לשון הרע דכתיב (עמוס ז, י) וישלח אמציה כהן בית אל אל ירבעם מלך ישראל לאמר קשר עליך וגו' וכתיב כי כה אמר עמוס בחרב ימות ירבעם וגו' אמר חס ושלום אמר אותו צדיק כך ואם אמר מה אעשה לו שכינה אמרה לו,אמר ר"א אפילו בשעת כעסו של הקב"ה זוכר את הרחמים שנאמר (הושע א, ו) כי לא אוסיף עוד ארחם את בית ישראל ר' יוסי בר ר' חנינא אמר מהכא כי נשא אשא להם,ואמר ר"א לא הגלה הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל לבין האומות אלא כדי שיתוספו עליהם גרים שנאמר (הושע ב, כה) וזרעתיה לי בארץ כלום אדם זורע סאה אלא להכניס כמה כורין,ור' יוחנן אמר מהכא (הושע ב, כה) ורחמתי את לא רוחמה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, י) אל תלשן עבד אל אדוניו פן יקללך ואשמת וכתיב (משלי ל, יא) דור אביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך משום דאביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך אל תלשן,אלא אפילו דור שאביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך אל תלשן עבד אל אדוניו מנלן מהושע,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (שופטים ה, יא) צדקת פרזונו בישראל צדקה עשה הקב"ה בישראל שפזרן לבין האומות והיינו דא"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא אנן מעלינן מינייכו כתיב בכו (מלכים א יא, טז) כי ששת חדשים ישב שם וגו' ואלו אנן איתינכו גבן כמה שני ולא קא עבדינן לכו מידי אמר לו רצונך יטפל לך תלמיד א',נטפל ליה ר' אושעיא א"ל משום דלא ידעיתו היכי תעבדו תכלינן כולהו ליתנהו גבייכו מאי דאיכא גבייכו קרי לכו מלכותא קטיעתא אמר ליה גפא דרומאי בהא נחתינן ובהא סלקינן:,תני רבי חייא מאי דכתיב (איוב כח, כג) אלהים הבין דרכה והוא ידע את מקומה יודע הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל שאינן יכולין לקבל גזירות אכזריות אדום לפיכך הגלה אותם לבבל ואמר רבי אלעזר לא הגלה הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל לבבל אלא מפני שעמוקה כשאול שנאמר (הושע יג, יד) מיד שאול אפדם ממות אגאלם רבי חנינא אמר מפני שקרוב לשונם ללשון תורה,רבי יוחנן אמר מפני ששיגרן לבית אמן משל לאדם שכעס על אשתו להיכן משגרה לבית אמה,והיינו דרבי אלכסנדרי דאמר שלשה חזרו למטעתן אלו הן ישראל כסף מצרים וכתב לוחות ישראל הא דאמרן כסף מצרים דכתיב (מלכים א יד, כה) ויהי בשנה החמישית למלך רחבעם עלה שישק מלך מצרים על ירושלים וגו' כתב הלוחות דכתיב (דברים ט, יז) ואשברם לעיניכם תנא לוחות נשברו ואותיות פורחות,עולא אמר כדי שיאכלו 87b. bDiblaim”;the name Diblaim can be taken as the dual form of the word idibba /i, ill repute. It suggests that she was a woman of bill repute, daughter ofa woman of bill repute. And Shmuel said:The name Diblaim is the plural of the word ideveila /i, a cake of pressed figs, indicating that bshe was as sweet as a cake of pressed figs,and therefore everyone used her services. bRabbi Yoḥa,based on a similar derivation, bsaidthe name signifies bthat everyone would tread [ idashin /i] upon her,a euphemism for sexual relations, blike a cake of pressed figs. /b, bAlternatively,with regard to the name bGomer, Rav Yehuda said:The name can be understood as deriving from the root igamar /i, to finish. It alludes to the fact that the gentiles bsought to finish the money of the Jewish people in her days. Rabbi Yoḥa said:They did not just seek to do so, but were successful. bThey plundered and finishedit, bas it is stated: “For the king of Aram destroyed them and made them like the dust in threshing”(II Kings 13:7).,The passage in Hosea continues: b“And she conceived, and bore him a son. And the Lord said to him: Call his name Jezreel; for soon I will visit the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will obliterate the kingdom of the house of Israel…And she conceived again, and bore a daughter. And He said to him: Call her name Lo-ruhamah, for I will no more have compassion upon the house of Israel that I should bear them…And she conceived, and bore a son. And He said: Call his name Lo-ammi; for you are not My people, and I will not be yours”(Hosea 1:3–9)., bAfter two sons and one daughter had been born to him, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hosea: Shouldn’t you have learned fromthe example of byour master Moses, who, once I spoke with him, separated fromhis bwife? You too, separate yourself fromyour wife. bHe said to Him: Master of the Universe, I have sons from her and I am unable to dismiss her or to divorce her. /b,In response to Hosea’s show of loyalty to his family, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,rebuked him and bsaid to him: Just as you, whose wife is a prostitute and your childrenfrom her bare children of prostitution, and you do noteven bknow if they are yoursor bif they arechildren bof othermen, despite this, you are still attached to them and will not forsake them, bsotoo, I am still attached to bthe Jewish people, who are My sons, the sons of Myfaithful who withstood bordeals, the sons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.They are so special that they are bone of the four acquisitions that I acquired in My world. /b,The Gemara proceeds to enumerate all four: bTorah is one acquisition, as it is written: “The Lord acquired me as the beginning of His way”(Proverbs 8:22). bHeaven and earth are one acquisition [ ikinyan /i], as it is written:“Blessed be Abram of God Most High, bCreator [ ikoneh /i] of heaven and earth”(Genesis 14:19). bThe Holy Temple is one acquisition, as it is written:“And He brought them to His sacred border, bto this mountain, which His right hand had acquired”(Psalms 78:54). bThe Jewish people are one acquisition, as it is written: “The nation that You have acquired”(Exodus 15:16). bAnd you,Hosea, bsaidthat I should breplace them with another nation? /b, bOnceHosea brealized that he had sinned, he got up to requestthat God have bcompassion upon himfor having spoken ill of the Jewish people. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Before you request compassion upon yourself,first brequest compassion upon the Jewish people, since I havealready bdecreed upon them threeharsh bdecrees on your account,in response to your condemnation of them. There is an allusion to these three decrees in the names of the children born of the prostitute. Jezreel is an allusion to a decree for Jehu’s actions in the Jezreel Valley (see II Kings 9–10). Lo-ruhamah, one that had not received compassion, suggests that God will no longer have compassion for the Jewish people. Lo-ammi, not My people, indicates that the Jewish people will no longer be considered God’s people.,Hosea bstood and requested compassionupon the Jewish people band nullifiedthe bdecree.God responded band began to bless them, as it is stated: “Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea,which cannot be measured nor numbered. bAnd it will be that instead of that which was said to them: You are not My people, it shall be said to them: You are the children of the living God. And the children of Judea and the children of Israel shall be gathered together”(Hosea 2:1). bAnd I will sow her to Me in the land; and I will have compassion upon her that had not received compassion; and I will say to them that were not My people: You are My people”(Hosea 2:25)., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Woe to authority, whichshortens the life and bburies its holders.This is evident from the fact bthat you don’t have any prophet who did not outlast four kings in his lifetime,as the kings’ positions of authority caused them to die young. A prophet outliving four kings is demonstrated in the opening verses of Hosea, and similarly, bas it is statedwith regard to Isaiah: b“The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judea and Jerusalemin the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judea” (Isaiah 1:1)., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Due to whatreason was the less than righteous bJeroboam, son of Joash, king of Israel, privileged to be countedin the verse together bwith therighteous bkings of Judea?It is bdue tothe fact bthat he did not accept slander about Amos. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthat he was countedtogether with the righteous kings of Judea? bAs it is written: “The word of the Lord that came to Hosea, son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judea, and in the days of Jeroboam, the son of Joash, king of Israel”(Hosea 1:1)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat he did not accept slander? As it is written: “Then Amaziah the priest of Beth-El sent to Jeroboam king of Israel, saying: Amos has conspired against youin the midst of the house of Israel” (Amos 7:10). bAnd it is written: “For thus said Amos: Jeroboam shall die by the swordand Israel shall surely be led away captive out of his land” (Amos 7:11). Jeroboam bsaid: Heaven forfendthat bthat righteous person,Amos, bsaid this,that I will die by the sword; band if heindeed bsaidit, bwhat shall I do to himand why should I punish him? bThe Divine Presence said it to him,and he is required to transmit his prophecy., bRabbi Elazar said: Even atthe btime ofthe banger of the Holy One, Blessed be He, He remembers theattribute of bcompassion, as it is stated: “For I will no more have compassion upon the house of Israel”(Hosea 1:6). Even when implementing His attribute of justice, God still mentions His attribute of compassion. bRabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Ḥanina saidthat this is also indicated bfrom here,from the continuation of the verse, which states: b“That I should bear them,”indicating that God promised to eventually bear Israel’s sins and pardon them., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, exiled Israel among the nations only so that converts would join them, as it is stated: “And I will sow her to Me in the land”(Hosea 2:25). bDoes a person sow a ise’a /iof grain for any reason other bthan to bring in several ikor /iof grain during the harvest? So too, the exile is to enable converts from the nations to join the Jewish people., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat this idea may be derived bfrom here: “And I will have compassion upon her that had not received compassion;and I will say to them that were not My people: You are My people” (Hosea 2:25). Even those who were initially “not My people,” i.e., gentiles, will convert and become part of the Jewish nation., bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Slander not a servant to his master, lest he curse you, and you be found guilty”(Proverbs 30:10), band it isthen bwrittenin the next verse: b“There is a generation that curses its father, and does not bless its mother”(Proverbs 30:11). Is it bbecause they curse their father and do not bless their motherthat byou should not slanderthem? Clearly that is absurd., bRather,the juxtaposition serves to emphasize that bevenin a wicked bgeneration that curses its father and does not bless its mother, one should not slander a servant to his master. From where do wederive this? bFrom Hosea,whose criticism of the Jewish people, God’s servants, to God, their master, aroused His ire, despite the fact that it was a wicked generation., bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The righteous acts of His rulers [ ipirzono /i] in Israel”(Judges 5:11)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, performed a charitable deed toward Israelin bthat He scattered them [ ipizran /i] among the nations;had He exiled them to one place, they could have all been destroyed at once. bAnd thisconcept bis that which a certain apostate said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Wegentiles bare superior to youJews in that we have patience. bIt is written of you: “ForJoab and all Israel bremained there six monthsuntil he had cut off every male in Edom” (I Kings 11:16), bwhereas we,although byou have been with us for several years, are not doing anything to you. He said to him:With byour consent, let one student deal with yourassertion and answer you., bRabbi Oshaya dealt with hisassertion and bsaid to him:This is not a sign of your righteousness but is simply bbecause you do not know how to doit, to destroy us. If you seek bto destroy all ofthe Jewish people, you cannot because bthey are notall bwith youin your kingdom. If you destroy only bthoseJews bwho are with youin your kingdom, byou will be called a severed kingdomfor murdering part of its own population. The apostate bsaid to him:I swear by bGappa,god bof the Romans, with thisproblem bwe lie down and with thisproblem bwe rise up,for we are constantly struggling with the dilemma of how to eliminate the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥiyya teaches: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “God understands its ways and He knows its place”(Job 28:23)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, knows the Jewish people, who are unable to withstand theharsh bdecrees of the Romans. Therefore, He exiled them to Babylonia,whose people are less cruel. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, exiled Israel to Babylonia only due tothe fact bit isa land bas deep as the netherworld,i.e., it is a land of plains and valleys, which alludes to that bwhich is stated: “I shall ransom them from the power of the netherworld, I shall redeem them from death”(Hosea 13:14). bRabbi Ḥanina said: It is due tothe fact bthat their language,Aramaic, bis similar to the language of the Torah,which enables the Jews who live there to study Torah., bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is due tothe fact bthat He sent them to their mother’s house,i.e., the birthplace of the forefathers of the Jewish people, who lived in Aram-Nahara’im, which is in Babylonia. This is bcomparable to a man who is angry at his wife; to where does he send her?He sends her bto her mother’s house. /b, bAnd this isexpressed in the statement of bRabbi Alexandri, who said:There are bthreethat breturned to theirpoints of borigin,and bthese are they: The Jewish people, the money of Egypt, and the writingon the bTabletsof the Covet. bThe Jewish people; that which wejust bsaid,they returned to Babylonia. bThe money of Egypt; as it is written: “And it came to pass in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, that Shishak, king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem;and he took away the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king’s house; he took everything” (I Kings 14:25–26). bThe writing on the Tabletsof the Covet; bas it is written:“And I took hold of the two tablets, and cast them out of my two hands, band broke them before your eyes”(Deuteronomy 9:17). And bit was taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThe tablets were broken and the letters are flyingand returning to their point of origin., bUlla saidthat Israel was exiled to Babylonia bin orderto enable them bto eat /b
51. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. ברכת הלחם של מצה וברכת היין של קידוש היום מהו כיון דחובה הוא מפיק או דלמא ברכה לאו חובה היא,ת"ש דאמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב פפי הוה מקדש לן וכי הוה אתי אריסיה מדברא הוה מקדש להו,ת"ר לא יפרוס אדם פרוסה לאורחין אלא אם כן אוכל עמהם אבל פורס הוא לבניו ולבני ביתו כדי לחנכן במצות ובהלל ובמגילה אף על פי שיצא מוציא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ראוהו בית דין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongיום /strong /big טוב של ר"ה שחל להיות בשבת במקדש היו תוקעין אבל לא במדינה משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שיהו תוקעין בכל מקום שיש בו ב"ד אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו בית דין,ועוד זאת היתה ירושלים יתירה על יבנה שכל עיר שהיא רואה ושומעת וקרובה ויכולה לבוא תוקעין וביבנה לא היו תוקעין אלא בב"ד בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רבי לוי בר לחמא אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כתוב אחד אומר (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה וכתוב אחד אומר (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם לא קשיא כאן ביו"ט שחל להיות בשבת כאן ביום טוב שחל להיות בחול,אמר רבא אי מדאורייתא היא במקדש היכי תקעינן ועוד הא לאו מלאכה היא דאצטריך קרא למעוטי,דתנא דבי שמואל (במדבר כט, א) כל מלאכת עבודה לא תעשו יצתה תקיעת שופר ורדיית הפת שהיא חכמה ואינה מלאכה,אלא אמר רבא מדאורייתא מישרא שרי ורבנן הוא דגזור ביה כדרבה דאמר רבה הכל חייבין בתקיעת שופר ואין הכל בקיאין בתקיעת שופר גזירה שמא יטלנו בידו וילך אצל הבקי ללמוד ויעבירנו ד' אמות ברה"ר,והיינו טעמא דלולב והיינו טעמא דמגילה:,משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבי יוחנן בן זכאי כו': תנו רבנן פעם אחת חל ראש השנה להיות בשבת [והיו כל הערים מתכנסין] אמר להם רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לבני בתירה נתקע אמרו לו נדון,אמר להם נתקע ואחר כך נדון לאחר שתקעו אמרו לו נדון אמר להם כבר נשמעה קרן ביבנה ואין משיבין לאחר מעשה:,אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמרו לו היינו ת"ק,איכא בינייהו בי דינא דאקראי:,אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמר רב הונא 29b. With regard to bthe blessing over breadthat is recited before eating imatza /iat the Passover seder band the blessing over winerecited as part bof the sanctification of the dayof Shabbat or a Festival, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? The Gemara analyzes the question: Do we say that bsince there is an obligationto recite these blessings due to the mitzva involved, therefore bone can dischargethe obligation for others, even if he himself has already fulfilled his obligation? bOr perhapswe say that bthe blessingitself bis not an obligation,but rather the obligation lies in the eating and drinking, and the blessing is recited over one’s physical enjoyment; therefore, if he already fulfilled his own obligation, he cannot recite the blessing for others, as he derives no pleasure at this time.,The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearan answer to this question from what bRav Ashi said: When we werestudying bin the school of Rav Pappi, he would recite ikiddushfor us, and when his tets would arrive from the field he would recite ikiddush /ionce again bon their behalf.Therefore, it is clear that one may recite ikiddushon behalf of others, including the blessing that is recited over the wine, even if he himself has already fulfilled his own obligation., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should not break breadand recite a blessing bfor guests unless he is eating with them,so that he is obligated to recite a blessing for himself. bBut he may breakbread bfor his children and forthe other bmembers of his householdand recite the blessing, bin order to educate them toperform bthe mitzvot,so that they know how to recite a blessing. bAnd with regard to ihalleland the Scrollof Esther, the ihalakhais that beven if healready bfulfilledhis obligation, bhe canstill bdischargethe obligation of others.,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the bFestival day of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, in the Temple they would soundthe ishofaras usual. bHowever,they would bnotsound it bin therest of the bcountryoutside the Temple. bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people bshould soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin every place where there is a courtof twenty-three judges. bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne,where the Great Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges resided in his time, but nowhere else. bThey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. /b,The mishna adds: bAnd Jerusalemin earlier times bhad this additional superiority over Yavneafter Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted this practice, bforin bany city whoseresidents bcould seeJerusalem band hearthe sounding of the ishofarfrom there, bandwhich bwas nearto Jerusalem bandpeople bcould cometo Jerusalem from there, btheywould bsoundthe ishofarthere as well, as it was considered part of Jerusalem. bBut in Yavne they would soundthe ishofar bonly in the courtitself, not in the surrounding cities., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom whereare bthese matters;from where is it derived that the ishofaris not sounded on Shabbat? bRabbi Levi bar Laḥma saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One verse says,with regard to Rosh HaShana: b“A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts”(Leviticus 23:24), which indicates that one should merely remember the ishofarwithout actually sounding it. bAnd another verse says: “It is a day of blowing for you”(Numbers 29:1), i.e., a day on which one must actually sound the ishofar /i. This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Here,the verse in which the ishofaris only being remembered but not sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on Shabbat; there,the verse in which the ishofaris actually sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on a weekday. /b, bRava said:This explanation is difficult, for bifthe distinction between Shabbat and the rest of the week applies bby Torah law, how does one soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin the Temple?If it is prohibited to sound the ishofaron Shabbat, it should be prohibited everywhere. bAnd furthermore,there is an additional problem with this explanation: Although the Sages prohibited sounding a ishofarand playing other musical instruments on Shabbat, by Torah law sounding a ishofar bis not a prohibited laboron Shabbat such bthat a verse is necessary to excludeit when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat.,The Gemara cites a proof for this last claim: bAsa Sage bof the school of Shmuel taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse that prohibits performing prohibited labor on Festivals: b“Any prohibited labor of work you shall not perform”(Numbers 29:1). This comes bto excludefrom the category of prohibited labors bthe sounding of the ishofarand the removal of breadfrom the oven, each of bwhich is a skill and not a labor,and therefore they are not included in the category of prohibited labor. Apparently, sounding the ishofaris not prohibited by Torah law., bRather, Rava said: By Torah law one is permittedto sound the ishofaron Rosh HaShana even on Shabbat, band it was the Sages who decreedthat bitis prohibited. This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba, as Rabba said: All are obligated to sound the ishofar /ion Rosh HaShana, bbut not all are experts in sounding the ishofar /i.Therefore, the Sages instituted ba decreethat the ishofarshould not be sounded on Shabbat, blest one takethe ishofar bin his hand and go to an expert to learnhow to sound it or to have him sound it for him, banddue to his preoccupation bhemight bcarry it four cubits in the public domain,which is a desecration of Shabbat.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this isalso bthe reason forthe rabbinical decree that bthe palm branch[ilulav/b] may not be taken on Shabbat, band this islikewise bthe reason forthe decree that bthe Megillaof Esther may not be read on Shabbat. The Sages were concerned that one might carry the ilulavor the Megilla four cubits in the public domain to take it to an expert who will teach him the proper manner to perform these mitzvot.,§ The mishna taught: bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people should sound the ishofareven on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. The background to this decree is related in greater detail in a ibaraita /i, as bthe Sages taught: Once Rosh HaShana occurred on Shabbat, and all the cities gatheredat the Great Sanhedrin in Yavne for the Festival prayers. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said to the sons of Beteira,who were the leading halakhic authorities of the generation: bLet us soundthe ishofar /i, as in the Temple. bThey said to him: Let us discusswhether or not this is permitted., bHe said to them:First blet us soundit, band afterward,when there is time, blet us discussthe matter. bAfter they soundedthe ishofar /i, the sons of Beteira bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bLet usnow bdiscussthe issue. bHe said to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavne, and one does not refutea ruling bafter actionhas already been taken. There is no point in discussing the matter, as it would be inappropriate to say that the community acted erroneously after the fact.,§ The mishna further stated that bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne. They said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court.The Gemara asks: This last statement of the Rabbis: bThey said to him,etc.; bisthe same as the opinion of bthe first itanna /iof the mishna. Why did the mishna repeat this opinion?,The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand the opinion of the Rabbis who issued that last statement is with regard to ba temporary court,i.e., one that is not fixed in a certain place. According to the opinion of the first itanna /i, the ishofaris sounded there as well, whereas according to the opinion of the Rabbis who responded to Rabbi Elazar, the ishofaris sounded only in a place where there is a permanent court, similar to that in Yavne.,§ The mishna taught that bthey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. Rav Huna said: /b
52. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106b. (יהושע יג, כב) הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק,א"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה א"ל מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב (תהלים נה, כד) אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע א"ל שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה,א"ל מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה,כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר ר' יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקב"ה ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה,(סימן גבור ורשע וצדיק חיל וסופר),א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ג) מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חוקי אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חוקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם (תהלים נ, טז) ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר ר' אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ,ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ח) ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (איוב כ, טו) חיל בלע ויקיאנו מבטנו יורישנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקב"ה לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקב"ה לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, יח) איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים איה סופר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שוקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה סופר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר,א"ר ארבע מאה בעיי' בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין,וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא,ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקב"ה ליבא בעי דכתיב (שמואל א טז, ז) וה' יראה ללבב,אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,א"ר אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנא' (משלי ה, כג) הוא ימות באין מוסר וברוב אולתו ישגה רב (אשי) אמר נצטרע שנאמר (תהלים עג, כז) הצמתה כל זונה ממך,כתיב התם (ויקרא כה, ל) לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו),א"ר יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,(א"ר) יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד,וא"ר יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש,וא"ר יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחילה קראו רבו (תהלים נה, יד) ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומיודעי ולבסוף קראו חבירו (תהלים נה, טו) אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו (תהלים מא, י) גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו 106b. With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, bdid the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain”(Joshua 13:22), bRav says:It means bthat they accomplished in himall bfourmeans of court-imposed bexecutions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation. /b, bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam waswhen he died? Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: It is not writtenexplicitly in the Torah. bBut fromthe fact bthat it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was bthirty-two or thirty-four years old,less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic bsaid to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him. /b, bMar, son of Ravina, said to his son:With regard to ball of thoseenumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, bdo not extensively interpretverses bhomileticallyin order to denigrate them, bexceptwith regard to bBalaam the wicked, as anynegative element bthat you discover in hisregard, continue to binterpret homiletically concerning him,as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.,§ bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Doegthe Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), band it is writtenin another verse: “And the king said to bDoyeig”(I Samuel 22:18). bRabbi Yoḥa saysin explaining the discrepancy: bInitially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [ idoeg /i]that bperhaps thisperson bwould emerge toundertake ban evil path. After he emergedon that path, God bsaid: Alas [ ivai /i], thatperson bhas emerged toundertake an evil path.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: bMighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually”(Psalms 52:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continuallywhen you engage in His Torah?, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes,and that you have taken My covet in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutesand My Torah? bWhen you reachthe Torah bportion of murderers andthe Torah bportion of slanderers, how do you teach them?You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: b“And that you have taken My covet in your mouth”(Psalms 50:16), bRabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is onlyinsincere blip service,as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him”(Psalms 52:8)? bInitially, they will fearDoeg due to his success, band ultimately they will laughwhen they witness his downfall., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly”(Job 20:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die.God bsaid to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.”He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David bsaid before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.”God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come.David bsaid before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,”i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto David: At least blet them state a ihalakhain the study hall in his name.David bsaid before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,”i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: bLet him have sons who are Sages.David said: b“And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,”i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [ imigdalim /i]”(Isaiah 33:18)? bWhere is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all theelements of ia fortioriinferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers?This is Doeg, bwho would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard [ imigdal /i] that floats in the air [ iavir /i]. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolveeven bone,an indication of their great knowledge. bRava says:Is it bgreatness to raise dilemmas?That is not a barometer of greatness, as bin the years of Rav Yehuda all of theirTorah bstudywas confined to the order of iNezikin /i, and we study muchmore than that, and are expert even bintractate iOkatzin /i,the final tractate in the difficult order of iTeharot /i., bMoreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounterthe mishna in tractate iOkatzinthat discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the ihalakhaconcerning ba woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some saywhen he would reach the mishna ( iOkatzin2:1): bOlives pickled with their leaves are pure,because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. bHe would say:Those are bthe discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we,by contrast, bteachtractate iOkatzinin thirteen academies. /b, bButnevertheless, bwhen Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain wouldimmediately bfall,whereas bwe cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart,and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, bas it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart”(I Samuel 16:7)., bRav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to thisstatement: These are people bwith regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers”(Isaiah 33:18), band you saythat bthey did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather,Doeg and Ahithophel bwould not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhicrulings, bas it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him”(Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect., bRabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray”(Proverbs 5:23). bRav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosybefore his death, bas it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [ ihitzmatta /i] all those who go astray from You”(Psalms 73:27).,Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? bIt is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ ilitzmitut /i]”(Leviticus 25:23), band we translateit into Aramaic as: iLaḥalutin /i. And we learnedin a mishna with regard to lepers ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantinedleper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i]leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head bgrow and rendingone’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between ihitzmattaand ilitzmitut /i; the translation of ilitzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i, and the etymological similarity between ilaḥalutinand imuḥlat /i.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the ihalakhotthat follow: bThree, saw, and half, and called him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torahknowledge, bone who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes ofhis soul bin synagogues and in study hallsto be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another,as both died at a young age. bDoeglived bin the days of Saul, and Ahithophellived bin the days of David,toward the end of David’s life., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of theirallotted bdays,as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24); ball the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, andthe years bof Ahithophel were only thirty-three. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially,David bcalledAhithophel bhis teacher,as it is stated: b“But it was you, a man my equal, my master [ ialufi /i], and my familiar friend”(Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as ialufas he trains [ ime’alef] his students. bAnd eventually, he called him his colleague,as it is stated: b“We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng”(Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. bAnd ultimately, he called him his student,as it is stated: b“Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, /b
53. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115a. מותר בקניבת ירק (ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן יום כיפורים שחל להיות בחול) מפצעין באגוזים ומפרכסין ברימונים מן המנחה ולמעלה מפני עגמת נפש דבי רב יהודה מקנבי כרבא דבי רבה גרדי קארי כיון דחזא דהוו קא מחרפי אמר להו אתא איגרתא ממערבא משמיה דר' יוחנן דאסיר:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ואלו קשרים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן ובין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובים בכל לשון טעונים גניזה ומפני מה אין קורין בהם מפני ביטול בית המדרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איתמר היו כתובים תרגום או בכל לשון רב הונא אמר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ורב חסדא אמר מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אליבא דמאן דאמר ניתנו לקרות בהן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דמצילין כי פליגי אליבא דמאן דאמר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב הונא אמר אין מצילין דהא לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב חסדא אמר מצילין משום בזיון כתבי הקדש תנן כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן בין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון מאי לאו שקורין בהן נביאים ושאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון דלא ניתנו לקרות בהן וקתני מצילין ותיובתא דרב הונא,אמר לך רב הונא ותסברא אימא סיפא טעונין גניזה השתא אצולי מצילינן גניזה מיבעי אלא רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה ורב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהם נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהם כתובים במה דברים אמורים שכתובין בלשון הקדש אבל בכל לשון אין מצילין ואפילו הכי גניזה בעו רב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהן נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון נמי מצילין והכי קאמר ומקק שלהן טעונין גניזה,מיתיבי היו כתובים תרגום וכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא האי תנא סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן ת"ש היו כתובין גיפטית מדית עיברית עילמית יוונית אע"פ שלא ניתנו לקרות בהן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא תנאי היא דתניא היו כתובין תרגום ובכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ר' יוסי אומר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה,אמר ר' יוסי מעשה באבא חלפתא שהלך אצל רבן גמליאל בריבי לטבריא ומצאו שהי' יושב על שלחנו של (יוחנן הנזוף) ובידו ספר איוב תרגום והוא קורא בו אמר לו זכור אני ברבן גמליאל אבי אביך שהיה עומד ע"ג מעלה בהר הבית והביאו לפניו ספר איוב תרגום ואמר לבנאי שקעהו תחת הנדבך אף הוא צוה עליו וגנזו ר' יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר עריבה של טיט כפו עליו אמר רבי שתי תשובות בדבר חדא וכי טיט בהר הבית מנין ועוד וכי מותר לאבדן ביד אלא מניחן במקום התורפה והן מרקיבין מאליהן מאן תנאי 115a. btrimming vegetables is permitted. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:If bYom Kippur occurs ona bweekday, one may crack nuts and remove pomegranate seeds fromthe late bafternoon and onward,because doing so involves no actual labor and bdue to anxiety,i.e., if a person does not know that there is food prepared for when the fast ends, he suffers more during the final hours of the day (Rabbi Zeraḥia HaLevi). The Gemara relates: The members of bRav Yehuda’s house would trim cabbage.The members of bRabba’s house would scrub gourds. OnceRabba bsawthat bthey were doingthis bearly,before the late afternoon, bhe said to them: A letter came from the West,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, bin the nameof bRabbi Yoḥa,saying that doing so is bprohibited. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat, bwhether they are readin public, e.g., Torah or Prophets scrolls, bor whether they are not readin public, e.g., Writings scrolls. This ruling applies beven though they were written in anyforeign blanguage.According to the Rabbis, those scrolls are not read in public, but they are still sacred and require burial. bAnd whydoes bone not readthe Writings on Shabbat? bDue to suspensionof Torah study bin the study hall.People came to the study hall at specific times on Shabbat to hear words of ihalakha,and other texts were not allowed at those times., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was statedthat iamora’imdebated the status of sacred writings bwritten inAramaic btranslation or in anyother blanguage. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. The Gemara adds: bAccording to the one who saidthat sacred writings written in other languages bmay be read, everybody agreesthat bone may rescuethem. bWhere they argueis baccording to the one who said that they may not be read. Rav Huna said: One may not rescuethem, bas they may not be read.Whereas bRav Ḥisda said: One may rescuethem bdue to disgrace to sacred writingsthat will result. bWe learnedin the mishna: With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat bwhether they are readin public bor whether they are not readin public, beven if they are written in anyforeign blanguage. What, is it notthat the phrase: b“That they are read”is referring to the books of the bProphets, andthe phrase: b“That they are not read”is referring to the bWritings? Even though these arebooks bwritten in anyforeign blanguage, which may not be read, it is taught that one may save them.This then is ba conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRav Huna. /b, bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: Anddo byou understandthe mishna that way? bSay the latter clauseof the mishna, which states: They brequire burial.This is unnecessary, as bnow,that it was mentioned that bwe rescue themfrom the fire, bis it necessaryto say that they require bburial? Rather,the mishna must be emended. bRav Huna reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning. Rav Huna reconcilesthis bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings. In whatcase bisthis bstatement said? It isin a case bwhere they are written in the holy tongue, butif they are not written in Hebrew but bin anyother blanguage,they are bnot rescuedfrom the fire on Shabbat, band even so, they require burial. Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings, even if they are written in any languageother than Hebrew, they are balso rescued. And this is whatthe mishna bis saying: And even the decayedsections of parchment brequire burial. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslationor in bany languageother than Hebrew, bthey are rescued from the fireon Shabbat. And this is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who states that these are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This itannaholdsthat sacred writings not written in Hebrew bmay be read,whereas Rav Huna stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the itannawho holds that they may not be read, and therefore may not be rescued. bComeand bhearanother proof from that which was taught in a different ibaraita /i: Sacred writings that bwere writtenin bCoptic,Egyptian; bMedian; iIvrit /i,i.e., ancient Hebrew script; bEilamitic;or bGreek are rescued from the fireon Shabbat, beven though they may not be read.This is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who holds that they are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This isa dispute between itanna’im,as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslation or in any languageother than Hebrew, bone may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bRabbi Yosei says: One may not rescue them from the fire. /b, bRabbi Yosei said:There was ban incident involvingmy bfather, Ḥalafta, who went to the esteemed Rabban Gamlielof Yavne in bTiberias, where he found him sitting at the table of Yoḥa HaNazuf and in his handthere was ba translation of the book of Job, and he was readingfrom bit.Yoḥa bsaid toRabban Gamliel of Yavne: bI remember Rabban Gamliel, your father’s father, who was standing on top of a step on the Temple Mount. And they brought before him a translation of the book of Job, and he said to the builder: Bury thisbook bunder the course of bricks.When he heard of that incident, Rabban Gamliel of Yavne bordered that itbe buried band he buried it. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, saysthat on the Temple Mount bthey overturned a large bowl of mortar on it. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid:There are btwo responses to thisthat prove that it did not happen: bOne, from where would they get mortar on the Temple Mount?Construction on the Temple Mount was performed with other materials, not with mortar. bAnd furthermore, is it permitted toactively bdestroyeven sacred writings that are not read, bwith one’s hands? Rather,at the very least bthey leave them in a neglected place,where they are likely to decompose quickly, band they decay on their own.The Gemara seeks to clarify: bWho arethe itanna’im /iwho dispute this ihalakhaaccording to Rav Huna?
54. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

102b. ומי איכא כי האי גוונא אין דחזיוה רבנן לרב יהודה דנפק בחמשא זוזי מוקי לשוקא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יבמה שהגדילה בין האחין מותרת לינשא לאחד מן האחין ואין חוששין שמא חלצה סנדל לאחד מהן טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חיישינן,והא תניא בין שנתכוון הוא ולא נתכוונה היא בין שנתכוונה היא ולא נתכוון הוא חליצתה פסולה עד שיתכוונו שניהם כאחד הכי קאמר אע"ג דחזינן אין חוששין שמא כוונו,ואיכא דאמרי טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חוששין ודקא תנא בעי כוונה הני מילי לאישתרויי לעלמא אבל לאחין מיפסלא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב סנדל התפור בפשתן אין חולצין בו שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, י) ואנעלך תחש ואימא תחש אין מידי אחרינא לא נעל נעל ריבה,אי נעל נעל ריבה אפי' כל מילי נמי אם כן תחש מאי אהני ליה,בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב הוא של עור ותריסיותיו של שער מהו אמר ליה מי לא קרינן ביה ואנעלך תחש אי הכי כולו של שער נמי ההוא קרקא מקרי,אמר ליה רב כהנא לשמואל ממאי דהאי וחלצה נעלו מעל רגלו מישלף הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מ) וחלצו את האבנים אשר בהן הנגע,ואימא זרוזי הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, ג) החלצו מאתכם אנשים לצבא התם נמי שלופי מביתא לקרבא,והכתיב (איוב לו, טו) יחלץ עני בעניו בשכר עניו יחלצו מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (תהלים לד, ח) חונה מלאך ה' סביב ליראיו ויחלצם בשכר יראיו יחלצם מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יא) ועצמותיך יחליץ ואמר רבי אלעזר זו מעולה שבברכות ואמר רבא זרוזי גרמי אין משמע הכי ומשמע הכי דהכא אי ס"ד זרוזי הוא א"כ לכתוב רחמנא וחלצה נעלו ברגלו,אי כתב רחמנא ברגלו ה"א ברגלו אין בשוקו לא כתב רחמנא מעל רגלו דאפילו בשוקו א"כ לכתוב רחמנא במעל רגלו מאי מעל רגלו ש"מ מישלף הוא,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר"ג עמא דחלץ ליה מריה מיניה דכתיב (הושע ה, ו) בצאנם ובבקרם ילכו לבקש את ה' ולא ימצאו חלץ מהם,אמר ליה שוטה מי כתיב חלץ להם חלץ מהם כתיב ואילו יבמה דחלצו לה אחין מידי מששא אית ביה:,באנפיליא חליצתה פסולה כו': למימרא דאנפיליא לאו מנעל הוא,ותנן נמי אין התורם נכנס לא בפרגוד חפות ולא באנפיליא ואין צריך לומר במנעל וסנדל לפי שאין נכנסין במנעל וסנדל לעזרה,ורמינהו אחד מנעל וסנדל ואנפיליא לא יטייל בהן לא מבית לבית ולא ממטה למטה,אמר אביי דאית ביה כתיתי ומשום תענוג אמר ליה רבא ומשום תענוג בלא מנעל ביום הכפורים מי אסירי והא רבה בר רב הונא כריך סודרא אכרעיה ונפיק אלא אמר רבא לא קשיא כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד,ה"נ מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי קשיא יום הכפורים איום הכפורים דתניא לא יטייל אדם בקורדקיסין בתוך ביתו אבל מטייל הוא באנפילין בתוך ביתו אלא לאו ש"מ כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד ש"מ,תניא כוותיה דרבא חלצה במנעל הנפרם שחופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שמקבל את רוב הרגל בסנדל של שעם ושל סיב בקב הקיטע במוק בסמיכת הרגלים באנפיליא של עור והחולצת מן הגדול 102b. The Gemara asks: bIs there really a case like thiswhere people wear one shoe on top of another? The Gemara answers: bYes, for the Sages saw Rav Yehuda, who went outonce bto the market wearing five pairs ofshoes, which were similar to bslippers,one on top of another., bRav Yehuda saidanother ihalakhathat bRav said:An underage iyevamawho grew up amongher husband’s bbrothersbefore any iḥalitzawas performed bis permitted to marry one of the brothersthrough levirate marriage, band we are not concernedabout the possibility bthatduring the time she was in the company of her iyevamin bshe removed a sandal from one of them,and thereby she would have already performed iḥalitza /i. The Gemara infers from this statement: bThe reasonit is permitted to perform levirate marriage now bisspecifically bthat we did not seeher remove one of their shoes, bbut ifin fact bwe did seeher do so, bwe are concernedand treat her as a iyevamawho already performed iḥalitzaand is thereby forbidden to all the brothers.,The Gemara challenges: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhether he intendedto perform iḥalitza band she did not intendto, bor whether she intendedto perform iḥalitza band he did not intend to, the iḥalitzais invalid, unless they both intended it as oneto perform a proper act of iḥalitza /i? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatRav bsaid: Even if wedid bseethat she removed a shoe from one of them, bwe are not concerned that perhaps they intended toperform iḥalitza /i., bAnd there arethose bwho saythe inference from Rav’s statement should be made in the opposite manner: bThe reasonit is permitted for her to perform levirate marriage now bisspecifically bthat we did not seeher remove a shoe from one of the brothers. bBut if we did see, we would be concernedand would treat her as a iyevamawho already performed iḥalitza /i, despite our knowledge that she did not intend to perform iḥalitza /i. bAndwith regard to bthat which was taughtin the ibaraita /i, bthat intention is required, this appliesonly as far as validating the act of iḥalitzain order bto permit her to marry a stranger. Butperforming an act of iḥalitzaeven without intention is sufficient to bdisqualify her for the brothers,rendering prohibited an act of levirate marriage afterward., bRav Yehudaalso bsaidthat bRav said: One may not perform iḥalitzausing a sandalthat was bsewntogether bwiththreads made of bflax, as it is stated: “And I made you shoes of itaḥashskin”(Ezekiel 16:10), which is the skin of an animal, implying that a shoe is something made entirely of leather. The Gemara challenges: If the source is “ itaḥash /i,” blet us say:A shoe made of itaḥashskin, yes,it is valid; but if made of banything else, no.The Gemara rejects this: Because b“shoe”and b“shoe”are written in the Torah multiple times, this bamplifiesand includes all types of shoes crafted from leather skins as valid for performing iḥalitza /i.,The Gemara asks: bIfthe inclusion of the words b“shoe”and b“shoe” amplifies,then should one include as valid for performing iḥalitzashoes crafted from beven anyother bmaterials as well,including those not produced from leather at all? The Gemara answers: bIf so, what purpose does “ itaḥash /i” serve,as nothing is learned from it? Rather, from the word itaḥashit is derived that the shoe must be crafted entirely of leather, but all types of leather are included because the word “shoe” is repeated in the Torah numerous times., bRabbi Elazar asked Rav:What is the status of the following type of sandal used for performing iḥalitza /i? In a case where bit,the shoe itself, bis made of leather, andthe sections that hold bits straps [ itereisiyyot /i]are made bof hair,as they were woven together with goat’s hair, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? bHe said to him: Do we not refer tosuch a sandal bas: “And I made you shoes of itaḥash /i”?Since it is crafted from material that comes from an animal it is valid. The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,i.e., that anything derived from an animal is valid, then even if it is fashioned bentirely of hair it should also bevalid. The Gemara answers: bThat would be called a slipper,not a shoe., bRav Kahana said to Shmuel: From where is it known that thisphrase: b“And she shall remove [ iḥaltza /i] his shoe from on his foot”(Deuteronomy 25:9), bmeans to remove? As it is written:“Then the priest shall command, band they shall take out [ iḥiltzu /i] the stones in which the plague is”(Leviticus 14:40), indicating that the word iḥaltzameans that they shall remove the stones from their place.,The Gemara asks whether the word iḥaltzacan be interpreted differently based upon its apparent meaning in other contexts: bButcould you bsay it isa term for bstrengthening, as it is written: “Arm [ iheḥaletzu /i] men from among you for the army”(Numbers 31:3), meaning that men among you will be strengthened and take up arms to prepare for battle? The Gemara answers: bThere too,the meaning of the word is referring to taking something from its place, as it means bremovingpeople bfrom their housesin order bto goout bto war. /b,The Gemara challenges: bBut isn’t it written: “He delivers [ iyeḥaletz /i] the afflicted by His affliction [ ibe’onyo /i]”(Job 36:15)? This indicates that the afflicted one becomes stronger due to his affliction, as, if the intention was to deliver him from his affliction, it should have said: From His affliction, rather than “by His affliction.” The Gemara answers that the verse should be interpreted as follows: iBe’onyo /i, in other words, bas reward for hissuffering from baffliction, He shall deliver him from the judgment of Gehenna,as is understood from the term ibe’onyo /i, through the reward due to his affliction.,The Gemara challenges further: bButwith regard to bthat it is written: “The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear Him and delivers them [ ivayeḥaltzem /i]”(Psalms 34:8), doesn’t ivayeḥaltzemrather mean: He shall strengthen them? The Gemara answers: The verse means: bAs a reward for those that fear Him, He shall deliver them from the judgment of Gehenna.Therefore, the Gemara interprets ivayeḥaltzemas “delivers them,” not as: Strengthens them.,The Gemara challenges further: bButwith regard to bthat which is written:“And the Lord will guide you, and satisfy your soul in drought, band make your bones strong [ iyaḥalitz /i]”(Isaiah 58:11), band Rabbi Elazar saidregarding that verse: bThis is the greatest of blessings, and Rava saidit means: bStrengthening of bones.This seems to indicate that the root of the word iḥalitzais referring to strengthening. The Gemara answers: bYes, it has this connotation, and it has this connotation,i.e., the root iḥ-l-tzsometimes connotes removal and sometimes connotes strengthening. bBut here,only one meaning is possible, as, bif it enters your mindthat iḥalitzahere bconnotes strengthening, then let the Merciful One writein the Torah: bShe shall strengthen [ iḥaletza /i] his shoe on his foot [ iberaglo /i],indicating that she should tighten the shoe on his foot, rather than stating: “From on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],” which indicates that she is removing something from his foot.,The Gemara responds: bIf the Merciful One had writtenin the Torah: bOn his foot [ iberaglo /i], I would have saidshe must strengthen and tighten the shoe bon his foot, yes, but on his calf, no;and if his foot were amputated she may no longer perform iḥalitza /i. Therefore, bthe Merciful One writesin the Torah: b“From on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],”to teach that she may strengthen the shoe beven on his calf,which is part of the leg, or iregel /i, above the foot. The Gemara answers: bIf so,and iḥalitzareally means strengthening, blet the Merciful One writein the Torah: She shall strengthen his shoe bon the upper part of his foot [ ibeme’al raglo /i],indicating that the shoe can also be tightened on the area of the calf. bWhatthen bisthe meaning of b“from on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],”which is written in the verse? bLearn from herethat in this context the word iḥalitzaclearly bindicates removal,meaning that the mitzva of iḥalitzais for the iyevamato remove the shoe of the iyavamand not to tighten it on his foot.,Parenthetical to this discussion, the Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabban Gamliel:You, the children of Israel, are ba nation whose Master removed [ iḥalatz /i] Himself from them,for God has left you in much the same way in which a iyavamwould perform iḥalitzawith his iyevama /i, bas it is written: “With their flocks and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, but they shall not find Him. He has removed [ iḥalatz /i] Himself from them [ imeihem /i]”(Hoshea 5:6). The heretic tried to use this verse as scriptural support that God has performed iḥalitzawith the Jewish people., bHe,Rabban Gamliel, bsaid to him: Imbecile, does it say: He performed iḥalitzato them [ ilahem /i]?Rather, bit says “ iḥalatzfrom them [ imeihem /i],”meaning it is as if they, the Jewish people, performed iḥalitzaon Him. bBut if a iyevamahad her shoe removed by her iyevamin /i, does this have any significance?Here too, the meaning of the verse is that the nation of Israel abandoned God by removing themselves from Him, and this abandonment has no significance.,The Gemara analyzes the phrase used in the mishna that discusses the types of shoes that can be used for iḥalitza /i. It was taught in the mishna that if he was wearing ba soft shoe [ ianpileya /i]made of cloth for iḥalitza /i, bher iḥalitzais invalid.The Gemara explains: bThat is to say that an ianpileyais notconsidered ba shoe. /b, bAnd we also learnedsimilarly in a mishna ( iShekalim3:2): bThe one who collects the fundsof shekels donated to the Temple from the chamber and puts them it into baskets in order to be used bmay not enterto collect the funds bwearing a garment [ ipargod /i] that is cuffed [ iḥafut /i], nor wearing an ianpileya /i, and needless to saythat he may not enter wearing ba shoe or a sandal, because one may not enterthe Temple bcourtyard wearing a shoe or a sandal.It is prohibited for the one collecting funds from the chamber to enter the chamber wearing a garment or footwear in which money could be hidden, lest people come to suspect that he hid in them funds collected from the chamber. In any case, the wording of the mishna indicates that an ianpileyais not considered a type of shoe, since it is permitted to enter the Temple wearing an ianpileyawhen there is no reason for suspicion, unlike a shoe or sandal, which can never be worn in the Temple., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitaconcerning what footwear is permitted on Yom Kippur, which seems to indicate otherwise: The halakha is bthe same for asoft leather bshoe, and ahard leather bsandal, and an ianpileya /i, as one may not walk in them from one house to another, nor from one bed to anotheron Yom Kippur, due to the prohibition against wearing shoes, indicating that at least as far as Yom Kippur is concerned, an ianpileyais considered a shoe., bAbaye said:There, with regard to Yom Kippur, it is referring to an ianpileya bthat has cushioning, andthis is forbidden bdue to the pleasurethat one derives from cushioned footwear on a day when people are commanded to afflict themselves. bRava said to him: Butis footwear bthat is not consideredto be bshoes forbidden on Yom Kippur due tothe bpleasureone derives from wearing them? bBut Rabba bar Rav Huna would wrap a scarf on his feet and go outon Yom Kippur so his feet would not be injured, implying that there is no prohibition against wearing something comfortable on one’s foot, as long as it is not defined as a shoe. bRather, Rava said: Thisis bnot difficult. Here,when they said that an ianpileyahas the status of a shoe, it is referring to ban ianpileya /imade bof leather. There,when they do not consider it a shoe, it is referring to ban ianpileya /imade bof cloth. /b,The Gemara adds: bAnd so too, it is reasonableto distinguish in this manner, bas, if you do not say so, itis bdifficultto reconcile the seeming contradiction between one statement about bYom Kippur andanother statement about bYom Kippur. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person shall not walkwhile wearing bslippers [ ikordakisin /i] within his houseon Yom Kippur, bbut he may walkwhile wearing ban ianpileyawithin his house.This would imply that wearing an ianpileyais permitted, but the ibaraitaquoted above taught that it is prohibited. bRather,must one bnot conclude from herethat bhere,where it indicates that an ianpileyais forbidden, it is referring bto an ianpileya /imade bof leather,as they are considered like a shoe, and bthere,where an ianpileyais permitted, it is referring bto an ianpileya /imade bof cloth?The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat it is so.,It bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava:If bshe performed iḥalitzausing a shoe whose seams were opened up, whichstill bcovered most of the foot;or if she performed iḥalitza bwith a sandalwhose sole bwaspartially bopened thatstill bheld most of the foot;or if she performed iḥalitza bwith a sandalmade bof cork [ isha’am /i], or of fibersfrom a tree; or bwith a prosthetic foot of an amputee;or bwith a felt shoe [ imuk /i];or bwith a leg blanketthat an amputee makes for his feet as a covering in which to put the stumps of his legs, which is not an actual shoe; or bwith a leather ianpileya /i; andlikewise, a woman bwho performs iḥalitza /iwith her iyavamwhen he is an badult man, /b
55. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 3 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653, 654
anti-christian polemic Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
anti-gnostic polemic Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
apostate Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
arabic Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
aramaic, babylonian jewish Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 176
aramaic, mandaic Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
athenagoras Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 172
babylonia, in palestine Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
bagdana Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 176
baγ Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
bei abeidan Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 52, 176
ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, defined Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 138
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, interaction with palestinian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
binitarianism Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
birkat haminim Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
books, jewish Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 52
books of minim Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155, 197
calendar, canon, scripture as Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
christians, godless, Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 172
cohen, shaye j.d. Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653, 654
david, king Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
didascalia apostolarum Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
disputation Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 176
divine names Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
doubt Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
dēw, dēwēsnān, daivadāna (demon, demon-worshipers, temple of demons) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
expiation (kappara), ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275, 281
expiation (kappara), external books Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275, 281
expulsion of books from canon Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
father, in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 56
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 56
first man Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
food, for sabbath Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84, 197
god, has many names Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
god, old man Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
gospels Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
gries, zeev Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
healing healers, jews forbidden to employ christian Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 56
heresy, hebrew word for Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
heresy, minim Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
heresy and heretics Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
herr, shmuel Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
historicity Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
idel, moshe Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
idolatry Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52, 176
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
informers Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
inscriptions, iranian Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
intercultural encounters, rabbinic jews and (sasanian) others Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 52
iqqar Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 183
iranian (ērān), languages Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
jesus, warning against seeking healing by followers of Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
john chrysostom, denunciation of christian adoption of jewish practices Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
justin martyr Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 172
laws of minim Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 191, 202
magic Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
marmorstein, arthur Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
marriage Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
merit, suspending Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
mezuza Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
middle persian (literature) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
minim, appear as kosher jews Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 197
minim, books of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
minim, cause abhorence between israel and god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
minim, christians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
minim, deny god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
minim, in rabbinic literature Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 191
minim, interaction between rabbis and, in palestine Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
minim, laws of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
minim, their doctrines Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
minim, their identity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
minim, worse than gentiles Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 202
minim Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
minut, beautiful woman Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 183
minut, discourse of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
nations of the world, christians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
new testament, rabbinic knowledge of gospels Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275, 281
old persian Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
olster, david Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 155
ordeal Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
origen Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
pagan, paganism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
pagan Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, christians, bible-reading heretics Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
persepolis Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
pharisaic-rabbinic connection Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
polemics, of palestinian rabbis against christians Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
prayer, rabbinic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 56
proselyte, equal to the jew Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 231
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
rabbi abbahu Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
rabbi elazar (ben shamua) Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 172
rabbi elazar ben dama Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 202
rabbi eliezer Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 172, 202
rabbi ishmael Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 191, 202
rabbi johannan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
rabbi menahem ha-meiri Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 231
rabbi nathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
rabbi tarfon Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
rashi (r. shlomo yiẓḥaqi) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 176
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
sabbath, three meals on Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92
sabbath Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92; Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 52
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
samaritan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
sanskrit Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 176
scripture, rabbinic attitudes Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
scripture as canon Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275
second temple literature, mentioned in rabbinic works Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 281
second temple literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 275, 281
shaked, shaul Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653, 654
son Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 56
syriac (literature) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
tamhui, provisions for sabbath Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92
tannaim, treatment of heretics' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
tarfon, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653, 654
temples Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51, 52, 176
transmission of knowledge Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
two powers in heaven Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 84
vegetables Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92
wilken, r. Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
wine Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 92
xerxes Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 51
yishmael, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653, 654
yishmael, rabbi Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
yose, rabbi Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52
yose ha-gelili Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 654
your brother Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 140
ḥananel ben ḥushiel of kairouan, rabbi Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 176
ṭarfon, rabbi Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 52