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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10968
Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.8
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1. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. רב פפא אמר אפילו שופתא מרא גייצי,ת"ר חמשה דברים משכחים את הלימוד האוכל ממה שאוכל עכבר וממה שאוכל חתול והאוכל לב של בהמה והרגיל בזיתים והשותה מים של שיורי רחיצה והרוחץ רגליו זו על גבי זו ויש אומרים אף המניח כליו תחת מראשותיו חמשה דברים משיבים את הלימוד פת פחמין וכל שכן פחמין עצמן והאוכל ביצה מגולגלת בלא מלח והרגיל בשמן זית והרגיל ביין ובשמים והשותה מים של שיורי עיסה ויש אומרים אף הטובל אצבעו במלח ואוכל,הרגיל בשמן זית מסייע ליה לרבי יוחנן דאמר רבי יוחנן כשם שהזית משכח לימוד של שבעים שנה כך שמן זית משיב לימוד של שבעים שנה:,והרגיל ביין ובשמים: מסייע ליה לרבא דאמר רבא חמרא וריחני פקחין:,והטובל אצבעו במלח: אמר ר"ל ובאחת כתנאי ר' יהודה אומר אחת ולא שתים רבי יוסי אומר שתים ולא שלש וסימניך קמיצה,עשרה דברים קשים ללימוד העובר תחת האפסר [הגמל] וכל שכן תחת גמל [עצמו] והעובר בין שני גמלים והעובר בין שתי נשים והאשה העוברת בין שני אנשים והעובר מתחת ריח רע של נבילה והעובר תחת הגשר שלא עברו תחתיו מים מ' יום והאוכל פת שלא בשל כל צרכו והאוכל בשר מזוהמא ליסטרון והשותה מאמת המים העוברת בבית הקברות והמסתכל בפני המת ויש אומרים אף הקורא כתב שעל גבי הקבר,ת"ר כשהנשיא נכנס כל העם עומדים ואין יושבים עד שאומר להם שבו כשאב ב"ד נכנס עושים לו שורה אחת מכאן ושורה אחת מכאן עד שישב במקומו כשחכם נכנס אחד עומד ואחד יושב עד שישב במקומו בני חכמים ותלמידי חכמים בזמן שרבים צריכים להם מפסיעין על ראשי העם יצא לצורך יכנס וישב במקומו,בני ת"ח שממונים אביהם פרנס על הצבור בזמן שיש להם דעת לשמוע נכנסים ויושבים לפני אביהם ואחוריהם כלפי העם בזמן שאין להם דעת לשמוע נכנסים ויושבים לפני אביהם ופניהם כלפי העם רבי אלעזר בר ר' [צדוק] אומר אף בבית המשתה עושים אותם סניפין,[אמר מר] יצא לצורך נכנס ויושב במקומו אמר רב פפא לא אמרו אלא לקטנים אבל לגדולים לא הוה ליה למבדק נפשיה מעיקרא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ילמד אדם עצמו להשכים ולהעריב כדי שלא יתרחק (אמר רבא) האידנא דחלשא עלמא אפילו לגדולים נמי,רבי אלעזר ב"ר [צדוק] אומר אף בבית המשתה עושים אותם סניפים אמר רבא בחיי אביהם בפני אביהם,א"ר יוחנן בימי רשב"ג נישנית משנה זו רבן שמעון בן גמליאל נשיא רבי מאיר חכם רבי נתן אב"ד כי הוה רשב"ג התם הוו קיימי כולי עלמא מקמיה כי הוו עיילי רבי מאיר ורבי נתן הוו קיימי כולי עלמא מקמייהו אמר רשב"ג לא בעו למיהוי היכרא בין דילי לדידהו תקין הא מתניתא,ההוא יומא לא הוו רבי מאיר ורבי נתן התם למחר כי אתו חזו דלא קמו מקמייהו כדרגילא מילתא אמרי מאי האי אמרו להו הכי תקין רשב"ג,אמר ליה ר"מ לרבי נתן אנא חכם ואת אב"ד נתקין מילתא כי לדידן מאי נעביד ליה נימא ליה גלי עוקצים דלית ליה וכיון דלא גמר נימא ליה (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה למלל גבורות ה' מי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלותיו נעבריה והוי אנא אב"ד ואת נשיא,שמעינהו רבי יעקב בן קרשי אמר דלמא חס ושלום אתיא מלתא לידי כיסופא אזל יתיב אחורי עיליתיה דרשב"ג פשט גרס ותנא גרס ותנא,אמר מאי דקמא דלמא חס ושלום איכא בי מדרשא מידי יהב דעתיה וגרסה למחר אמרו ליה ניתי מר וניתני בעוקצין פתח ואמר בתר דאוקים אמר להו אי לא גמירנא כסיפיתנן,פקיד ואפקינהו מבי מדרשא הוו כתבי קושייתא [בפתקא] ושדו התם דהוה מיפריק מיפריק דלא הוו מיפריק כתבי פירוקי ושדו אמר להו רבי יוסי תורה מבחוץ ואנו מבפנים,אמר להן רבן [שמעון בן] גמליאל ניעיילינהו מיהו ניקנסינהו דלא נימרו שמעתא משמייהו אסיקו לרבי מאיר אחרים ולר' נתן יש אומרים אחוו להו בחלמייהו זילו פייסוהו [לרבן שמעון ב"ג] רבי נתן אזל רבי מאיר לא אזל אמר דברי חלומות לא מעלין ולא מורידין כי אזל רבי נתן אמר ליה רשב"ג נהי דאהני לך קמרא דאבוך למהוי אב ב"ד שויניך נמי נשיא,מתני ליה רבי לרבן שמעון בריה אחרים אומרים אילו היה תמורה 13b. bRav Pappa said: They gnaw even on the handle of a hoe. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: There are bfive factorsthat bcauseone to bforgethis Torah bstudy: One who eats from that which a mouse eats and from that which a cat eats, and one who eats the heart of an animal, and one who is accustomed toeating bolives, and one who drinks water that remains from washing, and one who washes his feetwith bthisfoot batop thatfoot. bAnd some say: Also one who places his garments under his head.Correspondingly, there are bfive factorsthat brestoreforgotten Torah bstudy:Eating bbread baked on coals and all the more soone who warms himself with the heat of the bcoals themselves, and one who eats a hard-boiled egg [ ibeitza megulgelet /i] without salt, and one who is accustomed toeating bolive oil, and one who is accustomed todrinking bwine andsmelling bspices, and one who drinks water that remains fromkneading bdough. And some say: Also one who dips his finger in salt and eatsit.,The Gemara elaborates on the ibaraita /i: bOne who is accustomed toeating bolive oilrestores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: Just aseating ban olive causesone bto forget seventy years’ worth ofTorah bstudy, olive oil restores seventy years’ worth ofTorah bstudy. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd one who is accustomed todrinking bwine andsmelling bspicesrestores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This bsupportsthe opinion of bRava, as Rava said: Wine and spices rendered me wise. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bOne who dips his finger in saltand eats it restores forgotten Torah study. bReish Lakish says: Andthat is the case bwith regard to onefinger. The Gemara notes: This is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i. Rabbi Yehuda says: Onefinger bbut not two. Rabbi Yosei says: Twofingers bbut not three. And your mnemonicfor the fact that the dispute is between one and two fingers is ikemitza /i,i.e., the ring finger. When one presses his ring finger to his palm, there remain two straight fingers on one side and one on the other., bTen factors are detrimental forTorah bstudy: One who passes beneath the bit of the camel, and all the more soone who passes bbeneath a camel itself; and one who passes between two camels; and one who passes between two women; and a woman who passes between two men; and one who passes beneatha place where there is the bfoul odor of an animal carcass; and one who passes under a bridge beneath which water has not passedfor bforty days; and one who eats bread that was not sufficiently baked; and one who eats meat from izuhama listeron /i,a utensil consisting of a spoon and a fork, used to remove the film on the surface of soup; band one who drinks from an aqueduct that passes through a cemetery; and one who gazes at the face of the dead. And some say: Also one who reads the writing that is onthe stone of ba grave. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin benters, all the people stand and they do not sit until he says to them: Sit. When the deputy iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin benters,the people bform for him one row from here,on this side of the path that he takes, band one row from there,on the other side of it, in a display of deference, buntil he sits in his place,and then they may be seated. bWhen the iḤakham /i,who is ranked third among the members of the Sanhedrin, benters, oneperson bstandswhen he is within four cubits of the iḤakham /i, band another sits,i.e., when one is no longer within four cubits of the iḤakhamhe may sit. And all those whom the Ḥakham passes do this, buntil he sits in his place. When the multitudes require theirservices, i.e., they serve a public role, bsons of the Sages and Torah scholars may step over the heads of the peopleseated on the ground in order to reach their places in the Sanhedrin. If one of the Sages bleft forthe bpurposeof relieving himself, when he is finished bhe may enter and sit in his placein the Sanhedrin, and he need not be concerned that he is imposing upon those assembled., bWhen they have the wisdom to hearand to study, bthe sons of Torah scholars, whose fathers are appointed as leaders of the congregation, enter and sit before their fathers, and their backsare directed btoward the people. When they do not have the wisdom to hearand to study bthey enter and sit before their fathers, and their facesare directed btoward the people,so everyone sees that they are seated there in deference to their fathers but not as students. bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even ata wedding bparty one renders them attachments [ isenifin /i]and seats them adjacent to their fathers., bThe Master said:If one of the Sages bleft forthe bpurposeof relieving himself, when he is finished bhe may enter and sit in his place. Rav Pappa said:The Sages bsaidthis bonlywith regard to one who leaves bfor minorbodily functions, i.e., to urinate. bButwith regard to one who leaves bfor majorbodily functions, i.e., to defecate, bno,he may not return to his place, because bhe should have examined himself initiallyso that he would not need to leave. His failure to do so constitutes negligence and he may not impose upon others when he returns, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should always accustom himself torelieving himself bin the morning and in the evening so that he will notneed to bdistance himself during the daylight hours to find an appropriate place. bRava said: Today, when the world is weakand people are not as healthy as they once were, one may bevenreturn after he leaves bfor majorbodily functions., bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even ata wedding bparty one renders them attachments. Rava said:This applies bduring the lifetime of their fathers and in the presence of their fathers. /b,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna,i.e., the preceding ibaraita /i, bwas taught during the days of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamlielwas the iNasi /i, Rabbi Meirwas the iḤakham /i,and bRabbi Natanwas the bdeputy iNasi /i. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was there, everyone would arise before him. When Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan would enter, everyone would arise before them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Shouldn’t there be a conspicuous distinction between me and themin terms of the manner in which deference is shown? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel binstitutedthe provisions delineated in bthis ibaraita /ithat distinguish between the iNasiand his subordinates with regard to the deference shown them., bThat day,when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted these provisions, bRabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were not there. The following day when they cameto the study hall, bthey saw thatthe people bdid not stand before them as the matter was typicallydone. bThey said: What is this?The people bsaid to them: Thisis what bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted. /b, bRabbi Meir said to Rabbi Natan: I amthe iḤakhamand you arethe bdeputy iNasi /i. Let us devise a matterand do to him bas he did to us. What shall we do to him? Let us say to him: Revealto us tractate iOkatzim /i, which he does notknow. bAnd onceit is clear to all bthat he did not learn,he will not have anything to say. Then bwe will say to him: “Who can express the mighty acts of the Lord, shall make all His praises heard?”(Psalms 106:2), indicating: bFor whom is it becoming to express the mighty acts of the Lord?It is becoming for bone who is capable of making all His praises heard,and not for one who does not know one of the tractates. bWe will remove himfrom his position as iNasi /i, band I will be deputy iNasiand youwill be iNasi /i. /b, bRabbi Ya’akov ben Korshei heard themtalking, and bsaid: Perhaps, Heaven forfend,this bmatterwill bcome toa situation of bhumiliationfor Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. He did not wish to speak criticism or gossip about Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan, so bhe wentand bsat behind the upper storywhere bRabban Shimon ben Gamliellived. bHe explainedtractate iOkatzin /i; bhe studiedit aloud band repeatedit, and bstudiedit aloud band repeatedit.,Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto himself: bWhatis this bthatis transpiring bbefore us? Perhaps, Heaven forfend, there is somethingtranspiring in bthe study hall.He suspected that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were planning something. bHe concentrated and studiedtractate iOkatzin /i. bThe followingday Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan bsaid to him: Let the Master come and teacha lesson bintractate iOkatzin /i. He began and statedthe lesson he had prepared. bAfter he completedteaching the tractate, bhe said to them: If I had not studiedthe tractate, byouwould have bhumiliated me. /b,Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bcommandedthose present band they expelledRabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan bfrom the study hallas punishment. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan bwould write difficulties on a scrap of paper [ ipitka /i] and would throwthem bthereinto the study hall. Those difficulties bthat were resolved were resolved;as for those bthat were not resolved,Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan bwrote resolutionson a scrap of paper band threwthem into the study hall. bRabbi Yosei said tothe Sages: How is it that the bTorah,embodied in the preeminent Torah scholars, bis outside and we are inside? /b, bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to them: Let us admit theminto the study hall. bBut we will penalize themin bthat we will not cite ihalakhain their names. They citedstatements bof Rabbi Meirin the name of iAḥerim /i,meaning: Others, bandthey cited statements bof Rabbi Natanin the name of iyesh omerim /i,meaning: Some say. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan bwere showna message bin their dreams: Go, appease Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabbi Natan went. Rabbi Meir did not go. He saidin his heart: bMatters of dreams are insignificant. When Rabbi Natan went, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to him: Although theornate bbelt,i.e., the importance, bof your father was effectivein enabling you bto become deputy iNasi /i,as Rabbi Natan’s father was the Babylonian Exilarch, bwill it render you iNasias well? /b,Years later, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi btaught Rabban Shimon his sonthat iAḥerimsay: If it wasconsidered ba substitute, /b
2. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19b. נפנה לימינו כבשו פניהם בקרקע נפנה לשמאלו וכבשו פניהם בקרקע אמר להן שמעון בן שטח בעלי מחשבות אתם יבא בעל מחשבות ויפרע מכם מיד בא גבריאל וחבטן בקרקע ומתו באותה שעה אמרו מלך לא דן ולא דנין אותו לא מעיד ולא מעידין אותו:,לא חולץ ולא חולצין וכו': איני והאמר רב אשי אפילו למאן דאמר נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנאמר (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך מצוה שאני:,ואין נושאין כו': תניא אמרו לו לר' יהודה נשים הראויות לו מבית המלך ומאי נינהו מירב ומיכל,שאלו תלמידיו את ר' יוסי היאך נשא דוד שתי אחיות בחייהן אמר להן מיכל אחר מיתת מירב נשאה ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר קידושי טעות היו לו במירב שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, יד) תנה את אשתי את מיכל אשר ארסתי לי במאה ערלות פלשתים,מאי תלמודא אמר רב פפא מיכל אשתי ולא מירב אשתי,מאי קידושי טעות דכתיב (שמואל א יז, כה) והיה האיש אשר יכנו יעשרנו המלך עושר גדול וגו' אזל קטליה אמר לו מלוה אית לך גבאי והמקדש במלוה אינה מקודשת,אזל יהבה לעדריאל דכתיב (שמואל א יח, יט) ויהי בעת תת את מירב בת שאול לדוד וגו' א"ל אי בעית דאתן לך מיכל זיל אייתי לי מאה ערלות פלשתים אזל אייתי ליה א"ל מלוה ופרוטה אית לך גבאי,שאול סבר מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אמלוה ודוד סבר מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אפרוטה,ואיבעית אימא דכולי עלמא מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אפרוטה שאול סבר לא חזו ולא מידי ודוד סבר חזו לכלבי ושונרי,ור' יוסי האי תנה את אשתי את מיכל מאי דריש ביה ר' יוסי לטעמיה דתניא רבי יוסי היה דורש מקראות מעורבין,כתיב (שמואל ב כא, ח) ויקח המלך את שני בני רצפה בת איה אשר ילדה לשאול את אדמוני ואת מפיבושת ואת חמשת בני מיכל אשר ילדה לעדריאל המחולתי וגו' וכי לעדריאל נתנה והלא לפלטי בן ליש נתנה דכתיב (שמואל א כה, מד) ושאול נתן את מיכל בתו אשת דוד לפלטי בן ליש וגו',אלא מקיש קידושי מירב לעדריאל לקידושי מיכל לפלטי מה קידושי מיכל לפלטי בעבירה אף קידושי מירב לעדריאל בעבירה,ור' יהושע בן קרחה נמי הכתיב את חמשת בני מיכל בת שאול אמר לך רבי יהושע וכי מיכל ילדה והלא מירב ילדה מירב ילדה ומיכל גידלה לפיכך נקראו על שמה ללמדך שכל המגדל יתום בתוך ביתו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדו:,(חנינא קרא יוחנן ואשתו אלעזר וגאולה ושמואל בלימודי סימן): רבי חנינא אומר מהכא (רות ד, יז) ותקראנה לו השכנות שם לאמר יולד בן לנעמי וכי נעמי ילדה והלא רות ילדה אלא רות ילדה ונעמי גידלה לפיכך נקרא על שמה,רבי יוחנן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א ד, יח) ואשתו היהודית ילדה את ירד אביגדור וגו' אלה בני בתיה בת פרעה אשר לקח (לו) מרד מרד זה כלב ולמה נקרא שמו מרד שמרד בעצת מרגלים וכי בתיה ילדה והלא יוכבד ילדה אלא יוכבד ילדה ובתיה גידלה לפיכך נקרא על שמה,רבי אלעזר אמר מהכא (תהלים עז, טז) גאלת בזרוע עמך בני יעקב ויוסף סלה וכי יוסף ילד והלא יעקב ילד אלא יעקב ילד ויוסף כילכל לפיכך נקראו על שמו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל המלמד בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדו שנאמר (במדבר ג, א) ואלה תולדות אהרן ומשה וכתיב ואלה שמות בני אהרן לומר לך אהרן ילד ומשה לימד לפיכך נקראו על שמו,(ישעיהו כט, כב) לכן כה אמר ה' אל בית יעקב אשר פדה את אברהם וכי היכן מצינו ביעקב שפדאו לאברהם אמר רב יהודה שפדאו מצער גידול בנים והיינו דכתיב (ישעיהו כט, כב) לא עתה יבוש יעקב וגו' לא עתה יבוש יעקב מאביו ולא עתה פניו יחוורו מאבי אביו,כתיב פלטי וכתיב פלטיאל אמר ר' יוחנן פלטי שמו ולמה נקרא שמו פלטיאל שפלטו אל מן העבירה מה עשה נעץ חרב בינו לבינה אמר כל העוסק בדבר זה ידקר בחרב זה,והכתיב (שמואל ב ג, טז) וילך אתה אישה שנעשה לה כאישה והכתיב (שמואל ב ג, טז) הלך ובכה על המצוה דאזיל מיניה עד בחורים שנעשו שניהם כבחורים שלא טעמו טעם ביאה,אמר רבי יוחנן תוקפו של יוסף ענוותנותו של בועז תוקפו של בועז ענוותנותו של פלטי בן ליש תוקפו של יוסף ענוותנותו של בועז דכתיב (רות ג, ח) ויהי בחצי הלילה ויחרד האיש וילפת מאי וילפת אמר רב שנעשה בשרו כראשי לפתות 19b. Shimon ben Shataḥ bturned to his right.The judges bforced their faces to the groundout of fear and said nothing. bHe turned to his left, and they forced their faces to the groundand said nothing. bShimon ben Shataḥ said to them: You are masters of thoughts,enjoying your private thoughts, and not speaking. bMay the Master of thoughts,God, bcome and punish you. Immediately,the angel bGabriel came and struckthose judges bto the ground, and they died. At that moment,when they saw that the Sanhedrin does not have power to force the king to heed its instructions, the Sages bsaid: A king does not judgeothers bandothers bdo not judge him,and bhe does not testify andothers bdo not testify concerning him,due to the danger of the matter.,The mishna teaches that the king bdoes not perform iḥalitza /iwith his brother’s widow bandhis brother bdoes not perform iḥalitza /iwith his wife, and Rabbi Yehuda says that he may do so if he wishes. The Gemara challenges Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion: bIs that so? But doesn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who saysthat with regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,nevertheless, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall set a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15), meaning bthat his fear should be upon you.The preservation of a king’s honor is mandated by the Torah. How could Rabbi Yehuda allow him to waive it? The Gemara answers: bA mitzva is different;a king is not disgraced if he relinquishes his honor to perform a mitzva.,The mishna teaches: bAnd no one may marrythe king’s widow, and Rabbi Yehuda says that a king may marry another king’s widow, as proven by King David, who was promised with regard to King Saul after his death: “And I have given you the house of your master and the wives of your master” (II Samuel 12:8). bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages bsaid to Rabbi Yehuda:The meaning of the verse is not that David married Saul’s widows, but that he married bwomen appropriate for him from the house of the king. And who are they? Merab and Michal,the daughters of Saul.,The Gemara relates a discussion about David’s marriage to Merab and Michal from a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota11:9): bRabbi Yosei’s students asked him: How did David marry two sisters while they wereboth balive?Rabbi Yosei bsaid to them: He married Michalonly bafter the death of Merab,which is permitted. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saysa different explanation: bHis betrothal to Merab was in errorand therefore void from the outset, and so Michal was permitted to him. This is bas it is statedin the words of King David to Saul’s son Ish-bosheth: b“Deliver me my wife Michal, whom I betrothed to me for one hundred foreskins of the Philistines”(II Samuel 3:14).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis bthebiblical bderivationhere? How does Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa learn from this verse that King David’s betrothal to Merab was in error? bRav Pappa says:In the verse, David indicates: bMichalis bmy wife but Merabis bnot my wife. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhatcaused the betrothal between David and Merab to be ba mistaken betrothal?The Gemara responds: bAs it is writtenabout Israel’s war against the Philistines and Goliath: b“And it shall be that the man who kills him, the king will enrich him with great richesand will give him his daughter, and make his father’s house free in Israel” (I Samuel 17:25). David bwentand bkilledGoliath. King Saul bsaid to him: You have a loanin bmypossession, as I owe you the great wealth that I promised, though David had not given him an actual monetary loan. bAndthe ihalakhais that with regard to bone who betrothsa woman bbyforgiving ba loan, she is not betrothed,and therefore David’s betrothal of Merab did not take effect.,Saul bwentand bgaveMerab bto Adriel, as it is written: “But it came to pass at the time when Merab, Saul’s daughter, should have been given to David,that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite as a wife” (I Samuel 18:19). Saul bsaid toDavid: bIf you want me to give you Michal, go bring me one hundred foreskins of the Philistines(see I Samuel 18:25–27). David bwentand bbroughtSaul two hundred foreskins. Saul bsaid to him:Even though you brought the foreskins, the betrothal is not valid, as byou,David, bhave a loan andone iperuta /iin bmypossession, i.e., the wealth Saul owed him for slaying Goliath as well as the item of lesser monetary value, the foreskins of the Philistines.,Saul and David had a halakhic dispute on this point: bSaul reasonedthat in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the loanand not on the additional iperuta /i, and therefore the betrothal is not valid. bAnd David reasonedthat in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the iperuta /iand therefore the betrothal is valid., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bEveryonereasons that in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the iperuta /i. Saul reasonedthat foreskins of Philistines bare not fit for anypurpose and as such are worth not even one iperuta /i, and that consequently the betrothal did not take effect. bAnd David reasonedthat bthey are fit for dogs and catsas food and as such are worth at least one iperuta /i, and therefore the betrothal takes effect.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yosei,who explains that David married Michal after the death of Merab, with regard to bthisverse: b“Deliver me my wife Michal”(II Samuel 3:14), bwhatdoes he bderive from it?The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yoseiconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota11:8): bRabbi Yosei would derivemeaning from bmixed versesthat seem contradictory.,The iToseftacontinues. bIt is written: “But the king took the two sons of Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, whom she bore unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth, and the five sons of Michal,daughter of Saul, bwhom she bore to Adriel,son of Barzillai bthe Meholathite”(II Samuel 21:8). bBut didSaul bgiveMichal bto Adriel? But didn’t he give her to Palti, son of Laish, as it is written: “Now Saul had given Michal his daughter, David’s wife, to Palti, son of Laish”(I Samuel 25:44)?,The iToseftacontinues: The first verse does not mean, then, that Michal married Adriel. bRather,the verse bcompares Merab’s betrothal to Adriel to Michal’s betrothal to Palti: Just as Michal’s betrothal to Paltiwas effected bin transgression,according to all opinions, since she was already married to David, bso, too, Merab’s betrothal to Adrielwas effected bin transgression,since according to ihalakhashe was betrothed to David.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa as well, isn’t it written: “And the five sons of Michal, daughter of Saul,whom she bore to Adriel” (II Samuel 21:8). bRabbi Yehoshuaben Korḥa could have bsaid to youto understand it this way: bAnd did Michal give birthto these children? bBut didn’t Merab give birthto them for Adriel? Rather, bMerab gave birthto them and died, band Michal raisedthem in her house. bTherefore,the children bwere called by her name, to teach you thatwith regard to banyone who raises an orphan in his house, the verse ascribes himcredit bas if he gave birth to him. /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the following discussion: bḤanina called; Yoḥa and his wife; Elazar and redemption; and Shmuel in my studies. Rabbi Ḥanina says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “And the neighbors gave him a name, saying: There is a son born to Naomi”(Ruth 4:17). bAnd did Naomi give birthto the son? bBut didn’t Ruth give birthto him? bRather, Ruth gave birth and Naomi raisedhim. bTherefore, he was called by her name:“A son born to Naomi.”, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “And his wife Hajehudijah gave birth to Jered the father of Gedor,and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah, band these are the sons of Bithiah, daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered took”(I Chronicles 4:18). bMered is Caleb, and why was his name called Mered? Because he rebelled [ imarad /i] against the counsel of the spies.And according to the midrash, Jered, Heber, and Jekuthiel all refer to Moses our teacher. bAnd did Bithiah give birthto Moses? bBut didn’t Jochebed give birthto him? bRather, Jochebed gave birthto him band Bithiah raisedhim. bTherefore, he was called by her nameas though she had given birth to him., bRabbi Elazar says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “You have with Your arm redeemed your people, the children of Jacob and Joseph, Selah”(Psalms 77:16). bAnd did Joseph sireall of the children of Israel? bBut didn’t Jacob sire them? Rather, Jacob siredthem band Joseph sustainedthem ficially. bTherefore, they were called by his name;all of Israel were called the children of Joseph., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who teaches anotherperson’s bson Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas if he sired him, as it is stated: “Now these are the generations of Aaron and Moses”(Numbers 3:1), band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“And these are the names of the sons of Aaron:Nadav the firstborn and Avihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar” (Numbers 3:2), but it does not mention the names of Moses’ children. This serves bto say to youthat bAaron siredhis children, bbut Moses taughtthem Torah. bTherefore,the children bwerealso bcalled by his name. /b,The Gemara cites another derivation connected to child-rearing: b“Therefore, so says the Lord to the house of Jacob, who redeemed Abraham;Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale” (Isaiah 29:22). bBut where have we foundany indication babout Jacob that he redeemed Abraham? Rav Yehuda says:It means bthat he redeemed him from the suffering of raising children,in that Abraham did not have twelve tribes and the resultant hardships involved in raising them, as Jacob did, as Jacob assumed the burden of raising the tribes of Israel. bAnd this is as it is written: “Jacob shall not now be ashamed,neither shall his face now wax pale,” meaning: b“Jacob shall not now be ashamed” before his father,and b“neither shall his face now wax pale” before his father’s father,since he took upon himself the role that they bore as well.,The Gemara cites a tradition with regard to Palti, son of Laish: bIt is writtenin one place b“Palti”(I Samuel 25:44), band it is writtenin another place b“Paltiel”(II Samuel 3:15). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Paltiwas bhisreal bname, and why was his name called Paltiel?To teach bthat God [ iEl] saved [ ipelato /i] him from the sin,by giving him the insight that he may not touch Michal, understanding that she was still David’s wife and therefore forbidden to him. bWhat did he do? He embedded a swordin the bed bbetween him and her,and bsaid: Anyone who engages in this matter,i.e., sexual intercourse, bshould be stabbed by this sword. /b,The Gemara challenges this: bBut isn’t it written: “And her husband went with her,weeping as he went, and followed her to Bahurim” (II Samuel 3:16), referring to Palti as Michal’s husband? The Gemara responds: This means bthat he became like a husband for herthrough his affection and concern for her. The Gemara counters: bBut isn’t it writtenin that very verse: b“weeping as he went”?If from the outset he thought that she was David’s wife, why was he crying? The Gemara responds: He was weeping babout the mitzva that left him,as from now on, he would receive no reward for restraining his desire. The end of the verse says that they went b“to Bahurim,”meaning bthat they both became like young men [ ibaḥurim /i]in bthat they did not taste sexual intercourseat all., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Joseph’s poweris the bhumility of Boaz,as Joseph is praised for showing strength with regard to an accomplishment that was insignificant for Boaz (see Genesis, chapter 39). Likewise, bBoaz’s poweris the bhumility of Palti, son of Laish,as Palti’s capacity for restraint was greater still. bJoseph’s poweris the bhumility of Boaz, as it is writtenabout Boaz: b“And it came to pass at midnight that the man was startled and turned himself,and behold, a woman lay at his feet” (Ruth 3:8). bWhatis the meaning of b“and turned himself [ ivayyilafet /i]”? Rav says:The meaning is bthat his flesh became like the heads of turnips [ ilefatot /i],his sexual organ hardening out of arousal, but even though Ruth was not married he refrained from engaging in intercourse with her; while Joseph had to exert more effort, despite the fact that Potiphar’s wife was married.
3. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.17, 2.130, 5.37 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.130. The tyrant having replied to this by saying that on this day he had the leisure to hear philosophers, he pressed the point still more stubbornly, declaring, while the feast was going on, that any and every occasion should be employed in listening to philosophers. The consequence was that, if a certain flute-player had not got them away, they would have been put to death. Hence when they were in a storm in the boat Asclepiades is reported to have said that the fluteplayer through good playing had proved their salvation when the free speech of Menedemus had been their undoing.He shirked work, it is said, and was indifferent to the fortunes of his school. At least no order could be seen in his classes, and no circle of benches; but each man would listen where he happened to be, walking or sitting, Menedemus himself behaving in the same way. 5.37. Furthermore, he was ever ready to do a kindness and fond of discussion. Casander certainly granted him audience and Ptolemy made overtures to him. And so highly was he valued at Athens that, when Agnonides ventured to prosecute him for impiety, the prosecutor himself narrowly escaped punishment. About 2000 pupils used to attend his lectures. In a letter to Phanias the Peripatetic, among other topics, he speaks of a tribunal as follows: To get a public or even a select circle such as one desires is not easy. If an author reads his work, he must re-write it. Always to shirk revision and ignore criticism is a course which the present generation of pupils will no longer tolerate. And in this letter he has called some one pedant.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ammei ha aretz, and rabbis Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 291
choricius of gaza Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
cohen, shaye Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
fischel, henry Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
jaffee, martin Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
kennedy, george Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
patriarchs, as scholarchs Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 91
penella, robert, x Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
pharisees Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
philosophical schools, prohibitions upon entering Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 85
procopius Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
pythagoreans Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 85
rabbinic accounts, historicity of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 91
rabbinic education, study always oral Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 291
rabbis, and the masses Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 291
rhetorical schools Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82
schools Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 85
sermon' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 82