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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10968
Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.2-4.3
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12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.5, 17.5, 17.14-17.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.5. כִּי־אִם־כֹּה תַעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם תִּתֹּצוּ וּמַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּ וַאֲשֵׁירֵהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וּפְסִילֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ׃ 17.5. וְהוֹצֵאתָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֶל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וּסְקַלְתָּם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 7.5. But thus shall ye deal with them: ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and hew down their Asherim, and burn their graven images with fire." 17.5. then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, who have done this evil thing, unto thy gates, even the man or the woman; and thou shalt stone them with stones, that they die." 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.10, 21.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.10. And the priest that is highest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil is poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not let the hair of his head go loose, nor rend his clothes;" 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 34.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.5. בְּשָׁלוֹם תָּמוּת וּכְמִשְׂרְפוֹת אֲבוֹתֶיךָ הַמְּלָכִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כֵּן יִשְׂרְפוּ־לָךְ וְהוֹי אָדוֹן יִסְפְּדוּ־לָךְ כִּי־דָבָר אֲנִי־דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 34.5. thou shalt die in peace; and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings that were before thee, so shall they make a burning for thee; and they shall lament thee: ‘Ah lord! ’ for I have spoken the word, saith the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 12.10, 12.12, 21.30, 34.24, 37.22, 37.24-37.25, 44.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.12. וְהַנָּשִׂיא אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכָם אֶל־כָּתֵף יִשָּׂא בָּעֲלָטָה וְיֵצֵא בַּקִּיר יַחְתְּרוּ לְהוֹצִיא בוֹ פָּנָיו יְכַסֶּה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאֶה לַעַיִן הוּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 37.22. וְעָשִׂיתִי אֹתָם לְגוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ בְּהָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶךְ אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם לְמֶלֶךְ וְלֹא יהיה־[יִהְיוּ־] עוֹד לִשְׁנֵי גוֹיִם וְלֹא יֵחָצוּ עוֹד לִשְׁתֵּי מַמְלָכוֹת עוֹד׃ 37.24. וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד מֶלֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם וְרוֹעֶה אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי יֵלֵכוּ וְחֻקֹּתַי יִשְׁמְרוּ וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָם׃ 37.25. וְיָשְׁבוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְעַבְדִּי לְיַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ־בָהּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְיָשְׁבוּ עָלֶיהָ הֵמָּה וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֵי בְנֵיהֶם עַד־עוֹלָם וְדָוִד עַבְדִּי נָשִׂיא לָהֶם לְעוֹלָם׃ 44.3. וְרֵאשִׁית כָּל־בִּכּוּרֵי כֹל וְכָל־תְּרוּמַת כֹּל מִכֹּל תְּרוּמוֹתֵיכֶם לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיֶה וְרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסוֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַכֹּהֵן לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל־בֵּיתֶךָ׃ 44.3. אֶת־הַנָּשִׂיא נָשִׂיא הוּא יֵשֶׁב־בּוֹ לֶאֱכָול־לֶחֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִדֶּרֶךְ אֻלָם הַשַּׁעַר יָבוֹא וּמִדַּרְכּוֹ יֵצֵא׃ 12.10. Say thou unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Concerning the prince, even this burden, in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel among whom they are," 12.12. And the prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder, and go forth in the darkness; they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby; he shall cover his face, that he see not the ground with his eyes." 21.30. And thou, O wicked one, that art to be slain, the prince of Israel, whose day is come, in the time of the iniquity of the end;" 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 37.22. and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be king to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all;" 37.24. And My servant David shall be king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd; they shall also walk in Mine ordices, and observe My statutes, and do them." 37.25. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, they, and their children, and their children’s children, for ever; and David My servant shall be their prince for ever." 44.3. As for the prince, being a prince, he shall sit therein to eat bread before the LORD; he shall enter by the way of the porch of the gate, and shall go out by the way of the same.’"
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.16-57.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Mishnah, Horayot, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. If they transgressed before they were appointed, and afterwards they were appointed, they are regarded as regular people. Rabbi Shimon said: if their sin came to their knowledge before they were appointed they are liable, but if after they were appointed they are exempt. Who is meant by a ruler? A king; for it says, “Any of all the commandments of the Lord his God” (Leviticus 4:22), a ruler (king) who has none above him save the Lord his God."
9. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.5, 2.1-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. A tribe, a false prophet, or the high priest may not be tried save by the court of seventy-one; They may not send forth the people to wage a battle of free choice save by the decision of the court of one and seventy; They may not add to the City [of Jerusalem], or the Courts of the Temple save by the decision of the court of seventy-one; They may not set up sanhedrins for the several tribes save by the decision of the court of one and seventy. And they may not proclaim [any city to be] an Apostate City (ir ha-niddahat) (Deut. 13:13–19] save by the decision of one and seventy. No city on the frontier may be proclaimed an Apostate City, nor three together, but only one or two." 2.1. The High Priest can judge and be judged; he can testify and others can testify against him. He can perform halitzah for another’s wife and others can perform halitzah for his wife or contract levirate marriage with his widow, but he cannot contract levirate marriage since he is forbidden to marry a widow. If any of his near kin die he may not follow after the bier, rather when the bearers are not visible, he is visible, when they are visible he is not visible, and he may go out with them as far as the city gate, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says, “He may not leave the Temple, as it says, “Nor shall he go out of the Sanctuary”. And when he comforts other mourners the custom is for all of the people to pass by, the one after the other, while the appointed [priest] stands between him and the people. And when he receives comfort from others, all the people say to him, “Let us be your atonement”, and he says to them, “May you be blessed by Heaven.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit around on the ground and he sits on a stool." 2.2. The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8)." 2.3. If any of his near kin die he may not go out of the door of his palace. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wishes to follow the bier he may, since we have found that David followed the bier of Avner, as it says, “And King David followed the bier” (II Samuel 3:31) They answered, “That was only to appease the people.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit on the floor and he sits on a couch." 2.4. He may send forth the people to a battle waged of free choice by the decision of the court of seventy one. He may break through [the private domain of any man] to make himself a road and none may protest him. The king’s road has no limit. Whatsoever the people take in plunder they must place before him, and he may take first. “And he shall not have many wives” (Deut. 17:17) eighteen only. Rabbi Judah says: “He may take many wives provided they don’t turn his heart away [from worshipping God]. Rabbi Shimon says: “Even one that might turn his heart away, he should not marry. Why then does it say, “He shall not have many wives”, even if they are like Avigayil. “He shall not keep many horses” (Deut. 17:16) enough for his chariot only. “Nor shall he amass silver and gold to excess” (Deut. 17:17) enough to pay his soldier’s wages. He must write a Torah scroll for himself; when he goes forth to battle he shall take it with him, and when he returns he shall bring it back with him; when he sits in judgement it shall be with him, and when he sits to eat it shall be with him, as it says, “Let it remain with him and let him read it all his life” (Deut. 17:19)" 2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you."
10. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 3.4, 4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. נתפרדה חבילה,אונקלוס בר קלונימוס איגייר שדר קיסר גונדא דרומאי אבתריה משכינהו בקראי איגיור הדר שדר גונדא דרומאי [אחרינא] אבתריה אמר להו לא תימרו ליה ולא מידי,כי הוו שקלו ואזלו אמר להו אימא לכו מילתא בעלמא ניפיורא נקט נורא קמי פיפיורא פיפיורא לדוכסא דוכסא להגמונא הגמונא לקומא קומא מי נקט נורא מקמי אינשי אמרי ליה לא אמר להו הקב"ה נקט נורא קמי ישראל דכתיב (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם וגו' איגיור [כולהו],הדר שדר גונדא אחרינא אבתריה אמר להו לא תשתעו מידי בהדיה כי נקטי ליה ואזלי חזא מזוזתא [דמנחא אפתחא] אותיב ידיה עלה ואמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה אימא לן את,אמר להו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם יושב מבפנים ועבדיו משמרים אותו מבחוץ ואילו הקב"ה עבדיו מבפנים והוא משמרן מבחוץ שנאמר (תהלים קכא, ח) ה' ישמר צאתך ובואך מעתה ועד עולם איגיור תו לא שדר בתריה,(בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים זה אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסקו מעל שולחנם לא חזרת ולא קישות ולא צנון לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים דאמר מר צנון מחתך אוכל חזרת מהפך מאכל קישות מרחיב מעיים,והא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קישואין מפני שקשין לגופו של אדם כחרבות לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי:,יום הלידה ויום המיתה: מכלל דר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים אלמא שריפה לאו חוקה היא מכלל דרבנן סברי שריפה חוקה היא,והא תניא שורפין על המלכים ולא מדרכי האמורי ואי חוקה היא אנן היכי שרפינן והכתיב (ויקרא יח, ג) ובחוקותיהם לא תלכו,אלא דכ"ע שריפה לאו חוקה היא אלא חשיבותא היא והכא בהא קמיפלגי ר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים ורבנן סברי מיתה שיש בה שריפה חשיבא להו ופלחי בה ושאין בה שריפה לא חשיבא ולא פלחי בה,גופא שורפין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי שנאמר (ירמיהו לד, ה) בשלום תמות ובמשרפות אבותיך המלכים וגו' וכשם ששורפין על המלכים כך שורפין על הנשיאים,ומה הם שורפין על המלכים מיטתן וכלי תשמישן ומעשה שמת ר"ג הזקן ושרף עליו אונקלוס הגר שבעים מנה צורי והאמרת מה הן שורפין עליהם מיטתן וכלי תשמישן אימא בשבעים מנה צורי,ומידי אחרינא לא והתניא עוקרין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי אמר רב פפא סוס שרכב עליו,ובהמה טהורה לא והתניא עיקור שיש בה טריפה אסור ושאין בה טריפה מותר ואיזהו עיקור שאין בה טריפה 11a. bThe bundle is separated. /b,§ The Gemara mentions other Romans who converted to Judaism. It relates: bOnkelos bar Kelonimos convertedto Judaism. The Roman bemperor sent a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bafter himto seize Onkelos and bring him to the emperor. Onkelos bdrew themtoward him bwith versesthat he cited and learned with them, and bthey converted.The emperor bthen sent another troop of Romansoldiers bafter him,and bsaid to them: Do not say anything to him,so that he cannot convince you with his arguments. The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them., bWhen they were walking,Onkelos bsaid tothe troop of soldiers: bI will say a mere statement to you: A minor official [ inifyora /i] holds a torch before a high official [ iapifyora /i], the high officialholds a torch bfor a duke [ idukasa /i], a duke for the governor,and bthe governor for the ruler [ ikoma /i]. Does the ruler hold a torch beforethe common bpeople?The soldiers bsaid toOnkelos: bNo.Onkelos bsaid to them:Yet bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, holds a torch before the Jewish people, as it is written: “And the Lord went before them by dayin a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light” (Exodus 13:21). bThey all converted. /b,The emperor bthen sent another troopof soldiers bafter him,to bring Onkelos, and bsaid to them: Do not converse with him at all.The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them. bWhile they grabbed him and were walking,Onkelos bsaw a imezuzathat was placed on the doorway. He placed his hand upon it and said tothe soldiers: bWhat is this? They said to him: You tell us. /b,Onkelos bsaid to them: Thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba kingof bflesh and blood sits insidehis palace, band his servantsstand bguard,protecting bhim outside; butwith regard to bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, His servants,the Jewish people, sit binsidetheir homes band He guards over them outside. As it is stated: “The Lord shall guard your going out and your coming in, from now and forever”(Psalms 121:8). Upon hearing this, those soldiers also bconvertedto Judaism. After that, the emperor bsent no moresoldiers bafter him. /b,§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of Antoninus: When the matriarch Rebecca was pregt with Jacob and Esau, b“the Lord said to her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Do not readit as igoyim /i,meaning nations; bratherread it as igeyim /i,meaning proud ones. bThisverse was fulfilled in two prominent individuals who descended from Rebecca, bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,due to their wealth, bnever lacked for lettuce, nor cucumbers, nor radish, neither in the summer nor in the rainy season,despite the fact that these foods do not grow year round. The reason they ensured that these items were always present at their tables is bthat the Master said: A radish breaks up food, lettuce stirs up food,and bcucumbers expand the intestines. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishuin /i]?It is bbecause they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to a person’s body as swords.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that they are harmful to the body, is referring bto largecucumbers, whereas bthatstatement, explaining why they were always present on the tables of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus, is referring bto small ones. /b,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Meir bthe birthdayof the king band the day of the deathof the king are considered gentile festivals, whereas the Rabbis hold that only a death that includes public burning is considered a festival that includes idol worship. The Gemara comments: bBy inference,this means bthat Rabbi Meir holdsthat bthere is no differencewhether it is ba death that includespublic bburning, and there is no differencewhether it is ba death that does not includepublic bburning;in either case, bthey engage in idol worship onthat occasion. bEvidently,Rabbi Meir holds that the bburningperformed at the death of the king bis notan idolatrous bcustom,as it is not the cause of the prohibition. The Gemara continues: From here, one can conclude bby inference that the Rabbis holdthat the bburningupon the death of the king bisan idolatrous bcustom. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWe burnitems bupon thedeath of bkingsas an expression of grief, bandthis is bnot of the ways of the Amorites,but rather a Jewish custom? bAnd ifthis bisan idolatrous bcustom, how could weperform this public bburning? But isn’t it written: “And you shall not walk in their statutes”(Leviticus 18:3)?, bRather, everyoneagrees that the public bburningitself bis notan idolatrous bcustom. Rather, it isperformed due to the great bimportanceof the king who passed away. bAnd here,in the mishna, bthey disagree about this: Rabbi Meir holdsthat bthere is no differencewhether it is ba death that includespublic bburning and there is no differencewhether it is ba death that does not includepublic bburning;in either case, in practice bthey engage in idol worship onthat occasion. bAnd the Rabbis holdthat ba death that includespublic bburningis bimportant tothe gentiles, bandtherefore bthey engage inidol bworship onthat occasion, bbuta death bthat does not includepublic bburningis bnot importantto them, band they do not engage inidol bworship onthat occasion.,Having mentioned this ibaraita /i, the Gemara returns to discuss bthematter bitself.The ibaraitateaches: bOne burnsitems bdue to thedeath of bkingsas an expression of grief, bandthis bis not subject tothe prohibition of imitating bthe ways of the Amorites,since it is a Jewish custom. bAs it is statedthat Jeremiah prophesied to Zedekiah king of Judah: b“You shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kingsthat were before you, so shall they make a burning for you” (Jeremiah 34:5). bAnd just as one burnsitems buponthe death of bthe kings, so too one burnsitems buponthe death of bthe heads of the Sanhedrin. /b, bAnd whatitems bdo they burn upon thedeath of bkings?They burn the kings’ bbeds and their utensils,so that no one else can make use of them. bAndthere was ban incident in which Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, and uponhis death bOnkelos the convert burned seven thousand dinarsin valuable bTyriancoinage. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t you statein response to the question: bWhat do they burn uponthe death of kings, that they burn btheir beds and their utensils?Why, then, did Onkelos burn money? The Gemara answers: bSaythat Onkelos burned items that were valued bat seven thousand dinarsin bTyriancoinage.,The Gemara asks: bAndare bother items notdestroyed in order to accord honor to the deceased king, apart from his utensils? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bwe detachthe hooves of livestock bupon thedeath of bkings, andthis bis not subject tothe prohibition of bthe ways of the Amorites? Rav Pappa says:That ibaraitais referring to bthe horse upon whichthe king brode.Since that animal was designated as the king’s personal item, it is therefore rendered unusable for anyone else, like his personal utensils.,The Gemara asks: bAnddid they bnotdetach the hooves of the king’s bkosher animals,which are not used by the king for riding? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bremovingthe hooves of an animal would bentailthat it becomes ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifa /i],it is bprohibitedto do so. bAnd whendoing so would bnot entailrendering it ba itereifa /i,it is bpermitted. And what isa way of bremovinghooves bthat does not entailrendering the animal ba itereifa /i? /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place bat the beginning of the Festival,when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue,until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: bYou can learn fromthe fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here, as the bentireprocess bis for the honor of the king,to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. King Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding.The Gemara asks: bBy inference,until that point he had been bsitting. But didn’t the Master say( iTosefta /i, iSanhedrin4:4) that bsitting in theTemple bcourtyardis permitted bonly for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said:Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here too,the assembly was bin the women’s courtyard. /b,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, band the Sages praised himfor this. The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat bthey praised him,can it be concluded bthat he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who sayswith regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,i.e., he may do so, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean bthat his awe shall be upon you.The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of ba mitzva,this situation bis differentand does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse: b“You may not appointa foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is btaught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bwere sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, andpeople’s bdeeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds,as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., bRabbi Yehuda of the West,Eretz Yisrael, band some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is statedconcerning the future: b“The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble”(Isaiah 32:5). bBy inference,this indicates bthat in this world it is permittedto flatter them., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat this can be proven bfrom here.Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, bas one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me”(Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: bAndRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, bdisagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says:With regard to the interaction between bJacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited anotherto his home bandthe guest brealized that he wants to kill him.The guest bsaid to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house.The host then bsaidto himself: bThe kingmust bknow him.Therefore, bhe was afraid and did not kill him.Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., bRabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath”(Job 36:13). bAnd moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is statedin that same verse: b“They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicdevice for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: bWrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i], nations [ ileummim /i] shall execrate him”(Proverbs 24:24); band ikov /i,the linguistic root of the word iyikkevuhu /i, means bonly a curse, as it is stated:Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ iekkov /i] bwhom God has not cursed [ ikabbo /i]?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ile’om /iis homiletically interpreted to mean bonly fetuses, as it is statedwith regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b“And one people [ ile’om /i] shall be stronger than the other people [ ile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil”(Isaiah 5:20). bWhat is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame”(Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words”(Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. bAnd it is written: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 330
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 307
decalogue, court, rabbinic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 303
fraade, steven d. Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 294
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307, 330
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 303, 330, 331
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307, 330, 331
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307, 330, 331
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307
lorberbaum, yair Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 295
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 303, 330
mishnah sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
pagans/paganism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 330
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 307, 330, 331
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307, 330, 331
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 330, 331
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 307, 331
qumran literature on, tannaitic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
rabbi ismael, mishnah sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
rabbi ismael, royalty and judicial authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
septimus, bernard Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 294
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 303, 307, 330
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, kingship and law in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 116, 117, 118
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 303
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 307