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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10959
Tosefta, Niddah, 7.1
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15 results
1. Tosefta, Berachot, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. It happened [once] that Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi we reclining [and eating] in Akko [on Friday afternoon], and the day was over (i.e. it became dark and Shabbat began). Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel said to Rebbi Yossi, “Let us stop [eating because of] Shabbat.” He said [back] to him, “Everyday you prefer my words in front of Yehudah, [and] now you prefer the words of Yehudah in front of me. ‘Do you also want to kidnap the queen with me in the house?’ (Esther 7:8)” He said [back] to him, “If so, let us not stop [eating because of Shabbat, because] may be [if our students will see us stopping] the Halacha (law) will be established for generations [like Rebbi Yehudah].” They (i.e. their students) [later] said that they (i.e. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi) did not move from there until they have established the Halacha like Rebbi Yossi."
2. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.9, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Tosefta, Nazir, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.13-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.1, 7.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.11. A person might think: 'since the Academy of Shammai declares unclean that which the Academy of Hillel declares clean, one prohibits that which the other permits, how, then, can I learn Torah?' This is way Torah repeats: \"words...the words...these are the words...\" All of the words have been given by a single Shepherd, one God fashioned them, one Provider gave them, Source of all deeds, blessed be God, has spoken them. So make for yourself a heart with many rooms, and bring into it the words of the Academy of Shammai and the words of the Academy of Hillel, the words of who declare unclean and those that declare clean. "
9. Tosefta, Yevamot, 14.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. קרוב להאכיל את ישראל קדשים בחוץ מקולס אין שאין מקולס לא אמרי מקולס לא שנא אמר לא שנא לא אמר שאינו מקולס פירש אין לא פירש לא,רב אחא מתני לה להא מתני' כר' שמעון מתקיף לה רב ששת בשלמא למאן דתני לה כרבי יוסי ניחא אלא למאן דמתני כר' שמעון מי ניחא,והתנן רבי שמעון פוטר שלא התנדב כדרך המתנדבים,אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ומאן דמתני לה כר' יוסי מי ניחא והאמר רבא רבי שמעון בשיטת רבי יוסי אמרה דאמר אף בגמר דבריו אדם נתפס,מאי לאו מדרבי שמעון סבר לה כר' יוסי רבי יוסי נמי סבר לה כרבי שמעון לא רבי שמעון סבר לה כר' יוסי ולא רבי יוסי סבר לה כר' שמעון,איבעיא להו תודוס איש רומי גברא רבה הוה או בעל אגרופין הוה,ת"ש עוד זו דרש תודוס איש רומי מה ראו חנניה מישאל ועזריה שמסרו [עצמן] על קדושת השם לכבשן האש,נשאו קל וחומר בעצמן מצפרדעים ומה צפרדעים שאין מצווין על קדושת השם כתיב בהו (שמות ז, כח) ובאו [ועלו] בביתך [וגו'] ובתנוריך ובמשארותיך אימתי משארות מצויות אצל תנור הוי אומר בשעה שהתנור חם אנו שמצווין על קדושת השם על אחת כמה וכמה,רבי יוסי בר אבין אמר מטיל מלאי לכיס של תלמידי חכמים היה דאמר ר' יוחנן כל המטיל מלאי לכיס תלמידי חכמים זוכה ויושב בישיבה של מעלה שנא' (קהלת ז, יב) כי בצל החכמה בצל הכסף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מקום שנהגו להדליק את הנר בלילי יום הכפורים מדליקין מקום שנהגו שלא להדליק אין מדליקין ומדליקין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות ובמבואות האפלים ועל גבי החולים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא בין שאמרו להדליק ובין שאמרו שלא להדליק שניהן לדבר אחד נתכוונו אמר רב יהושע דרש רבא (ישעיהו ס, כא) ועמך כלם צדיקים לעולם יירשו ארץ וגו' בין שאמרו להדליק ובין שאמרו שלא להדליק שניהם לא נתכוונו אלא לדבר אחד,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחלת ברייתו הוא אמר ליה ההוא סבא ואיתימא רבה בר בר חנה ישר וכן אמר רבי יוחנן עולא הוה רכיב חמרא ואזיל והוה שקיל ואזיל רבי אבא מימיניה ורבה בר בר חנה משמאליה אמר ליה רבי אבא לעולא ודאי דאמריתו משמיה דרבי יוחנן אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחלת ברייתו הוא,הדר עולא חזא ביה ברבה בר בר חנה בישות א"ל אנא לאו אהא אמרי אלא אהא אמרי דתני תנא קמיה דרבי יוחנן ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשבת אף במקום שאמרו שלא להדליק מדליקין מפני כבוד השבת ועני רבי יוחנן בתריה וחכמים אוסרים א"ל עדא תהא,קרי עליה רב יוסף (משלי כ, ה) מים עמוקים עצה בלב איש 53b. Doing so bis akin to feeding Jews consecratedmeat boutsidethe permitted area, as due to its resemblance to the Paschal lamb it could be misleading. The Gemara analyzes this statement: A goat broasted whole, yes,it is prohibited; a goat bnot roasted whole, no,it is not prohibited. This contradicts Rav, who prohibited roasting even ordinary meat. The Sages bsaythat this is the distinction: With regard to a goat broasted whole, there is no differenceif bone saidit is for Passover, and bthere is no differenceif one bdid not sayit is for Passover. In either case, it looks like a sacrifice and it is prohibited. With regard to a goat bnot roasted whole,if bone specifiedthat it is for Passover, byes,it is prohibited because it appears that he is consecrating it as a sacrifice. However, if bone did not specifythat it is for Passover, bno,it is not prohibited, as there is no need for concern., bRav Aḥa teaches this ibaraita /iabout Theodosius bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon. Rav Sheshet strongly objected to this: Granted,according bto the one who learns it in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,it works out bwell. However,according bto the one who teachesit bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, doesit work out bwell? Didn’twe blearnin a mishna about a dispute with regard to one who consecrated an item for a purpose for which it was unsuited, e.g., a case where one sought to bring a meal-offering of barley, although meal-offerings may be brought only from wheat? In that case, the Rabbis say he is required to bring a meal-offering of wheat because in the first part of his statement he vowed to bring a meal-offering., bRabbi Shimon exemptshim from any obligation, as in his opinion, bhe did not donate in the mannertypical bof donors.In other words, Rabbi Shimon relates to the statement: A meal-offering of barley, as a single entity. Since no meal-offering of that kind exists, one is not required to bring an offering at all. Similarly, with regard to Passover, since one can consecrate only a living animal as a sacrifice and cannot consecrate meat as a sacrifice, if one declares: This meat is for Passover, it is in no way similar to consecrating an animal, and the meat has no sanctity., bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Andaccording to bthe one who teaches it in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, doesit work out bwell? Didn’t Rava say:With regard to a meal-offering of barley, bRabbi Shimon statedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei,who bsaid: A person is also heldaccountable bfor the conclusion of his statement.The Sages disagreed with regard to the ihalakhotof consecration in a case where one consecrates an animal for two objectives in the same statement, e.g., as both a burnt-offering and a peace-offering. According to Rabbi Meir, one is held accountable for the beginning of his statement. Since he mentioned the burnt-offering first, the animal assumes the status of a burnt-offering. However, Rabbi Yosei says that one’s entire statement is significant, and that the animal is consecrated for two sacrifices. The owner must wait until the animal becomes blemished, redeem it, and use the money to purchase a burnt-offering and a peace-offering. Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with Rabbi Yosei’s opinion concerning a barley meal-offering. He maintains that one is held accountable not only for his first expression, i.e., that it is a meal-offering, but also for his second expression, i.e., that it is of barley. In that case, the second part of his statement negates the first part., bWhat, is it notconcluded bfromthe fact bthat Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, Rabbi Yoseialso bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon,that if one did not donate in the manner typical of donors, his act is meaningless? If that is the case, then any difficulty for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon would be similarly difficult for the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara rejects this: bNo, although Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, Rabbi Yosei does not hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages with regard to the above incident. bWas Theodosius of Rome a great manin terms of his Torah scholarship, and the Sages refrained from ostracizing him in deference to the Torah that he studied? bOr, was he a violent manwho could not be punished due to his local influence?, bComeand bhear: This was also taught by Theodosius of Rome: What did Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah see thatled them to bdeliver themselves to the fiery furnace for sanctification of the nameof God during the rule of Nebuchadnezzar rather than worship idols under duress?, bThey drew an ia fortioriinference on their own fromthe plague of bfrogsin Egypt. With regard to bfrogs, which are not commanded concerning the sanctification of the nameof God, bit is written:“And the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up band come into your house,and into your bedchamber, and onto your bed, and into the houses of your servants, and upon your people, band into their ovens and kneading bowls”(Exodus 7:28). bWhen are kneading bowls found near the oven? You must say thatit is bwhen the oven is hot.If in fulfilling the command to harass the Egyptians, the frogs entered burning ovens, ball the more so, we, who are commanded concerning the sanctification of the nameof God, should deliver ourselves to be killed in the fiery furnace for that purpose. Apparently, Theodosius taught Torah in public, which indicates that he was a great man., bRabbi Yosei bar Avin said:Theodosius bwasone who bcastthe profits from bmerchandise into the purse of Torah scholars.He would lend them money and enter into partnership with them so they could open businesses, and that is praiseworthy, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who casts merchandise into the purse of Torah scholars is rewarded and sits in the heavenly academy, as it is stated: “For in the shadow of wisdom, is the shadow of money”(Ecclesiastes 7:12). One who provides Torah scholars with money will merit being with them in the shadow of wisdom., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna discusses additional differences between local customs. In ba place wherepeople bwere accustomed to kindle a lampin the house bon Yom Kippur evenings, one kindlesit. In ba place wherepeople bwere accustomed not to kindlea lamp, bone does not kindleit. bHowever,even in a place where the custom is not to kindle lamps in houses, bone kindles in synagogues and study halls,in deference to these places. Similarly, lamps should be kindled bin dark alleyways,so people will not be hurt, band next to the sick. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin th ie Tosefta /i: bBothin a place bwherethe Sages bsaid to kindle andin a place bwhere they said not to kindle, they both intended toachieve the bsame objective,i.e., to distance people from sin, as conjugal relations are prohibited on Yom Kippur. Those who said that one kindles a lamp believe that because people do not engage in relations while a lamp is lit, the lamp will discourage intimacy. Those who maintain the opposite believe that spouses who are unable to see each other will not be tempted to engage in conjugal relations, and therefore it is preferable not to have a lamp lit on Yom Kippur. bRav Yehoshua saidthat bRava taught: “Your people are all righteous, they shall inherit the land forever;the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:21). bBothin a place bwherethe Sages bsaid to kindle andin a place bwhere they said not to kindle, they intended only toachieve the bsame objective,fulfilling a mitzva. Even though different places have different customs, the Jewish people all aspire to sanctity.,On the topic of kindling a lamp for Yom Kippur, the Gemara discusses a related point. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One should recite the blessing over fire:Who creates the lights of fire, bonly at the conclusion of Shabbat, sincethe conclusion of Shabbat bisthe time of bits original creation. A certain Elder said to him, and some sayit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho bsaid:That is bcorrect; and so said Rabbi Yoḥa.The Gemara relates: bUlla was riding on a donkey and going along, and Rabbi Abba was going along on his right and Rabba bar bar Ḥana on his left. Rabbi Abba said to Ulla:Is it btrue that you said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥathat bone recites the blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbat,not at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, bsincethe time of bits original creation isthe conclusion of Shabbat?,Since Ulla never transmitted that statement, he understood that it must have been Rabba bar bar Ḥana who heard it from Rabbi Yoḥa and transmitted it when he came from Eretz Yisrael. bUlla turned around and looked angrily at Rabba bar bar Ḥanafor misquoting Rabbi Yoḥa. Still, Ulla said nothing. However, Rabba bar bar Ḥana understood what had happened and bsaid to him: I did not sayanything babout thatmatter; brather,what bI saidwas babout that whichthe breciterof the tannaitic literature btaughtin a ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥain which bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to bYom Kippur that occurs on Shabbat, even in a place where they said not to kindlea lamp on Yom Kippur, bone kindles in deference to Shabbat. Rabbi Yoḥa answered after himand completed the statement: bAnd the Rabbis prohibitkindling a lamp even when Yom Kippur occurs on Shabbat. Ulla bsaidto Rabbi Abba: bLet it bethat Rabbi Yoḥa indeed made this statement., bRav Yosef readthe following verse baboutthis event: b“Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. טעו לא ישלמו כל שכן שתנעול דלת בפני לווין,רבא אמר מתניתין דהכא בדיני קנסות ואידך בהודאות והלואות,רב פפא אמר אידי ואידי בהודאה והלואה כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאינו מרומה,כדריש לקיש דריש לקיש רמי כתיב (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך וכתיב (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הא כיצד כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאין מרומה,רב אשי אמר מתני׳ כדשנין קראי אחד לדין וא' לפשרה,כדתניא צדק צדק תרדף אחד לדין ואחד לפשרה כיצד שתי ספינות עוברות בנהר ופגעו זה בזה אם עוברות שתיהן שתיהן טובעות בזה אחר זה שתיהן עוברות וכן שני גמלים שהיו עולים במעלות בית חורון ופגעו זה בזה אם עלו שניהן שניהן נופלין בזה אחר זה שניהן עולין,הא כיצד טעונה ושאינה טעונה תידחה שאינה טעונה מפני טעונה קרובה ושאינה קרובה תידחה קרובה מפני שאינה קרובה היו שתיהן קרובות שתיהן רחוקות הטל פשרה ביניהן ומעלות שכר זו לזו,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ב"ד יפה אחר רבי אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל,תנא קול ריחים בבורני שבוע הבן שבוע הבן אור הנר בברור חיל משתה שם משתה שם,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר חכמים לישיבה אחר ר' אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל אחר רבי יהושע לפקיעין אחר רבן גמליאל ליבנא אחר רבי עקיבא לבני ברק אחר רבי מתיא לרומי אחר רבי חנניא בן תרדיון לסיכני אחר ר' יוסי לציפורי אחר רבי יהודה בן בתירה לנציבין אחר רבי יהושע לגולה אחר רבי לבית שערים אחר חכמים ללשכת הגזית:,דיני ממונות פותחין כו': היכי אמרינן אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו מי יימר כדקאמריתו,א"ל עולא והא חסמינן להו וליחסמו מי לא תניא רבי שמעון בן אליעזר אומר מסיעין את העדים ממקום למקום כדי שתיטרף דעתן ויחזרו בהן,מי דמי התם ממילא קא מידחו הכא קא דחינן להו בידים,אלא אמר עולא הכי אמרינן יש לך עדים להזימם א"ל רבה וכי פותחין בזכותו של זה שהיא חובתו של זה,ומי הויא חובתו והתנן אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיגמר הדין,הכי אמינא אילו שתיק האי עד דמיגמר דיניה ומייתי עדים ומזים להו הויא ליה חובתו של זה אלא אמר רבה אמרינן ליה יש לך עדים להכחישן,רב כהנא אמר מדבריכם נזדכה פלוני אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אמרי' ליה אי לא קטלת לא תדחל רב אשי אמר כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו,תניא כוותיה דאביי ורבא רבי אומר (במדבר ה, יט) אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית וגו' 32b. then if the judges berred they should notneed to bpaythe party they wronged, as they can claim that they were prevented from examining the witnesses effectively. The Gemara answers: If that were to be the ihalakha /i, ball the more so thatthis bwould lock the door in the face ofpotential bborrowers.If people know that the courts are not responsible for an error in judgment, they will not be willing to lend money., bRava says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard to laws of fines,not standard cases of monetary law. bAnd the othersources, i.e., the mishna in tractate iShevi’itand the ibaraita /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, are stated bwith regard tocases of badmissions and loans,in which there is cause to relax the procedures of deliberation, as explained., bRav Pappa says: This and that,i.e., both the mishna here and the other sources, are stated bwith regard tocases of ban admission and a loan.The distinction between them is that the mishna bhere,which rules that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court suspects that one party is attempting to defraud the other party and have witnesses offer false testimony on his own behalf. bThere,in the ibaraitaand in the mishna in tractate iShevi’it /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, the ruling is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b,This distinction is bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses: It bis writtenin one verse: b“In justice shall you judge your neighbor”(Leviticus 19:15), bandit bis writtenin another verse: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:21), with the repetition indicating that it is not enough to merely judge with justice. He continues: bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bHere,this latter verse is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court must take extra care to judge with justice; and bthere,that former verse is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b, bRav Ashi says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is bas we answered,i.e., in accordance with any one of the answers offered by the other iamora’im /i. And those bverseswere not stated with regard to fraudulent trials; rather, boneis stated bwith regard to judgment,in which the court must pursue justice extensively, band oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow,” onemention of “justice” is stated bwith regard to judgment and oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. How so?Where there are btwo boats traveling on the river and they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bpass, both of them sink,as the river is not wide enough for both to pass. If they pass bone after the other, both of them pass. And similarly,where there are btwo camels who were ascending the ascent of Beit Ḥoron,where there is a narrow steep path, band they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bascend, both of them fall.If they ascend bone after the other, both of them ascend. /b, bHowdoes one decide which of them should go first? If there is one boat that is bladen andone boat bthat is not laden,the needs of the one bthat is not laden should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is laden.If there is one boat that is bcloseto its destination bandone boat bthat is not closeto its destination, the needs of the one that is bclose should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is not close.If bboth of them were closeto their destinations, or bboth of them were farfrom their destinations, bimpose a compromise between themto decide which goes first, bandthe owners of the boats bpay a fee to one other,i.e., the owners of the first boat compensate the owner of the boat that waits, for any loss incurred.,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the best,most prestigious, bcourtof the generation. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil. /b,The Sages btaught:When the gentile authorities issued decrees outlawing observance of the mitzvot, members of Jewish communities devised clandestine ways of indicating observance of mitzvot to each other. For example: If one produces bthe sound of a millstone inthe city called bBurni,this is tantamount to announcing: bWeek of the son, week of the son,i.e., there will be a circumcision. If one displays the blight of a lamp inthe city called bBeror Ḥayil,this is tantamount to announcing: There is a wedding bfeast there,there is a wedding bfeast there. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the Sages to the academywhere they are found. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil, after Rabbi Yehoshua to Peki’in, after Rabban Gamliel to Yavne, after Rabbi Akiva to Bnei Brak, after Rabbi Matya to Rome [ iRomi /i], after Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon to Sikhnei, after Rabbi Yosei to Tzippori, after Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira to Netzivin, after Rabbi Yehoshua to the exile [ igola /i],i.e., Babylonia, bafter RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,and bafter the Sagesin the time of the Temple bto the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of bmonetary law,the court bopensthe deliberations either with a claim to exempt the accused, or with a claim to find him liable. In cases of capital law, the court opens the deliberations with a claim to acquit the accused, but does not open the deliberations with a claim to find him liable. The Gemara asks: bHow do we saythis opening stage of the deliberations? In other words, with what claim does the court begin deliberating? bRav Yehuda said: We say this tothe witnesses: bWho saysthat the event occurred bas you said?Perhaps you erred?, bUlla said to him: Butby confronting the witnesses in this manner, bwe silence them.The witnesses will think that the court suspects them of lying, and they will not testify. Rav Yehuda said to him: bAnd let them be silenced. Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:1): bRabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says:In cases of capital law, the court bbrings the witnesses fromone bplace toanother bplace in order to confuse them so that they will retracttheir testimony if they are lying.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe ihalakhot bcomparable? There,where Rabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says to bring the witnesses from place to place, the witnesses bare repressed by themselves,whereas bhere, we repress them bydirect baction,and that the court should not do., bRather, Ulla says: We say thisto the accused: bDo you have witnesses to determinethat the witnesses who testified against you are bconspiring witnesses? Rabba said to him: But do we openthe deliberations bwitha claim to bacquitthe accused bthat isto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses? This claim can lead to the witnesses incurring liability for their testimony.,The Gemara questions Rabba’s assumption: bBut isthis to bthe liability ofthe witnesses? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iMakkot5b): bConspiring witnesses are not killedfor their testimony buntil the verdictof the one concerning whom they testified bis issued?Therefore, if they will be shown to be conspiring witnesses at this early stage of the proceedings, they will not be liable.,The Gemara restates Rabba’s objection: bThisis what bI say: Ifthe accused bwould be silent until his verdict is issued andthen bbrings witnesses andthe court bdetermines themto be bconspiringwitnesses, it will be found that the statement of the court bisto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses. bRather, Rabba says: We say tothe accused: bDo you have witnesses to contradict them?If the first witnesses are contradicted as to the facts of the case, no one is liable., bRav Kahana said:We say to the witnesses: bBased on your statements, so-and-so is acquitted.The court issues a ipro formadeclaration that it is possible to find a reason to acquit based on the testimony of the witnesses, and then they begin the deliberations. bAbaye and Rava both say: We say tothe accused: For example, bif you did not killanyone, bdo not fearthe consequences of these proceedings, as you will be acquitted. bRav Ashi says:The court announces: bWhoever knowsof a reason bto acquitthe accused bshould come and teachthis reason bconcerning him. /b,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe explanation bof Abaye and Rava. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The priest administering the isotarite to the isotasays to her: b“If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astrayto impurity while under your husband, you shall be free from this water of bitterness that causes the curse. But if you have gone astray while under your husband…” (Numbers 5:19–20). The priest first states the scenario in which the woman is innocent of adultery.
14. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אמרו ליה לרב יוסף הכי עביד רבא אמר ליה יהא רעוא דתרום רישך אכולה כרכא,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום אמר ליה רב מרדכי כיון שפסע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו התם איבעיא ליה למיקם משל לתלמיד הנפטר מרבו אם חוזר לאלתר דומה לכלב ששב על קיאו,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום ואם לא עשה כן ראוי לו שלא התפלל ומשום שמעיה אמרו שנותן שלום לימין ואחר כך לשמאל שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ואומר (תהלים צא, ז) יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,מאי ואומר וכי תימא אורחא דמילתא היא למיתב בימין ת"ש יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,רבא חזייה לאביי דיהיב שלמא לימינא ברישא א"ל מי סברת לימין דידך לשמאל דידך קא אמינא דהוי ימינו של הקב"ה אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דפסעי להו שלש פסיעות בכריעה אחת,ומתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון מאי מצלי רבא בר רב אדא ורבין בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב אמרי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא שנה זו גשומה ושחונה שחונה מעליותא היא אלא אימא אם שחונה תהא גשומה,רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה ולא יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין לפרנס זה מזה ולא תכנס לפניך תפלת עוברי דרכים,רבי חנינא בן דוסא הוה קא אזיל באורחא שדא מטרא עליה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בנחת וחנינא בצער פסק מיטרא כי אתא לביתיה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בצער וחנינא בנחת אתא מיטרא א"ר יוסף מאי אהניא ליה צלותיה דכהן גדול לגבי ר' חנינא בן דוסא,תנו רבנן מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שהאריך בתפלתו ונמנו אחיו הכהנים ליכנס אחריו התחילו הם נכנסין והוא יוצא אמרו לו מפני מה הארכת בתפלתך אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שהתפללתי עליכם ועל בית המקדש שלא יחרב אמרו לו אל תהי רגיל לעשות כן שהרי שנינו לא היה מאריך בתפלתו כדי שלא להבעית את ישראל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משניטל ארון אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים ראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת גבוה מן הארץ שלש אצבעות ועליה היה נותן נטל את הדם ממי שהיה ממרס בו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה,ולא היה מתכוון להזות לא למעלה ולא למטה אלא כמצליף וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים אחת ושלש אחת וארבע אחת וחמש אחת ושש אחת ושבע יצא והניחו על כן הזהב שבהיכל,הביאו לו את השעיר שחטו וקבל במזרק את דמו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים וכו' יצא והניחו על כן הזהב השני שבהיכל רבי יהודה אומר לא היה שם אלא כן אחד בלבד נטל דם הפר והניח דם השעיר,והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ולא היה מתכוון וכו' וכך היה מונה וכו' נטל דם השעיר והניח דם הפר והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכו' עירה דם הפר לתוך דם השעיר ונתן את המלא בריקן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big משנגנז לא קתני אלא משניטל תנן כמאן דאמר ארון גלה לבבל דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה',רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (ישעיהו לט, ו) לא יותר דבר אמר ה' אלו עשרת הדברות שבו,רבי יהודה (בן לקיש) אומר ארון במקומו נגנז שנאמר (מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים מן הקדש על פני הדביר ולא יראו החוצה ויהיו שם עד היום הזה,ופליגא דעולא דאמר עולא שאל רבי מתיא בן חרש את רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ברומי וכי מאחר שרבי אליעזר מלמדנו פעם ראשונה ושניה ארון גלה לבבל ראשונה הא דאמרן (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' שניה מאי היא דכתיב (איכה א, ו) ויצא מבת ציון 53b. bThey said to Rav Yosef: This is what Rava does.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see for himself. Rav Yosef bsaid to him: May it beGod’s bwill that you lift your head over the entire city,in reward for honoring your teacher.,§ Apropos the obligation of a student to walk backward when taking leave of his teacher, the Gemara discusses a similar topic. bRabbi Alexandri saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace,in a manner befitting one who departs from before the Holy One, Blessed be He. bRav Mordekhai said to him: Since he has taken three steps backward, he should stand thereand not return to his place immediately. This is banalogous to a student who takes leave of his teacher. If he returns immediatelyto the place where was first standing, bhe is similar to a dog who returns to its vomit,and his previous action is spoiled.,The Gemara comments that bthis was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace. And if he did not do so, it is better for him not to have prayed,as his actions are disrespectful toward God. bAnd they said in the name of Shemayathe Sage bthatwhen bone recites: Peace,he first bows bto the right and then to the left, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law to them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), band it says: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side”(Psalms 91:7).,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe reason for: bAnd it says?Why is it necessary to cite another source? The Gemara explains: bIf you saythat bit ismerely bthe usual manner to givean object bwith the righthand, but this bears no special significance, bcomeand bhear: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side,”which indicates that the right side is the more significant one.,The Gemara relates that bRava saw Abaye reciting: Peace,by bowing at the end of his prayer btohis bright first.Rava bsaid to him: Do you maintainthat you should bow bto your right? I sayyou should bow bto your leftfirst, bas it is the right of the Holy One, Blessed be He,since He is opposite you face-to-face, as it were. bRav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Huna, said: I observed that Abaye and Ravaboth btookthose bthree steps all in oneact of bbowing,without standing upright in between, by way of submission to and acceptance of God’s authority.,§ The mishna taught: bAndthe High Priest brecites a brief prayer in the outer chamber.The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes bhe pray? Rava bar Rav Adda and Ravin bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Ravthat this was his prayer: bMay it be your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot.The Gemara immediately expresses surprise at this request: Is bheat a goodmatter? Why should he request that the year be hot? bRather, sayand emend it as follows: bIfthe upcoming year is bhot, may italso bbe rainy,lest the heat harm the crops., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludedthe language of this prayer bin the name of Rav Yehuda: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judah; and may your nation Israel not depend on each other for sustece,rather, they should be sustained from the produce of their land; band let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presencewhen they pray for the rain to stop on their travels.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was walking on the roadwhen brain fell upon him. He said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable and Ḥanina is suffering. The rain stopped. When he came to his house he said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is sufferingfor lack of rain band Ḥanina is comfortable. The rain cameback. bRav Yosef said: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have with regard to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa?Notwithstanding the prayer of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s sanctity is greater, as God fulfills his bidding.,§ The mishna stated that the High Priest would not extend his prayer. bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: There was ban incidentinvolving ba certain High Priest who extended his prayer, and his fellow prieststook a vote, bcounted,and decided bto go in after himout of concern that he had died or fainted and required assistance. bThey began to enter andat that moment bhe emerged. They said to him: Why did you extend your prayer? He said to them:Why not? bDoes it trouble you that I prayed for you and for the Temple not to be destroyed? They said to him: Do not make a habit of doing so, as we learned: He would not extend his prayer, so as not to alarm the Jewish people,who might fear he had died., strongMISHNA: /strong bAfter the Ark was takeninto exile, bthere was a rockin the Holy of Holies bfrom the days of the early prophets,David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, bandthis stone bwas calledthe bfoundationrock. It was bthree fingerbreadths higher than the ground, andthe High Priest bwould placethe incense bon it.After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, bhe took the bloodof the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering bfromthe one bwho was stirring it,so it would not coagulate. bHe entered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place where hehad previously bstoodto offer the incense, between the staves. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. /b, bAnd he would neither intend to sprinklethe blood bupward norto sprinkle it bdownward, but rather like one who whips,with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. bAnd thisis how bhe would countas he sprinkled, to avoid error: bOne; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven.The High Priest then bemergedfrom there band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. /b, bThey brought him the goatto be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. bHe slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. Heagain bentered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place that hepreviously bstood, and sprinkled fromthe blood of the goat bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. And thisis how bhe would count,just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: bOne; one and one; one and two; etc.The High Priest then bemergedfrom the Holy of Holies band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there,and he btook the blood of the bullfrom the pedestal band placed the blood of the goatin its place., bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood of the bull bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outsidethe Holy of Holies, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, and he would not intend, etc. And thisis how bhe would count, etc.When he concluded, bhe took the blood of the goatfrom the pedestal band placed blood of the bullin its place on the pedestal. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe goat’s blood bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outside,just as he did with the blood of the bull, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, etc.Afterward, bhe poured the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and placedthe blood bfrom the fullbowl into the bemptybowl, so that the blood would be mixed well., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara comments with regard to the wording of the mishna: It does bnot teach: Afterthe Ark bwas buried, but: Afterit bwas taken.If so, bwe learnedthis mishna bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saidthat bthe Ark was exiled to Babyloniaand was not buried in its place, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: “And at the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord”(II Chronicles 36:10). These precious vessels must include the Ark.,Likewise, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come that all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored until this day, shall be carried to Babylonia; bnothing [ idavar /i] shall be left, says the Lord”(Isaiah 39:6). bThese are the Ten Commandments [ idibrot /i] that are inside it;they too shall not be left behind., bRabbi Yehuda ben Lakish says: The Ark was buried in its place, as it is stated: “And the ends of the staves were seen from the sacred place before the partition, but they could not be seen without; and they are there to this day”(I Kings 8:8). The expression “to this day” means forever, as the text might be read at any time. This teaches that the Ark is hidden in its place.,The Gemara comments: And bthisopinion that the Ark was exiled to Babylonia bdisagrees withthat bof Ulla, as Ulla said: Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai in Rome: And since Rabbi Eliezer taught us once and twice,i.e., from two separate verses, that bthe Ark was exiled to Babylonia.The Gemara interrupts its citation of Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash’s question to identify these two verses. bThe firstverse is bthat which we said: “And brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord.” What is the secondverse? Rabbi Eliezer said: bAs it is written: “And gone from the daughter of Zion is /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Meilah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. ילך ר' שמעון בן יוחאי שהוא מלומד בנסים ואחריו מי ילך ר"א בר ר' יוסי,אמר להם רבי יוסי ואילו היה אבא חלפתא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה אמר להם ר' שמעון אילו היה יוחאי אבא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה,אמר להו רבי יוסי אנא אזלין דלמא עניש ליה ר' שמעון דקא מסתפינא קביל עליה דלא ליענשיה אפילו הכי ענשיה,כשהיו מהלכין בדרך נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מנין לדם השרץ שהוא טמא עקם פיו ר' אלעזר בר רבי יוסי ואמר (ויקרא יא, כט) וזה לכם הטמא אמר ליה ר' שמעון מעקימת שפתיך אתה ניכר שתלמיד חכם אתה אל יחזור הבן אצל אביו,יצא לקראתו בן תמליון רצונכם אבוא עמכם בכה ר' שמעון ואמר מה שפחה של בית אבא נזדמן לה מלאך שלש פעמים ואני לא פעם אחת יבא הנס מכל מקום,קדים הוא על בברתיה דקיסר כי מטא התם אמר בן תמליון צא בן תמליון צא וכיון דקרו ליה נפק אזל אמר להון שאילו כל מה דאית לכון למישאל ועיילינהו לגנזיה לשקול כל דבעו אשכחו ההוא איגרא שקלוה וקרעוה,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר בר רבי יוסי אני ראיתיה בעיר [רומי] והוו עליה כמה טיפי דמים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הפיגול והנותר אין מצטרפין מפני שהן שני שמות השרץ והנבלה וכן הנבלה ובשר המת אין מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא אפילו בקל שבשניהן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא לטומאת הידים דמדרבנן היא אבל לענין אכילה מצטרפין דתניא ר' אליעזר אומר (שמות כט, לד) לא יאכל כי קדש הוא כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האוכל שנטמא באב הטומאה ושנטמא בולד הטומאה מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא בקל שבשניהם כל האוכלים מצטרפין זה עם זה לפסול הגוייה כבחצי פרס כבמזון,שתי סעודות לעירוב וכביצה לטמא טומאת אוכלין וכגרוגרת להוצאת שבת וככותבת ביום הכפורים כל המשקין מצטרפין זו עם זו לפסול את הגוייה ברביעית וכמלא לוגמא ביום הכפורים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי שמעון אומר מה טעם שאפשר לשני שיעשה ראשון ומי קא עביד שני ראשון הא לא אפשר,אמר רבא הכי קאמר מי גרם לשני לאו ראשון רב אשי אמר ראשון ושני לגבי שלישי בני חדא ביקתא אינון: 17b. Let bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai goto Rome, bas he is accustomed toexperiencing bmiracles. And who shall go after him,i.e., with him? bRabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei. /b,When bRabbi Yosei,Rabbi Elazar’s father, heard this suggestion, he bsaid tothe Sages: bBut if Abba Ḥalafta,my father, bwere alive,would byou be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed?If so, how can you ask me to send my son to Rome, where he is likely to be killed? bRabbi Shimon said tothe Sages: bIf Yoḥai,my bfather, were alive,would byou be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed?Nevertheless, I am prepared to risk my life and go to Rome, and if so, Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei should accompany me.,Upon hearing this, bRabbi Yosei said tothe Sages: If so, bI will goin place of my son. I do not want him to go with Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, basthis is what bI fear:My son Elazar is young and quick to answer, and I am concerned blest Rabbi Shimon,who is hot-tempered, will become angry with him and bpunishhim. Rabbi Shimon baccepted upon himself that he would not punishRabbi Elazar. The Gemara notes that beven so,Rabbi Shimon did bpunish himwhile they were on their journey.,Why did Rabbi Shimon end up punishing Rabbi Elazar? bWhen they were walking on the road, thisfollowing bquestion was asked before them: From whereis it derived bwith regard to blood of a creeping animal that it is impure? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei twisted his mouthto whisper band said:It is derived from the verse: b“And these are they that are impurefor you among the creeping animals” (Leviticus 11:29). Although Rabbi Elazar tried to whisper so that Rabbi Shimon would not hear, bRabbi Shimon said to him: From the twisting of your mouthand your answer bit is clearthat byou are a Torah scholar.Nevertheless, it is prohibited for a student to issue a ruling of ihalakhain the presence of his teacher. Therefore, I curse you that bthe son will not returnfrom this journey bto his father. /b,The Gemara continues the story: As they were journeying, a demon named bben Temalyon emerged to greet them.He said to them: Do byou wishthat bIwill join you and bcome with youin order to help nullify this decree? When he saw that a demon was coming to help save the Jewish people, bRabbi Shimon cried and said: What,even for ba maidservant ofmy bfather’s home,Hagar the Egyptian, who was Abraham’s handmaid, ban angel was made availableto appear bto her three timesto help her. Each of the three mentions of “and the angel of the Lord said unto her” (Genesis 16:9–11) in the story of Hagar is understood as a reference to a different angel. bBut Iapparently do bnotdeserve assistance from an angel even bone time,but only help from a demon. bIn any case, let the miracle comeand save the Jewish people, even if only through a demon.,The demon ben Temalyon went bbeforethem and bascended into the emperor’s daughterand possessed her. bWhenRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai barrived there,the emperor’s palace, bhe said: Ben Temalyon, emerge! Ben Temalyon, emerge! And onceRabbi Shimon bcalledto bhim,ben Temalyon bemerged and leftthe emperor’s daughter, and she was cured. When the emperor saw that Rabbi Shimon had cured his daughter, bhe said to them: Askfrom me banyreward bthat you want to ask. And he took them up to his treasury to take whatever they wanted. They found that letterthere that contained the decrees against the Jewish people, and bthey took it and tore itup, and thereby nullified the decrees.,The Gemara adds: bAnd this isthe background for that bwhich Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei said( iYoma57a): bI sawthe Curtain of the Sanctuary bin the city of Rome, and onthe Curtain bwere several drops of bloodfrom the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. When the emperor took them into his treasury Rabbi Elazar saw the Temple vessels that the Romans had captured when they conquered Jerusalem, including the Curtain., strongMISHNA: /strong Sacrificial meat that is ipiggulandsacrificial meat that is inotardo not join togetherto constitute the requisite measure of an olive-bulk, bdue tothe fact bthat theybelong to btwoseparate bcategoriesof prohibition. The flesh of the carcass of bthe creeping animal andthe flesh of bthe animal carcass, and likewisethe flesh of bthe animal carcass and the flesh of the corpse, do not join together to transmit ritual impurity,not beven for themore blenient of the twoimpurities, i.e., the impurity that requires the greater measure., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The mishna btaughtthat ipigguland inotardo not join together bonly with regard tothe ritual bimpurity of the handsif one touched them, which bis by rabbinic law. But with regard tothe bmatter of eating, they do join together. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:The verse states with regard to leftover sacrificial food from meat and bread: b“It shall not be eaten because it is sacred”(Exodus 29:34). This teaches with regard to banything sacredthat has been bdisqualifiedfor whatever reason, that bthe verse comes to apply a prohibition with regard to its consumption. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe food that became ritually impurethrough contact bwith a primary source of ritual impurity,thereby assuming first-degree ritual impurity, bandthe food bthat became ritually impurethrough contact bwith a secondary source of ritual impurity,thereby assuming second-degree ritual impurity, bjoin togetherto constitute the requisite measure of an egg-bulk bto transmit impurity in accordance with themore blenient of the two,i.e., second-degree ritual impurity. bAll theritually impure bfoods join togetherto constitute the requisite measure bto disqualify the body [ ihageviyya /i]of one who eats bhalf of a half-loaf-bulk [ iperas /i]of the impure foods from partaking of iteruma /i.,Likewise, all foods join together to constitute the requisite measure bof foodsufficient for btwo meals, toestablish ba joining ofShabbat bboundaries; andto form the requisite measure bof an egg-bulk, to renderan item bimpurewith bthe ritual impurity of food; andto form the measure bofa dried bfig-bulk,which establishes liability bfor carrying outfood on bShabbat; andto form the volume bof a large date,which establishes liability for eating bon Yom Kippur. All the liquids join togetherto constitute the requisite measure bto disqualify the body ofone who drinks ba quarter- ilog /iof ritually impure liquid from partaking of iteruma /i; bandto constitute the measure bof a cheekful,which establishes liability for drinking bon Yom Kippur. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: What is the reasonthat food with first-degree ritual impurity joins together with food that has second-degree ritual impurity? The reason is bthat it is possible forthe food with bsecond- /bdegree impurity bto renderanother food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity. The Gemara asks: bBut cana food with bsecond- /bdegree impurity brenderanother food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity? That is bnot possible.If food impure with second-degree impurity touches other food, it renders that food impure with third-degree impurity, not first-degree impurity., bRava saidthat bthisis what Rabbi Shimon bis saying: What causedthat food to become impure with bsecond- /bdegree impurity? Is it bnotthat it was touched by food with bfirst- /bdegree impurity? Since they share a common source, they join together. bRav Ashisimilarly bsaid:Food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity bandfood impure with bsecond- /bdegree impurity, bwith regard tofood impure with bthird- /bdegree impurity, bareconsidered like bmembers of one house,i.e., they both lead to third-degree impurity, either directly or indirectly, and for this reason they join together.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
corinth Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
eliezer, rr. Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
emperor Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
gamaliel, rabban Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
halakhah, as modality of tradition' Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 188
halakhah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
julius caesar Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
land of israel Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
matya ben harash, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
maʿaser Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
rome Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
shimon bar yohai, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
terumah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
torah, oral and written Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 188
yehoshua (ben hananiah), rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
yishmael, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
ḥaver/ḥavurah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233