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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10946
Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5.11


היה ר' מאיר אומר יש איש ואשה שמולידין חמש אומות כיצד עובד כוכבים שיש לו עבד ושפחה ולהם שני בנים נתגייר אחד מהם נמצא אחד גר ואחד עובד כוכבים נתגייר רבן וגיירן לעבדים והולידו בן הולד עבד נשתחרר אחד מהן והולידו בן הולד ממזר נשתחררה שפחה ובא עליה אותו עבד והולידו בן הולד משוחרר נשתחררו שניהם והולידו בן הולד עבד משוחרר יש שמוכר את אביו ליתן לאמו כתובה כיצד מי שיש לו עבד ושפחה והולידו בן שיחרר שפחתו ונשאה וכתב כל נכסיו לבנה זה הוא שמוכר אביו ליתן לאמו כתובה.Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof."
2. Mishnah, Nedarim, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.11. [If one says,] “Konam that I do not benefit from the Children of Noah,” he may benefit from Israelites, and he is forbidden to benefit from the nations of the world. [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from the seed of Abraham,” he is forbidden [to benefit] from Israelites, but permitted [to benefit] from the nations of the world. [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from Israelites”, he may buy things from them for more [than their worth] and sell them for less. [If he says, “Konam] if Israelites benefit from me, he must buy from them for less and sell for more [than their worth], if they will listen to him. [If he says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from them, nor they from me”, he may benefit only from non-Jews. [If one says,] “Konam that I do not benefit from the uncircumcised”, he may benefit from uncircumcised Israelites but not from circumcised heathens”; [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from the circumcised,” he is forbidden to benefit from uncircumcised Israelites but not from circumcised non-Jews, because “uncircumcised” is a term applicable only to non-Jews, as it says, “For all the nations are uncircumcised and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart” (Jeremiah 9:25). And it says, “And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be [as one of them]” (I Samuel 17:6). And it says, “Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised exult” (II Samuel 1:20). Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: The foreskin is loathsome, since it is a term of disgrace for the wicked, as it says, “For all the nations are uncircumcised”. Rabbi Ishmael says: Great is circumcision, since thirteen covets were made upon it. Rabbi Yose says: Great is circumcision, for it overrides the Sabbath. Rabbi Joshua ben Karha says: Great is circumcision for Moses’s punishment for neglecting it was not suspended even for one hour. Rabbi Nehemiah says: Great is circumcision, since it overrides the laws of leprosy. Rabbi says: Great is circumcision, for despite all of the commandments which Abraham fulfilled he was not designated complete until he circumcised himself, as it says, “Walk before me, and be complete” (Genesis 17:1). Another explanation: “Great is circumcision, for were it not for it, the Holy One, Blessed Be He, would not have created the world, as it says, “Were it not for my covet by day and night, I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:35)."
3. Mishnah, Makhshirin, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5. A city in which Israelites and non-Jews dwell together and there was a bathhouse working on Shabbat: If the majority [of the inhabitants] were non-Jews, one may bathe in it immediately [after the conclusion of the Shabbat]; If the majority were Israelites, one must wait until the water can be heated; If they were half and half, one must [also] wait until the water can be heated. Rabbi Judah says: if the bathhouse was small and there was there a [non-Jewish] authority, one may bathe in it immediately [after the conclusion of Shabbat]."
4. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.3, 3.12, 5.2, 8.4-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.13, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.13. “A man who had a seminal emission (Baal Keri) who does not have water to dip in may read the Shema, but he may not [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and does not say the Beracha (blessing) not before it and not after it.” [These are] the words of Rebbi Meir. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, ”He may read the Shema and he may [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and he says the Beracha [both] before it and after it.” Rebbi Meir said, “One time we were sitting in the Bet Midrash (Study Hall) in front of Rebbi Akiva and we were reading the Shema, but we were not saying it loud enough to be able to hear ourselves, because of one inquisitor who was standing by the door.” They (i.e. Chachamim) said [back] to him, “The time of danger is not a proof.”" 6.18. [A person] who circumcises converts [to Judaism for their conversion] says [the following Beracha (blessing): Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu {Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of converts] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu} Lamul Et Hagerim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise converts and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet). [A person] who circumcises slaves [when they get bought by a Jew] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu] Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of slaves] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lamol Et Haavadim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise slaves and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet)."
6. Tosefta, Demai, 6.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Qiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
8. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47b. (במדבר יח, כח) מכל מעשרותיכם תרימו ומה ראית האי אידגן והאי לא אידגן:,מעשר שני והקדש שנפדו: פשיטא הב"ע כגון שנתן את הקרן ולא נתן את החומש והא קמ"ל דאין חומש מעכב:,השמש שאכל כזית: פשיטא מהו דתימא שמש לא קבע קמ"ל:,והכותי מזמנין עליו: אמאי לא יהא אלא עם הארץ ותניא אין מזמנין על ע"ה,אביי אמר בכותי חבר רבא אמר אפילו תימא בכותי ע"ה והכא בע"ה דרבנן דפליגי עליה דר' מאיר עסקינן דתניא איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו אוכל חוליו בטהרה דברי ר"מ וחכמים אומרים כל שאינו מעשר פירותיו כראוי והני כותאי עשורי מעשרי כדחזי דבמאי דכתיב באורייתא מזהר זהירי דאמר מר כל מצוה שהחזיקו בה כותים הרבה מדקדקין בה יותר מישראל,ת"ר איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו קורא ק"ש ערבית ושחרית דברי ר' אליעזר רבי יהושע אומר כל שאינו מניח תפילין בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו ר' נתן אומר כל שאין מזוזה על פתחו ר' נתן בר יוסף אומר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלם לת"ת אחרים אומרים אפי' קרא ושנה ולא שמש ת"ח הרי זה ע"ה א"ר הונא הלכה כאחרים,רמי בר חמא לא אזמין עליה דרב מנשיא בר תחליפא דתני ספרא וספרי והלכתא כי נח נפשיה דרמי בר חמא אמר רבא לא נח נפשיה דרמי בר חמא אלא דלא אזמין ארב מנשיא בר תחליפא והתניא אחרים אומרים אפילו קרא ושנה ולא שמש ת"ח הרי זה ע"ה שאני רב מנשיא בר תחליפא דמשמע להו לרבנן ורמי בר חמא הוא דלא דק אבתריה ל"א דשמע שמעתתא מפומייהו דרבנן וגריס להו כצורבא מרבנן דמי:,אכל טבל ומעשר וכו': טבל פשיטא לא צריכא בטבל טבול מדרבנן ה"ד בעציץ שאינו נקוב:,מעשר ראשון כו': פשיטא לא צריכא כגון שהקדימו בכרי מהו דתימא כדאמר ליה רב פפא לאביי קמ"ל כדשני ליה:,מעשר שני וכו': פשיטא לא צריכא שנפדו ולא נפדו כהלכתן מעשר שני כגון שפדאו על גבי אסימון ורחמנא אמר (דברים יד, כה) וצרת הכסף בידך כסף שיש (לו) עליו צורה הקדש שחללו על גבי קרקע ולא פדאו בכסף ורחמנא אמר (ויקרא כז, יט) ונתן הכסף וקם לו:,והשמש שאכל פחות מכזית: פשיטא איידי דתנא רישא כזית תנא סיפא פחות מכזית:,והנכרי אין מזמנין עליו: פשיטא הכא במאי עסקינן בגר שמל ולא טבל דאמר רבי זירא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אינו גר עד שימול ויטבול וכמה דלא טבל נכרי הוא:,נשים ועבדים וקטנים אין מזמנין עליהן: אמר רבי יוסי קטן המוטל בעריסה מזמנין עליו,והא תנן נשים ועבדים וקטנים אין מזמנין עליהם,הוא דאמר כרבי יהושע בן לוי דאמר ריב"ל אף על פי שאמרו קטן המוטל בעריסה אין מזמנין עליו אבל עושין אותו סניף לעשרה,ואמר ריב"ל תשעה ועבד מצטרפין מיתיבי מעשה ברבי אליעזר שנכנס לבית הכנסת ולא מצא עשרה ושחרר עבדו והשלימו לעשרה שחרר אין לא שחרר לא תרי אצטריכו שחרר חד ונפיק בחד,והיכי עביד הכי והאמר רב יהודה כל המשחרר עבדו עובר בעשה שנאמר (ויקרא כה, מו) לעולם בהם תעבודו לדבר מצוה שאני מצוה הבאה בעבירה היא מצוה דרבים שאני,ואמר ריב"ל לעולם ישכים אדם לבית הכנסת כדי שיזכה וימנה עם עשרה הראשונים שאפילו מאה באים אחריו קבל עליו שכר כולם שכר כולם סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נותנין לו שכר כנגד כולם,אמר רב הונא תשעה וארון מצטרפין א"ל רב נחמן וארון גברא הוא אלא אמר רב הונא תשעה נראין כעשרה מצטרפין אמרי לה כי מכנפי ואמרי לה כי מבדרי,אמר רבי אמי שנים ושבת מצטרפין אמר ליה רב נחמן ושבת גברא הוא אלא אמר רבי אמי שני תלמידי חכמים המחדדין זה את זה בהלכה מצטרפין מחוי רב חסדא כגון אנא ורב ששת מחוי רב ששת כגון אנא ורב חסדא,א"ר יוחנן קטן פורח מזמנין עליו תנ"ה קטן שהביא שתי שערות מזמנין עליו ושלא הביא שתי שערות אין מזמנין עליו ואין מדקדקין בקטן הא גופא קשיא אמרת הביא שתי שערות אין לא הביא לא והדר תני אין מדקדקין בקטן לאתויי מאי לאו 47b. b“From all of that is given to you, you shall set apartthat which is the Lord’s iteruma /i” (Numbers 18:29). God’s iteruma /i, iteruma gedola /i, must be taken from all of the Levites’ gifts. The Gemara asks: bAnd what did you seethat led you to require iteruma gedolafrom first tithe that was taken from grain in piles and not from first tithe that was taken from grain on stalks? Abaye answers: bThis,after it was threshed and placed into piles, is completely processed and bhas become grain, and that,which remained on the stalk, bdid notyet bbecome grain.The verse regarding iteruma gedolastates: “The first of your grain” (Deuteronomy 18:4), is given to the priest. Once it is considered grain, the right of the priest takes effect and the Levite is required to separate iteruma gedola /i.,The mishna states that if, among the diners, one ate bsecond tithe and consecrated food that were redeemed,he may be included in a izimmun /i.The Gemara remarks: bIt is obviousthat if these items were redeemed that one could participate in a izimmun /i. The Gemara responds: bWith what are we dealing here?We are dealing with ba casewhere the consecrated property was not completely redeemed, i.e., bwhere one gavepayment for bthe principal,the value of the tithe, bbut he did not givepayment for bthe fifththat he must add when redeeming items that he consecrated; bandthe mishna bteaches usthat failure to add bthe fifth does not invalidatethe redemption.,We learned in the mishna: bThe waiter who ateat least ban olive-bulkfrom the meal may join in a izimmun /i. The Gemara remarks: bIt is obvious.Why was it necessary for the mishna to teach this ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: bLest you say that the waiterwho stands and serves the diners bdid not establishhimself as a participant in the meal and, therefore, cannot join the izimmun /i, the mishna bteaches usthat even the waiter is considered to have established himself as a participant in the meal.,The mishna states that ba Samaritan [ iKuti /i] may be included in a izimmun /i.The Gemara asks: bWhy?Even if you consider him a member of the Jewish people, blet him be merely an iam ha’aretz /i,one who is not scrupulous in matters of ritual purity and tithes, band it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAn iam ha’aretzmay not be included in a izimmun /i. /b,The Gemara offers several answers: bAbaye said:The mishna is referring to a iKutiwho is a iḥaver /i,one who is scrupulous in those areas. bRava said: Even if you saythat the mishna refers to ba iKuti /iwho is an iam ha’aretz /i, and herethe prohibition to include an iam ha’aretzin a izimmunrefers to an iam ha’aretz /ias defined by bthe Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Meir, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWho is an iam ha’aretz /i? Anyone who does not eat non-sacred food ina state of britual purity.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:An iam ha’aretzis banyone who does not appropriately tithe his produce. And these iKutimtithetheir produce bappropriately, as they are scrupulous with regard to that which is written in the Torah, as the Master said: Any mitzva that the iKutimembracedand accepted upon themselves, bthey areeven bmore exacting in itsobservance bthan Jews. /b,The Gemara cites a ibaraitawith additional opinions with regard to the defining characteristics of an iam ha’aretz /i: bThe Sages taught: Who is an iam ha’aretz /i? One who does not recite iShemain the evening and morning. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer.Rabbi Yehoshua says:An iam ha’aretzis bone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says:An iam ha’aretzis bone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Natan says:An iam ha’aretzis bone who does not have a imezuzaon his doorway. Rabbi Natan bar Yosef says:An iam ha’aretzis bone who has children butwho does not want them to study Torah, so he bdoes not raise them toengage in bTorah study. iAḥerimsay: Even if one read the Bible and studied Mishna and did not serve Torah scholarsto learn from them the meaning of the Torah that he studied, bthat is an iam ha’aretz /i. Rav Huna said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of iAḥerim /i. /b,The Gemara relates: bRami bar Ḥama did not include Rav Menashya bar Taḥlifa, who studied iSifra /i, iSifrei,and ihalakhot,in a izimmun /ibecause he had merely studied and did not serve Torah scholars. bWhen Rami bar Ḥama passed away, Rava said: Rami bar Ḥama died only because he did not include Rabbi Menashya bar Taḥlifa in a izimmun /i.The Gemara asks: bWas it not taughtin a ibaraita /i: iAḥerimsay: Even if one read the Bible and studied mishna and did not serve Torah scholars, that is an iam ha’aretz /i?Why, then, was Rami bar Ḥama punished? The Gemara answers: bRav Menashya bar Taḥlifa is different, as he served the Sages. And it was Rami bar Ḥama who was not precisein his efforts to check bafter himto ascertain his actions. bAnother versionof the Gemara’s answer: Anyone bwho hears ihalakhotfrom the mouths of Sages and studies them is considered a Torah scholar. /b,The mishna states that bone who ate untithed produce andfirst btithe etc.is not included in a izimmun /i. The Gemara remarks: bIt is obviousas one is forbidden to eat untithed produce. The Gemara responds: bIt was only necessaryto teach this ihalakhawith regard to a case where it is only considered buntithed produce by rabbinic law,although by Torah law it was permitted. bWhat are the circumstances?Where the produce grew bin an unperforated flowerpot,as anything grown disconnected from the ground is not considered produce of the ground and is exempt by Torah law from tithing. It is only by rabbinic law that it is considered untithed.,We learned in the mishna that one who ate bfirst tithefrom which its iterumawas not separated may not be included in a izimmun /i. The Gemara remarks: bIt is obvious.The Gemara responds: bIt was only necessaryfor the mishna to teach this with regard to a case bwherethe Levite bprecededthe priest after the kernels of grain were placed bin a pile. Lest you say as Rav Pappa said to Abaye,that in that case, too, the produce should be exempt from the obligation to separate iteruma gedola /i, the itannaof the mishna bteaches us asAbaye brespondedto Rav Pappa, that there is a difference between the case when the grain was on the stalks and the case when the grain was in a pile.,We also learned in the mishna that if one ate bsecond titheand consecrated food that had not been redeemed, he may not be included in a izimmun /i. The Gemara remarks: bIt is obvious?Why was it necessary for the mishna to teach this ihalakha /i? The Gemara responds: bIt was only necessaryfor the mishna to teach this ihalakhawith regard to a case bwhere they were redeemed, but not redeemed properly, i.e., second tithe that was redeemed with an unminted coin [ iasimon /i],a silver bullion that had not been engraved. bAnd the Torah says: “And bind up [ ivetzarta /i] the money in your hand”(Deuteronomy 14:25), which the Sages interpreted as follows: iVetzartarefers to bmoney that has a form [ itzura /i]engraved bupon it. Consecrated property;in a case bwhere he redeemed itby exchanging it bfor land instead of money, and the Torah states: “He will give the money and it will be assured to him”(Leviticus 27:19).,The mishna states that ba waiter who ate less than an olive-bulkmay not join a izimmun /i. The Gemara remarks: bIt is obvious.Why was it necessary for the mishna to teach this ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: bSince the first clauseof the mishna btaughtthe ihalakhawith regard to a waiter who ate ban olive-bulk, the latter clause taughtthe ihalakhawith regard to a waiter who ate bless than an olive-bulk.Although it is obvious, in the interest of arriving at a similar formulation in the two parts of the mishna, it was included.,The mishna further states that ba gentile is not included in a izimmun /i.The Gemara remarks: bIt is obvious.Why was it necessary for the mishna to teach this ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here?We are dealing bwitha case of ba convert who was circumcised butdid bnotyet bimmersehimself in a ritual bath, bas Rabbi Zeira saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One is neverconsidered ba proselyte until he is circumcised and immerseshimself. bAs long as he did not immersehimself, bhe is a gentile. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bwomen, slaves, and minors are not included in a izimmun /i. Rabbi Yosei said: A minor lying in a cradle is included in a izimmun /i. /b,The Gemara objects: bDidn’t we learnin the mishna bthat women, slaves, and minors are not included in a izimmun /i? /b,The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yosei bstatedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Although a minor lying in a cradle is not included in a izimmun /i, one may make him an adjunct tocomplete an assembly of btenpeople, enabling them to invoke God’s name in a izimmun /i.,On the subject of completing a izimmun /i, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: NineJews band a slave join togetherto form a izimmunof ten. The Gemara braises an objection:There was an bincident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who entered a synagogue and did not finda quorum of bten, and he liberated his slave and he completed thequorum of bten.From this we may infer that if he bfreedhis slave, byes,he may join the quorum of ten, but if he bdid not freehim, bno,he may not join the quorum of ten. The Gemara responds: In that case, btwo were requiredto complete the quorum; Rabbi Eliezer bfreed one and fulfilled his obligation withanother bone,who completed the quorum of ten without being freed.,With regard to this incident, the Gemara asks: bHow did he do that? Didn’t Rav Yehuda say: Anyone who frees hisCanaanite bslave violates a positive mitzva, as it is statedwith regard to Canaanite slaves: “You will keep them as an inheritance for your children after you, to hold as a possession; bthey will serve as bondsmen for you forever”(Leviticus 25:46)? How, then, could Rabbi Eliezer have freed his slave? The Gemara answers: The case of ba mitzva is different.The Gemara asks: bIt is a mitzva that comes through a transgression,and a mitzva fulfilled in that manner is inherently flawed. The Gemara responds: bA mitzvathat benefits bthe many is different,and one may free his slave for that purpose.,In praise of a quorum of ten, the Gemara states that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One should always rise earlyto go bto the synagogue in order to have the privilege and be counted among the first tento complete the quorum, bas even if one hundredpeople barrive after him, he receives the reward of them all,as they are all joining that initial quorum. The Gemara is perplexed: bDoes it enter your mindthat he receives bthe reward of them all?Why should he take away their reward? bRather,emend the statement and bsay: He receives a reward equivalent tothe reward of bthem all. /b,With regard to the laws of joining a quorum, bRav Huna said: Nine plus an arkin which the Torah scrolls are stored bjointo form a quorum of ten. bRav Naḥman said to him: Is an ark a man,that it may be counted in the quorum of ten? bRather, Rav Huna said: Nine who appear like ten may join together.There was disagreement over this: bSome said this ihalakhaas follows: Nine appear like ten bwhen they are gathered. And some said this ihalakhaas follows: Nine appear like ten bwhen they are scattered,the disagreement being which formation creates the impression of a greater number of individuals.,Similarly, bRav Ami said: Twopeople band Shabbat jointo form a izimmun /i. bRav Naḥman said to him: Is Shabbat a person,that it may be counted in a izimmun /i? bRather, Rav Ami said: Two Torah scholars who hone each other’sintellect bin halakhicdiscourse bjoin togetherand are considered three. The Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda pointedto an example of two such Torah scholars who hone each other’s intellect: bFor example, me and Rav Sheshet.Similarly, bRav Sheshet pointed: For example, me and Rav Ḥisda. /b,With regard to a minor’s inclusion in a izimmun /i, bRabbi Yoḥa said: A mature minor,i.e., one who is still a minor in terms of age, but is displaying signs of puberty, bis included in a izimmun /i. Thatopinion bwas also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA minor who grew twopubic bhairs,a sign of puberty, bis included in a izimmun /i; and one who did not grow two hairs is not included in a izimmun /i. And one is not exacting with regard to a minor.The Gemara comments: bThis ibaraita bitself is difficult. You said thata minor bwho grew two hairs, yes,he is included, bone who did not growtwo hairs, bno,he is not included, band then it taught that one is not exacting with regard to a minor. Whatdoes this last clause come bto include? Is it not /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין תלמוד לומר אתך בכל מקום שאתך אם כן מה ת"ל בארץ בארץ צריך להביא ראיה בח"ל אין צריך להביא ראיה דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ צריך להביא ראיה,בא הוא ועדיו עמו קרא למה לי אמר רב ששת דאמרי שמענו שנתגייר בב"ד של פלוני סד"א לא ליהמנייהו קמ"ל,בארץ אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין ת"ל אתך בכל מקום שאתך והא אפיקתיה חדא מאתך וחדא מעמך,וחכ"א בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה ואלא הא כתיב בארץ,ההוא מיבעי ליה דאפילו בארץ מקבלים גרים דסד"א משום טיבותא דארץ ישראל קמגיירי והשתא נמי דליכא טיבותא איכא לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני קמ"ל,א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה פשיטא יחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים מהו דתימא מסתבר טעמא דרבי יהודה דקמסייעי ליה קראי קמ"ל,ת"ר (דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק בין איש ובין אחיו ובין גרו מכאן א"ר יהודה גר שנתגייר בב"ד הרי זה גר בינו לבין עצמו אינו גר,מעשה באחד שבא לפני רבי יהודה ואמר לו נתגיירתי ביני לבין עצמי א"ל רבי יהודה יש לך עדים אמר ליה לאו יש לך בנים א"ל הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול את עצמך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול את בניך,[ומי] א"ר יהודה אבנים לא מהימן והתניא (דברים כא, יז) יכיר יכירנו לאחרים מכאן א"ר יהודה נאמן אדם לומר זה בני בכור וכשם שנאמן לומר זה בני בכור כך נאמן לומר בני זה בן גרושה הוא או בן חלוצה הוא וחכ"א אינו נאמן,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק ה"ק ליה לדבריך עובד כוכבים אתה ואין עדות לעובד כוכבים רבינא אמר הכי קאמר ליה יש לך בנים הן יש לך בני בנים הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול בניך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול בני בניך,תניא נמי הכי ר' יהודה אומר נאמן אדם לומר על בנו קטן ואין נאמן על בנו גדול ואמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לא קטן קטן ממש ולא גדול גדול ממש אלא קטן ויש לו בנים זהו גדול גדול ואין לו בנים זהו קטן,והלכתא כוותיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק והתניא כוותיה דרבינא ההוא לענין יכיר איתמר,תנו רבנן גר שבא להתגייר בזמן הזה אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר אי אתה יודע שישראל בזמן הזה דוויים דחופים סחופים ומטורפין ויסורין באין עליהם אם אומר יודע אני ואיני כדאי מקבלין אותו מיד,ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות ומודיעין אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני ומודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות אומרים לו הוי יודע שעד שלא באת למדה זו אכלת חלב אי אתה ענוש כרת חללת שבת אי אתה ענוש סקילה ועכשיו אכלת חלב ענוש כרת חללת שבת ענוש סקילה,וכשם שמודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות כך מודיעין אותו מתן שכרן אומרים לו הוי יודע שהעולם הבא אינו עשוי אלא לצדיקים וישראל בזמן הזה אינם יכולים לקבל 47a. bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states “with you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: In the land?This indicates that bin EretzYisrael bhe needs to bring evidencethat he is a convert, bbut outsideof bEretzYisrael bhe does not need to bring evidencethat he is a convert; rather, his claim is accepted. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: In the case when bhe came andbrought bwitnessesto his conversion bwith him, why do Ineed ba verseto teach that he is accepted? In all cases, the testimony of witnesses is fully relied upon. bRav Sheshet said:The case is bwhere they say: We heard that he converted inthe bcourtof bso-and-so,but they did not witness the actual conversion. And it is necessary to teach this because it could benter your mind to saythat bthey should not be relied upon;therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are relied upon.,As cited above, the latter clause of the ibaraitastates: “With you binyour bland”(Leviticus 19:33). bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states: “With you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t youalready bexpound thatphrase in the first clause of the ibaraitato teach that one doesn’t accept the claims of an individual that he is a valid convert? The Gemara explains: bOneof these ihalakhotis derived from the phrase b“with you”in the verse cited, bandthe other boneis derived from the phrase b“with you”in a subsequent verse (Leviticus 25:35).,The ibaraitastates: bAnd the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t “inyour bland” writtenin the verse? How can the Rabbis deny any distinction between the ihalakhainside and outside of Eretz Yisrael?,The Gemara explains: bThatphrase bis necessaryto teach bthat even in EretzYisrael, the Jewish people should baccept converts, as it could enter your mind to saythat it is only bfor the sake ofbenefiting from bthe goodness of Eretz Yisrael,and not for the sake of Heaven, that bthey are converting,and therefore they should not be accepted. bAndit could also enter your mind to say that even bnowadays, whenGod’s blessing has ceased and bthere is nolonger btheoriginal bgoodnessfrom which to benefit, one should still suspect their purity of motives because bthere arethe bgleanings,the bforgotten sheaves, andthe bcornersof fields, band the poor man’s tithefrom which they would benefit by converting. Therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are accepted even in Eretz Yisrael., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakha /iis that bwhethera convert is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutside of EretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis bobvious;in all disputes between ban individualSage band manySages the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of the bmanySages. The Gemara explains: It is necessary to state this blest you saythat bRabbi Yehuda’s reasonis more blogical, being that the verse supports himwhen it states: “In your land.” Therefore, it is necessary for Rabbi Yoḥa to bteach usthat the ihalakhais not in accordance with his opinion., bThe Sages taught:The verse states that Moses charged the judges of a court: b“And judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the convert with him”(Deuteronomy 1:16). bFrom here,based on the mention of a convert in the context of judgment in a court, bRabbi Yehuda said:A potential bconvert who converts in a court is avalid bconvert.However, if he converts bin private, he is not a convert. /b,The Gemara relates: There was ban incident involving onewho was presumed to be Jewish bwho came before Rabbi Yehuda and said to him: I converted in private,and therefore I am not actually Jewish. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:Do byou have witnessesto support your claim? bHe said to him: No.Rabbi Yehuda asked: Do byou have children? He said to him: Yes.Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render yourself unfitto marry a Jewish woman by claiming that you are a gentile, bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut did Rabbi Yehudaactually bsaythat bwith regard tohis bchildren he is not deemed credible? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“He shall acknowledge [ iyakir /i]the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has” (Deuteronomy 21:17). The phrase “he shall acknowledge” is apparently superfluous. It is therefore expounded to teach that the father is deemed credible so that bhe can identify him [ iyakirenu /i] to others. From here Rabbi Yehuda said: A man is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, and just as he is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, sotoo, a priest bis deemed credible to say: This son of mine is a son of a divorced womanand myself, borto say: He is ba son of a iḥalutza /iand myself, and therefore he is disqualified due to flawed lineage [ iḥalal /i]. bAnd the Rabbis say: He is not deemed credible.If Rabbi Yehuda holds that a father is deemed credible to render his children unfit, why did he rule otherwise in the case of the convert?, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: According to your statement you are a gentile, and there is no testimony for a gentile,as a gentile is a disqualified witness. Consequently, you cannot testify about the status of your children and render them unfit. bRavina saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him:Do byou have children? He said: Yes. He said to him:Do byou have grandchildren?He said: bYes. He said to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit,based on the phrase “he shall acknowledge,” bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your grandchildren unfit,as the verse affords a father credibility only with respect to his children., bThisopinion of Ravina bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda says: A man is deemed credible to say about his minor sonthat he is unfit, bbut he is not deemed credible to say about his adult sonthat he is unfit. bAndin explanation of the ibaraita /i, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The reference to ba minorson does bnotmean one who is bliterally a minor,who has not yet reached majority, bandthe reference to ban adultson does bnotmean one who is bliterally an adult,who has reached majority; brather, a minor who has children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ban adult,and ban adult who does not have children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ba minor. /b,The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Ravina?If there is a ibaraitathat supports his opinion, the ihalakhashould be in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara explains: bThat ibaraita bwas stated concerning the matter of “he shall acknowledge,”that a father is deemed credible to render his son unfit; however, if one claims he is a gentile, he is not deemed credible to say the same about his son.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to a potential bconvert who comes toa court in order to bconvert, at the present time,when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court bsay to him: What did you see thatmotivated byouto bcome to convert? Don’t you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships arefrequently bvisited upon them? If he says: I know, andalthough bI am unworthyof joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court baccepts him immediatelyto begin the conversion process., bAndthe judges of the court binform himof bsome of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field, bandabout the bpoor man’s tithe. And they inform himof bthe punishment fortransgressing bthe mitzvot,as follows: bThey say to him: Be aware that before you came to this statusand converted, bhad you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by ikaret /i,and bhad you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning,since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. bBut now,once converted, if byou have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by ikaret /i,and if byou have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning. /b, bAnd just as they inform himabout the bpunishment fortransgressing the bmitzvot, sotoo, bthey inform himabout the breward granted forfulfilling bthem. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous,and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, bandbe aware that bthe Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receivetheir full reward in this world;


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham (abram) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 233
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
amorarim, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
amorarim, distinct layers of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
amorarim, sources Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
amphitheater Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
anonymous strata of the talmud, anonymous addition Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126, 159
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), fourth (conversion court / witnesses) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 35, 233
blessings Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 35, 164, 233
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
circumcision, improper Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
circumcision, paschal offering and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
circumcision, without immersion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
circumcision Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164, 233
city/town Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 233
conversion, mini-tractate on (bt yevamot, annotated texts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
conversion court, fourth baraita (conversion court / witnesses) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
corpse(-uncleanness) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 35
courtyard Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 233
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
demai Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 159
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 159
eliezer Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
epstein, j. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126
governing voice, bavli Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
hiyya bar abba Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
immersion, baraita (first) (circumcision and immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
nahman ben isaac Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
non-jews, immersion and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
non-jews Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
paschal sacrifice (offering) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
rabbi yehudah ha-nasi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
samaritans (kutim) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
slaves, circumcision of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
statutory language, mini-tractate of conversion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
sugiah (sugiot), fourth baraita Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
sugiah (sugiot), status of offspring Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244
talmud yerushalmi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244, 245
uncircumcised' Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 245
yohanan Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 244