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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10942
Tosefta, Hulin, 2.22-2.24
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וְהָיָה אִם־בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר׃ 25.2. then it shall be, if the wicked man deserve to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to the measure of his wickedness, by number."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.8. הַרְחֵק מֵעָלֶיהָ דַרְכֶּךָ וְאַל־תִּקְרַב אֶל־פֶּתַח בֵּיתָהּ׃ 5.8. Remove thy way far from her, And come not nigh the door of her house;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 10.5, 10.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.5. יֵשׁ רָעָה רָאִיתִי תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ כִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁיֹּצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁלִּיט׃ 10.8. חֹפֵר גּוּמָּץ בּוֹ יִפּוֹל וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ׃ 10.5. There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, like an error which proceedeth from a ruler:" 10.8. He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso breaketh through a fence, a serpent shall bite him."
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.40 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.40. Then under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen.'
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.21-3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.21. Seek not what is too difficult for you,nor investigate what is beyond your power. 3.22. Reflect upon what has been assigned to you,for you do not need what is hidden.
7. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.1, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. On the three days preceding the festivals of idolaters, it is forbidden to conduct business with them, to lend articles to them or borrow from them, to lend or borrow any money from them, to repay a debt, or receive repayment from them. Rabbi Judah says: we should receive repayment from them, as this can only depress them; But they [the Rabbis] said to him: even though it is depressing at the time, they are glad of it subsequently." 2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted.
8. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
9. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!" 2.8. If one slaughtered [an animal] as a sacrifice to mountains, hills, seas, rivers, or deserts, the slaughtering is invalid. If two persons held a knife and slaughtered [an animal], one intending it as a sacrifice to one of these things and the other for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid." 2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics."
10. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders." 4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
11. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1, 2.8-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If they don’t know him [the one who came to testify], they send another with him to testify concerning [his reliability]. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the court]." 2.8. Rabban Gamaliel had diagrams of the moon on a tablet [hung] on the wall of his upper chamber, and he used to show them to the unlearned and say, “Did it look like this or this?” It happened that two witnesses came and said, “We saw it in the morning in the east and in the evening in the west.” Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri said: they are lying witnesses. When they came to Yavneh Rabban Gamaliel accepted them. On another occasion two witnesses came and said, “We saw it at its proper time, but on the night which should have been the new moon it was not seen,” and Rabban Gamaliel accepted their evidence. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: they are lying witnesses. How can they testify that a woman has given birth when on the next day her belly is between her teeth (swollen)? Rabbi Joshua to him: I see your argument." 2.9. Rabban Gamaliel sent to him: I order you to appear before me with your staff and your money on the day which according to your count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabbi Akiva went and found him in distress. He said to him: I can teach that whatever Rabban Gamaliel has done is valid, because it says, “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, holy convocations, which you shall proclaim at their appointed times” (Leviticus 23:4), whether they are [proclaimed] at their proper time or not at their proper time, I have no other appointed times save these. He [Rabbi Joshua] then went to Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas. He said to him: if we call in question the court of Rabban Gamaliel we must call in question the decisions of every court which has existed since the days of Moses until now. As it says, “Then Moses and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu and seventy of the elders of Israel went up” (Exodus 24:9). Why were the names of the elders not mentioned? To teach that every group of three which has acted as a court over Israel, behold it is like the court of Moses. He [Rabbi Joshua] took his staff and his money and went to Yavneh to Rabban Gamaliel on the day which according to his count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabban Gamaliel rose and kissed him on his head and said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student my teacher in wisdom and my student because you have accepted my decision."
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.14-7.1, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, John, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God.
14. New Testament, Mark, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
15. New Testament, Matthew, 18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector.
16. Tosefta, Demai, 2.9, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Tosefta, Hulin, 1.1, 2.18-2.21, 2.23-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Oholot, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Parah, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.3-13.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.3, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 4.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.5. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וגו', תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ פַּרְדֵּס וְהָיָה בוֹ בִּכּוּרוֹת נָאוֹת, וְהוֹשִׁיב בּוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ שׁוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד חִגֵּר וְאֶחָד סוּמָא, וְאָמַר לָהֶן הִזָּהֲרוּ עַל בִּכּוּרוֹת הַנָּאוֹת הָאֵלּוּ, לְיָמִים אָמַר חִגֵּר לַסּוּמָא בִּכּוּרוֹת נָאוֹת אֲנִי רוֹאֶה בַּפַּרְדֵּס, אָמַר לוֹ סוּמָא הָבֵא וְנֹאכַל, אָמַר לוֹ חִגֵּר וְכִי יְכוֹלְנִי לְהַלֵּךְ, אָמַר סוּמָא וְכִי רוֹאֶה אֲנִי, רָכַב חִגֵּר עַל גַּבֵּי סוּמָא וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבִּכּוּרוֹת וְהָלְכוּ וְיָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. לְיָמִים נִכְנַס הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּאוֹתוֹ פַּרְדֵּס אָמַר לָהֶן הֵיכָן הֵם הַבִּכּוּרוֹת הַנָּאוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ סוּמָא אֲדוֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכִי רוֹאֶה אֲנִי, אָמַר לוֹ חִגֵּר אֲדוֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכִי יָכוֹל אֲנִי לַהֲלוֹךְ, אוֹתוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה פִּקֵּחַ מֶה עָשָׂה לָהֶן, הִרְכִּיב חִגֵּר עַל גַּבֵּי סוּמָא וְהִתְחִילוּ מְהַלְּכִין, אָמַר לָהֶן כָּךְ עֲשִׂיתֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת הַבִּכּוּרוֹת. כָּךְ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר לַנֶּפֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי מַה חָטָאת לְפָנַי, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אֲנִי לֹא חָטָאתִי הַגּוּף הוּא שֶׁחָטָא, מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁיָּצָאתִי מִמֶּנּוּ כְּצִפּוֹר טְהוֹרָה פּוֹרַחַת בָּאֲוִיר אֲנִי, מֶה חָטָאתִי לְפָנֶיךָ. אוֹמֵר לַגּוּף מִפְּנֵי מָה חָטָאתָ לְפָנַי, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אֲנִי לֹא חָטָאתִי נְשָׁמָה הִיא שֶׁחָטְאָה, מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁיָּצְתָה מִמֶּנִּי כְּאֶבֶן שֶׁהֻשְׁלַךְ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אֲנִי נִשְׁלַךְ, שֶׁמָּא חָטָאתִי לְפָנֶיךָ. מָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶן מֵבִיא נְשָׁמָה וְזוֹרְקָהּ בַּגּוּף וְדָן שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים נ, ד): יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל וגו', יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל לְהָבִיא אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה, וְאֶל הָאָרֶץ לְהָבִיא אֶת הַגּוּף, לָדִין עַמּוֹ. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא מָשָׁל לְכֹהֵן שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים אַחַת בַּת כֹּהֵן וְאַחַת בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמָסַר לָהֶן עִסָּה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְטִמְאוּהָ, אָמַר לָהֶן מִי טִמֵּא אֶת הָעִסָּה, זוֹ אוֹמֶרֶת זוֹ טִמְאַתּוּ וְזוֹ אוֹמֶרֶת זוֹ טִמְאַתּוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן הִנִּיחַ לְבַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִתְחִיל מִדַּיֵּין עִם הַכֹּהֶנֶת, אָמְרָה לוֹ אֲדֹנִי כֹּהֵן מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה מַנִּיחַ אֶת בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִדַּיֵין עִמִּי, וַהֲלוֹא לִשְׁנֵינוּ מְסַרְתָּהּ כְּאֶחָת. אָמַר לָהּ זוֹ בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵינָהּ לְמוּדָה מִבֵּית אָבִיהָ, אֲבָל אַתְּ בַּת כֹּהֶנֶת וְאַתְּ לְמוּדָה מִבֵּית אָבִיךְ, לְפִיכָךְ אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִדַּיֵּין עִמָּךְ. כָּךְ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַנֶּפֶשׁ וְהַגּוּף עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, מָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה מַנִּיחַ הַגּוּף וּמִדַּיֵּין עִם הַנְּשָׁמָה, וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים שְׁנֵינוּ כְּאַחַת חָטָאנוּ, מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה מַנִּיחַ אֶת הַגּוּף וּמִדַּיֵּין עִמִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַגּוּף מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הוּא מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֵן חוֹטְאִין, אֲבָל אַתְּ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין חוֹטְאִין לְפָנַי, לְפִיכָךְ אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת הַגּוּף וּמִדַּיֵּין עִמָּךְ. 4.5. \"Speak to the children of Israel, saying, 'A person who has transgressed...'.\" Rabbi Ishmael taught a parable [or \"made a comparison\"] to a king who had an orchard and in it had lovely first fruits. The king placed upon it guards, one lame and one blind. He said to them: 'Take care of these lovely first fruits.' After some days, the lame one said to the blind one, 'I see lovely first fruits in the orchard.' The blind one said to him, 'Bring them, and we will eat!' The lame one said to the blind one, '[I would] were I able to walk!' The blind one said, '[I would] were I able to see!' The lame one rode upon the back of the blind one, and they ate the first fruits, and they went and returned each man in his own place. After some days, the king entered that orchard. He said to them, 'Where are the beautiful first fruits?' The blind one said to him, 'My lord king, [I would] were I able to see!' The lame one said to him, '[I would] were I able to walk!' That king understood what they had done. He placed the the lame one on the back of the blind one and they began to walk.\" Thus, in the future, the Holy Blessing One will say to the soul, \"Why did you transgress before Me?\" It will say to him, \"Master of the Universe! I did not sin. The body is the one who sinned! From the moment I left it I have been like a pure bird bursting into the air. How have I transgressed before You?\" God will say to the body, \"Why have you transgressed before Me?\" The body will say to him, Master of the Universe! I did not sin. The soul is the one who sinned! From the moment that she left me, I have been tossed like a rock is thrown onto the ground. How would I have transgressed before you?!\" What does the Holy Blessing One do to them? God brings the soul and throws it into the body and judges them together, as it is said, \"He will call to the heavens above...\" (Psalms 50: 4). God will call to the heavens above to bring the soul and to the earth to bring the body, and judge them together. Rabbi Hiyya [told a parable] compared this to a priest who had two wives, one a daughter of a priest and the other a daughter of a Levi..."
29. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

30. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 9.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

32. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 14.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

33. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, 5.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. ולימא ליה מימר [בהדיא] אמר שמעי (בי) חשובי רומי ומצערו ליה ולימא ליה בלחש משום דכתיב (קהלת י, כ) כי עוף השמים יוליך את הקול,הוה ליה ההוא ברתא דשמה גירא קעבדה איסורא שדר ליה גרגירא שדר ליה כוסברתא שדר ליה כרתי שלח ליה חסא,כל יומא הוה שדר ליה דהבא פריכא במטראתא וחיטי אפומייהו אמר להו אמטיו חיטי לרבי אמר [ליה רבי] לא צריכנא אית לי טובא אמר ליהוו למאן דבתרך דיהבי לבתראי דאתו בתרך ודאתי מינייהו ניפוק עלייהו,ה"ל ההיא נקרתא דהוה עיילא מביתיה לבית רבי כל יומא הוה מייתי תרי עבדי חד קטליה אבבא דבי רבי וחד קטליה אבבא דביתיה א"ל בעידנא דאתינא לא נשכח גבר קמך,יומא חד אשכחיה לר' חנינא בר חמא דהוה יתיב אמר לא אמינא לך בעידנא דאתינא לא נשכח גבר קמך א"ל לית דין בר איניש א"ל אימא ליה לההוא עבדא דגני אבבא דקאים וליתי,אזל ר' חנינא בר חמא אשכחיה דהוה קטיל אמר היכי אעביד אי איזיל ואימא ליה דקטיל אין משיבין על הקלקלה אשבקיה ואיזיל קא מזלזלינן במלכותא בעא רחמי עליה ואחייה ושדריה אמר ידענא זוטי דאית בכו מחיה מתים מיהו בעידנא דאתינא לא נשכח איניש קמך,כל יומא הוה משמש לרבי מאכיל ליה משקי ליה כי הוה בעי רבי למיסק לפוריא הוה גחין קמי פוריא א"ל סק עילואי לפורייך אמר לאו אורח ארעא לזלזולי במלכותא כולי האי אמר מי ישימני מצע תחתיך לעולם הבא,א"ל אתינא לעלמא דאתי א"ל אין א"ל והכתיב (עובדיה א, יח) לא יהיה שריד לבית עשו בעושה מעשה עשו,תניא נמי הכי לא יהיה שריד לבית עשו יכול לכל ת"ל לבית עשו בעושה מעשה עשו,א"ל והכתיב (יחזקאל לב, כט) שמה אדום מלכיה וכל נשיאיה א"ל מלכיה ולא כל מלכיה כל נשיאיה ולא כל שריה,תניא נמי הכי מלכיה ולא כל מלכיה כל נשיאיה ולא כל שריה מלכיה ולא כל מלכיה פרט לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוס כל נשיאיה ולא כל שריה פרט לקטיעה בר שלום,קטיעה בר שלום מאי הוי דההוא קיסרא דהוה סני ליהודאי אמר להו לחשיבי דמלכותא מי שעלה לו נימא ברגלו יקטענה ויחיה או יניחנה ויצטער אמרו לו יקטענה ויחיה,אמר להו קטיעה בר שלום חדא דלא יכלת להו לכולהו דכתיב (זכריה ב, י) כי כארבע רוחות השמים פרשתי אתכם מאי קאמר אלימא דבדרתהון בד' רוחות האי כארבע רוחות לארבע רוחות מבעי ליה אלא כשם שא"א לעולם בלא רוחות כך א"א לעולם בלא ישראל ועוד קרו לך מלכותא קטיעה,א"ל מימר שפיר קאמרת מיהו כל דזכי (מלכא) שדו ליה לקמוניא חלילא כד הוה נקטין ליה ואזלין אמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא ווי ליה לאילפא דאזלא בלא מכסא נפל על רישא דעורלתיה קטעה אמר יהבית מכסי חלפית ועברית כי קא שדו ליה אמר כל נכסאי לר"ע וחביריו יצא ר"ע ודרש (שמות כט, כח) והיה לאהרן ולבניו מחצה לאהרן ומחצה לבניו,יצתה בת קול ואמרה קטיעה בר שלום מזומן לחיי העוה"ב בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ויש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים,אנטונינוס שמשיה לרבי אדרכן שמשיה לרב כי שכיב אנטונינוס א"ר נתפרדה חבילה כי שכיב אדרכן אמר רב 10b. The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet him sayhis advice bexplicitly?Why did Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answer in such a circumspect way, which could have been interpreted incorrectly? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaidto himself: If I answer openly, bthe important Romansmight bhear me and will causeme banguish.The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet him sayhis advice bquietly?The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was still worried that they might hear what he had said, bbecause it is written:“Curse not the king, no, not in your thought, and curse not the rich in your bedchamber, bfor a bird of the air shall carry the voice”(Ecclesiastes 10:20).,The Gemara relates: Antoninus bhad a certain daughter whose name was Gira,who bperformed a prohibited action,i.e., she engaged in promiscuous intercourse. Antoninus bsent a rocket plant [ igargira /i] toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi, to allude to the fact that Gira had acted promiscuously [ igar /i]. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsent him coriander [ ikusbarta /i],which Antoninus understood as a message to kill [ ikos /i] his daughter [ ibarta /i], as she was liable to receive the death penalty for her actions. Antoninus bsent him leeks [ ikarti /i]to say: I will be cut off [ ikaret /i] if I do so. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then bsent him lettuce [ iḥasa /i],i.e., Antoninus should have mercy [ iḥas /i] on her.,The Gemara relates: bEvery dayAntoninus bwould send toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bcrushed gold in large sacks, with wheat in the opening ofthe sacks. bHewould bsay tohis servants: bBringthis bwheat to RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and they did not realize that the bags actually contained gold. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid toAntoninus: bI do not needgold, as bI have plenty.Antoninus bsaid:The gold bshould be for those who will come after you, who will give it to the last ones who come after you. And those who descend from them will bring forththe gold that I now give you, and will be able to pay taxes to the Romans from this money.,The Gemara relates anther anecdote involving Antoninus. Antoninus bhad a certainunderground bcavefrom which there was a tunnel bthat went from his house to the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bEvery day he would bring two servantsto serve him. bHe would kill one at the entrance of the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band would killthe other bone at the entrance of his house,so that no living person would know that he had visited Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. bHe said toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bWhen I cometo visit, blet no man be found before you. /b, bOne day,Antoninus bfound that Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama was sittingthere. bHe said: Did I not tell youthat bwhen I cometo visit, blet no man be found before you?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: This is not a human being;he is like an angel, and you have nothing to fear from him. Antoninus bsaid toRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama: bTell that servant who is sleeping at the entrance that he should rise and come. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama wentand bfound thatthe servant Antoninus referred to bhad been killed. He saidto himself: bHow shall I act? If I go and tellAntoninus bthat he was killed,this is problematic, as one should bnot report distressingnews. If bI leave him and go,then I would be btreating the king with disrespect. He prayed forGod to have bmercy and revivedthe servant, band he sent himto Antoninus. Antoninus bsaid: I knowthat even bthe least among youcan brevive the dead; but when I cometo visit blet no man be found before you,even one as great as Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama.,The Gemara relates: bEvery dayAntoninus bwould minister to RabbiYehuda HaNasi; bhe would feed himand bgive him to drink. When RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwanted to ascend to his bed,Antoninus bwould bend down in front of the bedand bsay to him: Ascend upon me to your bed.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaidin response: It is bnot proper conduct to treat the king with this much disrespect.Antoninus bsaid: Oh, that I were set as a mattress under you in the World-to-Come! /b,On another occasion, Antoninus bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Will bI enter the World-to-Come?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Yes.Antoninus bsaid to him: But isn’t it written: “And there shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau”(Obadiah 1:18)? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answered: The verse is stated bwith regard tothose who bperform actionssimilar to those bofthe wicked bEsau,not to people like you., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: From the verse: b“And there shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau,”one bmighthave thought that this applies bto everyonedescended from Esau, irrespective of an individual’s actions. Therefore, bthe verse states: “of the house of Esau,”to indicate that the verse is stated only bwith regard tothose who continue in the way of Esau, and bperform actionssimilar to those bof Esau. /b,Antoninus bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bBut isn’t it writtenin the description of the netherworld: b“There is Edom, her kings and all her leaders”(Ezekiel 32:29)? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:The verse states: b“Her kings,” but not: All of her kings,and likewise it states: b“All her leaders,” but not: All of her officers.Some of them will merit the World-to-Come., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Her kings,” but not: All of her kings,and: b“All her leaders,” but not: All of her officers.The inference learned from the wording of the verse: b“Her kings,” but not: All of her kings,serves bto exclude Antoninus the son of Asveirus;and the inference from the wording: b“All her leaders,” but not: All of her officers,serves bto excludethe Roman officer bKetia, son of Shalom. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is itthat occurred involving bKetia, son of Shalom? As there was a certainRoman bemperor who hated the Jews. He said to the importantmembers bof the kingdom:If bone had an ulcerous sore [ inima /i] rise on his foot, should he cut it off and live, or leave it and suffer? They said to him: He should cut it off and live.The ulcerous sore was a metaphor for the Jewish people, whom the emperor sought to eliminate as the cause of harm for the Roman Empire., bKetia, son of Shalom, said to them:It is unwise to do so, for two reasons. bOneis bthat you cannotdestroy ball of them, as it is written: “For I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heaven,says the Lord” (Zechariah 2:10). He clarified: bWhat is it saying? Shall we say thatthe verse means that God has bscattered them to the four windsof the world? If so, bthisphrase: b“As the four winds,”is inaccurate, since bit should havesaid: bTo the four winds. Rather,this is what the verse is saying: bJust as the world cannotexist bwithout winds, so too, the world cannotexist bwithout the Jewish people,and they will never be destroyed. bAnd furthermore,if you attempt to carry out the destruction of the Jews, bthey will call you the severed kingdom,as the Roman Empire would be devoid of Jews, but Jews would exist in other locations.,The emperor bsaid toKetia: bYou have spoken welland your statement is correct; bbut they throw anyone who defeats the kingin argument binto a house full of ashes [ ilekamonya ḥalila /i],where he would die. bWhen they were seizingKetia band goingto take him to his death, ba certain matron [ imatronita /i] said to him: Woe to the ship that goes withoutpaying the btax.Ketia bbent down over his foreskin, severed it,and bsaid: I gave my tax; Iwill bpass and enter. When they threw himinto the house of ashes, bhe said: All of my propertyis given bto Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues.How was this inheritance to be divided? The Gemara relates: bRabbi Akiva went out and taughtthat the verse: b“And it shall be for Aaron and his sons”(Exodus 29:28), means bhalf to Aaron and half to his sons.Here too, as Rabbi Akiva is mentioned separately, he should receive half, while his colleagues receive the other half.,The Gemara returns to the story of Ketia. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Ketia, son of Shalom, is destined for life in the World-to-Come.When bRabbiYehuda HaNasi heard this, bhe wept, saying: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come bin one moment, and there isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil.,The Gemara relates: bAntoninus would attend to RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and similarly the Persian king bAdrakan would attend to Rav. When Antoninus died, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: The bundle is separated. When Adrakan died, Ravlikewise bsaid: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84a. וליפרקינהו וליכסינהו בעינן העמדה והערכה,וכמאן אי כר"מ דאמר הכל היו בכלל העמדה והערכה האמר שחיטה שאינה ראויה שמה שחיטה,אי כר' שמעון דאמר שחיטה שאינה ראויה לא שמה שחיטה האמר לא היו בכלל העמדה והערכה,אמר רב יוסף רבי היא ונסיב לה אליבא דתנאי בשחיטה שאינה ראויה סבר לה כר' שמעון בהעמדה והערכה סבר לה כר"מ,ואיבעית אימא כולה ר"ש היא ושאני הכא דאמר קרא (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי שאינו מחוסר אלא שפיכה וכסוי יצא זה שמחוסר שפיכה פדייה וכסוי,והשתא דאתית להכי אפילו תימא קדשי מזבח מי שאינו מחוסר אלא שפיכה וכסוי יצא זה שמחוסר שפיכה גרירה וכסוי,מר בר רב אשי אמר אמר קרא (ויקרא יז, יג) חיה או עוף מה חיה אינה קדש אף עוף אינו קדש,אי מה חיה שאין במינו קדש אף עוף שאין במינו קדש אוציא תורין ובני יונה שיש במינן קדש,לא כחיה מה חיה לא חלקת בה אף עוף לא תחלוק בו,אמר ליה יעקב מינאה לרבא קי"ל חיה בכלל בהמה לסימנין אימא נמי בהמה בכלל חיה לכסוי,אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא (דברים יב, טז) על הארץ תשפכנו כמים מה מים לא בעי כסוי אף האי נמי לא בעי כסוי,אלא מעתה יטבילו בו אמר קרא (ויקרא יא, לו) אך מעין ובור מקוה מים יהיה טהור הני אין מידי אחרינא לא,ואימא ה"מ למעוטי שאר משקין דלא איקרו מים אבל דם דאיקרי מים ה"נ,תרי מיעוטי כתיבי מעין מים ובור מים,אימא אידי ואידי למעוטי שאר משקין חד למעוטי זוחלין וחד למעוטי מכונסין,תלתא מיעוטי כתיבי מעין מים ובור מים מקוה מים,ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) אשר יצוד אין לי אלא אשר יצוד נצודין ועומדין מאליהן מנין כגון אווזין ותרנגולים,ת"ל ציד מ"מ א"כ מה ת"ל אשר יצוד למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בהזמנה הזאת,ת"ר (דברים יב, כ) כי ירחיב ה' אלהיך את גבולך למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא לתאבון,יכול יקח אדם מן השוק ויאכל ת"ל (דברים יב, כא) וזבחת מבקרך ומצאנך יכול יזבח כל בקרו ויאכל כל צאנו ויאכל ת"ל מבקרך ולא כל בקרך מצאנך ולא כל צאנך,מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר בן עזריה מי שיש לו מנה יקח לפסו ליטרא ירק עשרה מנה יקח לפסו ליטרא דגים חמשים מנה יקח לפסו ליטרא בשר מאה מנה ישפתו לו קדרה בכל יום ואינך אימת מערב שבת לערב שבת,אמר רב צריכין אנו לחוש לדברי זקן א"ר יוחנן אבא ממשפחת בריאים הוה אבל כגון אנו מי שיש לו פרוטה בתוך כיסו יריצנה לחנווני א"ר נחמן כגון אנו לווין ואוכלין,(משלי כז, כו) כבשים ללבושך מגז כבשים יהא מלבושך (משלי כז, כו) ומחיר שדה עתודים לעולם ימכור אדם שדה ויקח עתודים ואל ימכור אדם עתודים ויקח שדה (משלי כז, כז) ודי חלב עזים דיו לאדם שיתפרנס מחלב גדיים וטלאים שבתוך ביתו,(משלי כז, כז) ללחמך ללחם ביתך לחמך קודם ללחם ביתך (משלי כז, כז) וחיים לנערותיך אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן תן חיים לנערותיך מיכן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא ילמד אדם את בנו בשר ויין,אמר רבי יוחנן 84a. The Gemara challenges: bButeven if the mishna is dealing with birds consecrated for Temple maintece, blet one redeem themafter they were slaughtered bandthen bcover theirblood. The Gemara responds: This is not feasible, because in order to redeem a consecrated animal bwe require setting and valuating,i.e., the animal must be stood before a priest in order to evaluate it and only then is it redeemed (see Leviticus 27:11–12). A slaughtered bird cannot be stood before the priest; consequently, it cannot be redeemed.,The Gemara asks: bButif the mishna is dealing with birds consecrated for Temple maintece, bin accordance with whoseopinion is the mishna? bIfone suggests the mishna is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir, who says: Everything,i.e., animals consecrated both for the altar and for Temple maintece, bwas included inthe requirement of bsetting and valuating,and therefore the slaughtered birds may not be redeemed, this cannot be so. bDoesn’t healso bsaythat bslaughter that is not fitto render the meat permitted bisnevertheless bconsidereda halakhic act of bslaughterthat requires the covering of the blood? If so, one should be obligated to cover the blood of the bird even if it is not redeemed.,The Gemara continues: And bifone suggests the mishna is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who says: Slaughter that is not fitto render the meat permitted bis not considereda halakhic act of bslaughterand therefore the bird would require redemption in order to cover its blood, this cannot be so. bDoesn’the also bsaythat animals consecrated for Temple maintece bwere not included inthe requirement of bsetting and valuating?If so, let one redeem the slaughtered birds and cover their blood., bRav Yosef saidin reconciliation of this dilemma: The mishna’s ruling bis in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he formulatesthe mishna bin accordance withthe opinions of different itanna’im /i: With regard tothe status of an act of bslaughter that is not fitto render the meat permitted bhe holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon,while bwith regard tothe requirement of bsetting and valuating he holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir.Therefore, since one cannot redeem a bird that was consecrated for Temple maintece once it has been slaughtered, there is no obligation to cover its blood, as the slaughter was not fit to render the meat permitted., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe entiremishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon,who holds that birds consecrated for Temple maintece may be redeemed even after their slaughter. bAndalthough it would seem that their slaughter is fit to render the meat permitted and that one should therefore be obligated in the mitzva of covering the blood, it is bdifferent here, as the verse states: “And he shall pour outits blood band coverit” (Leviticus 17:13). By juxtaposing “pour out” to “cover,” the verse indicates that the obligation to cover the blood applies only to blood bthat is lacking only pouring and covering,without any intervening step. bExcludedis bthisblood of birds consecrated for Temple maintece, bwhich is lacking pouring, redeeming, and covering. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd now that you have arrived at thisexplanation, byoumay beven saythat the mishna is referring to birds bconsecrated for the altar.As for the question asked earlier: Why not let one scrape the blood from the altar and then cover it? The verse states: “And he shall pour out its blood and cover it,” indicating that the obligation to cover the blood applies only to blood that is blacking only pouring and covering,without any intervening step. bExcludedis bthisblood of bird offerings, bwhich is lacking pouring, scraping, and covering. /b,The Gemara cites another source for the exclusion of consecrated animals from the requirement of covering their blood: bMar bar Rav Ashi saidthat bthe verse stateswith regard to the mitzva of covering the blood: b“An undomesticated animal or bird”(Leviticus 17:13). The juxtaposition of these two species intimates an analogy between them: bJust asthe bundomesticated animalreferred to in the verse bis not consecrated,as undomesticated animals are never fit for sacrifice, bso too,the bbirdreferred to in the verse bis not consecrated. /b,The Gemara asks: bIfit is so that the ihalakhotof slaughtering a bird are derived from those of an undomesticated animal, then say: bJust asthe verse is referring to ban undomesticated animal, whose species cannot be consecratedas an offering, bso too,the verse is referring only to ba bird whose species cannot be consecratedas an offering. Therefore, bI will excludeeven non-sacred bdoves and pigeons, whose species can be consecrated. /b,The Gemara rejects this possibility: bNo,the juxtaposition indicates that the ihalakhawith regard to the slaughter of birds is entirely blikethat of ban undomesticated animal.Therefore, bjust asin the case of ban undomesticated animal, you did not differentiatebetween its various species and all non-sacred animals are included in the mitzva, bso too,with regard to the bbirdmentioned in the verse, byou should not differentiatebetween its various species.,§ Concerning the ihalakhathat covering the blood does not apply to a domesticated animal, the Gemara says that bYa’akov the heretic said to Rava: We maintainthat ban undomesticated animal,e.g., a deer, is bincludedin the category of ba domesticated animal with regard tothe bcharacteristicsnecessary to determine whether the animal is kosher, i.e., it chews its cud and has split hooves (see Deuteronomy 14:4–6). If so, bI will also saythat ba domesticated animal is includedin the category of ban undomesticated animal with regard tothe mitzva of bcoveringthe blood.,Rava bsaid to him: With regard to yourclaim, bthe verse statesin reference to the blood of a domesticated animal: “You may slaughter of your cattle and of your sheep…but be strong not to eat the blood… byou shall pour it out on the ground, like water”(Deuteronomy 12:21–24). Accordingly, bjust as water does not require covering, so too, thisblood of a domesticated animal bdoes not require covering. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,that the verse equates the blood of a domesticated animal with water, then let one bimmerseritually impure items bin itto purify them, just as he can immerse them in water. The Gemara responds: bThe verse states: “But a spring or a cistern, or a gathering of water shall be pure”(Leviticus 11:36). The exclusionary term: “But,” indicates that only concerning bthesebodies of water, byes,they render pure an impure item, while bsomething else,e.g., blood, does bnot. /b,The Gemara challenges: bButperhaps one can bsaythat bthis matter,i.e., the exclusionary term in the verse, serves only bto exclude other liquids that are not called water. Butwith regard to bblood, which is called water,as the verse states: “You shall pour it out on the ground, like water,” one may bindeedimmerse ritually impure items in it.,The Gemara responds: bTwo exclusions are writtenin the verse discussing ritually purifying waters: bA spring of water, and: A cistern of water.The term “water” is understood as being attached to each of the bodies mentioned in the verse. The additional exclusion serves to exclude blood.,The Gemara challenges: bSaythat both bthisphrase, a spring of water, band thatphrase, a cistern of water, serve bto exclude other liquids,and not blood, whereby bonephrase is bto exclude flowingliquids that are not water from having the status of a spring, which renders an item ritually pure even when it is flowing; band onephrase serves bto exclude gatheredliquids that are not water from having the status of a ritual bath, which renders an item pure only when the water in the ritual bath is gathered.,The Gemara responds: bThree exclusions are writtenin the verse: bA spring of water,to exclude flowing liquids; band: A cistern of water,to exclude gathered liquids; band: A gathering of water,to exclude blood.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states with regard to covering the blood: “And any man of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, bwho trapsa trapping of an undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten, he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth” (Leviticus 17:13). bI havederived bonlythat one is obligated to cover the blood of an undomesticated animal or bird bthat one traps. From whereis it derived that undomesticated animals or birds that are balreadyconsidered btrapped on their own, such as geese and chickensthat do not roam freely, are also included in the mitzva of covering the blood?, bThe verse states “a trapping”to indicate that bin any case,one is obligated to cover the blood of an undomesticated animal. bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Who traps,”if it is not to be understood literally? The ibaraitaexplains: bThe Torah taughtthat it is ba desired mode of behavior that a person should consume meat only with this mode of preparation.That is, just as the meat that one traps is not readily available, so too, one should not become accustomed to consuming meat.,In a similar vein, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“When the Lord, your God, expands yourboundary…according to every craving of your soul you may eat meat” (Deuteronomy 12:20). bThe Torah taughtthat it is ba desired mode of behavior that a person should consume meat due only to appetite.That is, one should consume meat only when he feels a need to eat it.,The ibaraitacontinues: One bmighthave thought that ba person may purchasemeat bfrom the marketplace and consumeit. Therefore, bthenext bverse states: “And you may slaughter of your cattle and of your flock,”indicating that one should consume the meat of animals of his own flock, not those purchased in the marketplace. One bmighthave thought that a person bmay slaughter all of his cattle,i.e., his only cow, band consumethe meat, or slaughter ball of his flock,i.e., his only sheep, band consumethe meat. Therefore, bthe verse states: “of your cattle,”indicating some, bbut not all of, your cattle; “of your flock,” but not all of your flock. /b, bFrom here, Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria said: One who has one hundreddinars bshould purchase a ilitraof vegetables for his stewpot [ ilefaso /i];one who has bone thousanddinars bshould purchase a ilitraof fish for his stewpot;one who has bfive thousanddinars bshould purchase a ilitraof meat for his stewpot;and if one has bten thousanddinars, his servants bshould place a potof meat on the stove bfor him every day.The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to btheseother individuals mentioned by Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria, bwhen,i.e., how often, should they consume meat? The Gemara responds: bEvery Shabbat eve. /b, bRav says: We must be concerned for the statement of the elder,i.e., Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria, and be thrifty with our expenditure on food items. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Abba,i.e., Rav, bwas from a family ofparticularly bhealthyindividuals, and was able to subsist on the modest diet suggested by Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria. bButwith regard to people bsuch as us,who are not as healthy, bone who haseven bone iperutain his pocket should hastenwith bit to the storekeeperand purchase food. Two generations later, bRav Naḥman said:With regard to people bsuch as us,who are physically weaker than those in previous generations, not only do we not delay the purchase of food items, we even bborrowmoney to purchase food band eat. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to one’s livelihood: The verse states: “The lambs will be for your clothing, and goats the worth of a field. And there will be goats’ milk enough for your food, for the food of your household; and sustece for your maidens” (Proverbs 27:26–27). b“The lambs will be for your clothing”indicates that byour clothing should beproduced bfrom the shearings of lambs,i.e., purchase lambs from whose wool you can produce clothing. b“And goats the worth of a field”indicates that ba person should alwaysseek to bsell a field and purchase goatsin order to benefit from their milk, wool, and offspring, band a person should not sell goats and purchase a fieldinstead. b“And there will be goats’ milk enough”indicates that bit is sufficient for a person that he be sustained from the milk of kids and lambs that are in his house. /b, b“For your food, for the food of your household”indicates that byour food comes before the food of your household,i.e., one must first ensure that he has food for himself before providing for others. With regard to the phrase: b“And sustece for your maidens,” Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said:The verse indicates that you must bgive sustece to your youth,i.e., to your children. bFrom here, the Torah taughtthat it is ba desired mode of behavior that a person should not accustom his sonto eat bmeat anddrink bwine;rather, he should teach his children to eat less expensive foods., bRabbi Yoḥa says: /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. ורבא דמצלי אצלויי:,ביו"ט חמשה ביוה"כ ששה כו': מתני' מני לא ר' ישמעאל ולא רבי עקיבא דתניא ביו"ט חמשה וביוה"כ ששה ובשבת שבעה אין פוחתין מהן ואין מוסיפין עליהן דברי ר' ישמעאל ר"ע אומר ביו"ט חמשה וביום הכפורים שבעה ובשבת ששה אין פוחתין מהן אבל מוסיפין עליהן,מני אי ר' ישמעאל קשיא תוספת אי ר"ע קשיא ששה ושבעה,אמר רבא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל היא דתנא דבי ר' ישמעאל ביום טוב חמשה ביוה"כ ששה בשבת שבעה אין פוחתין מהן אבל מוסיפין עליהן דברי ר' ישמעאל,קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי ישמעאל,מאן תנא להא דתניא ביו"ט מאחרין לבוא וממהרין לצאת ביום הכפורים ממהרין לבוא ומאחרין לצאת ובשבת ממהרין לבוא וממהרין לצאת לימא ר"ע דאית ליה גברא יתירא אפילו תימא רבי ישמעאל דנפיש סידורא דיומא,הני שלשה חמשה ושבעה כנגד מי פליגי בה רבי יצחק בר נחמני וחד דעמיה ומנו רבי שמעון בן פזי ואמרי לה ר' שמעון בן פזי וחד דעמיה ומנו רבי יצחק בר נחמני ואמרי לה ר' שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כנגד ברכת כהנים וחד אמר כנגד שלשה שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך,תני רב יוסף ג' חמשה ושבעה שלשה שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך אמר ליה אביי עד האידנא מאי טעמא לא פריש לן מר אמר ליה לא הוה ידענא דצריכתו ליה ומי בעיתו מינאי מילתא ולא אמרי לכו,אמר ליה יעקב מינאה לרב יהודה הני ששה דיוה"כ כנגד מי אמר ליה כנגד ששה שעמדו מימינו של עזרא וששה משמאלו שנאמר (נחמיה ח, ד) ויעמוד עזרא הסופר על מגדל עץ אשר עשו לדבר ויעמוד אצלו מתתיה ושמע ועניה ואוריה וחלקיה ומעשיה על ימינו ומשמאלו פדיה ומישאל ומלכיה וחשום וחשבדנה זכריה משלם,הני שבעה הוו היינו זכריה היינו משלם ואמאי קראו משלם דמישלם בעובדיה,ת"ר הכל עולין למנין שבעה ואפילו קטן ואפילו אשה אבל אמרו חכמים אשה לא תקרא בתורה מפני כבוד צבור,איבעיא להו מפטיר מהו שיעלה למנין שבעה רב הונא ור' ירמיה בר אבא חד אמר עולה וחד אמר אינו עולה מ"ד עולה דהא קרי,ומ"ד אינו עולה כדעולא דאמר עולא מפני מה המפטיר בנביא צריך שיקרא בתורה תחלה מפני כבוד תורה וכיון דמשום כבוד תורה הוא למנינא לא סליק,מיתיבי המפטיר בנביא לא יפחות מעשרים ואחד פסוקין כנגד שבעה שקראו בתורה ואם איתא עשרים וארבעה הויין כיון דמשום כבוד תורה הוא 23a. band Rava, who would bendtheir heads and not actually prostrate themselves on the ground.,We learned in the mishna: bOn a Festival, fivepeople read; bon Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itannaof bthe mishna?It is bnot Rabbi Yishmael and not Rabbi Akiva, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; band on Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; band on Shabbat, sevenpeople read. bOne may not decrease or add tothe required number of readers. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akivadisagrees and bsays: On a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; band on Yom Kippur, sevenpeople read; band on Shabbat, sixpeople read. bOne may not decreasethese numbers, bbut one may add to them. /b, bWho isthe itannaof the mishna? bIfyou say it is bRabbi Yishmael,it is bdifficultdue to the ruling with regard to badding,as the mishna states that one may add additional readers but Rabbi Yishmael holds that one may not do so. bIfyou say it is bRabbi Akiva,it is bdifficultdue to the ruling concerning the days on which there are bsix and sevenreaders., bRava said:It is bthe itannaof the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: On a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; bon Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; bon Shabbat, sevenpeople read. bOne may not decrease thesenumbers bbut one may add to them.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara comments: If so, bthere is a contradictionbetween the opinion of bRabbi Yishmael,as expressed in the mishna, and the opinion of bRabbi Yishmaelhimself, as recorded in the ibaraita /i. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Yishmael, expressed different opinions bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhois the itannawho btaught that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn a Festival, one is slow to arriveat the synagogue because one is busy preparing for the festive meal, band one is quick to leavein order to eat; bon Yom Kippur, one is quick to arriveat the synagogue band slow to leave; and on Shabbat, one is quick to arrive,as the meal has been prepared before Shabbat, band quick to leavein order to eat the Shabbat meal? bLet us sayit is bRabbi Akiva, who holdsthat ban additional manreads from the Torah on Yom Kippur, which prolongs the service on that day. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEvenif byou sayit is bRabbi Yishmael,one leaves the synagogue late because bthe order of the day,i.e., the prayer service, bisvery blong,as it includes many supplications and confessions.,A question is raised with regard to the number of readers on different days. bCorresponding to whatwere bthese three, five, and seven,readers instituted? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani and oneother Sage bwho was with him disagree about this. And who wasthat other scholar? bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat this was a matter of dispute between bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi and oneother scholar bwho was with him. And who wasthat other scholar? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani, and some sayit was bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani. One said:These numbers bcorrespondto the number of Hebrew words in the three verses of bthe Priestly Benediction. And one said:These numbers bcorrespond to the three guards of the door(II Kings 25:18), bfive ofthe officers bwho saw the king’s face(II Kings 25:19), band the sevenofficers bwho saw the king’s face(Esther 1:14).,Similarly, bRav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The bthree, five, and sevenpeople who read from the Torah correspond to the bthree guards of the door, five ofthe officers bwho saw the king’s face,and bthe sevenofficers bwho saw the king’s face.When Rav Yosef taught this, bAbaye said to him: What is the reason that until now the Master did not explainthe matter bto usin this way? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: I did not know that you needed thisinformation, as I thought that you were already familiar with the ibaraita /i. bHave youever basked me something and I did not tell you? /b, bYa’akov of Mina said to Rav Yehuda: Corresponding to whom were these sixreaders bon Yom Kippurinstituted? Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:The number six bcorresponds to the sixpeople bwho stood to Ezra’s right and the sixpeople bwho stood to his left, as it is stated: “And Ezra the Scribe stood upon a platform of wood, which they had made for the purpose, and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand, and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadanah, Zechariah, Meshullam”(Nehemiah 8:4).,The Gemara challenges this answer: bThosethat stood to his left bwere sevenand not six. The Gemara responds: bZechariah isthe same as bMeshullam,that is to say, they are not two separate people, but rather one person with two names. bAnd why was he called Meshullam? Because he was perfect [ imishlam /i] in his actions. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta( iMegilla3:11): bAllpeople bcount toward the quorum of sevenreaders, beven a minor and even a woman. However, the Sages saidthat ba woman should not read the Torah, out of respect for the congregation. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to the reader who bconcludes [ imaftir /i]the Torah reading and reads from the Prophets [ ihaftara /i], bwhat isthe ihalakha /i; does he bcount toward the quorum of sevenreaders? bRav Huna and Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abbadisagreed about this matter. bOne said: He counts, and one said: He does not count. The one who saidthat bhe countstoward the seven readers holds that opinion bbecause he readsfrom the Torah., bAnd the one who saidthat bhe does not countholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bUlla, as Ulla said: For whatreason bmustthe one bwho concludeswith a reading from bthe Prophets read from the Torah first?It is bdue to respect for the Torah,so that those present should not conclude that he was called up only to read from the Prophets because the honor due the Torah and the honor due the Prophets are equal. bAnd sincehe reads only bout of respect for the Torah, he is not included in the quorumof seven readers.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased upon the following ibaraita /i: bThe one who concludes witha reading from bthe Prophets may notread bfewer than twenty-one verses, corresponding to the seven who read from the Torah.Each one who reads from the Torah must read at least three verses, for a total of at least twenty-one verses. bAnd if it is so,that the one who reads the ihaftaradoes not count toward the quorum of seven readers, and he is an eighth reader, the minimum number of verses that must be read from the Torah bis twenty-fourand not twenty-one. The Gemara answers: bSincethe one who reads the ihaftarareads from the Torah first only bdue to respect for the Torah, /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100b. הוי אומר מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות במדה טובה כתיב (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול ובמידת פורענות הוא אומר (בראשית ז, יא) וארובות השמים נפתחו,במידת פורענות כתיב (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה והיו דראון לכל בשר והלא אדם מושיט אצבעו באור בעולם הזה מיד נכוה אלא כשם שנותן הקב"ה כח ברשעים לקבל פורענותם כך נותן הקב"ה כח בצדיקים לקבל טובתן:,רבי עקיבא אומר אף הקורא בספרים החיצונים וכו': תנא בספרי מינים רב יוסף אמר בספר בן סירא נמי אסור למיקרי א"ל אביי מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתב [ביה] לא תינטוש גילדנא מאודניה דלא ליזיל משכיה לחבלא אלא צלי יתיה בנורא ואיכול ביה תרתין גריצים,אי מפשטיה באורייתא נמי כתב (דברים כ, יט) לא תשחית את עצה אי מדרשא אורח ארעא קמ"ל דלא ליבעול שלא כדרכה,ואלא משום דכתיב בת לאביה מטמונת שוא מפחדה לא יישן בלילה בקטנותה שמא תתפתה בנערותה שמא תזנה בגרה שמא לא תינשא נישאת שמא לא יהיו לה בנים הזקינה שמא תעשה כשפים הא רבנן נמי אמרוה אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אשרי מי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות,אלא משום דכתיב לא תעיל דויא בלבך דגברי גיברין קטל דויא הא שלמה אמרה (משלי יב, כה) דאגה בלב איש ישחנה ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר ישיחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים,ואלא משום דכתיב מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא אל ביתך והא רבי נמי אמרה דתניא רבי אומר לעולם לא ירבה אדם רעים בתוך ביתו שנאמר (משלי יח, כד) איש רעים להתרועע,אלא משום דכתיב זלדקן קורטמן עבדקן סכסן דנפח בכסיה לא צחי אמר במאי איכול לחמא לחמא סב מיניה מאן דאית ליה מעברתא בדיקני' כולי עלמא לא יכלי ליה,אמר רב יוסף מילי מעלייתא דאית ביה דרשינן להו אשה טובה מתנה טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה מביתו ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפיה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת (ירמיהו ה, כז) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סודך לאחד מאלף משוכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אל תצר צרת מחר (משלי כז, א) כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא למחר איננו ונמצא מצטער על עולם שאינו שלו,(משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים בן סירא אומר אף לילות בשפל גגים גגו ובמרום הרים כרמו ממטר גגים לגגו ומעפר כרמו לכרמים,[סימן זיר"א רב"א משרשי"א חנינ"א טובי"ה ינא"י יפ"ה יוחנ"ן מרח"ם יהוש"ע מקצ"ר],אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים אלו בעלי תלמוד וטוב לב משתה תמיד אלו בעלי משנה,רבא אמר איפכא והיינו דאמר רב משרשיא משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, ט) מסיע אבנים יעצב בהם אלו בעלי משנה (קהלת י, ט) ובוקע עצים יסכן בם אלו בעלי תלמוד,רבי חנינא אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה מי שיש לו אשה רעה וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שיש לו אשה טובה רבי ינאי אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה אסטניס וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שדעתו יפה רבי יוחנן אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה רחמני וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה אכזרי רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה 100b. bYou must say that the attribute of reward is greater than the attribute of punishment,as bwith regard to the attribute of reward it is written: “He commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat”(Psalms 78:23–24). bAnd with regard to the attribute of punishmentat the time of the flood the verse bsays: “And the windows of the heavens were opened”(Genesis 7:11). To mete out punishment, God opened only windows, which are considerably smaller openings than doors, indicating that the attribute of reward is greater., bWith regard to the attribute of punishment it is written: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh”(Isaiah 66:24). The Gemara asks: bIs it not sothat when ba person extends his finger into the fire in this world, he is immediately burned?How, then, can one withstand the fire of Gehenna, which is never extinguished? bRather, just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the wicked to receive their punishment, so too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the righteous to receive their reward,His handful.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Akiva says: Also one who reads external literaturehas no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: This is a reference to reading bbooks of heretics. Rav Yosef says: It is also prohibited to read the book of ben Sira,due to its problematic content. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited to read the book of ben Sira? bIf we saythat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact bthatben Sira bwrote in it: Do not flay the skin of the fish from its ear, so that its skin does not go to ruin, but roast it on the fire and eat with it two loaves of bread,and you believe it to be nonsense, that is not a sufficient reason., bIfyour difficulty is bfrom its literalmeaning, that does not pose a difficulty, as bin the Torah,God balso wrote: “You shall not destroy its trees”(Deuteronomy 20:19). It is prohibited to destroy both trees and fish skin arbitrarily. bIfyour difficulty is bfromits bhomiletic interpretationas a euphemism, ben Sira bis teaching us proper conduct:A man bshould not engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, with his wife, as it causes her discomfort., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA daughter is for her father false treasure; due to fear for her he will not sleep at night: During her minority, lest she be seduced; during her young womanhood lest she engage in licentiousness; once she has reached her majority, lest she not marry; once she marries, lest she have no children; once she grows old, lest she engage in witchcraft(Ben Sira 42:11–14). Perhaps you believe that one should not say this to the father of daughters. bDidn’t the Sages also say itwith regard to women? They said: It is bimpossible for the worldto exist bwithout males and without females;nevertheless, bhappy is one whose children are males and woe unto him whose children are females. /b, bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bDo not introduce anxiety into your heart, as anxiety has killed mighty men(Ben Sira 14:1; 30:29). bDidn’t Solomonalready bsay itin the verse: b“Anxiety in a man’s heart dejects him [ iyashḥena /i]”(Proverbs 12:25)? bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiinterpret the term homiletically and read it as iyesiḥenna /i. bOne saysthat it means: bHe shall remove it [ iyesiḥenna /i] from his mind,and that will ease his anxiety. bAnd one says: He shall tell it [ iyesiḥenna /i] to others,and that will ease his anxiety. Both agree with the statement of ben Sira., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bBut didn’t RabbiYehuda HaNasi balso say it, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A person should never have many friends inside his house, as it is stated: “There are friends that one has to his own detriment”(Proverbs 18:24), as through his association with them he will become weak and be ruined., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA sparse-bearded man is clever; a thick-bearded man is a fool. One who blows on his cup is not thirsty. One who said: With what will I eat bread, take the bread from him. One who has a passage in his beard, the entire world is unable to overcome him.Abaye suggests: Due to all this nonsense, it is not appropriate to read this book., bRav Yosef says:Even though there are passages in the book that are inappropriate, bwe teach the superior matters that are in iteven in public. bA good wife is a good gift; she will be given into the bosom of a God-fearing man(Ben Sira 26:3). bA bad wife is leprosy for her husband. What is his remedy? He shall chase her from his house and will be healed from his leprosy(Ben Sira 25:30). bA beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days is doubled(Ben Sira 26:1). Due to his happiness, it is as though his life is twice as long.,We also teach what it states there: bAvert your eyes from a woman of grace, lest you be trapped in her snare. Turn not to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, as many have been corrupted by the beauty of the beautiful woman, and mighty are all her fatalities(Ben Sira 9:9–11). bMany are the wounds of a peddler(Ben Sira 11:36), which in this context is referring to those bwho accustomothers bto matters of forbidden sexual relations. Like a spark ignites a coal(Ben Sira 11:43), blike a cage full of birds, so too, their houses are filled with deceit(Ben Sira 11:36–37). bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bLet many be those who greet you; reveal your secrets to one in a thousand. From she who lies in your bosom guard the openings of your mouth,i.e., do not tell her everything. bGrieve not about tomorrow’s trouble, because you know not what a day may bring; perhaps tomorrow you will no longer be, and one will have worried about a world that is not his. /b,The verse states: b“All the days of the poor are terrible”(Proverbs 15:15). The book of bben Sira says: Also the nightsare terrible, as then the poor person worries. The poor person’s broof is among the lowest roofsin the city, band in the elevation of the hills is his vineyard,at the highest point, as those are of the lowest quality and consequently the least expensive places for each. bFrom the rain on the roofsof the entire city, water will flow down bto his roofand dampen it, band the soil of his vineyardis eroded by the rain and swept down btoother bvineyards. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow, based primarily on those who authored those statements. bZeira; Rava; Mesharshiyya; Ḥanina itoviyya /i,referring to Rabbi Ḥanina, who spoke of a good [ itova /i] wife; bYannai iyafe /i,referring to Rabbi Yannai, who spoke of one who is broad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i]; bYoḥa imeraḥem /i,referring to Rabbi Yoḥa, who spoke of one who is compassionate [ imeraḥem /i]; bYehoshua imekatzer /i,referring to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who spoke of one who is intolerant [ ida’ato ketzara /i]., bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“All the days of the poor are terrible, and for the good-hearted it is always a feast” (Proverbs 15:15)? b“All the days of the poor are terrible”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest constant effort in their study and encounter endless difficulties and questions. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; these are masters of the Mishna,who study only halakhic conclusions and encounter no difficulties., bRava saysthat bthe oppositeis true; band this isthat bwhich Rav Mesharshiyya said in the name of Rava: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by themand he who chops wood shall be warmed by it” (Ecclesiastes 10:9)? “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by them”; bthese are masters of the Mishna,as they invest effort, but are unable to benefit from that effort, as they do not reach halakhic conclusions. b“And he who chops wood shall be warmed by it”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest considerable effort and benefit from it, as they reach halakhic conclusions., bRabbi Ḥanina says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to bone who has a bad wife. “And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to bone who has a good wife. Rabbi Yannai says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bdelicate [ iistenis /i],i.e., one who is sensitive to repulsive items. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bbroad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i],i.e., he is not particular and will eat anything. bRabbi Yoḥa says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bcompassionate [ imeraḥem /i],as he always senses the suffering in the world and is constantly anxious. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bcrueland indifferent to suffering in the world. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to
41. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

116a. שאין זה מקומה ר' אומר לא מן השם הוא זה אלא מפני שספר חשוב הוא בפני עצמו,כמאן אזלא הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמן א"ר יונתן (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה אלו שבעה ספרי תורה כמאן כר',מאן תנא דפליג עליה דר' רשב"ג הוא דתניא רשב"ג אומר עתידה פרשה זו שתיעקר מכאן ותכתב במקומה ולמה כתבה כאן כדי להפסיק בין פורענות ראשונה לפורענות שנייה פורענות שנייה מאי היא (במדבר יא, א) ויהי העם כמתאוננים פורענות ראשונה (במדבר י, לג) ויסעו מהר ה' וא"ר חמא בר' חנינא שסרו מאחרי ה' והיכן מקומה אמר רב אשי בדגלים,איבעיא להו הגליונין של ס"ת מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ת"ש ס"ת שבלה אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין ואמאי תיפוק ליה משום גיליון דידיה בלה שאני,ת"ש ס"ת שנמחק אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין ואמאי תיפוק ליה משום גיליון דידיה מקום הכתב לא קמיבעיא לי דכי קדוש אגב כתב הוא דקדוש אזל כתב אזלא לה קדושתיה כי קמיבעיא לי של מעלה ושל מטה שבין פרשה לפרשה שבין דף לדף שבתחלת הספר שבסוף הספר ותיפוק ליה משום ההוא דגייז ושדי,ת"ש הגליונין של מעלה ושל מטה שבין פרשה לפרשה שבין דף לדף שבתחלת הספר שבסוף הספר מטמאין את הידים דילמא אגב ס"ת שאני,ת"ש הגיליונין וספרי מינין אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אלא נשרפין במקומן הן ואזכרותיהן מאי לאו גליונין דספר תורה לא גליונין דספרי מינין השתא ספרי מינין גופייהו אין מצילין גליונין מבעיא הכי קאמר וספרי מינין הרי הן כגליונים,גופא הגליונים וספרי מינין אין מצילין אותם מפני הדליקה רבי יוסי אומר בחול קודר את האזכרות שבהן וגונזן והשאר שורפן א"ר טרפון אקפח את בני שאם יבאו לידי שאני אשרוף אותם ואת האזכרות שבהן שאפי' אדם רודף אחריו להורגו ונחש רץ להכישו נכנס לבית ע"ז ואין נכנס לבתיהן של אלו שהללו מכירין וכופרין והללו אין מכירין וכופרין ועליהן הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו נז, ח) [ו] אחר הדלת והמזוזה שמת זכרונך,א"ר ישמעאל ק"ו ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים הללו שמטילין קנאה ואיבה ותחרות בין ישראל לאביהן שבשמים על אחת כמה וכמה ועליהם אמר דוד (תהלים קלט, כא) הלא משנאיך ה' אשנא ובתקוממיך אתקוטט תכלית שנאה שנאתים לאויבים היו לי וכשם שאין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה כך אין מצילין אותן לא מן המפולת ולא מן המים ולא מדבר המאבדן,בעי מיניה יוסף בר חנין מר' אבהו הני ספרי דבי אבידן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אין ולאו ורפיא בידיה רב לא אזיל לבי אבידן וכ"ש לבי נצרפי שמואל לבי נצרפי לא אזיל לבי אבידן אזיל אמרו ליה לרבא מ"ט לא אתית לבי אבידן אמר להו דיקלא פלניא איכא באורחא וקשי לי ניעקריה דוכתיה קשי לי מר בר יוסף אמר אנא מינייהו אנא ולא מסתפינא מינייהו זימנא חדא אזיל בעו לסכוניה [הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי מאיר הוה קרי ליה און גליון רבי יוחנן הוה קרי ליה עון גליון.],אימא שלום דביתהו דרבי אליעזר אחתיה דרבן גמליאל הואי הוה ההוא פילוסופא בשבבותיה 116a. bthat this is not its place,as the previous portion does not discuss the nation’s travels. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is not for thatreason that signs were inserted. bRather,the signs are there bbecausethis portion bis considered a book unto itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bAccording to whoseopinion is bthatwhich bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said,that with regard to the verse: “With wisdom she built her house, bshe carved its seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1), bthese are the seven books of the Torah? According to whoseopinion? It is baccording tothe opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, as by his count there are seven books of the Torah: Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers until: “And when the Ark traveled”; the portion: “And when the Ark traveled,” which is considered its own book; the remainder of Numbers; and Deuteronomy., bWho isthe btanna who disagrees with RabbiYehuda HaNasi? bIt is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In the future, this portion will be uprooted from here,where it appears, band will be written in itsproper bplace. And why was it written here,even though it discusses the travels of the children of Israel, and the portion before it does not? It is bin order to demarcate between the first punishment and the second punishment. What is the second punishmentthat appears immediately afterward? It is the verse: b“And the people complainedwickedly in God’s ears, and God heard and became angry, and the fire of God burned in them and it consumed the edge of the camp” (Numbers 11:1). What is bthe first punishment?It is the verse: b“And they traveled from the mountain of God [ imehar Hashem /i]for three days” (Numbers 10:33), band Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: That they turned from after God [ ime’aḥarei Hashem /i]and hurriedly fled Mount Sinai. The Gemara asks: bAndif so, bwhere isthe proper bplacefor this paragraph? bRav Ashi said: Inthe portion of the bflags,where there is a description of the manner in which the Jewish people traveled through the desert., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to bthe blank foliosof parchment bof a Torah scroll,does bone rescue them from the fireon Shabbat, bordoes bone not rescue them from the fire? Comeand bheara resolution to this from that which we learned: With regard to ba Torah scroll that is worn, if there isenough bin it to compile eighty-fivecomplete bletters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescuesit from the fire, band if not one does not rescueit. If even the blank folios are rescued, bwhywould one not rescue a Torah scroll with fewer than the requisite number of letters? bDerivethat this scroll may be rescued bdue to its blank folios. The Gemaraanswers: A Torah scroll that is bworn is different,because at that point its sanctity is negated, and its blank folios are not sacred. Therefore, one may rescue the scroll only if it contains eighty-five letters., bComeand bheara different resolution from that which was taught in another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba Torah scroll that was erased, if there isenough bin it to compile eighty-fivecomplete bletters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescuesit from the fire, band if not, one does not rescueit. bAnd whyis that so? bDerivethat this scroll may be rescued bdue to its blank folios,as the erased section is surely no less significant than the blank folios of the scroll. The Gemara answers: That is not so. In a case where bthe place of the writingis erased bit is not a dilemma for me, as it is sacred due tothe bwriting.If the bwriting is gone, its sanctity is gone. When it is a dilemma for me iswith regard to the blank portions that are babove and below, that are betweenone bsection andanother bsection, that are betweenone bpage andanother bpage, that are at the beginning of the scroll,and bthat are at the end of the scroll.The Gemara asks again: bDerivethat this scroll may be rescued bdue to thatarea that is blank, whose sanctity remains. The Gemara replies: There, it is referring to a case bwherethe blank area bwas cut and thrownout, and all that remains is the place of the writing., bComeand bheara different resolution from what we learned in a mishna: The Sages decreed that bthe blank foliosthat are babove and below, that are betweenone bsection andanother bsection, that are betweenone bpage andanother bpage, that are at the beginning of the scroll,and bthat are at the end of the scroll render the handsthat touch them britually impure.Apparently, the blank folios have the sanctity of a Torah scroll. The Gemara replies: That is not a proof, as bperhapswhen it is bpart of the Torah scroll, it is different,and in those circumstances the sanctity of the Torah extends to the blank portions. When they stand alone they have no sanctity.,Therefore, bcomeand bheara different resolution from that which was taught in another ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe blank folios and theTorah bscrolls of heretics, one does not rescue them from the fire; rather, they burn in their place, they and the namesof God contained therein. bWhat,is this bnotreferring to the bblank foliosof ba Torah scroll?The Gemara rejects this: bNo,it is referring to the bblank foliosof bthe scrolls of heretics.The Gemara is surprised at this: bNow,with regard to bthe scrolls of heretics themselves, one does not rescuethem; is it bnecessaryto say that one does not rescue their bblank folios?Rather, bthis is what it is saying: And the scrolls of heretics are like blank folios. /b,Apropos the scrolls of heretics, the Gemara analyzes bthe matter itself.With regard to bthe blank folios and theTorah bscrolls ofthe bheretics, one does not rescue them from the fire. Rabbi Yosei says: During the week, one cuts the namesof God contained btherein and buries them, and burns the rest. Rabbi Tarfon saidin the form of an oath: bI will bury my sonsif I fail to do the following, bthat ifthese books bcome into my possession I will burn them and the namescontained btherein. As evenif ba person is pursuing himwith the intent bto kill him, and a snake is hurrying to bite him, one enters a house of idolatry and does not enter the houses of theseheretics. The reason is bthat theseheretics bare awareof the greatness of the Creator manifest in the Torah and its mitzvot, bandnevertheless, they bdenythe existence of God; bwhereas theseidolators bare not aware, andthat is the reason that they bdenythe existence of God. bAnd with regard to theheretics, bthe verse says: “And behind the door and the doorpost you place your memory”(Isaiah 57:8). Although they remember the word of God, they treat it contemptuously, as if casting it behind the door., bRabbi Yishmael said:The fact that the names of God in the scrolls of heretics may be burned can be derived through an ia fortiori /iinference: bJust as to make peace between a husband and his wife,the bTorah says: My name that was written in sanctity shall be erased in the waterin the framework of the ordeal of the isota /i; bthese,the heretics, bwho impose jealousy, and hatred, and conflict between the Jewish people and their Father in Heaven, all the more soit is proper to erase God’s names because of them. bAnd with regard toheretics, bDavid said: “For I hate those who hate You, God, and I fight those who rise against You. I hate them with the utmost hatred, they have become enemies to me”(Psalms 139:21–22). bAnd just as they,the scrolls of heretics, bare not rescued from the fire, neither are they rescued from a rockslide, nor from water, nor fromany other bmatter that destroys them. /b, bYosef bar Ḥanin raised a dilemma before Rabbi Abbahu:With regard to bthese books of the house of Abidan,does bone rescue them from the fire ordoes bone not rescuethem? There were sacred Jewish texts in that house, which were used in debates and discussions on matters of faith. Rabbi Abbahu did not give him a clear answer but said byes and no, andthe matter was buncertain to him. Rav would not go to the house of Abidanfor conversation, band all the more sohe would not go bto the house of Nitzrefei,the Persian fire-temple. bShmuel, to the house of Nitzrefei he did not go,but bto the house of Abidan he did go.The gentile scholars bsaid to Rava: Why did you not come to the house of Abidan?He evaded their question with an excuse and bsaid to them: There is a certain palm tree on the road, andthat makes the path bdifficult for me.They said to him: bWe will uproot it.He said to them: Nevertheless, the resulting pit in bits placewill be bdifficult for me. Mar bar Yosef said: I amone bof them,we are friends, band I do not fear them.Still, bone time he wentand argued with them and bthey sought to endanger hislife. bRabbi Meir would callthe Christian writing, the Evangelion, the bwicked folio [ iaven gilyon /i]; Rabbi Yoḥacalled it the bsinful folio [ iavon gilyon /i]. /b,The Gemara relates: bImma Shalom,the bwifeof bRabbi Eliezer, was Rabban Gamliel’s sister. There wasa Christian bphilosopher [ ipilosofa /i] in their neighborhood /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. כמין שני חוטמין דקין (ואחד) מעובה ואחד דק כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת מערבו של מים מזרחו של יין עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא,ר' יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה ולמנסך אומר לו הגבה ידך שפעם אחד נסך אחד על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן,כמעשהו בחול כך מעשהו בשבת אלא שהיה ממלא מערב שבת חבית של זהב שאינה מקודשת מן השילוח ומניחה בלשכה נשפכה נתגלתה היה ממלא מן הכיור שהיין והמים מגולין פסולין לגבי מזבח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הנ"מ אמר רב עינא דאמר קרא (ישעיהו יב, ג) ושאבתם מים בששון וגו',הנהו תרי מיני חד שמיה ששון וחד שמיה שמחה א"ל ששון לשמחה אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (ישעיהו לה, י) ששון ושמחה ישיגו וגו' א"ל שמחה לששון אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (אסתר ח, יז) שמחה וששון ליהודים א"ל ששון לשמחה חד יומא שבקוך ושויוך פרוונקא דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, יב) כי בשמחה תצאו א"ל שמחה לששון חד יומא שבקוך ומלו בך מיא דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון,א"ל ההוא מינא דשמיה ששון לר' אבהו עתידיתו דתמלו לי מים לעלמא דאתי דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון א"ל אי הוה כתיב לששון כדקאמרת השתא דכתיב בששון משכיה דההוא גברא משוינן ליה גודא ומלינן ביה מיא:,עלה בכבש ופנה לשמאלו כו': ת"ר כל העולים למזבח עולין דרך ימין ומקיפין ויורדין דרך שמאל חוץ מן העולה לשלשה דברים הללו שעולין דרך שמאל וחוזרין על העקב ואלו הן ניסוך המים וניסוך היין ועולת העוף כשרבתה במזרח:,אלא שהיו משחירין: בשלמא דיין משחיר דמיא אמאי משחיר כיון דאמר מר עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא של מים אתי לאשחורי:,ומנוקבים כמין ב' חוטמין וכו': לימא מתניתין ר' יהודה היא ולא רבנן דתנן רבי יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה דאי רבנן כי הדדי נינהו,אפי' תימא רבנן חמרא סמיך מיא קליש,הכי נמי מסתברא דאי רבי יהודה רחב וקצר אית ליה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר שני קשוואות היו שם אחד של מים ואחד של יין של יין פיה רחב של מים פיה קצר כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת ש"מ:,מערבו של מים: ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שניסך על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן ואותו היום נפגמה קרן המזבח והביאו בול של מלח וסתמוהו לא מפני שהוכשר לעבודה אלא מפני שלא יראה מזבח פגום 48b. with btwo thinperforated bnose-likeprotrusions. bOneof the basins, used for the wine libation, had a perforation that was bbroad, and one,used for the water libation, had a perforation that was bthin, so thatthe flow of bboththe water and the wine, which do not have the same viscosity, would bconclude simultaneously.The basin to the bwest ofthe altar was bfor water,and the basin to the beast ofthe altar was bfor wine.However, if bone pouredthe contents of the basin bof water intothe basin bof wine, orthe contents of the basin bof wine intothe basin bof water, he fulfilledhis obligation, as failure to pour the libation from the prescribed location does not disqualify the libation after the fact., bRabbi Yehuda says:The basin for the water libation was not that large; rather, bone would pourthe water bwitha vessel that had a capacity of bone ilog /ion ball eightdays of the Festival and not only seven. bAndthe appointee bsays to the one pouringthe water into the silver basin: bRaise your hand,so that his actions would be visible, bas one timea Sadducee priest intentionally bpouredthe water bon his feet,as the Sadducees did not accept the oral tradition requiring water libation, and in their rage ball the people pelted him with their ietrogim /i. /b,Rabbi Yehuda continues: bAs its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat, exceptthat on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, bon Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecratedfor exclusive use in the Temple bfrom the Siloampool, band hewould bplace it in theTemple bchamberand draw water from there on Shabbat. If the water in the barrel bspilled,or if it bwas exposedovernight, leading to concern that a snake may have deposited poison in the water, bone would fillthe jug with water bfrom the basinin the Temple courtyard, bas exposed wine or water is unfit for the altar.Just as it is prohibited for people to drink them due to the potential danger, so too, they may not be poured on the altar., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the customs accompanying the drawing of the water, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Eina saidthat it is bas the verse states: “With joy [ isason /i] you shall draw waterout of the springs of salvation” (Isaiah 12:3), indicating that the water was to be drawn from the spring and the rite performed in extreme joy.,Apropos this verse, the Gemara relates: There were bthese two heretics, one named Sason and one named Simḥa. Sason said to Simḥa: I am superior to you, as it is written: “They shall obtain joy [ isason /i] and happiness [ isimḥa /i],and sorrow and sighing shall flee” (Isaiah 35:10). The verse mentions joy first. bSimḥa said to Sason,On the contrary, bI am superior to you, as it is written: “There was happiness [ isimḥa /i] and joy [ isason /i] for the Jews”(Esther 8:17). bSason said to Simḥa: One day they will dismiss you and render you a messenger [ iparvanka /i], as it is written: “For you shall go out with happiness [ isimḥa /i]”(Isaiah 55:12). bSimḥa said to Sason: One day they will dismiss you and draw water with you, as it is written: “With joy [ isason /i] you shall draw water.” /b,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bA certain heretic named Sason said to Rabbi Abbahu: You areall bdestined to draw water for me in the World-to-Come, as it is written: “With isasonyou shall draw water.”Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: If it had been written: For isason /i,it would have been bas you say; now that it is written: With isason /i,it means that bthe skin of that man,you, bwill be rendered a wineskin, and we will draw water with it. /b,§ The mishna continues: The priest bascended the rampof the altar band turned to his left. The Sages taught: All who ascend the altar ascendand turn bviathe bright, and circlethe altar, band descend viathe bleft.This is the case bexcept for one ascendingto perform one of bthese three tasks, asthe ones who perform these tasks bascend viathe bleft, andthen bturn ontheir bheel and returnin the direction that they came. bAndthese tasks bare: The water libation, and the wine libation, and the birdsacrificed as ba burnt-offering when there weretoo bmanypriests engaged in the sacrifice of these burnt-offerings bin thepreferred location beastof the altar. When that was the case, additional priests engaged in sacrificing the same offering would pinch the neck of the bird west of the altar.,The mishna continues: Rabbi Yehuda said that they were limestone, not silver, basins, bbut they would blackendue to the wine. The Gemara asks: bGranted,the basin bfor wine blackeneddue to the wine; however, bwhy did thebasin bfor water blacken?The Gemara answers: bSince the Master saidin the mishna: However, if boneinadvertently bpouredthe contents of the basin bof water intothe basin bof wine orthe contents of the basin bof wine intothe basin bof water, he fulfilledhis obligation. Then even the basin bfor waterwould bcome to blackenover the course of time as well.,§ The mishna continues: bAndthe two basins were bperforatedat the bottom with btwo thin,perforated, bnose-likeprotrusions, one broad and one thin. The Gemara asks: bLet us saythat bthe mishna isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and notwith that of bthe Rabbis, as we learnedin the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says: One would pourthe water bwitha vessel that had a capacity of bone ilog /ion ball eightdays of the Festival, unlike the wine libation, for which a three- ilogbasin was used. According to his opinion, there is a difference between the capacity of the wine vessel and that of the water vessel; therefore, it is clear why the opening in the wine vessel was broader. bAs, ifthe mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis, they are the sameas the capacity of the water basin, three ilog /i. Why, then, were there different sized openings?,The Gemara answers: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,the reason for the different-sized openings is that bwine is thickand bwater is thin,and therefore wine flows more slowly than water. In order to ensure that the emptying of both basins would conclude simultaneously, the wine basin required a wider opening., bSo too, it is reasonableto establish that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, bas, ifit is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,unlike the description of the two openings in the mishna as broad and thin, elsewhere he bis ofthe opinion that the openings bas wide and narrow, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: There were twosmall bpipes there, one for water and one for wine. The mouth ofthe pipe bfor wine was wide and the mouth ofthe pipe bfor water was narrow, so thatthe emptying of both basins bwould conclude simultaneously.The disparity between wide and narrow is greater than the disparity between broad and thin, thereby facilitating the simultaneous emptying of the three- ilogand one- ilogbasins according to Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.,§ The mishna continues: The basin to the bwest ofthe altar was bfor water,and the basin to the east of the altar was for wine, and they would tell the one pouring the water to raise his hand. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one Sadduceepriest bwho pouredthe water bon his feet,and in anger ball the people pelted him with their ietrogim /i. And that day, the horn of the altar was damagedas a result of the pelting and the ensuing chaos. bThey brought a fistful of salt and sealedthe damaged section, bnot because it renderedthe altar bfit for theTemple bservice, butin deference to the altar, bso that the altar would not be seenin its bdamagedstate.
43. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35b. מיתיבי (יחזקאל מד, יט) ולבשו בגדים אחרים ולא יקדשו את העם בבגדיהם,מאי לאו אחרים חשובין מהן לא אחרים פחותים מהן,תני רב הונא בר יהודה ואמרי לה רב שמואל בר יהודה אחר שכלתה עבודת ציבור כהן שעשתה לו אמו כתונת לובשה ועובד בה עבודת יחיד ובלבד שימסרנה לציבור פשיטא,מהו דתימא ניחוש שמא לא ימסרנה יפה יפה קמ"ל אמרו עליו על רבי ישמעאל בן פאבי שעשתה לו אמו כתונת של מאה מנה ולובשה ועובד בה עבודת יחיד ומסרה לציבור,אמרו עליו על ר' אלעזר בן חרסום שעשתה לו אמו כתונת משתי ריבוא ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים ללובשה מפני שנראה כערום ומי מתחזי והאמר מר חוטן כפול ששה אמר אביי כחמרא במזגא,ת"ר עני ועשיר ורשע באין לדין לעני אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אומר עני הייתי וטרוד במזונותי אומרים לו כלום עני היית יותר מהלל,אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן שבכל יום ויום היה עושה ומשתכר בטרפעיק חציו היה נותן לשומר בית המדרש וחציו לפרנסתו ולפרנסת אנשי ביתו פעם אחת לא מצא להשתכר ולא הניחו שומר בית המדרש להכנס עלה ונתלה וישב על פי ארובה כדי שישמע דברי אלהים חיים מפי שמעיה ואבטליון,אמרו אותו היום ערב שבת היה ותקופת טבת היתה וירד עליו שלג מן השמים כשעלה עמוד השחר אמר לו שמעיה לאבטליון אבטליון אחי בכל יום הבית מאיר והיום אפל שמא יום המעונן הוא הציצו עיניהן וראו דמות אדם בארובה עלו ומצאו עליו רום שלש אמות שלג פרקוהו והרחיצוהו וסיכוהו והושיבוהו כנגד המדורה אמרו ראוי זה לחלל עליו את השבת,עשיר אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אומר עשיר הייתי וטרוד הייתי בנכסי אומרים לו כלום עשיר היית יותר מרבי אלעזר אמרו עליו על רבי אלעזר בן חרסום שהניח לו אביו אלף עיירות ביבשה וכנגדן אלף ספינות בים ובכל יום ויום נוטל נאד של קמח על כתיפו ומהלך מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד תורה,פעם אחת מצאוהו עבדיו ועשו בו אנגריא אמר להן בבקשה מכם הניחוני ואלך ללמוד תורה אמרו לו חיי רבי אלעזר בן חרסום שאין מניחין אותך ומימיו לא הלך וראה אותן אלא יושב ועוסק בתורה כל היום וכל הלילה,רשע אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אמר נאה הייתי וטרוד ביצרי הייתי אומרים לו כלום נאה היית מיוסף אמרו עליו על יוסף הצדיק בכל יום ויום היתה אשת פוטיפר משדלתו בדברים בגדים שלבשה לו שחרית לא לבשה לו ערבית בגדים שלבשה לו ערבית לא לבשה לו שחרית,אמרה לו השמע לי אמר לה לאו אמרה לו הריני חובשתך בבית האסורין אמר לה (תהלים קמו, ז) ה' מתיר אסורים הריני כופפת קומתך (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים הריני מסמא את עיניך (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' פוקח עורים נתנה לו אלף ככרי כסף לשמוע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה ולא רצה לשמוע אליה,לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה לעוה"ב נמצא הלל מחייב את העניים רבי אלעזר בן חרסום מחייב את העשירים יוסף מחייב את הרשעים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בא לו אצל פרו ופרו היה עומד בין האולם ולמזבח ראשו לדרום ופניו למערב והכהן עומד במזרח ופניו למערב וסומך שתי ידיו עליו ומתודה,וכך היה אומר אנא השם עויתי פשעתי חטאתי לפניך אני וביתי אנא השם כפר נא לעונות ולפשעים ולחטאים שעויתי ושפשעתי ושחטאתי לפניך אני וביתי ככתוב בתורת משה עבדך (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר וגו' והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד 35b. bThe Gemara raises an objection.It is stated: “And it shall be that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, while they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within” (Ezekiel 44:17). This verse is referring to the Yom Kippur service, as during the year the High Priest performed the service in eight priestly vestments made partially of wool. Two verses later the prophet says: “And when they go forth into the outer court, into the outer court to the people, they shall remove their garments in which they serve, and lay them in the sacred chambers, band they shall put on other garments, so that they do not sanctify the people with their garments”(Ezekiel 44:19).,The Gemara infers: bWhat, doesn’t “other”mean bmore important thanthe first set of linen garments? The Gemara rejects this: bNo,although b“other”means different garments, it means garments binferior to them,the first set of linen garments. The High Priest does not don a second set of garments to effect atonement; rather, he dons them in deference to God to remove the spoon and the coal pan from the Holy of Holies., bRav Huna bar Yehuda, and some say Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, taught: After the public service concluded, a priest whose mother had made hima priestly btunicmay bwear it and perform an individual servicewhile wearing bit,such as removal of the spoon and the coal pan, which is not a service in and of itself, bprovided he transfers it tothe possession of bthe public.All services performed by the priest must be performed while he is wearing sacred garments owned by the public, as all the Temple vessels are. The Gemara asks: This is bobvious;once he transfers it to the possession of the public, it is Temple property like any other vessel that an individual donates to the Temple. What is novel in this statement?,The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat the concern is that since he is the one wearing it bperhapshe will intend to retain ownership band will not transfer it wholeheartedly;therefore, bit teaches usthat if he transfers possession to the public, that is not a concern. Apropos this ihalakha /i, the Gemara relates: bThey said aboutthe High Priest bRabbi Yishmael ben Pabi that his mother made him a tunic worth one hundred imaneh /i. He donned it and performed an individual service and transferredpossession of it bto the public. /b,And similarly, bthey said aboutthe High Priest bRabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum that his mother made him a tunicworth btwenty thousanddinars, bbut his fellow priests did not allow him to wear it becauseit was transparent and bhe appeared asone who is bnaked.The Gemara asks: bAnd couldhe bbe seenthrough a garment made to the specifications of the priestly vestments? bDidn’t the Master say: The threadsof the priestly vestments bwere six-fold?Since the clothes were woven from threads that thick, his body could not have been seen through them. bAbaye said: It is like wine ina thick bglasscup. His flesh could not actually be seen, but since it was very fine linen, it was somewhat translucent and his skin color was discernible.,§ Apropos the great wealth of Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum, the Gemara cites that which bthe Sages taught: A poorperson, band a wealthyperson, band a wickedperson bcome toface bjudgmentbefore the Heavenly court for their conduct in this world. bTo the poorperson, the members of the court bsay: Why did you not engage in Torah? If herationalizes his conduct band says: I was poor and preoccupied withearning enough to pay for bmy susteceand that is why I did not engage in Torah study, bthey say to him: Were you any poorer than Hillel,who was wretchedly poor and nevertheless attempted to study Torah?, bThey said about Hillel the Elder that each and every day he would work and earn a half-dinar, half of which he would give to the guard of the study hall and half of whichhe spent bfor his sustece and the sustece of the members of his family. One time he did not findemployment bto earna wage, band the guard of the study hall did not allow him to enter. He ascendedto the roof, bsuspendedhimself, band sat at the edge of the skylight in order to hear the wordsof the Torah bof the living God from the mouths of Shemaya and Avtalyon,the spiritual leaders of that generation.,The Sages continued and bsaid: That day was Shabbat eve and it was thewinter bseason of Tevet, and snow fell upon him from the sky. When it was dawn, Shemaya said to Avtalyon: Avtalyon, my brother, every dayat this hour bthestudy bhallis already bbrightfrom the sunlight streaming through the skylight, band today it is dark; is it perhaps a cloudy day? They focused their eyes and saw the image of a man in the skylight. They ascended and found himcovered with bsnow three cubits high. They extricated himfrom the snow, band they washed him and smearedoil bon him, and they sat him opposite the bonfireto warm him. bThey said: Thisman bis worthyfor us bto desecrate Shabbat for him.Saving a life overrides Shabbat in any case; however, this great man is especially deserving. Clearly, poverty is no excuse for the failure to attempt to study Torah.,And if ba wealthyman comes before the heavenly court, the members of the court bsay to him: Why did you not engage in Torah? If he says: I was wealthy and preoccupied withmanaging bmy possessions, they say to him: Were you any wealthier than Rabbi Elazar,who was exceedingly wealthy and nevertheless studied Torah? bThey said about Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum that his father left himan inheritance of bone thousand villages on land, and corresponding to them, one thousand ships at sea. And each and every day he takesa leather bjug of flour on his shoulder and walks from city to city and from state to state to study Torahfrom the Torah scholars in each of those places., bOne timeas he passed through the villages in his estate and bhis servants found him,did not recognize him, band,thinking he was a resident of the town, bthey pressed him into service [ iangarya /i]for the master of the estate. bHe said to them: I beseech you; let me be and I will go study Torah. They said:We swear bby the life of Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum thatwe bwill not let you be.The Gemara comments: bAnd in all his days, he never went and sawall his possessions and his property; brather,he would bsit and engage inthe study of bTorah all day and all night. /b,And if a wicked man comes to judgment, the members of the court bsay to him: Why did you not engage in Torah? If he said: I was handsome and preoccupied with myevil binclination,as I had many temptations, bthey say to him: Were you any more handsome than Joseph,who did not neglect Torah despite his beauty? bThey said about Joseph the righteous: Each and every day, the wife of Potiphar seduced him with words.In addition, bthe clothes that she wore toentice bhim in the morning, she did not wear toentice bhim in the evening. The clothes that she wore toentice bhim in the evening, she did not wear toentice bhim in the morningof the next day.,One day bshe said to him: Submit to meand have relations with me. br bHe said to her: No. br bShe said to him: I will incarcerate you in the prison. He said to her:I do not fear you, as it is stated: b“God releases prisoners”(Psalms 146:7). br bShe said to him: I willcause you to be bbent overwith suffering. brHe said: b“God straightens those who are bent over”(Psalms 146:8). brShe said bI will blind your eyes. brHe said to her b“God opens the eyes of the blind”(Psalms 146:8). br bShe gave him a thousand talents of silver to submit to her, “to lie with her and be with her”(Genesis 39:10), band he refused. /b,The Gemara elaborates: Had he submitted to her bto lie with her in this world,it would have been decreed in Heaven that he would bbe with her in the World-to-Come.Therefore, he refused. bConsequently, Hillel obligates the poorto study Torah, bRabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum obligates the wealthy,and bJoseph obligates the wicked.For each category of people, there is a role model who overcame his preoccupations and temptations to study Torah., strongMISHNA: /strong The High Priest bcomesand stands bnext to his bull, and his bull was standing between the Entrance Hall and the altarwith bits headfacing bto the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands to the eastof the bull, band his facepoints bto the west. Andthe priest bplaces his two hands onthe bull band confesses. /b, bAnd this is what he would sayin his confession: bPlease, God, I have sinned, I have done wrong,and bI have rebelled before You, I and my family. Please, God, grant atonement, please, for the sins, and for the wrongs, and for the rebellions that I have sinned, and done wrong, and rebelled before You, I and my family, as it is written in the Torah of Moses your servant: “For on this day atonement shall be madefor you to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord” (Leviticus 16:30). bAndthe priests and the people who were in the courtyard brespond after herecites the name of God: bBlessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. /b
44. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 3 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abot, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633, 655
akiva, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 532
amulets, jewish elite rhetoric on Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 280
babylonia, in palestine Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
babylonia Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
babylonian rabbis, sages, avoidance of christians, biblereading heretics Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
baethesians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 280
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, babylonian rabbis relationships with Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, evidence on disputations Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, interaction with palestinian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
bible-reading heretics, non-jews, presence in persia Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
birkat ha-minim Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 532, 655
body, hand Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
body Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
body and soul Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 135
change, in conception Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 135
christianity, criticism of the temple Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 101
christianity, openness to non-jews Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 101
christianity, renunciation of jewish law Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 101
christians, rabbinic relationships with, evidence on disputations Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
christians and christianity Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 532, 601, 632, 633
conversion Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
creation Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
dietary laws Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632, 655
egypt, exodus from Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
egypt, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
elazar ben dama, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
eleazar b. dima, r. Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
eleazar ben dama Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
eliezer, ben damma, rabbi Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
epicureans Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
evil Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
excommunicate (see also aposynagôgos) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 655
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 532, 601
expiation (kappara), ben sira Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 280
fasting Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
frēstaqa (royal officer) Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
galilee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 532
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 655
gnosticism Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 258
gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
god, powerless Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
guard Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
healing healers, jews forbidden to employ christian Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
heaven Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
identity, collective Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
idolatry Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632, 633
idols/idolatry Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 532, 601, 632, 633
ishmael, rabbi Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jacob of cfar sima Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
jesus, in rabbinic literature Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
jesus, pandira Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
jesus, warning against seeking healing by followers of Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
jesus Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 532
jesus (of nazareth) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 258
jesus ben pandera, name invoked Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jesus ben pandera Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 655
jewish elite rhetoric, amulets and tefillin Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric, christian cures Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric, miracles, legitimacy of Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
johannine community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 532
john chrysostom, denunciation of christian adoption of jewish practices Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
joy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 532
kingdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
law and legal formulae, rabbinic (halakhah) Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
law and legal formulae Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
life after death Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
lords prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
manicheeism, manichees, presence in persia Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632
martyrdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
martyrs Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 655
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 655
minim, cause abhorence between israel and god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
minim, christians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79, 87, 88, 101
minim, gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, in rabbinic literature Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, interaction between rabbis and, evidence on disputations Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
minim, interaction between rabbis and, in babylonia Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
minim, interaction between rabbis and, in palestine Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
minim, laws of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, sectarians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, their identity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
minut, deviance Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minut, in rabbinic literature Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
mishnah, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
mishnah, narratives in, compared with tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 291
moses Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
narratives, compared, in mishnah and tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 291
narratives, miscellaneous, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290
narratives, sages affairs, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 288
narratives, successful vs. routine, Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 288
narratives, types and forms of, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 288, 290
origen Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, christians, bible-reading heretics Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
persia, persian empire, christian centers in Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
phylacteries Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
pliny the younger Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632, 633
polemics, of palestinian rabbis against christians Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69, 71
prooftext Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
pseudo-clementines Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
r. eliezer ben hyrcanus Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
r. ishmael, objects to healing in the name of jesus Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 77
rabba bar naḥmani Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
rabbi elazar ben dama Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 101
rabbi eliezer Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 101
rabbinic tradition/literature, movement Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276, 601, 655
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632
revolt/war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
ritual authority Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 532
roman, law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
sadducees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
sages, rabbinic, as models of virtue Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
samaritan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
samaritans Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
second temple literature, mentioned in rabbinic works Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 280
second temple literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 280
sectarianism, heretics Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 258
sectarianism, min(im) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 258
sepphoris (tsipori) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
shimon bar yohai Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 135
short prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
sifra, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
sifre to deuteronomy, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
sifré to numbers, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
simon magus Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 199
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632, 633, 655
snake Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
soldiers Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
soul Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632
tax Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
tefi llin Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
ten martyrs tradition, rabbinic martyrs mentioned only in ten martyrs lists Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 225
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
torah, and virtue Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
torah Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236
tosefta, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 176
tosefta, narrative types and forms in Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 288, 290
tosefta, narratives in, compared with mishnah Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 291
two powers in heaven Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 276
wilken, r. Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 69
yaakov, from kefar samma' Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 81
yaakov, term applied to minim, christians Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 71
yaakov from kfar sama Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
yavne Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
yehuda ha-nasi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 632
yeshu (ben pandera, ha-notsri) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633
yeshua ben pantera Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
yishmael, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 633, 655
ḥanina b. teradyon, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 236