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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10940
Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.6
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

39 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4, 4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.11, 25.17, 32.11-32.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.11. וַתִּקְרְבוּן וַתַּעַמְדוּן תַּחַת הָהָר וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד־לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם חֹשֶׁךְ עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 25.17. זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 32.11. כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃ 32.12. יְהוָה בָּדָד יַנְחֶנּוּ וְאֵין עִמּוֹ אֵל נֵכָר׃ 4.11. And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud, and thick darkness." 25.17. Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt;" 32.11. As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—" 32.12. The LORD alone did lead him, And there was no strange god with Him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.41, 17.1-17.16, 24.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.41. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיְהִי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יָצְאוּ כָּל־צִבְאוֹת יְהוָה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 17.1. וַיִּסְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִין לְמַסְעֵיהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיַּחֲנוּ בִּרְפִידִים וְאֵין מַיִם לִשְׁתֹּת הָעָם׃ 17.1. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ מֹשֶׁה לְהִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק וּמֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עָלוּ רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה׃ 17.2. וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ תְּנוּ־לָנוּ מַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן עִמָּדִי מַה־תְּנַסּוּן אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.3. וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה הֶעֱלִיתָנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי וְאֶת־מִקְנַי בַּצָּמָא׃ 17.4. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָעָם הַזֶּה עוֹד מְעַט וּסְקָלֻנִי׃ 17.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר קַח בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלָכְתָּ׃ 17.6. הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.7. וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם מַסָּה וּמְרִיבָה עַל־רִיב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל נַסֹּתָם אֶת־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הֲיֵשׁ יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם־אָיִן׃ 17.8. וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְפִידִם׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּחַר־לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְצֵא הִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק מָחָר אָנֹכִי נִצָּב עַל־רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה וּמַטֵּה הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדִי׃ 17.11. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרִים מֹשֶׁה יָדוֹ וְגָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכַאֲשֶׁר יָנִיחַ יָדוֹ וְגָבַר עֲמָלֵק׃ 17.12. וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 17.13. וַיַּחֲלֹשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵק וְאֶת־עַמּוֹ לְפִי־חָרֶב׃ 17.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן בַּסֵּפֶר וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 17.15. וַיִּבֶן מֹשֶׁה מִזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ יְהוָה נִסִּי׃ 17.16. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ מִלְחָמָה לַיהוָה בַּעֲמָלֵק מִדֹּר דֹּר׃ 12.41. And it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the host of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt." 17.1. And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their stages, according to the commandment of the LORD, and encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink." 17.2. Wherefore the people strove with Moses, and said: ‘Give us water that we may drink.’ And Moses said unto them: ‘Why strive ye with me? wherefore do ye try the LORD?’" 17.3. And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said: ‘Wherefore hast thou brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?’" 17.4. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘What shall I do unto this people? they are almost ready to stone me.’" 17.5. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and go." 17.6. Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel." 17.7. And the name of the place was called Massah, and Meribah, because of the striving of the children of Israel, and because they tried the LORD, saying: ‘Is the LORD among us, or not?’" 17.8. Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim." 17.9. And Moses said unto Joshua: ‘Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand.’" 17.10. So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill." 17.11. And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed." 17.12. But Moses’hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun." 17.13. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword." 17.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write this for a memorial in the book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.’" 17.15. And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Adonai-nissi." 17.16. And he said: ‘The hand upon the throne of the LORD: the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.’" 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.3-18.23, 20.10-20.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.6. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.7. עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.8. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.9. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת־אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת־אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן׃ 18.11. עֶרְוַת בַּת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ מוֹלֶדֶת אָבִיךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.12. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה שְׁאֵר אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 18.14. עֶרְוַת אֲחִי־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִקְרָב דֹּדָתְךָ הִוא׃ 18.15. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.16. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָחִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָחִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.17. עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶת־בַּת־בְּנָהּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּהּ לֹא תִקַּח לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה זִמָּה הִוא 18.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.22. וְאֶת־זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא׃ 18.23. וּבְכָל־בְּהֵמָה לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא־תַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה לְרִבְעָהּ תֶּבֶל הוּא׃ 20.11. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו עֶרְוַת אָבִיו גִּלָּה מוֹת־יוּמְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 20.12. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־כַּלָּתוֹ מוֹת יוּמְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם תֶּבֶל עָשׂוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 20.13. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־זָכָר מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה עָשׂוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 20.14. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִקַּח אֶת־אִשָּׁה וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ זִמָּה הִוא בָּאֵשׁ יִשְׂרְפוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶתְהֶן וְלֹא־תִהְיֶה זִמָּה בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 20.15. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתּוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָת וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה תַּהֲרֹגוּ׃ 20.16. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרַב אֶל־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה לְרִבְעָה אֹתָהּ וְהָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 20.17. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקַּח אֶת־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְרָאָה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ וְהִיא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־עֶרְוָתוֹ חֶסֶד הוּא וְנִכְרְתוּ לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי עַמָּם עֶרְוַת אֲחֹתוֹ גִּלָּה עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא׃ 20.18. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 20.19. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲוֺנָם יִשָּׂאוּ׃ 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.6. None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness. I am the LORD." 18.7. The nakedness of thy father, and the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.8. The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness." 18.9. The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother, whether born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover. ." 18.10. The nakedness of thy son’s daughter, or of thy daughter’s daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover; for theirs is thine own nakedness." 18.11. The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.12. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister: she is thy father’s near kinswoman." 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman." 18.14. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy fathers brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt." 18.15. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son’wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.16. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is thy brother’s nakedness." 18.17. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; thou shalt not take her son’s daughter, or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness: they are near kinswomen; it is lewdness." 18.18. And thou shalt not take a woman to her sister, to be a rival to her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her lifetime." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness." 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.22. Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind; it is abomination." 18.23. And thou shalt not lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any woman stand before a beast, to lie down thereto; it is perversion." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 20.11. And the man that lieth with his father’s wife—he hath uncovered his father’s nakedness—both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them." 20.12. And if a man lie with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have wrought corruption; their blood shall be upon them." 20.13. And if a man lie with mankind, as with womankind, both of them have committed abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them." 20.14. And if a man take with his wife also her mother, it is wickedness: they shall be burnt with fire, both he and they; that there be no wickedness among you." 20.15. And if a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death; and ye shall slay the beast." 20.16. And if a woman approach unto any beast, and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill the woman, and the beast: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them." 20.17. And if a man shall take his sister, his father’s daughter, or his mother’s daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness: it is a shameful thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people: he hath uncovered his sister’s nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity." 20.18. And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people." 20.19. And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister; for he hath made naked his near kin; they shall bear their iniquity." 20.20. And if a man shall lie with his uncle’s wife—he hath uncovered his uncle’s nakedness—they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 31.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 116.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

116.15. יָקָר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה הַמָּוְתָה לַחֲסִידָיו׃ 116.15. Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְהָאוּלָם עַל־פְּנֵי הֵיכַל הַבַּיִת עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי רֹחַב הַבָּיִת עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַבָּיִת׃ 6.3. וְאֶת־קַרְקַע הַבַּיִת צִפָּה זָהָב לִפְנִימָה וְלַחִיצוֹן׃ 6.3. And the porch before the atemple of the house, twenty cubits was the length thereof, according to the breadth of the house; and ten cubits was the breadth thereof before the house."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 64.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

64.1. בֵּית קָדְשֵׁנוּ וְתִפְאַרְתֵּנוּ אֲשֶׁר הִלְלוּךָ אֲבֹתֵינוּ הָיָה לִשְׂרֵפַת אֵשׁ וְכָל־מַחֲמַדֵּינוּ הָיָה לְחָרְבָּה׃ 64.1. כִּקְדֹחַ אֵשׁ הֲמָסִים מַיִם תִּבְעֶה־אֵשׁ לְהוֹדִיעַ שִׁמְךָ לְצָרֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ גּוֹיִם יִרְגָּזוּ׃ 64.1. As when fire kindleth the brush-wood, and the fire causeth the waters to boil; to make Thy name known to Thine adversaries, that the nations might tremble at Thy presence,"
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.5 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. אַל־תִּתֵּן אֶת־פִּיךָ לַחֲטִיא אֶת־בְּשָׂרֶךָ וְאַל־תֹּאמַר לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ כִּי שְׁגָגָה הִיא לָמָּה יִקְצֹף הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־קוֹלֶךָ וְחִבֵּל אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃ 5.5. Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt, neither say thou before the messenger, that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thy hands?"
12. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. They mention the Exodus from Egypt at night. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: \"Behold, I am almost a seventy-year old man and I have not succeeded in [understanding why] the Exodus from Egypt should be mentioned at night, until Ben Zoma explained it from a verse (Deuteronomy 16:3): ‘In order that you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life.’ ‘The days of your life’ refers to the days. ‘All the days of your life’ refers to the nights. And the sages say: ‘the days of your life’ refers to this world. ‘All the days of your life’ includes the days of the Messiah."
13. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.7. At the time of his death he said to his son, “Retract the four opinions which I used to declare.” He (the said to him, “Why did not you retract them?” He said to him, “I heard them from the mouth of the many, and they heard [the contrary] from the mouth of the many. I stood fast by the tradition which I heard, and they stood fast by the tradition which they heard. But you have heard [my tradition] from the mouth of a single individual and [their tradition] from the mouth of the many. It is better to leave the opinion of the single individual and to hold by the opinion of the many.” He said to him, “Father commend me to your colleagues.” He said to him, “I will not commend you.” He said to him, “Have you found in me any wrong?” He said, “No; your own deeds will cause you to be near, and your own deeds will cause you to be far.”"
14. Mishnah, Hagigah, 1.8, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. [The laws concerning] the dissolution of vows hover in the air and have nothing to rest on. The laws concerning Shabbat, hagigot, and trespassing are as mountains hanging by a hair, for they have scant scriptural basis but many halakhot. [The laws concerning] civil cases and [Temple] worship, purity and impurity, and the forbidden relations have what to rest on, and they that are the essentials of the Torah." 2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
15. Mishnah, Middot, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mesibbah (a winding walkway) went up from the north-east corner to the north-west corner by which they used to go up to the roofs of the cells. One would ascend the messibah facing the west, traversing the whole of the northern side till he reached the west. When he reached the west he turned to face south and then traversed whole of the west side till he reached the south. When he reached the south he turned to face eastwards and then traversed the south side till he reached the door of the upper chamber, since the door of the upper chamber opened to the south. In the doorway of the upper chamber were two columns of cedar by which they used to climb up to the roof of the upper chamber, and at the top of them was a row of stones showing the division in the upper chamber between the holy part and the Holy of Holies. There were trap doors in the upper chamber opening into the Holy of Holies by which the workmen were let down in baskets so that they should not feast their eyes on the Holy of Holies."
16. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
17. New Testament, Acts, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams.
18. New Testament, Luke, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'
19. New Testament, Matthew, 21.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.39. So they took him, and threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.
20. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1-2.5, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.2. Four entered the orchard: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, another, and Rabbi Akiva. One looked and died. One looked and was harmed. One looked and cut down the trees. And one went up in peace and went down in peace. Ben Azzai looked and died. Scripture says about him (Psalms 116, 15): \"Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints\". Ben Zoma looked and was harmed. Scripture says about him (Proverbs 25, 16): \"Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee\" and the continuation. [Cont. of the verse: \"Lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.\" Elisha looked and cut down the trees. Scripture says about him (Ecclesiastes 5, 5): \"Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt\" etc. Rabbi Akiva went up in peace and went down in peace. Scripture says about him (Song of Songs 1, 4): \"Draw me, we will run after thee\" etc. They gave a parable: What is this similar to? To the orchard of a king and there is an attic above it. It is upon [the man] to look so long as he does not move [his eyes] from it. Another parable was given. What is this similar tp? To [a street] that passes between two paths, one of fire, and one of snow. If it leans one way, it gets burned [by the fire]. If it leans the other way it gets burned by the snow. A man must walk in the middle and not lean to or fro. A story of Rabbi Yehoshua [Who was walkin in the street and Ben Zoma came opposite him] he reached him and did not greet him. He said to him [from where and to where] Ben Zoma? He said to him: I was watching the creation, and there is not between the upper waters and the lower waters even a handbreadth. As it is written (Genesis 1, 2) \"and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters\". And it says (Deuteronomy 32, 11): \"As a vulture that stirreth up her nest\" etc. Just as the vulture flies over the nest, touching and not touching, so too there is not even a handbreadth between the upper waters and lower waters. Rabbi Yehoshua said to his students: Ben Zoma is already outside. In a few days, Ben Zoma passed away." 2.4. In their days they only argued about  laying of hands. There were five pairs. three of the first pairs said not to lay on hands and two of the other pairs said to lay on hands. Three were Nesi'im (princes) and two (of them) were the heads of courts. The words of R. Meir. R. Judah said Simon ben Shetah was Nasi (prince) and Judah ben Tabbai the head of the court....Said R. Yose: Originally there were no arguments in Israel. Rather, a 71 member court sat in the chamber of hewn stone and other courts of 23 existed in the cities of Erez Yisrael. And two courts of 3 apiece were in Jerusalem, one on the temple mount and one in Hayil. When one of them was necessary [a person] goes to the court in his city. No court (in his city)--[the person] goes to the court near his city. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court on the temple mount. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court in Hayil. If they heard they say to him; if not these and these arrive at the court in the chamber of hewn stone (And the court of the chamber of hewn stone even though it is 71, it can never have less than 23. If one of them needs to leave, he sees if there will be 23 he may leave; if not, he may not leave until there are 23. They would sit from the offering of the morning sacrifice until the offering of the afternoon sacrifice. And on sabbaths and Holidays they would enter the Beit Midrash on the temple mount.) If they heard they say to them, and if not, they establish a quorum and take a roll. If the majority says impure it is impure. If the majority says pure it is pure. From there the Halakhah (law) goes out widespread in Israel. When there increased the students of Shammai and Hillel who did not properly apprentice, conflict increased in Israel and it became as though there were two Torahs. And for there they would sit and inspect. Whoever was wise and humble and abundant and sin-fearing and mature and getting along with other people they make him a judge in his city. After being made a judge in his city they could elevate and set him on the temple mount and from there they could elevate and seat him in Hayil and from there they can elevate and seat him in the chamber of hewn stone and from there they sit and inspect the lineages of the priests and levites. A priest in whom has been found a blemish wears black and wraps in black, exits and leaves. One in whom not a blemish is found wears white and wraps in white, enters and serves with his brothers the priests. They would make a holiday that not a blemish was found among the children of Aaron. And he would bring a tenth of an Eifah of his own flour and do the service with his own hands even though it is not his priestly shift. A high priest and a regular priest who served before bringing their tenth of an Eifah their service is acceptable. 
21. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.22, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 2.4, 4.7, 62.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 4.7. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם, רַב אָמַר אֵשׁ וּמָיִם, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַב, נָטַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵשׁ וּמַיִם וּפְתָכָן זֶה בָּזֶה וּמֵהֶן נַעֲשׂוּ שָׁמַיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שָׁמִים כְּתִיב, שֶׁהֵן שָׁמִים מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת, אִם זָכוּ (תהלים צז, ו): וְהִגִּידוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ, וְאִם לָאו (איוב כ, כז): יְגַלּוּ שָׁמַיִם עֲוֹנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁהַבְּרִיּוֹת מִשְׁתּוֹמְמִים עֲלֵיהֶן לֵאמֹר, שֶׁל מָה הֵן, שֶׁל אֵשׁ הֵן, שֶׁל מַיִם הֵן, אֶתְמְהָא. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, הוּא אָתָא וְקָם עָלָיו (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו, הֱוֵי שֶׁל מַיִם הֵן. סַמִּים, מַה סַּמִּים הַלָּלוּ, מֵהֶן יְרֻקִּין וּמֵהֶן אֲדֻמִּים, מֵהֶם שְׁחֹרִים וּמֵהֶם לְבָנִים, כָּךְ שָׁמַיִם פְּעָמִים יְרֻקִּין, וּפְעָמִים אֲדֻמִּים, פְּעָמִים שְׁחֹרִים, וּפְעָמִים לְבָנִים. רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר, שָׁמַיִם, שָׂא מַיִם, טְעוֹן מַיִם. מָשָׁל לְחָלָב שֶׁהָיָה נָתוּן בִּקְעָרָה, עַד שֶׁלֹא תֵּרֵד לְתוֹכוֹ טִפָּה אַחַת שֶׁל מְסוֹ הוּא מְרַפֵּף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד לְתוֹכוֹ טִפָּה אַחַת שֶׁל מְסוֹ, מִיָּד הוּא קוֹפֵא וְעוֹמֵד, כָּךְ (איוב כו, יא): עַמּוּדֵי שָׁמַיִם יְרוֹפָפוּ, עָמְדוּ שָׁמַיִם נִתַּן בָּהֶם אֶת הַמְּסוֹ, וַיְהִי עֶרֶב וַיְהִי בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי, אַתְיָא כִּדְאָמַר רַב, לַחִים הָיוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן וּבַשֵּׁנִי קָרְשׁוּ. 62.2. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל אֶל מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה (בראשית כה, ט), כָּאן בֶּן הָאָמָה חוֹלֵק כָּבוֹד לְבֶן הַגְּבִירָה. (בראשית כה, י): הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וַהֲלוֹא מִקְבוּרָתָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה לִקְבוּרָתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם שְׁלשִׁים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנָה, וְהָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית כה, י): שָׁמָּה קֻבַּר אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ, אֶלָּא בָּא לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁגָּמַל חֶסֶד לְשָׂרָה זָכָה לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד לְאַבְרָהָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן שֵׁם וְעֵבֶר הָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין לִפְנֵי מִטָּתוֹ וְרָאוּ גַּבָּהּ מָקוֹם מֻפְנֶה לְאָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם וְקָבְרוּ אוֹתוֹ בִּדְיוֹטְרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בַּמָּקוֹם הַמּוּכָן וּמְזֻמָּן לוֹ. 4.7. \"and god called the ferment heavens\", rav says it means fire and water mixed together. r abba the son of r chahna said in the name of rav, god took fire and water, joined them together and made the heavens. another matter, the word שמים can be read as meaning \"evaluation\" for the heavens evaluate the actions of people, if they merit than \"the heavens will tell his righteousness\" and if he doesn't merit \"the heavens will reveal his sin\". another matter why is it called shumiaim because people wonder about them are they water or fire?!!! r pinchas said he came and revealed it \""
27. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

28. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 161, 143 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

29. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי יוחנן השכים ונפל פסוק לתוך פיו הרי זה נבואה קטנה תנו רבנן שלשה מלכים הם הרואה דוד בחלום יצפה לחסידות שלמה יצפה לחכמה אחאב ידאג מן הפורענות,ג' נביאים הם הרואה ספר מלכים יצפה לגדולה יחזקאל יצפה לחכמה ישעיה יצפה לנחמה ירמיה ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים גדולים הם הרואה ספר תהלים יצפה לחסידות משלי יצפה לחכמה איוב ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים קטנים הם הרואה שיר השירים בחלום יצפה לחסידות קהלת יצפה לחכמה קינות ידאג מן הפורענות הרואה מגלת אסתר נס נעשה לו,שלשה חכמים הם הרואה רבי בחלום יצפה לחכמה ראב"ע יצפה לעשירות רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה תלמידי חכמים הם הרואה בן עזאי בחלום יצפה לחסידות בן זומא יצפה לחכמה אחר ידאג מן הפורענות,כל מיני חיות יפות לחלום חוץ מן הפיל והקוף והקפוד והאמר מר הרואה פיל בחלום פלא נעשה לו לא קשיא הא דמסרג הא דלא מסרג,כל מיני מתכת יפין לחלום חוץ ממר פסל וקרדום והני מילי דחזנהו בקתייהו כל מיני פירות יפין לחלום חוץ מפגי תמרה כל מיני ירקות יפין לחלום חוץ מראשי לפתות והאמר רב לא איעתרי עד דחזאי ראשי לפתות כי חזא בכנייהו חזא כל מיני צבעונין יפין לחלום חוץ מן התכלת כל מיני עופות יפין לחלום חוץ מן קריא וקפופא וקורפראי:,[הגו"ף הגו"ף מעי"ן משיבי"ן ומרחיבי"ן סימן]:,ג' נכנסין לגוף ואין הגוף נהנה מהן גודגדניות וכפניות ופגי תמרה שלשה אין נכנסין לגוף והגוף נהנה מהן אלו הן רחיצה וסיכה ותשמיש שלשה מעין העולם הבא אלו הן שבת שמש ותשמיש,תשמיש דמאי אילימא תשמיש המטה הא מכחש כחיש אלא תשמיש נקבים,שלשה משיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן קול ומראה וריח שלשה מרחיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן דירה נאה ואשה נאה וכלים נאים:,[חמש"ה ושש"ה ועשר"ה סימן]: חמשה אחד מששים אלו הן אש דבש ושבת ושינה וחלום אש אחד מששים לגיהנם דבש אחד מששים למן שבת אחד מששים לעולם הבא שינה אחד מששים למיתה חלום אחד מששים לנבואה,ששה דברים סימן יפה לחולה אלו הן עטוש זיעה שלשול קרי ושינה וחלום עטוש דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עטישותיו תהל אור זיעה דכתיב (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפיך תאכל לחם שלשול דכתיב (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח ולא ימות לשחת קרי דכתיב (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים שינה דכתיב (איוב ג, יג) ישנתי אז ינוח לי חלום דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני והחייני,ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתו רפואה אלו הן כרוב ותרדין וסיסין יבשין וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד וי"א אף דגים קטנים ולא עוד אלא שדגים קטנים מפרין ומברין כל גופו של אדם,עשרה דברים מחזירין את החולה לחליו וחליו קשה אלו הן האוכל בשר שור בשר שמן בשר צלי בשר צפרים וביצה צלויה ותגלחת ושחלים והחלב והגבינה והמרחץ וי"א אף אגוזים וי"א אף קשואים,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קשואים מפני שהן קשים לגוף כחרבות איני והכתיב (בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים וא"ר יהודה אמר רב אלו אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסק משלחנם לא צנון ולא חזרת ולא קשואין לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים,לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי,ת"ר מת בבית שלום בבית אכל ושתה בבית סימן יפה לבית נטל כלים מן הבית סימן רע לבית תרגמא רב פפא במסאנא וסנדלא כל דשקיל שכבא מעלי בר ממסאנא וסנדלא כל דיהיב שכבא מעלי בר מעפרא וחרדלא:,מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת גלולים: תנו רבנן הרואה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת כוכבים אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו וכשם שנעקרה ממקום זה כן תעקר מכל מקומות ישראל והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך ובח"ל אין צריך לומר והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך מפני שרובה עובדי כוכבים רשב"א אומר אף בחוץ לארץ צריך לומר כן מפני שעתידים להתגייר שנאמר (צפניה ג, ט) אז אהפוך אל עמים שפה ברורה,דרש רב המנונא הרואה בבל הרשעה צריך לברך חמש ברכות ראה בבל אומר ברוך שהחריב בבל הרשעה ראה ביתו של נבוכדנצר אומר ברוך שהחריב ביתו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ראה גוב של אריות או כבשן האש אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה ראה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו ראה מקום שנוטלין ממנו עפר אומר ברוך אומר ועושה גוזר ומקיים,רבא כי הוה חזי חמרי דשקלי עפרא טריף להו ידא על גבייהו ואמר רהוטו צדיקי למעבד רעותא דמרייכו מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מטי לבבל הוה שקיל עפרא בסודריה ושדי לברא לקיים מה שנא' (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד אמר רב אשי אנא הא דרב המנונא לא שמיע לי אלא מדעתאי בריכתינהו לכולהו 57b. bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who awakenedin the morning and ba verseimmediately bfalls into his mouth,it is ba minor prophecy. The Sages taught: There are three kingswhose appearance in a dream is significant. bOne who sees David in a dream should expect piety;one who sees bSolomon should expect wisdom;and one who sees bAhab should be concerned about calamity. /b,There are also bthree books of Prophetswhose appearance in a dream is meaningful: bOne who sees the book of Kings should anticipate greatness,royalty; one who sees the book of bEzekiel should anticipate wisdom,as the configuration of the Divine Chariot is described therein; one who sees the book of bIsaiah should anticipate consolation;and one who sees the book of bJeremiah should be concerned about calamity,because Jeremiah prophesied extensively of impending calamity.,Similarly, there are bthree greatbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream has particular significance: bOne who sees the book of Psalms should anticipate piety;one who sees the book of bProverbs should anticipate wisdom;one who sees the book of bJob should be concerned about calamity. /b, bThere arealso bthree minorbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Song of Songs in a dream should anticipate piety,as it describes God’s love for Israel; one who sees bEcclesiastes should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bLamentations should be concerned about calamity;and bone who sees the scroll of Esther,it is a sign that ba miracle will be performed on his behalf. /b, bThere are three Sageswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees RabbiYehuda HaNasi bin a dream should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya should anticipate wealth,as he was particularly wealthy; and one who sees bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha should be concerned about calamity,as he was one of the ten martyrs executed by the Romans.,There are bthree Torah scholarswho, despite their greatness in Torah, were never given the title Rabbi, and whose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Ben Azzai in a dream should anticipate piety;one who sees bBen Zoma should anticipate wisdom;and one who sees iAḥer /i,Elisha ben Avuya, bshould be concerned about calamity,as he strayed from the path of righteousness.,The Gemara says: bAll types of animals are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for an elephant, a monkey and a long-tailed ape.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t the Master say: A miracle will be performed for one who sees an elephant in a dream?The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that a vision of an elephant is a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is saddled,while bthisstatement that it is not a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is not saddled. /b,Similarly, the Gemara says: bAll types of metalutensils bare auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for a hoe, a chisel, and an axe,as these are instruments of destruction. The Gemara notes that bthis appliesspecifically bwhen they are seen on their handles.On a similar note, the Gemara says: bAll kinds of fruit are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for unripe dates. All kinds of vegetables are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for turnip heads.The Gemara challenges: bDidn’t Rav say: I did not become wealthy until I saw turnip headsin my dream? Apparently turnip heads are a good omen. The Gemara responds: bWhen Rav sawthem, bhe saw them on their stems;if one sees turnip heads already picked, it is a bad omen. Similarly, ball kinds of colors are auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for sky-blue [ itekhelet /i]. All kinds of birds are auspicioussigns in a dream bexcept for an eagle-owl, and an owl, and a ikurferai, /iall of which are nocturnal and have strange and frightening appearances.,The words: bThe body, the body, microcosm, ease,and bcomfortare bmnemonicsfor matters that the Gemara will discuss, each of which represents a list with shared qualities, similar to the lists cited above.,The Gemara says: bThreefood items benter the bodyyet bthe body does not benefit from them: Cherries, bad dates, and unripe dates.In contrast: bThreematters bdo not enter the bodyyet bthe body benefits from them, and they are: Washing, anointing, and usage [ itashmish /i],commonly used as a euphemism for conjugal relations. bThreematters bare microcosms of the World-to-Come, and they are: Sabbath, the sun and usage. /b,The Gemara asks: bUsage of whatbenefits the body and is a microcosm of the World-to-Come? bIf you saythat it refers to bconjugal relations, doesn’t that weakenthe body? bRather,it refers to busage of his orifices,relieving oneself., bThreematters bease one’s mind, and they are: Voice, sight, and smell,when they are pleasant and aesthetic. bThreematters bgive a person comfort, and they are: A beautiful abode, a beautiful wife, and beautiful vessels. /b,The numbers bfive, six, and ten are mnemonicsfor the categories to follow. The Gemara says: There are bfivematters in our world which are bone-sixtiethof their most extreme manifestations. bThey are: Fire, honey, Shabbat, sleep, and a dream.The Gemara elaborates: Our bfireis bone-sixtieth ofthe fire of bGehenna; honey is one-sixtieth of manna; Shabbat is one-sixtieth of the World-to-Come; sleep is one-sixtieth of death;and ba dream is one-sixtieth of prophecy. /b,Similarly: bSix matters are good omens for the sick: Sneezing, sweating, diarrhea, a seminal emission, sleep, and a dream.These are all alluded to in Scripture: bSneezing, as it is written: “His sneezes flash forth light”(Job 41:10), indicating that by means of a sneeze one comes to see the light of the world. bSweat, as it is written: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19). bDiarrhea, as it is written: “He that is bent down shall speedily be loosed; and he shall not go down dying into the pit”(Isaiah 51:14). bA seminal emission, as it is written: “That he might see his seed, prolong his days”(Isaiah 53:10). bSleep, as it is written: “I should have slept; then had I been at rest”(Job 3:13). bA dream, as it is written: “Wherefore You recover me [ ivataḥalimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16); ivataḥalimeniis interpreted as etymologically similar to iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly: bSix matters cure a sick person from his illness, and their cure isan effective bcure. They are: Cabbage, beets, dried foley,a medicinal plant, bthe stomach, the placenta, and the diaphragmof an animal. bSome saythat bsmall fishalso possess these qualities. bFurthermore, small fish cause one’s entire body to flourish and become healthy. /b,In contrast, bthere are ten matters thatcause a sick person who has recovered to suffer a brelapse of his illness, and his illness iseven more bsevere, and they are:Eating box meat,eating bfatty meatin general, eating broasted meat,eating bpoultry,eating ba roasted egg, shaving,eating bcress,drinking bmilk,eating bcheese, andbathing in a bbathhouse. And some sayeating bnuts, and some say eveneating bcucumbers. /b,It was btaughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishu’im /i]? Because they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to the body as swords.The Gemara asks: bIs that really so? Is it not written: “And the Lord said unto her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23) and the Gemara says: bDo not readit as igoyim /i, ratherread it as igayim /i, proud ones. And Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:This verse was fulfilled in bthesetwo great individuals who descended from Rebecca: bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,because of their wealth, bnever lacked for radish, lettuce or cucumbers, neither in summer nor in the rainy season.Apparently, cucumbers are good and are even a delicacy of kings.,The Gemara resolves: This is bnot difficult. Thisthat says they are harmful to the body refers bto large ones,while bthisthat says they were always served on the table of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus refers bto small ones. /b,With regard to dreams, bthe Sages taught:One who dreams that he sees ba corpse in his house,it is a sign of bpeace in his house.If the corpse bate and drank in the house, it is good omen for the house.If the corpse bremoved vessels from the house,it bis a bad omen for the house,as it suggests that the corpse is taking someone from the house with him. bRav Pappa explainedthis only if the dream was bwith regard to a shoe and a sandal,as that indicates that someone from the house is going to embark on a long journey. As the Sages said: bEverythingthat ba corpse takesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept a shoe and a sandal; everything that a corpse givesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept dust and mustard,which looks like dust, as they portend burial.,We learned in the mishna that one who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicatedshould recite the blessing: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. On this topic bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who seesthe idol called bMercury [ iMarkulis /i] recites: Blessed…who has shown patience to those who violate His will,as each day new rocks would be thrown upon the pile constructed in Mercury’ honor ( iTosafot /i). One who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicated should recite: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. And just as it was eradicated from this place, so too may it be eradicated from all places of Israel, and restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You. Outside of EretzYisrael, bone need not recite: And restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You, since it is predomitly populated by gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even outside of EretzYisrael bone is required to recite thatformula bbecausein the end of days all nations bwill convert, as it is stated: “For then will I turn to the peoples a pure language,that they may all call upon the Name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent” (Zephaniah 3:9).,The Gemara goes on to discuss special blessings instituted by the Sages to be recited upon seeing extraordinary sights. bRav Hamnuna taught: One who sees the wicked Babylonia must recite five blessings.The Gemara elaborates: br bOne who sawthe ruins of bBabylonia, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the wicked Babylonia.br bOne who sawthe ruins of bNebuchadnezzar’s house, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the house of wicked Nebuchadnezzar.br bOne who saw the lion’s deninto which Daniel was thrown (see Daniel ch. 6) bor the furnaceinto which Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bwere thrown(see Daniel ch. 3), brecites: Blessed…Who performed miracles for our ancestors in this place.br bOne who saw Mercury, recites: Blessed…Who has shown patience to those who violate His will.br bOne who saw a place from which earth is taken,as over the generations earth was taken from certain places and used as fertilizer or for construction in the surrounding areas, brecites: Blessed…Who speaks and acts, decrees and fulfills. /b,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rava would see donkeys carrying earthfrom Babylonia, bhe would slap their backs with his hand and sayto them: bRun, righteous ones, and fulfill the will of your Master. When Mar, son of Ravina, would arrive in Babylonia he would take earth in his kerchief and throw it outside, to fulfill that which is said: “And I will sweep it with the broom of destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). bRav Ashi said: I never heard thestatement of bRav Hamnuna,that one who sees Babylonia the wicked must recite five blessings. bHowever, based on my independent reasoning, I recited all of the blessings. /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. והתניא כיוצא בו א"ר יוסי (עזרא ח, לה) והבאים מהשבי בני הגולה הקריבו עולות פרים (בני בקר) שנים עשר אילים תשעים ותשעה כבשים שבעים ושבעה שעירי חטאת שנים עשר הכל עולה לה',וחטאת מי קרבה עולה אמר רבא כי עולה מה עולה אינה נאכלת אף חטאת אינה נאכלת שהיה רבי יוסי אומר על עבודה זרה הביאום ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל על עבודה זרה שעשו בימי צדקיהו,קא סלקא דעתין למאן דאית ליה חטאת צבור שנתכפרו בעליה מתה אית ליה נמי חטאת צבור שמתו בעליה מתה והא הכא דאיכא דמתו בעליה וקא קרבה,אמר רב פפא אפילו למאן דאמר חטאת צבור שכפרו בעליה מתה חטאת צבור שמתו בעליה אינה מתה לפי שאין הצבור מתים,מנא ליה לרב פפא הא אי נימא משום דכתיב (תהלים מה, יז) תחת אבותיך יהיו בניך אי הכי אפי' יחיד נמי,אלא היינו טעמא שאין הציבור מתים משעירי רגלים וראשי חדשים דאמר רחמנא אייתינהו מתרומת הלשכה ודלמא מתו מרייהו דהני זוזי אלא לאו ש"מ אין הצבור מתים,ואיבעית אימא כי אקרובינהו להני חטאות אחיי אקרבינהו דכתיב (עזרא ג, יב) ורבים מהכהנים הלוים וראשי האבות הזקנים אשר ראו את הבית הראשון ביסדו זה הבית בוכים בקול גדול ורבים בתרועה,ודילמא הנך מיעוטא לא מצית אמרת דכתיב (עזרא ג, יג) (ולא הכירו העם בתרועה ושמחה) לקול בכי העם,והיכי מקרבי להו והרי מזידין הוו אמר רבי יוחנן הוראת שעה היתה,הכי נמי מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי בשלמא פרים ושעירי' כנגד שנים עשר שבטים אלא כבשים כנגד מי אלא הוראת שעה היתה,תנן התם משמת יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסף בן יוחנן איש ירושלים בטלו האשכולות איש שהכל בו,ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל אשכולות שעמדו להן לישראל מימות משה עד שמת יוסף בן יועזר היו למדין תורה כמשה רבינו מכאן ואילך לא היו למדין תורה כמשה רבינו,והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שלשת אלפים הלכות נשתכחו בימי אבלו של משה דאישתכח להו אישתכח ודגמירן להו הוו גמירי כמשה רבינו,והא תניא משמת משה אם רבו מטמאין טמאו אם רבו טהורין טיהרו,ליבא דאימעיט מיגמר הוו גמירי להו כמשה רבינו,במתניתא תנא כל אשכולות שעמדו לישראל מימות משה עד שמת יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה לא היה בהם שום דופי מכאן ואילך היה בהן שום דופי,והתניא מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה גונח מלבו ושאלו לרופאים ואמרו אין לו תקנה עד שיינק חלב רותח שחרית והביאו עז וקשרו לו בכרעי מיטתו והיה יונק ממנה חלב,למחר נכנסו חביריו לבקרו כיון שראו העז אמרו ליסטים מזויין בתוך ביתו ואנו נכנסים לבקרו ישבו ובדקו ולא מצאו בו עון אלא של אותה העז בלבד,ואף הוא בשעת מיתתו אמר יודע אני בעצמי שאין בי עון אלא של אותה העז בלבד שעברתי על דברי חבירי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין מגדלין בהמה דקה בארץ ישראל,וקי"ל כל היכא דאמר מעשה בחסיד אחד או ר' יהודה בן בבא או ר' יהודה בר אילעאי ורבנן בתר יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה דרי דרי הוו 15b. bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bSimilarly, Rabbi Yosei said:It is stated with regard to those who returned from Babylonia in the days of Ezra: b“The children of the captivity that came out of exile sacrificed burnt offeringsto the God of Israel, btwelve bullsfor all Israel, bninety-six rams, seventy-seven lambs, twelve goats for a sin offering; all this was a burnt offering unto the Lord”(Ezra 8:35).,The Gemara first analyzes this verse: bBut isit possible for ba sin offeringto be bsacrificedas ba burnt offering? Rava said:The verse means that it was all performed in the manner bof a burnt offering: Just as a burnt offering may not be eaten, so too,that bsin offeringwas bnot eaten. As Rabbi Yosei would say: They brought thesetwelve sin offerings bforthe sin of bidol worship; and Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:They were brought bfor thesin of bidol worship they committed in the days ofKing bZedekiah. /b,The Gemara explains the difficulty concerning which it cited this verse: It might benter our mindto think that baccording to the one who holdsthat ba communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonementwith another sin offering is left to bdie,he balso holdsthat ba communal sin offering whose owners diedis left to bdie. But here,with regard to the offerings brought by the returning exiles, bthis isa case bofa communal sin offering bwhose owners died,as the sin was committed in the time of Zedekiah, in the First Temple period, whereas the offerings were brought several generations later by those returning to rebuild the Second Temple. bAndyet bthey were sacrificed.This proves that a communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonement with another sin offering is not left to die., bRav Pappa saidin response: bEven according to the one who saidthat ba communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonementwith another sin offering is left to bdie,he agrees that ba communal sin offering whose owners died is notleft to bdie.This is bbecause a community does not die. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where does Rav Pappa derive thisstatement? bIf we sayit is bbecause it is written: “Your sons shall be instead of your fathers”(Psalms 45:17), i.e., it is considered as though the fathers are alive, bif so,then this should apply bevento ban individual as well.In other words, sons should be able to sacrifice the sin offerings of their late fathers., bRather, this isRav Pappa’s breasoningfor his statement bthat a community does not die.It is derived bfromthe ihalakhaof bthe goatssacrificed on bpilgrimage Festivals andon bNew Moons, as the Merciful One states: Bring them from thefunds of the bcollection of theTemple treasury bchamber,where they kept the half-shekels donated every year in the month of Adar, with which communal offerings were purchased. The Gemara explains: bBut perhaps the owners of these coinsthat were used to purchase these offerings bhave diedin the meantime between the month of Adar and when the offerings are sacrificed throughout the year. If so, how can a sin offering be brought on behalf of some of its owners who have already died? bRather, isn’t itcorrect to bconclude fromthis ihalakhathat ba community does not die? /b, bAnd if you wish, sayinstead a different answer in response to the earlier difficulty: The sin offerings for idolatry brought by the returning exiles were not in fact sacrificed for people who had died. Rather, bwhen they sacrificed these sin offeringsfor the idolatry committed in the time of Zedekiah, bthey sacrificed them for the living,i.e., for those survivors who had worshipped idols in the time of Zedekiah and were still alive many decades later and had returned to rebuild the Second Temple. bAs it is written: “But many of the priests, Levites, and heads of fathers’ houses, the old men that had seen the first house standing on its foundation, wept with a loud voice when this housewas before their eyes; band many shouted aloudfor joy” (Ezra 3:12).,The Gemara objects: bBut perhaps thosewho remained and remembered the First Temple were bthe minority,in which case they should have each brought individual sin offerings, rather than a communal sin offering. The fact that they brought communal sacrifices indicates that the sin offering was not brought only on behalf of those few who remained. The Gemara explains: bYou cannot saythat they were the minority, bas it is writtenin the following verse: b“So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people;for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off” (Ezra 3:13). This verse shows that the people who cried because they remembered the First Temple were not a small minority.,The Gemara asks: bBut how could they sacrificesin offerings for the sin of idolatry? After all, bthey were intentionalidol worshippers, and a sin offering is brought only by one who sins unwittingly. bRabbi Yoḥa saysin response: bIt was a provisional edictissued in exigent circumstances, according to which they were permitted to bring sin offerings even for intentional sins.,The Gemara adds that bthis also stands to reason, as, if you do not say so,one can object as follows: bGranted,they sacrificed twelve bbulls and goats,since each tribe must bring a communal sin offering, as stated in the Torah (Numbers, chapter 15), and these offerings bcorrespond tothe btwelve tribes. But to whatdo btheninety-six bsheep correspond? Rather,it must be that bit was a provisional edict. /b,§ Earlier the Gemara mentioned the ihalakhaof a sin offering whose owner died, which was one of the ihalakhotforgotten during the mourning period for Moses (see 16a). On this topic the Gemara says that bwe learnedin a mishna bthere( iSota47a): bFromthe time bwhen Yosef ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosef ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem died, the clusters [ ieshkolot /i] ceased,i.e., they were the last of the clusters. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of ieshkolot /i? It means ba man who contains all [ iish shehakol bo /i],i.e., both Torah and mitzvot., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Allthe bclusters who stoodat the head bof the Jewish people, from the days of Moses until Yosef ben Yo’ezer died, would study Torahin the manner bof Moses, our teacher. From thatpoint bforward they would not study Torahin the manner bof Moses, our teacher. /b,The Gemara objects: bBut doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bShmuel said: Three thousand ihalakhotwere forgotten during the days of mourning for Moses.This suggests that the Sages who came immediately after Moses did not study Torah in the same manner as Moses. The Gemara answers: Those ihalakhot bthat they forgot, were forgotten, butwith regard to those ihalakhot bthat they studied, they wouldcontinue to bstudyin the manner bof Moses, our teacher. /b,The Gemara objects: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the resolution of questions of ihalakha /i: bFromthe time bwhen Moses died, if the majority deeman item bimpure, theyhave established it as bimpure,and bif the majority deeman item bpure, theyhave established it as bpure.If this is the case, then the manner of studying Torah after the death of Moses is based on a majority, whereas when Moses was alive there was no dispute in matters of ihalakha /i.,The Gemara explains that this ibaraitais referring specifically to those ihalakhotthat were forgotten during the mourning period after the death of Moses. Since the understanding of bthe heart was limited [ ilibba de’ime’it /i],the Sages were unable to reach a clear ruling on these matters. Consequently, they had to follow the majority. But with regard to all other ihalakhot bthey studied, they would study themin the manner bof Moses, our teacher. /b, bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: Allthe bclusters who stoodat the head bof the Jewish people from the days of Moses until Yosef ben Yo’ezer died had no flaw in them. From thispoint bforwardthe clusters, i.e., the leadership of the Jewish people, bhad flaws in them. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involving a certain pious man who was groaning,i.e., suffering, bdue toa pain in bhis heart. And they asked the physicianswhat to do for him, band they said: There is no other remedy for him but that he should suckle warm milkevery bmorning. And they broughthim ba goat and tied it to the leg of the bed for him, and he would suckle milk from it. /b, bOn the following day, his friends entered to visit him. When they saw the goattied to the leg of the bed bthey said:There is ban armed bandit in thisman’s bhouse, and we are entering to visit him?They referred to the goat in this manner because small animals habitually graze on the vegetation of neighbors, stealing their crops. The Sages bsat and examinedthis pious man’s behavior, band they could not findany btransgressionattributable bto him other thanthe sin bofkeeping bthat goatin his house balone. /b, bAnd thatman himself balso said at the time of his death: I knowfor a fact bwith regard to myself that I have no transgressionattributable bto me butthe sin bofkeeping bthat goatin my house balone, as I transgressed the statement of my colleagues,the Sages. bAs the Sages saidin a mishna ( iBava Kamma79b): bOne may not raise small domesticated animals,i.e., sheep and goats, bininhabited areas of bEretz Yisrael,because they graze on people’s crops., bAnd we maintainthat banywhere that it says:There was ban incident involving a certain piousman, the man in question is beither Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava or Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai. Andthese bSageslived bmany generations after Yosef ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida.If this is the case, then even in later generations there were Sages without a flaw.
34. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 40 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 46 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

36. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 12

37. Anon., Midrash Mishle, 11

38. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 120, 225-228, 119

119. We were told that from the neighbouring mountains of Arabia copper and iron were formerly obtained. This was stopped, however, at the time of the Persian rule, since the authorities of the time spread
39. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 408



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abot, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
aggada Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129
aggada in tosefta, dominant position to halakha in same passage Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 526
aggada in tosefta, independent agenda Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 526
aggada in tosefta, independent units Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 525, 526
akiba, rabbi Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 219
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
akiva, rabbi, esotericism Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 526
akiva, rabbi Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129
akiva Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 425, 427, 433, 434, 473, 474, 488, 494, 497
alexandria Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
angels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 473
anti-gnostic polemic Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
ascent Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 438, 497
authority, of oral law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
avot de r. natan Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 488
baptism of jesus Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
bedimo Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
ben azzai, shimon Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 434, 446, 488, 490
ben zoma, shimon Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105, 433, 434, 488, 490, 494
ben zoma Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
canticles rabba, see song of songs Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 438
chain of tradition Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165
cosmology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105, 221, 427, 490, 494
creation Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
deconstruction, debate, rabbinic embrace of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
educational metaphor, dog lapping up the sea Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
elisha ben abuya Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
elisha ben abuya (same as aher) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 219
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 434
esotericism, rabbinic Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 526
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105, 497
genesis, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
goshen-gottstein, a. Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 424, 425, 427, 430, 433, 434, 438, 446, 464, 466, 473, 474, 479, 481, 488, 490, 494, 497
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221, 424, 425, 427, 430, 433, 434, 438, 473, 474, 479, 481, 488, 497
hakhamim, hakham Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 425, 446, 481, 488, 497
halperin, d. Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221, 424
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 424, 438, 473, 481, 488, 494, 497
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 473
incense Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
irenaeus, against heretics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 425
lieberman, saul Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
maase merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221, 425, 434, 446, 490, 494
marmorstein, arthur Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221, 425, 481, 494
merkavah, and rabbinic literature Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165, 167
methodology xvii–xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 424, 425, 427, 430, 433, 434, 438, 446, 464, 466, 473, 474, 479, 481, 488, 490, 494, 497
midrash, generative vs. supportive interpretation of scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
miller, p. cox Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
mishna, priority of mishnaic form vs. midrashic form Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
mishnah, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
mishnah, narratives in, compared with tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 297
moses Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 464
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
mysticism Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221
narratives, compared, in mishnah and tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 297
narratives, miscellaneous, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290
narratives, types and forms of, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290
natan, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
nehemia, r Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
oral tora, and emergence of mishna/midrash Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
origen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 424, 425, 427, 430, 433, 434, 438, 446, 464, 466, 473, 474, 479, 481, 488, 490, 494, 497
pardes Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 424
pedagogical purposes of mishna and tosefta Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
persia, sasanid, education Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129
peterson, william Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 140
pharisees, ancestral tradition Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
r. akiba, in pardes story Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165, 167
r. shimon ben azai Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 167
r. yohanan ben zakkai Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165
rabbinic literature, and merkavah mysticism Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165, 167
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 221, 424, 430, 438, 446, 464, 466, 473, 497
rabbis, and merkavah mysticism Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 165, 167
recitation Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129
ritual purity, as prerequisite for sacrifice Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
sages, rabbinic, torah-study of Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
scholem, gershom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 438
scholem, gershom g. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
shimon ben azzai Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
sifra, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
sifre to deuteronomy, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
sifré to numbers, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
soferim Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
spirit, holy spirit Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
students, aloud' Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 129
tannaic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 240
temple, in heaven, in rabbinic literature Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105, 473, 474, 494, 497
torah, study of Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
tosefta, aggada in Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 525, 526
tosefta, exemplarity of sages lives in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 174
tosefta, narrative types and forms in Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290
tosefta, narratives in, compared with mishnah Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 290, 297
tradition (extra-scriptural), for pharisees Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114
typology in rabbinic literature Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 438, 446
yeshua ben hananya Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 105
yohanan ben zakkai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 425, 433, 474
yored merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 474
yosi b. yoezer, rabbi Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 114