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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10940
Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.11
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1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 56.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

56.7. וַהֲבִיאוֹתִים אֶל־הַר קָדְשִׁי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתִי עוֹלֹתֵיהֶם וְזִבְחֵיהֶם לְרָצוֹן עַל־מִזְבְּחִי כִּי בֵיתִי בֵּית־תְּפִלָּה יִקָּרֵא לְכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 56.7. Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer; Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices Shall be acceptable upon Mine altar; For My house shall be called A house of prayer for all peoples."
2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD."
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.504-5.505 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.504. Titus began the wall from the camp of the Assyrians, where his own camp was pitched, and drew it down to the lower parts of Cenopolis; thence it went along the valley of Cedron, to the Mount of Olives; 5.505. it then bent towards the south, and encompassed the mountain as far as the rock called Peristereon, and that other hill which lies next to it, and is over the valley which reaches to Siloam; whence it bended again to the west, and went down to the valley of the Fountain
4. Mishnah, Menachot, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.7. None of the communal offerings require the laying on of hands except the bull that is offered for [the transgression by the congregation] of any of the commandments, and the scapegoat. Rabbi Shimon says: also the he-goat offered for [the sin] of idol worship. All the offerings of an individual require the laying on of hands except the first-born, the cattle tithe, and the pesah. And an heir may lay his hands [on his father’s offering], and he may bring the libations for it, and can substitute [another animal for it]."
5. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
6. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.3-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. There were four seals in the Temple, and on them was inscribed [respectively]: ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘sinner’. Ben Azzai says: there were five and on them was inscribed in Aramaic [respectively]” ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘poor sinner’, and ‘rich sinner’. [The seal inscribed] ‘calf’ served for the libations of cattle, both large and small, male and female. [The seal inscribed] ‘kid’ served for the libations of flock animals, both large and small, male and female, with the exception of rams. [The one inscribed] ‘ram’ served for the libations of rams alone. [The one inscribed] ‘sinner’ served for the libations of the three animals [offered] by lepers." 5.4. If one required libations he would go to Yoha who was the officer over the seals, and give him money and receive from him a seal. Then he would go to Ahiyah who was the officer over the libations, and give him the seal, and receive from him the libations. And in the evening these two [officers] would come together, and Ahiyah would bring out the seals and receive money for their value. And if there was more [than their value] the surplus belonged to the sanctuary, but if there was less [than their value] Yoha would pay [the loss] out of his own pocket; for the Temple has the upper hand."
7. New Testament, Acts, 5.34, 23.6-23.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God! 23.10. When a great argument arose, the commanding officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them, and bring him into the barracks.
8. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.15, 1.22, 1.29-1.45, 5.21-5.24, 9.1-9.8, 10.32-10.34, 11.1-11.11, 11.15-11.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.29. Immediately, when they had come out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 1.30. Now Simon's wife's mother lay sick with a fever, and immediately they told him about her. 1.31. He came and took her by the hand, and raised her up. The fever left her, and she served them. 1.32. At evening, when the sun had set, they brought to him all who were sick, and those who were possessed by demons. 1.33. All the city was gathered together at the door. 1.34. He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons. He didn't allow the demons to speak, because they knew him. 1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 1.36. Simon and those who were with him followed after him; 1.37. and they found him, and told him, "Everyone is looking for you. 1.38. He said to them, "Let's go elsewhere into the next towns, that I may preach there also, because for this reason I came forth. 1.39. He went into their synagogues throughout all Galilee, preaching and casting out demons. 1.40. There came to him a leper, begging him, kneeling down to him, and saying to him, "If you want to, you can make me clean. 1.41. Being moved with compassion, he stretched out his hand, and touched him, and said to him, "I want to. Be made clean. 1.42. When he had said this, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was made clean. 1.43. He strictly warned him, and immediately sent him out 1.44. and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 1.45. But he went out, and began to proclaim it much, and to spread about the matter, so that Jesus could no more openly enter into a city, but was outside in desert places: and they came to him from everywhere. 5.21. When Jesus had crossed back over in the boat to the other side, a great multitude was gathered to him; and he was by the sea. 5.22. Behold, one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name, came; and seeing him, he fell at his feet 5.23. and begged him much, saying, "My little daughter is at the point of death. Please come and lay your hands on her, that she may be made healthy, and live. 5.24. He went with him, and a great multitude followed him, and they pressed upon him on all sides. 9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.3. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them. 9.4. Elijah and Moses appeared to them, and they were talking with Jesus. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.6. For he didn't know what to say, for they were very afraid. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him. 9.8. Suddenly looking around, they saw no one with them any more, except Jesus only. 10.32. They were on the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going in front of them, and they were amazed; and those who followed were afraid. He again took the twelve, and began to tell them the things that were going to happen to him. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 10.34. They will mock him, spit on him, scourge him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again. 11.1. When they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples 11.2. and said to them, "Go your way into the village that is opposite you. Immediately as you enter into it, you will find a colt tied, on which no one has sat. Untie him, and bring him. 11.3. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you doing this?' say, 'The Lord needs him;' and immediately he will send him back here. 11.4. They went away, and found a colt tied at the door outside in the open street, and they untied him. 11.5. Some of those who stood there asked them, "What are you doing, untying the colt? 11.6. They said to them just as Jesus had said, and they let them go. 11.7. They brought the colt to Jesus, and threw their garments on it, and Jesus sat on it. 11.8. Many spread their garments on the way, and others were cutting down branches from the trees, and spreading them on the road. 11.9. Those who went in front, and those who followed, cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! 11.10. Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest! 11.11. Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem. When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers!
9. New Testament, Matthew, 5.22, 5.28, 5.32, 5.34, 5.39, 5.44, 7.29, 15.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God
10. Tosefta, Berachot, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. It happened [once] that Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi we reclining [and eating] in Akko [on Friday afternoon], and the day was over (i.e. it became dark and Shabbat began). Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel said to Rebbi Yossi, “Let us stop [eating because of] Shabbat.” He said [back] to him, “Everyday you prefer my words in front of Yehudah, [and] now you prefer the words of Yehudah in front of me. ‘Do you also want to kidnap the queen with me in the house?’ (Esther 7:8)” He said [back] to him, “If so, let us not stop [eating because of Shabbat, because] may be [if our students will see us stopping] the Halacha (law) will be established for generations [like Rebbi Yehudah].” They (i.e. their students) [later] said that they (i.e. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi) did not move from there until they have established the Halacha like Rebbi Yossi."
11. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tosefta, Nazir, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Niddah, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.13-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.1, 7.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.11. A person might think: 'since the Academy of Shammai declares unclean that which the Academy of Hillel declares clean, one prohibits that which the other permits, how, then, can I learn Torah?' This is way Torah repeats: \"words...the words...these are the words...\" All of the words have been given by a single Shepherd, one God fashioned them, one Provider gave them, Source of all deeds, blessed be God, has spoken them. So make for yourself a heart with many rooms, and bring into it the words of the Academy of Shammai and the words of the Academy of Hillel, the words of who declare unclean and those that declare clean. "
22. Tosefta, Yevamot, 14.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8, 1.12, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. כל תלתין יומין בין א"ל מחמת הלולא ובין לא א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור מכאן ואילך אי א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור ואי לא אמר ליה מחמת הלולא שרי,וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אסור אמר רב פפא משמיה דרבא מכי רמו שערי באסינתי,ולבתר תריסר ירחי שתא שרי והא רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא איקלע לבי ההוא עובד כוכבים לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא ושמעיה דאודי ופירש ולא אכל שאני רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא דאדם חשוב הוא:,וקרטסים וכו': מאי קרטסים אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל יום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות והתניא קרטסים ויום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות אמר רב יוסף שתי תפיסות תפסה רומי אחת בימי קלפטרא מלכתא ואחת שתפסה בימי יונים,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר תלתין ותרין קרבי עבדו רומאי בהדי יונאי ולא יכלו להו עד דשתפינהו לישראל בהדייהו והכי אתנו בהדייהו אי מינן מלכי מנייכו הפרכי אי מנייכו מלכי מינן הפרכי,ושלחו להו רומאי ליונאי עד האידנא עבידנא בקרבא השתא נעביד בדינא מרגלית ואבן טובה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו שלחו להו מרגלית לאבן טובה,אבן טובה (ואינך) איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אבן טובה לאינך אינך וספר תורה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אינך לספר תורה,שלחו להו [א"כ] אנן ספר תורה גבן וישראל בהדן כפו להו עשרין ושית שנין קמו להו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מכאן ואילך אישתעבדו בהו,מעיקרא מאי דרוש ולבסוף מאי דרוש מעיקרא דרוש (בראשית לג, יב) נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך ולבסוף דרוש (בראשית לג, יד) יעבר נא אדני לפני עבדו,עשרין ושית שנין דקמו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מנא לן דאמר רב כהנא כשחלה רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי שלחו ליה רבי אמור לנו שנים וג' דברים שאמרת לנו משום אביך,אמר להו מאה ושמנים שנה קודם שנחרב הבית פשטה מלכות הרשעה על ישראל פ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית מ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גלתה סנהדרין וישבה לה בחנות,למאי הלכתא א"ר יצחק בר אבדימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ורבי יהודה בן בבא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכחו דיני קנסות מישראל נשתכחו לגרסינהו,אלא בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שגזרה מלכות הרשעה גזרה כל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תחרב ותחום שסומכין בו יעקר,מה עשה רבי יהודה בן בבא הלך וישב בין שני הרים גדולים ובין שתי עיירות גדולות בין ב' תחומי שבת בין אושא לשפרעם וסמך שם חמשה זקנים ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ור"ש ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע ורב אויא מוסיף אף רבי נחמיה,כיון שהכירו בהם אויבים אמר להם בני רוצו אמרו לו רבי ואתה מה תהא עליך אמר להם הריני מוטל לפניהם כאבן שאין לה הופכין אמרו לא זזו משם עד שנעצו לגופו ג' מאות לולניאות של ברזל ועשאוהו לגופו ככברה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תימא דיני קנסות אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות,מ"ט כיון דחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלי למידן אמרו מוטב נגלי ממקום למקום כי היכי דלא ליחייבו,דכתיב (דברים יז, י) ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך מן המקום ההוא מלמד שהמקום גורם:,מאה ושמנים ותו לא והתני רבי יוסי ברבי 8b. during ballthe bthirty daysthat follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, bwhether he saidto the Jew that the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. bFrom thispoint bforward, if he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto participate, bbut if he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bpermittedto do so.,The Gemara asks: bAndin a case bwhere he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration, until whenis the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? bRav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the wedding, bfrom when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: Fromthe time bwhen they cast barley into the mortars [ iba’asintei /i]to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: bAnd after the twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding, is it always bpermittedto participate in a feast? bBut Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happenedto come bto the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the yearhad passed since his son’s wedding, band he heardthe gentile bgiving thanksto his idol for the marriage of his son, band he withdrewfrom the feast band did not eatthere. The Gemara answers: bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important personand therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd Kratesis,and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the festival of bKratesis? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It commemorates bthe day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two festivals are bKratesis and the day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire?This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. bRav Yosef said:On btwoseparate occasions bRome seizedcontrol of ban empire. Oneoccurred bin the days of Queen Cleopatra,when they conquered Egypt, band onehappened much earlier, bwhenRome bseizedcontrol bin the days of the Greeks. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable todefeat bthem, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish peopleand finally vanquished the Greeks. bAnd this is the condition that they stipulated withthe Jewish people: bIf the kingscome bfrom among us, the governors [ ihiparkhei /i]will come bfrom among you;and bif the kingscome bfrom among you, the governorswill come bfrom among us. /b, bAnd the Romans sentthe following message bto the Greeks: Until now, weattempted to resolve our conflict bthroughfighting bbattles; now, let ussettle the matter bbymeans of bjudgment.In the case of ba pearl and a precious stone, whichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks bsent themin response: The bpearlshould serve as the base bforthe bprecious stone,which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was ba precious stone and an onyx [ iinnakh /i],a particularly valuable precious stone, bwhichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks answered: The bprecious stoneshould serve as the base bforthe bonyx.Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of ban onyx and a Torah scroll, whichone bof them should be serve as a base for the other?The Greeks responded: The bonyxshould serve as the base bfor the Torah scroll. /b,The Romans bsentthis response bto them: Ifthat is bso,then you should submit to us, as bwe havethe bTorah scroll with us, and the Jewish peopleare bwith us.The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore bforcedthe Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For btwenty-six yearsthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people; from thatpoint bforward, they subjugated them. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially,when the Romans acted faithfully, bwhatverse bdid they interpret, and ultimately,when they subjugated the Jews, bwhatverse bdid they interpret? Initially, they interpretedthe verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: b“Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you”(Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. bAnd ultimately, they interpretedthe verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: b“Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant”(Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the btwenty-six years during whichthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do weknow that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. bAs Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill,the Sages bsentthe following message bto him:Our bteacher, tell us two or three statements that youonce btold us in the name of your father,Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to themthe following statements that were passed down to him by his father: bOne hundred and eighty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the evilRoman bEmpire stretched forth over Israeland ruled over them. bEighty years before the Temple was destroyed,the Sages bdecreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone band sat in the storenear the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said:It is necessary in order bto say that they nolonger bjudged cases of fines.The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindthat at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged bcases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: Indeed [ iberam /i], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten fromamong bthe Jewish people.The Gemara challenges that assertion: bWouldthe laws of fines actually bhave been forgotten? Letthe scholars bstudy them,so they will not be forgotten., bRather,his intention was to say that bthe laws of fines would have ceasedto be implemented bfromamong bthe Jewish people,as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these ihalakhotdue to a lack of ordained judges. This is bbecauseat one time bthe wicked kingdomof Rome bissued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish peoplewith the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that banyone who ordainsjudges bwill be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordainthe judges bwill be destroyed, andthe areas around bthe boundaryof the city bin which they ordainjudges bwill be uprooted.These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population., bWhat didRabbi bYehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities,and bbetween two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram,i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, band there he ordained five Elders,namely: bRabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya addsthat bRabbi Neḥemyawas balsoamong those ordained., bWhentheir benemies discovered them,Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava bsaid tothe newly ordained rabbis: bMy sons, runfor your lives. bThey said to him:Our bteacher, and what will be with you?Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He bsaid to them:In any case, bI am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned;even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People bsaidabout this incident: The Roman soldiers bdid not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [ ilulniot /i] into his body, making his bodyappear blike a sievepierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bDo not saythat after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of bfines; rather,emend the statement to say bthat they nolonger bjudgedcases of bcapital law,as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? bOnce they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judgethem and punish them with death, bthey said:It is bbetter that we should be exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move bfrom place to place, so thatoffenders bwill not bedeemed bliableto receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. bAs it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place”(Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse bteaches thatit is bthe placewhere the Sanhedrin resides that bcausesthe judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for bone hundred and eightyyears before the destruction of the Temple band no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great,i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, bteach: /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. והביא כל צאן קדר שבירושלים והעמידן בעזרה ואמר כל מי שרוצה לסמוך יבא ויסמוך ואותו היום גברה ידן של בית הלל וקבעו הלכה כמותן ולא היה שם אדם שערער בדבר כלום:,שוב מעשה בתלמיד אחד מתלמידי ב"ה שהביא עולתו לעזרה לסמוך עליה מצאו תלמיד אחד מתלמידי ב"ש אמר לו מה זו סמיכה אמר לו מה זו שתיקה שתקו בנזיפה והלך לו,אמר אביי הלכך האי צורבא מרבנן דאמר ליה חבריה מלתא לא להדר ליה מלתא טפי ממאי דאמר ליה חבריה דאיהו אמר ליה מה זו סמיכה וקא מהדר ליה מה זו שתיקה:,תניא אמרו להם בית הלל לבית שמאי ומה במקום שאסור להדיוט מותר לגבוה מקום שמותר להדיוט אינו דין שמותר לגבוה אמרו להם בית שמאי נדרים ונדבות יוכיחו שמותר להדיוט ואסור לגבוה,אמרו להם בית הלל מה לנדרים ונדבות שאין קבוע להם זמן תאמר בעולת ראייה שקבוע לה ' זמן אמרו להם בית שמאי אף זו אין קבוע לה זמן דתנן מי שלא חג ביום טוב ראשון של חג חוגג והולך כל הרגל כולו ויום טוב האחרון של חג,אמרו להם בית הלל אף זו קבוע לה זמן דתנן עבר הרגל ולא חג אינו חייב באחריותו,אמרו להם בית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר לכם ולא לגבוה אמרו להם בית הלל והלא כבר נאמר לה' כל דלה' אם כן מה תלמוד לומר לכם לכם ולא לכותים לכם ולא לכלבים:,אבא שאול אומרה בלשון אחרת ומה במקום שכירתך סתומה כירת רבך פתוחה במקום שכירתך פתוחה אינו דין שכירת רבך פתוחה וכן בדין שלא יהא שולחנך מלא ושולחן רבך ריקן,במאי קא מפלגי מר סבר נדרים ונדבות קרבין ביום טוב ומר סבר אין קרבין ביום טוב,אמר רב הונא לדברי האומר נדרים ונדבות אין קרבין ביום טוב לא תימא מדאורייתא מחזא חזו ורבנן הוא דגזרי בהו גזירה שמא ישהה,אלא אפילו מדאורייתא נמי לא חזו דהא שתי הלחם דחובת היום נינהו וליכא למגזר שמא ישהה ואינו דוחה לא את השבת ולא את יו"ט:,איבעיא להו לדברי האומר נדרים ונדבות אין קרבין בי"ט עבר ושחט מאי רבא אמר זורק את הדם על מנת להתיר בשר באכילה רבה בר רב הונא אמר זורק את הדם על מנת להקטיר אימורין לערב,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו נטמא בשר או שאבד לרבא לא זריק לרבה בר רב הונא זריק,מיתיבי כבשי עצרת ששחטן שלא לשמן או ששחטן בין לפני זמנן בין לאחר זמנן הדם יזרק והבשר יאכל ואם היתה שבת לא יזרוק ואם זרק 20b. band brought all thehigh-quality bsheep of Kedar thatwere bin Jerusalem, and he stood them in theTemple bcourtyard and said: Anyone who wishes to placehis bhandson the head of an animal should bcome and placehis bhandsthere. bAndon bthat day Beit Hillel gained the upper handover Beit Shammai, band they established the ihalakha /iin this case bin accordance with theiropinion, band there was no one there who disputed the matter in any way. /b, bAndsome time later bthere was another incident involving a certain disciple from among the disciples of Beit Hillel who brought his burnt-offering to theTemple bcourtyard in order to placehis bhands onthe animal’s head on a Festival. bA certain disciple from among the disciples of Beit Shammai found himand bsaid to him: What is this placing of hands?Why do you place your hands on the animal’s head and thereby violate the statement of Beit Shammai? bHe said to him: What is this silence?Why do you not stay silent, as the ihalakhawas not established in accordance with their opinion? bHe silenced him with a rebuke, and he,Beit Shammai’s disciple, bdepartedquietly., bAbaye said: Therefore,it is clear from here that ba Torah scholar whose colleague says somethingreprimanding or insulting bto himshould bnot answer backwith bsomething more than his colleague had said to him,to avoid adding fuel to the fire, basin the above story bthe one said tothe other: bWhat is this placing of hands? andthe latter bresponded tothe former using the same language: bWhat is this silence? /b,§ With regard to the dispute concerning the sacrifice of burnt-offerings of appearance on a Festival, bit is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: Just as in a place where it is prohibitedto slaughter bforthe sake of ba common person [ ihedyot /i],e.g., on Shabbat, bit is permittedto slaughter offerings in the Temple bfor the Most High,such as the daily and additional offerings, then so too, with regard to ba place where it is permittedto slaughter bforthe sake of ba common person,e.g., on a Festival, bis it not right thatit should be bpermitted forthe sake of bthe Most High?This argument should include burnt-offerings of appearance as well. bBeit Shammai said to them:This is no proof. bVow /b-offerings band gift-offerings provethat this reasoning is not valid, basit is bpermittedto slaughter an animal on a Festival bfor a common personto eat, bbutit is bprohibitedto slaughter vow-offerings and gift-offerings on a Festival bforthe sake of bthe Most High. /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: If vow /b-offerings band gift-offeringsmay not be slaughtered on a Festival, that is bbecause they do not have a fixed timeand there is no obligation to sacrifice them on a Festival in particular, but can byou saythe same bwith regard to a burnt-offering of appearance, which has a fixed time,the Festival itself? bBeit Shammai said to them: It too has no fixed time, as we learnedin a mishna: bOne who did not bringhis bFestival offering on the first Festivalday bof iSukkotmay bringit bthroughout the entire Festival, including the last Festivalday bof iSukkot /i,on the Eighth Day of Assembly, as that day is regarded as part of iSukkotfor this purpose. This shows that a burnt-offering of appearance need not be brought at a fixed time on the Festival either., bBeit Hillel said to them:Although a burnt-offering of appearance need not be sacrificed on a particular day of the Festival, nevertheless bit too has a fixed time,albeit a lengthier one. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bIf theentire bFestival passed and he did not bring his Festival-offering, he is not accountable for it.That is to say, he is not required to bring another offering, as the mitzva has already passed. This indicates that the offering is limited specifically to the Festival days, unlike vow-offerings and gift-offerings, which may be brought at any time., bBeit Shammai said toBeit Hillel in support of their own position: bBut wasn’t it already statedin the verse: “Only that which every soul must eat, that alone may be done bfor you”(Exodus 12:16), which indicates that for you may food be prepared, bbut not for the Most High? Beit Hillel said to them: But wasn’t it already statedin the verse: “You shall observe it as a Festival bto the Lord”(Leviticus 23:41), which teaches: bAnythingsacrificed bto the Lordmay be sacrificed? bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states “for you”?It means bfor you, but not for gentiles; for you, but not for dogs. /b, bAbba Shaul statedthe same disagreement bin a different formulation,that Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai as follows: bJust as in a place where your stove is closed,i.e., on Shabbat, when a person may not cook for himself, byour Master’s stove is open,as it is permitted to light a fire on the altar and sacrifice offerings upon it, so too, bin a place where your stove is open,i.e., on a Festival, when one may cook food that he will eat, bis it not right that your Master’s stoveshould be bopen? Andit blikewisestands bto reason that your table should not be full while your Master’s table,the altar, remains bempty. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what dothe itannaof the first ibaraitaand Abba Shaul bdisagreein their different versions of Beit Hillel’s statement? The Gemara explains: bOne Sage,Abba Shaul, bholdsthat according to Beit Hillel, even bvow /b-offerings band gift-offerings may be sacrificed on a Festival,and therefore Beit Shammai could not cite as proof the fact that they may not be sacrificed, as they claim in the first ibaraita /i. bAnd one Sage,the itannaof the first ibaraita /i, bholdsthat according to Beit Hillel, vow-offerings and gift-offerings bmay not be sacrificed on a Festival,and therefore Beit Shammai could adduce this ihalakhain support of their opinion., bRav Huna said: According to the statement of the one who saysthat bvow /b-offerings band gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival, youshould bnot say that by Torah law they arein fact bfitto be sacrificed, bandthat it was bthe Sages who issued a decree about themthat they should not be sacrificed on a Festival as ba preventive measure, lest one delaysacrificing them until the Festival, when it is more convenient for him to bring them to the Temple, and thereby transgress the prohibition against delaying the fulfillment of one’s pledge.,This is not the reason; brather,according to this opinion, bthey are not fitto be sacrificed on a Festival beven by Torah law. As the two loavesbrought on the festival of iShavuot bare an obligation ofthat bday, and there is noreason bto issue a decreeabout them blest onecome to bdelaytheir offering, since they may be brought only on that Festival, and yet their baking and preparation boverride neither Shabbat nor the Festival.According to this view, anything that need not be performed on the Festival itself may not be done on the Festival.,§ bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bAccording to the statement of the one who saysthat bvow /b-offerings band gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival,if bone transgressed and slaughteredthose vow-offerings and gift-offerings on a Festival, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? bRava said: He sprinkles the bloodof these offerings on the altar bin order to allow the meat to be eatenon the Festival. bRabba bar Rav Huna,however, bsaid: He sprinkles the blood in order to burn the sacrificial partsof the animal, including the fats and other portions that are brought upon the altar, bin the evening. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of Rava and that of Rabba bar Rav Huna, since both agree that the blood is sprinkled? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themin a case where bthe meat becameritually bimpure or was lost. According to Rava,who holds that the blood is sprinkled in order to permit the meat to be eaten, by rabbinic decree bone may not sprinklethe blood, as this sprinkling is not required for the Festival. On the other hand, baccording to Rabba bar Rav Huna,who holds that the blood is sprinkled in order to burn the sacrificial parts upon the altar in the evening, bhe does sprinklethe blood, even though it does not enable him to eat the meat.,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion of Rabba bar Rav Huna from the following ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe lambs of iShavuot /i,i.e., the two lambs sacrificed as peace-offerings that accompany the two loaves of bread brought on that Festival, if bone slaughtered them not for theirown bpurpose,i.e., at the time of slaughter his intent was to slaughter them as a different offering, borif bhe slaughtered themnot at their proper time, bwhether before their time or after their time,the offerings themselves are valid, although the community has not fulfilled its obligation. What is to be done with them? bThe bloodshould bbe sprinkled and the meatshould bbe eaten. And ifthe day he slaughtered the lambs bwas Shabbat,on which cooking or roasting the meat is prohibited, then since the sprinkling of the blood serves no purpose, neither with regard to their mitzva nor for any other matter, bhe may not sprinklethe blood. bAnd ifnevertheless bhe sprinkledthe blood


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aramaic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
baptism Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
caiaphas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
classification of offerings Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
controversy, the first Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54, 56
disciple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
divine presence, spirit Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
eliezer, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
feast offering (hạ gigah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
firstborns Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
god, kingdom of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
god, son of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
halakhah, as modality of tradition Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 188
halakhah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
hallewy, e. e. Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
hanuth Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
henshke, david Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
hillel Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
jairus, daughter of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
james Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jerusalem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jerusalem temple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jesus, suffering of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jesus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
john (writer of gospel and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
josephus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
judas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
laying of hands (semikhah), in individual offerings Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54, 56
laying of hands (semikhah), participation of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54, 56
laying of hands (semikhah), person who performs Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
lieberman, saul, on influence of hellenism Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
matthias Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
miracles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
mount of olives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
narratives, miscellaneous, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 289
narratives, scriptural amplification, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 289
narratives, temple-incidents, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 289
narratives, types and forms of, in tosefta Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 289
of, and laying of hands Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
pairs Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
passover (pesah)̣, sacrificial process in Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
petrine source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
pharisees Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
rabbis (sages) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
ritual narrative Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54, 56
sacrifices Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
sadducees Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
sanhedrin Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
schwartz, seth Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
sects/sectarianism, transition to legal dispute, emergence of individual authority Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 64
sermon Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
sophists Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
spirit, the Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
synagogue Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
talmud, babylonian Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
targums, prophetic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
targums Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
temple, destruction of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
temple of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
thanksgiving Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 54
tithes Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 56
torah, oral and written Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 188
tosefta, narrative types and forms in Neusner, Rabbinic Narrative: The Precedent and the Parable in Diachronic View (2003) 289
transfiguration Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
tropper, amram Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
yannai, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42
yoḥa, r.' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 42