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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10940
Tosefta, Hagigah, 1.2
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.4. וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 12.4. וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃ 12.4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 11.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.42, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.42. וְלָקְחוּ אֲבָנִים אֲחֵרוֹת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶל־תַּחַת הָאֲבָנִים וְעָפָר אַחֵר יִקַּח וְטָח אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 14.42. And they shall take other stones, and put them in the place of those stones; and he shall take other mortar, and shall plaster the house." 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days."
5. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כִּי־אָז אֶהְפֹּךְ אֶל־עַמִּים שָׂפָה בְרוּרָה לִקְרֹא כֻלָּם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה לְעָבְדוֹ שְׁכֶם אֶחָד׃ 3.9. For then will I turn to the peoples A pure language, That they may all call upon the name of the LORD, To serve Him with one consent."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.15. הֵן גּוֹיִם כְּמַר מִדְּלִי וּכְשַׁחַק מֹאזְנַיִם נֶחְשָׁבוּ הֵן אִיִּים כַּדַּק יִטּוֹל׃ 40.15. Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, And are counted as the small dust of the balance; Behold the isles are as a mote in weight."
7. Anon., Jubilees, 12.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying:
8. Anon., Testament of Judah, 25.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Isaa, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.11. If a man found his own lost property and his father’s, his own takes priority. If his own and that of his teacher, his own takes priority. If he found his father’s and his teacher’s, his teacher’s takes priority for his father brought him into this world, but his teacher who taught him wisdom brings him into the world to come. If his father was a Sage, his father’s takes priority. If his father and teacher each were carrying a load, he must first relieve his teacher and afterward relieve his father. If his father and teacher were each taken captive, he must first ransom his teacher and afterward his father. But if his father was a Sage, he must first ransom his father and afterward his teacher."
11. Mishnah, Keritot, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.9. Rabbi Shimon says: lambs are mentioned before goats in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “And if he brings a lamb as his offering,” (Leviticus 4:32) to teach that both are equal. Turtle-doves are mentioned before young pigeons in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “A young pigeon or a turtle-dove for a hatat,” (Leviticus 12:6) to teach that both are equal. The father comes before the mother in all places. You might think that it is because the honor due a father is greater than the honor due a mother, therefore Scripture states, “A man shall fear his mother and his father,” (Leviticus 19: to teach that both are equal. But the sages have said: the father comes before the mother in all places, because both a son and his mother are obligated to honor the father. And so it is also with the study of Torah; if the son has been worthy [to sit] before the teacher, the teacher comes before the father in all places, because both a man and his father are obligated to honor the teacher."
12. Mishnah, Niddah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.9. If a woman at the age of twenty did not bring forth two hairs, she must bring evidence that she is twenty years of age and she is an aylonit, she doesn't perform halitzah or yibbum. If a man at the age of twenty years did not produce two hairs, he must bring evidence that he is twenty years old and he becomes confirmed as a saris and he doesn't perform halitzah or yibbum, the words of Bet Hillel. Bet Shammai says: with both of them at the age of eighteen. Rabbi Eliezer says: In the case of the male, according to the words of Bet Hillel, while in that of the female, in accordance with the words of Bet Shammai, since a woman matures earlier than a man."
13. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. And these are they which are not qualified [to be witnesses or judges]: A dice player, a usurer, pigeon racers, or traffickers in Seventh Year produce, and slaves. This is the general rule: any testimony for which a woman is not qualified, they too are not qualified."
14. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. And these are they which are not qualified [to be witnesses or judges]:A dice player, a usurer, pigeon racers, or traffickers in Seventh Year produce. Rabbi Shimon said: “In the beginning they called them ‘gatherers’ of Seventh Year produce, but after the oppressors grew many they changed this and called them ‘traffickers’ of Seventh Year produce.” Rabbi Judah said: “This applies only if they have no other trade, but if they have some other trade other than that, they are not disqualified.”"
15. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.2. The following are recited in the holy tongue (Hebrew):The reading made at the offering of the firstfruits, The recitation at halitzah, The blessings and curses, The priestly blessing, The blessing of the high priest, The section of the king, The section of the calf whose neck is broken, And the priest anointed [to accompany the army] in battle when he speaks to the people."
16. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.1, 3.9, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. A stolen or a dried up lulav is invalid. One [that came] from an asherah tree or from a condemned city is invalid. If its top was broken off or its leaves were detached, it is invalid. If its leaves are spread apart it is valid. Rabbi Judah says he should tie it at the top. The thorny palms of the iron mountain are valid. A lulav which is three handbreadths in length, long enough to wave, is valid." 3.9. And where [in the service] do they wave [the lulav]? At “Give thanks to the Lord” (Psalm, at the beginning and at the end, and at “O Lord, deliver us” (118:25), the words of Bet Hillel. Bet Shammai say: also at “O Lord, let us prosper.” Rabbi Akiva says: I was watching Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua, and while all the people were waving their lulavs [at “O Lord, let us prosper”] they waved them only at “O Lord deliver us.” One who was on a journey and had no lulav to take, when he enters his house he should take it [even if he is] at his table. If he did not take the lulav in the morning, he should take it at any time before dusk, since the whole day is valid for [taking] the lulav." 3.13. If the first day of the festival falls on Shabbat, all the people bring their lulavim to the synagogue [on Friday]. The next day they arise early [and come to the synagogue] and each one recognizes his own [lulav] and takes it, since the sages said “one cannot fulfill his obligation on the first day of the festival with his friend’s lulav.” But on the other days of the festival one may fulfill his obligation with the lulav of his fellow."
17. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.19. [If a person] woke up early to go on a journey, he [should] take the Shofar and blow it [at dawn], [or he should take] the Lulav and shake it [at dawn], [or he should take] the Megillah and read it [at dawn], [or he should] pray [Shemoneh Esreh at dawn], and when it will come time to read the Shema, he should read it [then]. [If] he woke up to [travel while] sitting in a coach or on a ship he should pray [Shemoneh Esreh first at dawn], and when it will come time to read the Shema he [should] read [it then]. Rebbi Shimon Ben Elazar says, “Either way, he [should] read the Shema [first] and [only then] pray [Shemoneh Esreh].”"
18. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 58.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

58.1. וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה (בראשית כג, א), (תהלים לז, יח): יוֹדֵעַ ה' יְמֵי תְמִימִם וְנַחֲלָתָם לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵן תְּמִימִים כָּךְ שְׁנוֹתָם תְּמִימִים, בַּת עֶשְׂרִים כְּבַת שֶׁבַע לְנוֹי, בַּת מֵאָה כְּבַת עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה לְחֵטְא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, יוֹדֵעַ ה' יְמֵי תְמִימִם, זוֹ שָׂרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה תְּמִימָה בְּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כַּהֲדָא עֶגְלְתָא תְּמִימָה, וְנַחֲלָתָם לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה, מַה צֹּרֶךְ לוֹמַר שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁחָבִיב חַיֵּיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְלָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.
19. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. ומן התפלין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ק"ש פשיטא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,מהו דתימא הואיל ואית בה מלכות שמים קמ"ל:,ומן התפלין: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש למזוזה קמ"ל:,וחייבין בתפלה: דרחמי נינהו מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב בה (תהלים נה, יח) ערב ובקר וצהרים כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,ובמזוזה: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש לתלמוד תורה קמשמע לן:,ובברכת המזון: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב (שמות טז, ח) בתת ה' לכם בערב בשר לאכל ולחם בבקר לשבע כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה נשים חייבות בקדוש היום דבר תורה אמאי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות אמר אביי מדרבנן,א"ל רבא והא דבר תורה קאמר ועוד כל מצות עשה נחייבינהו מדרבנן,אלא אמר רבא אמר קרא (שמות כ, ז) זכור (דברים ה, יא) ושמור כל שישנו בשמירה ישנו בזכירה והני נשי הואיל ואיתנהו בשמירה איתנהו בזכירה,א"ל רבינא לרבא נשים בברכת המזון דאורייתא או דרבנן למאי נפקא מינה לאפוקי רבים ידי חובתן אי אמרת (בשלמא) דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא (אלא אי) אמרת דרבנן הוי שאינו מחוייב בדבר וכל שאינו מחוייב בדבר אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן מאי,ת"ש באמת אמרו בן מברך לאביו ועבד מברך לרבו ואשה מברכת לבעלה אבל אמרו חכמים תבא מארה לאדם שאשתו ובניו מברכין לו,אי אמרת בשלמא דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא אלא אי אמרת דרבנן אתי דרבנן ומפיק דאורייתא,ולטעמיך קטן בר חיובא הוא אלא הכי במאי עסקינן כגון שאכל שיעורא דרבנן דאתי דרבנן ומפיק דרבנן:,דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אסי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כתוב בתורתך (דברים י, יז) אשר לא ישא פנים ולא יקח שחד והלא אתה נושא פנים לישראל דכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא ה' פניו אליך אמר להם וכי לא אשא פנים לישראל שכתבתי להם בתורה (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך והם מדקדקים [על] עצמם עד כזית ועד כביצה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בעל קרי מהרהר בלבו ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ועל המזון מברך לאחריו ואינו מברך לפניו רבי יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבינא זאת אומרת הרהור כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר,אלא מאי הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,כדאשכחן בסיני,ורב חסדא אמר הרהור לאו כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,אלא מאי הרהור לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר אמר רבי אלעזר כדי שלא יהו כל העולם עוסקין בו והוא יושב ובטל,ונגרוס בפרקא אחרינא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה בדבר שהצבור עוסקין בו 20b. band from phylacteries, butthey bare obligated inthe mitzvot of bprayer, imezuza /i, and Grace after Meals.The Gemara explains the rationale for these exemptions and obligations.,GEMARA With regard to the mishna’s statement that women are exempt from bthe recitation of iShema /i,the Gemara asks: That is bobvious,as iShemais a btime-bound, positive mitzva, andthe halakhic principle is: bWomen are exempt from any time-bound, positive mitzva,i.e., any mitzva whose performance is only in effect at a particular time. iShemafalls into that category as its recitation is restricted to the morning and the evening. Why then did the mishna need to mention it specifically?,The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since iShema bincludesthe acceptance of the yoke of bthe kingdom of Heaven,perhaps women are obligated in its recitation despite the fact that it is a time-bound, positive mitzva. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat, nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women are exempt bfrom phylacteries.The Gemara asks: That is bobviousas well. The donning of phylacteries is only in effect at particular times; during the day but not at night, on weekdays but not on Shabbat or Festivals. The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of phylacteries bis juxtaposedin the Torah btothe mitzva of imezuza /i,as it is written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your hands and they shall be frontlets between your eyes” (Deuteronomy 6:8), followed by: “And you shall write them upon the door posts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 6:9), just as women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i, so too they are obligated in the mitzva of phylacteries. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women, slaves, and children are bobligated in prayer.The Gemara explains that, although the mitzva of prayer is only in effect at particular times, which would lead to the conclusion that women are exempt, nevertheless, since prayer bissupplication for bmercyand women also require divine mercy, they are obligated. However, blest you say: Sinceregarding prayer it is bwritten: “Evening and morning and afternoonI pray and cry aloud and He hears my voice” (Psalms 55:18), perhaps prayer should be bconsidered a time-bound, positive mitzvaand women would be exempt, the mishna bteaches usthat, fundamentally, the mitzva of prayer is not time-bound and, therefore, everyone is obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.Why would they be exempt from fulfilling this obligation, it is a positive mitzva that is not time-bound? The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of imezuza bis juxtaposedin the Torah to the mitzva of bTorah study(Deuteronomy 11:19–20), just as women are exempt from Torah study, so too they are exempt from the mitzva of imezuza /i. Therefore, the mishna explicitly bteaches usthat they are obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated to recite the bGrace after Meals.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since it is written: “When the Lord shall give you meat to eat in the evening and bread in the morning to the full”(Exodus 16:8), one might conclude that the Torah established fixed times for the meals and, consequently, for the mitzva of Grace after Meals and, therefore, it bis considered a time-bound, positive mitzva,exempting women from its recitation. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat women are obligated., bRav Adda bar Ahava said: Women are obligated torecite the sanctification of the Shabbat day [ikiddush /i]by Torah law.The Gemara asks: bWhy? iKiddushis a btime-bound, positive mitzva, and women are exemptfrom ball time-bound, positive mitzvot. Abaye said:Indeed, women are obligated to recite ikiddushby brabbinic,but not by Torah blaw. /b, bRava said toAbaye: There are two refutations to your explanation. First, Rav Adda bar Ahava said that women are obligated to recite ikiddush bby Torah law, and, furthermore,the very explanation is difficult to understand. If the Sages do indeed institute ordices in these circumstances, blet us obligate themto fulfill balltime-bound, bpositive mitzvot by rabbinic law,even though they are exempt by Torah law., bRather, Rava said:This has a unique explanation. In the Ten Commandments in the book of Exodus, bthe verse said: “RememberShabbat and sanctify it” (Exodus 20:8), while in the book of Deuteronomy it is said: b“ObserveShabbat and sanctify it” (Deuteronomy 5:12). From these two variants we can deduce that banyone included inthe obligation to bobserveShabbat by avoiding its desecration, bisalso bincluded inthe mitzva to brememberShabbat by reciting ikiddush /i. bSince these women are included inthe mitzva bto observeShabbat, as there is no distinction between men and women in the obligation to observe prohibitions in general and to refrain from the desecration of Shabbat in particular, so too bare they included inthe mitzva of brememberingShabbat., bRavina said to Rava:We learned in the mishna that bwomenare obligated in the mitzva of bGrace after Meals.However, are they obligated bby Torah lawor merely bby rabbinic law? What difference does it makewhether it is by Torah or rabbinic law? The difference is regarding her ability bto fulfill the obligation of otherswhen reciting the blessing on their behalf. bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,then from the perspective of Torah law, women bareconsidered to be bone who is not obligated, andthe general principle is that bone who is not obligatedto fulfill a particular mitzva bcannot fulfill the obligations of the manyin that mitzva. Therefore, it is important to know bwhatis the resolution of this dilemma., bComeand bhearfrom what was taught in a ibaraita /i: bActually they saidthat ba son may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis father, and a slave may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis master, and a woman may recite a blessingon behalf of bher husband, but the Sages said: May a curse come to a manwho, due to his ignorance, requires bhis wife and children to recite a blessing on his behalf. /b,From here we may infer: bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,can one who is obligated bby rabbinic law, come and fulfill the obligationof one whose obligation is bby Torah law? /b,The Gemara challenges this proof: bAnd according to your reasoning,is ba minor obligatedby Torah law to perform mitzvot? Everyone agrees that a minor is exempt by Torah law, yet here the ibaraitasaid that he may recite a blessing on behalf of his father. There must be another way to explain the ibaraita /i. bWith what we are dealing here? With a case wherehis father batea quantity of food that did not satisfy his hunger, a bmeasurefor which one is only obligated bby rabbinic lawto recite Grace after Meals. In that case, one whose obligation bis by rabbinic law can come and fulfill the obligationof another whose obligation bis by rabbinic law. /b,After citing the ihalakhathat one who eats a quantity of food that does not satisfy his hunger is obligated by rabbinic law to recite Grace after Meals, the Gemara cites a related homiletic interpretation. bRav Avira taught, sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Ami, and sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Asi: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, in Your Torah it is written:“The great, mighty and awesome God bwho favors no one and takes no bribe”(Deuteronomy 10:17), byet You,nevertheless, bshow favor to Israel, as it is written: “The Lord shall show favor to youand give you peace” (Numbers 6:26). bHe replied to them: And how can I not show favor to Israel, as I wrote for them in the Torah: “And you shall eat and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 8:10), meaning that there is no obligation to bless the Lord until one is satiated; byet they are exacting with themselvesto recite Grace after Meals even if they have eaten bas much as an olive-bulk or an egg-bulk.Since they go beyond the requirements of the law, they are worthy of favor., strongMISHNA: /strong Ezra the Scribe decreed that one who is ritually impure because of a seminal emission may not engage in matters of Torah until he has immersed in a ritual bath and purified himself. This ihalakhawas accepted over the course of many generations; however, many disputes arose with regard to the Torah matters to which it applies. Regarding this, the mishna says: If the time for the recitation of iShemaarrived and boneis impure due to a bseminal emission,he may bcontemplate iShema bin his heart, but neither recites the blessings preceding iShema /i, bnor the blessings following it. Over foodwhich, after partaking, one is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing, bone recites a blessing afterward, but one does not recite a blessing beforehand,because the blessing recited prior to eating is a requirement by rabbinic law. bAndin all of these instances bRabbi Yehuda says: He recites a blessing beforehand and thereafterin both the case of iShemaand in the case of food., strongGEMARA: /strong bRavina said: That is to say,from the mishna that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech. As if it would enter your mindthat bit is not tantamount to speech,then bwhydoes one who is impure because of a seminal emission bcontemplate?It must be that it is tantamount to speech.,The Gemara rejects this: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech?Then, if one who is impure because of a seminal emission is permitted to contemplate, why does he not butterthe words bwith his lips? /b,The Gemara answers: bAs we found atMount bSinai.There one who had sexual relations with a woman was required to immerse himself before receiving the Torah, which was spoken and not merely contemplated. Here, too, it was decreed that one who was impure due to a seminal emission may not recite matters of Torah out loud until he immerses himself., bAnd Rav Ḥisda saidthat the opposite conclusion should be drawn from the mishna: bContemplation is not tantamount to speech, as if it would enter your mindthat bcontemplation is tantamount to speech,then one who is impure because of a seminal emission should iab initio /i, butter iShema bwith his lips. /b,The Gemara challenges this argument: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is not tantamount to speech?If so, bwhy does he contemplate? Rabbi Elazar said: So thata situation bwill notarise bwhere everyone is engaged inreciting iShema band he sits idlyby.,The Gemara asks: If that is the only purpose, blet him study another chapterand not specifically iShemaor one of the blessings. bRav Adda bar Ahava said:It is fitting that one engage bin a matter in which the community is engaged. /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. קים לי בנפשאי דידענא טפי אבל תולה בדעת יונו אימא לא,ואי תנא תולה בדעת יונו דאמר בנקשא תליא מילתא ואנא ידענא לנקושי טפי אבל תולה בדעת עצמו אימא לא צריכא,מיתיבי המשחק בקוביא אלו הן המשחקים בפיספסים ולא בפיספסים בלבד אמרו אלא אפילו קליפי אגוזים וקליפי רימונים,ואימתי חזרתן משישברו את פיספסיהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה דאפילו בחנם לא עבדי,מלוה בריבית אחד המלוה ואחד הלוה ואימתי חזרתן משיקרעו את שטריהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה אפילו לנכרי לא מוזפי,ומפריחי יונים אלו שממרין את היונים ולא יונים בלבד אמרו אלא אפילו בהמה חיה ועוף ואימתי חזרתן משישברו את פגמיהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה דאפי' במדבר נמי לא עבדי,סוחרי שביעית אלו שנושאין ונותנין בפירות שביעית ואימתי חזרתן משתגיע שביעית אחרת ויבדלו,וא"ר נחמיה לא חזרת דברים בלבד אמרו אלא חזרת ממון כיצד אומר אני פלוני בר פלוני כינסתי מאתים זוז בפירות שביעית והרי הן נתונין במתנה לעניים,קתני מיהת בהמה בשלמא למאן דאמר אי תקדמיה יונך ליון היינו דמשכחת לה בהמה אלא למ"ד ארא בהמה בת הכי היא,אין בשור הבר וכמאן דאמר שור הבר מין בהמה הוא דתנן שור הבר מין בהמה הוא רבי יוסי אומר מין חיה,תנא הוסיפו עליהן הגזלנין והחמסנין,גזלן דאורייתא הוא לא נצרכא אלא למציאת חרש שוטה וקטן,מעיקרא סבור מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן לא שכיחא אי נמי מפני דרכי שלום בעלמא כיון דחזו דסוף סוף ממונא הוא דקא שקלי פסלינהו רבנן,החמסנין מעיקרא סבור דמי קא יהיב אקראי בעלמא הוא כיון דחזו דקא חטפי גזרו בהו רבנן,תנא עוד הוסיפו עליהן הרועים הגבאין והמוכסין,רועים מעיקרא סבור אקראי בעלמא הוא כיון דחזו דקא מכווני ושדו לכתחילה גזרו בהו רבנן: הגבאין והמוכסין מעיקרא סבור מאי דקיץ להו קא שקלי כיון דחזו דקא שקלי יתירא פסלינהו,אמר רבא רועה שאמרו אחד רועה בהמה דקה ואחד רועה בהמה גסה,ומי אמר רבא הכי והאמר רבא רועה בהמה דקה בא"י פסולין בחוצה לארץ כשרין רועה בהמה גסה אפילו בא"י כשרין ההוא במגדלים איתמר,ה"נ מסתברא מדקתני נאמנין עלי שלשה רועי בקר מאי לאו לעדות,לא לדינא דיקא נמי דקתני שלשה רועי בקר ואי לעדות שלשה למה לי,ואלא מאי לדינא מאי איריא שלשה רועי בקר כל בי תלתא דלא גמרי דינא נמי,הכי קאמר אפילו הני דלא שכיחי ביישוב,א"ר יהודה סתם רועה פסול סתם גבאי כשר,אבוה דר' זירא עבד גביותא תליסר שנין כי הוה אתי ריש נהרא למתא כי הוה חזי רבנן א"ל (ישעיהו כו, כ) לך עמי בא בחדריך כי הוה חזי אינשי דמתא אמר ריש נהרא אתא למתא והאידנא נכיס אבא לפום ברא וברא לפום אבא 25b. bI am certain of myself that I know betterthan my competitor how to win. bButwith regard to one who bmakes it dependent on the decision of his pigeon, saythat he is bnotdisqualified from bearing witness, as he is aware that he cannot guarantee the results and therefore resolves to transfer the money if he loses., bAndconversely, bhadthe mishna btaughtthis ihalakhaonly with regard to one who bmakes it dependent on the decision of his pigeon,one might assume that only this type of gambler is disqualified, bas hepresumably bsays: The matter,i.e., the race, bis determined by knockingon trees and other objects to speed up the pigeons, band I knowhow bto knock betterthan my opponent. Therefore, he does not resolve to transfer the money if he loses. bButwith regard to one who bmakes it dependent on his own decision, saythat he is bnotdisqualified from bearing witness, as the roll of the dice is pure chance. Therefore, it is bnecessaryfor the mishna to teach both cases.,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion that the expression: Those who fly pigeons, refers to an iara /i, from a ibaraita /i: With regard to the expression bone who plays with dice, these are ones who play with ipispasim /i,which are dice of marble or other types of stone. bButthe Sages bdid notmean to bsaythat bonlyone who plays bwith ipispasim /iis disqualified from bearing witness, but brather evenone who plays with bnutshells or pomegranate shellsis disqualified., bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted, so that they may resume being fit to bear witness? bOnce they break their ipispasimand repent of them completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, bwhere they do not dothis beven for nothing,i.e., they do not play even without betting.,The ibaraitacontinues: The expression: bOne who lends with interest,is referring to bboth the lender and the borrower.Both are disqualified. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce they tear theirpromissory bnotes and repent of them completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, where bthey do not lendwith interest beven to a gentile. /b,The expression: bAndthose bwho fly pigeons,is referring to bthose who induce the pigeonsto behave in this manner, i.e., they train them. bAndthe Sages bdid notmean to bsaythat bonlythose who fly bpigeonsare disqualified; brather, eventhose who do this with ba domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, orany type of bbirdare disqualified. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce they break their fixtures [ ipigmeihen /i]upon which they stand the competing animals, band repent completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, bwhere they do not dothis beven in the wilderness,where there is no one from whom to steal.,The expression: bMerchantswho trade in the produce bof the SabbaticalYear, is referring to bthose who do business withthe bproduce of the SabbaticalYear. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce another SabbaticalYear boccurs and they refrainfrom selling its produce or from assuming ownership of such produce.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd Rabbi Neḥemya said:The Sages bdid not saythat bverbal repentance aloneis sufficient for a merchant who traded in the produce of the Sabbatical Year to be reinstated as a valid witness; brather, returningthe bmoneyis also necessary. bHowcan one return the money he gained from selling produce of the Sabbatical Year? bHe says: I, so-and-so the son of so-and-so, gathered,i.e., profited, btwo hundred dinarsfrom trading binthe bproduce of the SabbaticalYear, bandas I gained it improperly, this sum is bhereby given as a gift to the poor. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bIn any event, it is taughtin the ibaraitathat the status of one who flies pigeons applies to one who uses ba domesticated animalin the same manner. bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the term: One who flies pigeons, is referring to those who race pigeons, saying: bIf your pigeon reachesa certain destination bbefore my pigeonI will give you such and such an amount of money, bthis is how you finda parallel case of one who races ba domesticated animalagainst another animal. bBut according to the one who saysthat the term pigeon flyer means ban iara /i, is a domesticated animal capable ofluring other domesticated animals?,The Gemara answers: bYes,the ibaraitastates this bwith regard to the wild ox,which can be lured away from its owner’s property because it is not a completely domesticated animal. bAndthe ibaraitastates this baccording to the one who saysthat bthe wild ox is a species of domesticated animal, as we learnedin a mishna ( iKilayim8:6): bThe wild ox is a species of domesticated animal.But bRabbi Yosei says:It is ba species of undomesticated animal. /b,§ It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages badded the robbers and those who force transactions,i.e., who compel others to sell to them, btothe list of those who are disqualified from bearing witness.,The Gemara asks: bA robber isdisqualified bby Torah law;why is it necessary for the Sages to add such an individual to the list? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary only toadd one who steals ban item found by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor,who acquire those items by rabbinic law only (see iGittin59b). Since these people are not considered halakhically competent, by Torah law they do not acquire an item that they find, and consequently one who steals such an item from them is not in violation of a prohibition by Torah law.,One possibility is that taking such an item is prohibited by rabbinic law because it constitutes robbery. Nevertheless, binitiallythe Sages did not disqualify such an individual from bearing witness, as they bassumedthat the case of ban item found by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor is uncommon.Therefore, it was not deemed necessary to disqualify one who robs them of such an item. bAlternatively,the Sages may have reasoned that taking such an item is prohibited bmerely on account of the ways of peace,i.e., to foster peace and prevent strife and controversy, and is not considered actual robbery. bWhen they realized that ultimatelythese people bwere taking propertyfrom others and were likely to perform actual robbery, bthe Sages disqualified them. /b,Similarly, with regard to bthose who force transactions, initiallythe Sages did not disqualify them, as bthey assumedthat their behavior could be excused for two reasons: bThey would pay moneyfor the items they took, and their forcing transactions bwas merely occasional;it was not a common practice. bWhen they realized thatthese people bwere snatchingitems regularly, bthe Sages issued a decree that theyare disqualified from bearing witness.,§ It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages bfurther addedthe following btothe list of those disqualified from bearing witness: bThe shepherds,who shepherd their animals in the fields of others and are therefore considered like robbers; bthe collectorsof government taxes, who collect more than the amount that people are legally liable to pay; band the customs officials,who collect customs in an illegal manner.,The Gemara explains: bShepherdswere not disqualified at first, as the Sages binitially assumed it was merely incidentalthat they would let their animals graze in the fields of others. bWhen they realized that they would intentionally sendthe animals to the fields of others bfrom the outset, the Sages issued a decree that theyare disqualified from bearing witness. bThe collectorsof taxes band the customs officialswere not disqualified at first, as the Sages binitially assumed they would take the set amount theywere instructed to take. bWhen they realized thatthese officials bwere taking morethan that, bthey disqualified them. /b, bRava says:The bshepherd thatthe Sages bsaidis disqualified from bearing witness is referring to bboth a shepherd of small livestock and a herder of large livestock. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd does Rava say this? But doesn’t Rava say: Shepherds of small livestock in Eretz Yisrael are disqualifiedfrom bearing witness, as besides grazing in others’ fields they also ruin the land? bOutside of EretzYisrael bthey are fitto bear witness. By contrast, bherders of large livestock, even in Eretz Yisrael, are fitto bear witness. The Gemara answers: bThat was stated with regard tothose bwho raisetheir animals on their own land, without herding them on land in the public domain.,The Gemara suggests a proof for Rava’s opinion that a herder of large livestock is also disqualified: bThis too stands to reason, fromthe fact bthatthe mishna (24a) bteachesthat a litigant may state: bThree cattle herders are trusted for mein court; by inference, cattle herders are generally disqualified. bWhat, is it not with regard to bearing witnessthat cattle herders are disqualified, in accordance with Rava’s statement?,The Gemara rejects this proof: bNo,it is bwith regard tositting in bjudgment.The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna bis also preciseaccording to this interpretation, bas it teaches: Three cattle herdersare trusted for me. bAnd ifit is bwith regard to bearing witness, why do Ineed bthreewitnesses? Two are enough.,The Gemara asks: bBut rather,with regard to bwhatare cattle herders disqualified? If it is bwith regard tositting in bjudgment, whydoes the mishna mention bspecifically three cattle herders? Any threepeople bwho did not study ihalakhaare alsodisqualified from serving as a court.,The Gemara answers: bThisis what the mishna bis saying:The litigants can accept as judges beven thosecattle herders bwhodwell in the fields and bdo not frequent the settled area,and are therefore not proficient in the ways of business., bRav Yehuda says: An ordinary shepherdis bdisqualifiedfrom bearing witness unless the court recognizes him as one who does not let his animals graze in the fields of others. bAn ordinarytax bcollectoris bfitunless the court determines he is one who collects more than people are obligated to pay.,The Gemara relates a story about a tax collector: bThe father of Rabbi Zeira collectedtaxes for bthirteen years. When the headtax collector of the briverregion bwould come to the city,Rabbi Zeira’s father would prepare the residents ahead of time. bWhen he would see the rabbis, he would say to themas a hint: b“Come, my people, enter into your chambers,and shut your doors behind you; hide yourself for a little moment until the indignation has passed” (Isaiah 26:20). He said this so that the head tax collector would not see the rabbis, and it would be possible to lower the taxes of the city. bWhen he would seethe ordinary bpeople of the city, he would sayto them: Beware, as bthe headtax collector of the briverregion bis coming to the city, and will now slaughter the father,i.e., take one’s money, bbefore the son, and the son before the father. /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

89b. שפרו ורבו עליה ישראל מדבר סיני שירדה שנאה לעכו"ם עליו ומה שמו חורב שמו ופליגא דר' אבהו דא"ר אבהו הר סיני שמו ולמה נקרא הר חורב שירדה חורבה לעכו"ם עליו:,מנין שקושרין לשון של זהורית וכו': כשנים כשני מיבעי ליה א"ר יצחק אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים הללו שסדורות ובאות מששת ימי בראשית ועד עכשיו כשלג ילבינו: דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (ישעיה א, יח) לכו נא ונוכחה יאמר ה' לכו נא בואו נא מיבעי ליה יאמר ה' אמר ה' מיבעי ליה לעתיד לבא יאמר להם הקב"ה לישראל לכו נא אצל אבותיכם ויוכיחו אתכם,ויאמרו לפניו רבש"ע אצל מי נלך אצל אברהם שאמרת לו (בראשית טו, יג) ידוע תדע ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל יצחק שבירך את עשו (שם כז, מ) והיה כאשר תריד ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל יעקב שאמרת לו (שם מו, ד) אנכי ארד עמך מצרימה ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל מי נלך עכשיו יאמר ה' אמר להן הקב"ה הואיל ותליתם עצמכם בי אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים כשלג ילבינו:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מ"ד (ישעיה סג, טז) כי אתה אבינו כי אברהם לא ידענו וישראל לא יכירנו אתה ה' אבינו גואלנו מעולם שמך לעתיד לבא יאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם בניך חטאו לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע ימחו על קדושת שמך אמר אימר ליה ליעקב דהוה ליה צער גידול בנים אפשר דבעי רחמי עלייהו אמר ליה בניך חטאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע ימחו על קדושת שמך אמר לא בסבי טעמא ולא בדרדקי עצה אמר לו ליצחק בניך חטאו לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בני ולא בניך בשעה שהקדימו לפניך נעשה לנשמע קראת להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי עכשיו בני ולא בניך,ועוד כמה חטאו כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה דל עשרין דלא ענשת עלייהו פשו להו חמשין דל כ"ה דלילותא פשו להו כ"ה דל תרתי סרי ופלגא דצלויי ומיכל ודבית הכסא פשו להו תרתי סרי ופלגא אם אתה סובל את כולם מוטב ואם לאו פלגא עלי ופלגא עליך ואת"ל כולם עלי הא קריבית נפשי קמך פתחו ואמרו (כי) אתה אבינו אמר להם יצחק עד שאתם מקלסין לי קלסו להקב"ה ומחוי להו יצחק הקב"ה בעינייהו מיד נשאו עיניהם למרום ואומרים (ישעיה סג, טז) אתה ה' אבינו גואלנו מעולם שמך,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן ראוי היה יעקב אבינו לירד למצרים בשלשלאות של ברזל אלא שזכותו גרמה לו דכתיב (הושע יא, ד) בחבלי אדם אמשכם בעבותות אהבה ואהיה להם כמרימי עול על לחיהם ואט אליו אוכיל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוציא עצים כדי לבשל ביצה קלה תבלין כדי לתבל ביצה קלה ומצטרפין זה עם זה קליפי אגוזין קליפי רמונים איסטיס ופואה כדי לצבוע בהן בגד קטן פי סבכה מי רגלים נתר ובורית קמוליא ואשלג כדי לכבס בגד קטן פי סבכה רבי יהודה אומר כדי להעביר את הכתם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנינא חדא זימנא קנה כדי לעשות קולמוס אם היה עב או מרוסס כדי לבשל ביצה קלה שבביצים טרופה ונתונה באילפס מהו דתימא התם הוא דלא חזי למידי אבל עצים דחזו לככא דאקלידא אפילו כל שהוא קמ"ל:,תבלין כדי לתבל ביצה קלה: ורמינהו תבלין שנים וג' שמות ממין אחד או משלשה מינין (ושם אחד) אסורין ומצטרפין זה עם זה ואמר חזקיה 89b. because bthe Jewish people were fruitful[iparu/b] band multiplied in it; the Sinai Desert,because bhatred descended upon the nations of the world on it,on the mountain on which the Jewish people received the Torah. bAnd what isthe mountain’s true bname? Horeb is its name. Andthat bdisputesthe opinion of bRabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu said: Mount Sinai is its name. And why is it called Mount Horeb?It is because bdestruction [ iḥurba /i] of the nations of the world descended upon it. /b,We learned in the mishna: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one ties a scarlet stripof wool to the scapegoat? As it says: “If your sins be like scarlet [ ikashanim /i], they will become white like snow” (Isaiah 1:18). The Gemara wonders at this: Why does the verse use the plural form: iKashanim /i? It should haveused the singular form: iKashani /i. Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people:Even bif your sins areas numerous bas those years [ ikashanim /i] that have proceeded continuously from the six days of Creation until now, they will become white like snow. Rava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Go please and let us reason together, the Lord will say”(Isaiah 1:18)? Why does the verse say: bGo please? It should havesaid: bCome please.And why does the verse say: bThe Lord will say?The prophet’s message is based on something that God already said. Therefore, the verse bshould havesaid: bGod said.Rather, the explanation of this verse is that bin the futurethat will surely bcome, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to the Jewish people: Go please to your Patriarchs, and they will rebuke you. /b, bAndthe Jewish people bwill say before Him: Master of the Universe, to whom shall we go?Shall we go bto Abraham, to whom You said: “Know certainlythat your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf?Or perhaps we should go bto Isaac, who blessed Esauand said: b“And it shall come to pass when you shall break loose,that you shall shake his yoke from off your neck” (Genesis 27:40), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf.Or perhaps we should go bto Jacob, to whom You said: “I will go down to Egypt with you”(Genesis 46:4), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf.And if so, bto whom shall we go?Shall we go to our Patriarchs, who do not have mercy on us? Rather, bnow GodHimself bsayswhat punishment we deserve. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Since you made yourselves dependent on Me, “If your sins be like scarlet, they will become white like snow.” /b,Apropos the Jewish people assessing their forefathers, the Gemara cites a related teaching. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You are our Father; for Abraham knows us not, and Israel does not acknowledge us; You, Lord, are our Father, our Redeemer, everlasting is Your name”(Isaiah 63:16). bIn the futurethat will surely bcome, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to Abraham: Your children have sinned against Me.Abraham will bsay before Him: Master of the Universe,if so, blet them be eradicated to sanctify Your name.God bsaid: I will say it to Jacob.Since he experienced bthe pain of raising children,perhaps bhe will ask for mercy on their behalf.He bsaid toJacob: bYour children have sinned.Jacob bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,if so, blet them be eradicated to sanctify Your name.The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid: There is no reason in elders and no wisdom in youth.Neither Abraham nor Jacob knew how to respond properly. He bsaid to Isaac: Your children have sinned against Me.Isaac bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,are they bmy children and not Your children? AtSinai, bwhen they accorded precedence to “We will do” over “We will listen” before You,didn’t You bcall them, “My son, My firstborn sonIsrael” (Exodus 4:22)? bNowthat they have sinned, are they bmy children and not Your children? /b, bAnd furthermore, how much did theyactually bsin? How long is a person’s life? Seventy years. Subtractthe first btwentyyears of his life. One bis not punished forsins committed then, as in heavenly matters, a person is only punished from age twenty. bFiftyyears bremain for them. Subtract twenty-fiveyears bof nights,and btwenty-fiveyears bremain for them. Subtract twelve and a halfyears during which bone prays and eats anduses bthe bathroom,and btwelve and a halfyears bremain for them. If Youcan bendure them alland forgive the sins committed during those years, bexcellent. And if not, halfof the sins are bupon meto bear band half upon You. And if You saythat ball of them,the sins of all twelve and a half years that remain, are bupon me, I sacrificed my soul before Youand You should forgive them due to my merit. The Jewish people bbegan to sayto Isaac: bYou are our father.Only Isaac defended the Jewish people as a father would and displayed compassion toward his children. bIsaac said to them: Before you praise me, praise the Holy One, Blessed be He. And Isaac points to the Holy One, Blessed be He, before their eyes. Immediately they lifted their eyes to the heavens and say: “You, Lord, are our Father, our Redeemer, everlasting is Your name.” /b,And since the Gemara mentioned Jacob’s descent to Egypt, the Gemara cites that which bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Our father Jacob should have gone down to Egypt in iron chainsas would an exile against his will, as decreed by God and related to Abraham. bHowever, his merit caused himto descend without suffering, bas it is written: “I drew them with cords of man, with bands of love, and I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, and I fed them gently”(Hosea 11:4)., strongMISHNA: /strong After an extended digression for a discussion of matters unrelated to the ihalakhotof Shabbat, this mishna resumes treatment of the ihalakhotof carrying from domain to domain on Shabbat. bOne who carries out woodon Shabbat is liable for a measure bequivalentto the amount of wood necessary bto cook an easilycooked begg.The measure that determines liability for carrying out bspicesis bequivalentto that which is used bto season an easilycooked begg. Andall types of spices bjoin together with one anotherto constitute the measure for liability. The measure that determines liability for carrying out bnutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower, and madder,which are used to produce dyes, is bequivalentto the amount that is used bto dye a small garmentplaced batop awoman’s bhairnet.The measure that determines liability for carrying out burine, natron, and iborit /i, cimolian earth [ iKimoleya /i], and potash,all of which are abrasive materials used for laundry, is bequivalentto the amount that is used bto launder a small garmentplaced batop awoman’s bhairnet. And Rabbi Yehuda says:The measure that determines liability for these materials is bequivalentto that which is used bto remove a stain. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the measure of wood, the Gemara asks: Didn’t bwealready blearn it once?As we learned in a mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out ba reedis bequivalentto that which is used bto make a quill. And ifthe reed bwas thickand unfit for writing, borif it was bfragmented,the measure that determines its liability is bequivalentto that which is used bto cook an egg most easilycooked, one that is already bbeaten and placed in a stew pot.The measure of firewood is clearly delineated. The Gemara answers: Still, this mishna is necessary. bYou might have said: There,the measure of the crushed reed reflects the fact that bit is not suitable for anythingother than kindling. bHowever,regarding bwood that is suitable tobe used bas a tooth of a key [ iaklida /i],the measure that determines its liability should be beven anysmall bamount.Therefore, bit teaches usthat wood is typically designated for burning, and that determines the measure for liability for carrying out wood on Shabbat.,We learned in the mishna that all types of bspicesjoin together with one another to constitute the measure bequivalentto that which is used bto season an easilycooked begg. TheGemara braises a contradictionfrom that which we learned elsewhere: bSpices,which are prohibited due to btwo or threedifferent bprohibitions,e.g., one is prohibited due to iorla /i, and one due to the prohibition of untithed produce, and they were all bof a single species( iTosafot /i), borif they were bof threedifferent bspecies, are prohibited, and they join together with each otherto constitute a complete measure. bAnd Ḥizkiya said: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 138
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
anan ben david Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
as the holy tongue Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 138
banim, in njps Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
boyarin, daniel Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
coins Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
consumption Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
eschatology Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 138
etrog, citron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
fetha naghast Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
fraade, steven Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
hallel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
hebrew, as holy tongue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
hebrew, as prerequisite for torah study Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
impurity, and passover Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
inheritance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
jaffee, martin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
karaites Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
kumisi, daniel al- Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
law, talmudic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
material, midrashic mode, reading banim as sons, not daughters Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185, 186
men of jerusalem Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
myrtle Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
njps translation Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
obligation, in passover Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
omer offering' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
passover (pesah)̣, types of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
pater familias Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
philo Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
prophecy Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 138
purpose of sacrifice, of passover Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
rav papa, real estate, sale of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
reproduction, biological Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
rubenstein, jeffrey Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
semi-proselytes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
septuagint, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
substances, sacrificial, in passover Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
temple, cult, jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 197
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
torah study, as cultural reproduction Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185, 186
torah study, womens exemption from Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185, 186
tossing of blood (zeriqah), in passover Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 164
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
wine, grape juice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
witnesses, age of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
wives Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
wright, benjamin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 186
yose, r. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185
yose b. akiva, r. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 185