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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10935
Tosefta, Berachot, 3.7


א\"ר יהודה כשהיה רבי עקיבה מתפלל עם הצבור היה מקצר בפני כולן כשהיה מתפלל בינו לבין עצמו היה אדם מניחו בצד זה ובא ומצאו בצד אחר מפני הכריעות והשתחויות שהיה עושה.Rebbi Yehudah said, “When Rebbi Akiva would pray [Shmoneh Esreh] together with the congregation he would finish faster than everyone else. When he would pray by himself a person would leave him on one side [of the room] and when he would come back he would find him on a different side [of the room], because of all of the bending of the knees and bowing that he would do.”


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.15, 65.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear."
2. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.1-5.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.1. בִּרְבוֹת הַטּוֹבָה רַבּוּ אוֹכְלֶיהָ וּמַה־כִּשְׁרוֹן לִבְעָלֶיהָ כִּי אִם־ראית [רְאוּת] עֵינָיו׃ 5.1. אַל־תְּבַהֵל עַל־פִּיךָ וְלִבְּךָ אַל־יְמַהֵר לְהוֹצִיא דָבָר לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וְאַתָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן יִהְיוּ דְבָרֶיךָ מְעַטִּים׃ 5.2. כִּי בָּא הַחֲלוֹם בְּרֹב עִנְיָן וְקוֹל כְּסִיל בְּרֹב דְּבָרִים׃ 5.1. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words be few." 5.2. For a dream cometh through a multitude of business; And a fool’s voice through a multitude of words."
3. Anon., 1 Enoch, 84 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

84. And I lifted up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spake with the breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which God has made for the children of the flesh of men, that they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith:,Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King, Great and mighty in Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven, King of kings and God of the whole world.And Thy power and kingship and greatness abide for ever and ever, And throughout all generations Thy dominion; And all the heavens are Thy throne for ever, And the whole earth Thy footstool for ever and ever.,For Thou hast made and Thou rulest all things, And nothing is too hard for Thee, Wisdom departs not from the place of Thy throne, Nor turns away from Thy presence. And Thou knowest and seest and hearest everything, And there is nothing hidden from Thee [for Thou seest everything].,And now the angels of Thy heavens are guilty of trespass, And upon the flesh of men abideth Thy wrath until the great day of judgement.,And now, O God and Lord and Great King, I implore and beseech Thee to fulfil my prayer, To leave me a posterity on earth, And not destroy all the flesh of man, And make the earth without inhabitant, So that there should be an eternal destruction.,And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which has aroused Thy wrath, But the flesh of righteousness and uprightness establish as a plant of the eternal seed, And hide not Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, O Lord.'
4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.17. וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל־מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי׃ 9.17. Now therefore, O our God, hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake."
5. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.14, 36.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.14. Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders,nor repeat yourself in your prayer. 36.17. Hearken, O Lord, to the prayer of thy servants,according to the blessing of Aaron for thy people,and all who are on the earth will know that thou art the Lord, the God of the ages.
6. Septuagint, Judith, 9.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.11. For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope.
7. Anon., Didache, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.5, 4.2-4.4, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits." 4.2. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakaneh used to pray as he entered the Bet Hamidrash and as he left it a short prayer. They said to him: what is the reason for this prayer? He replied: When I enter I pray that that no mishap should occur through me, and when I leave I express thanks for my portion." 4.3. Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen." 4.4. Rabbi Eliezer says: if a man makes his prayers fixed, it is not [true] supplication. Rabbi Joshua says: if one is traveling in a dangerous place, he says a short prayer, saying: Save, O Lord, Your people the remt of Israel. In every time of crisis may their needs be before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, who hears prayer." 5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
9. Mishnah, Nedarim, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.1. Rabbi Eliezer says: They release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother but the Sages forbid. Rabbi Zadok said: Instead of releasing through the honor of his father and mother, they should release [by reference] to the honor of God. If so, there would be no vows! But the Sages admit to Rabbi Eliezer that in a matter concerning himself and his father and mother one may release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother."
10. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
11. New Testament, Acts, 2.46, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.
12. New Testament, John, 7.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.23. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man every bit whole on the Sabbath?
13. New Testament, Luke, 7.41-7.42, 11.1-11.10, 21.22-21.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 11.10. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 21.22. For these are days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. 21.23. Woe to those who are pregt and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress in the land, and wrath to this people. 21.24. They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 21.25. There will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars; and on the earth anxiety of nations, in perplexity for the roaring of the sea and the waves; 21.26. men fainting for fear, and for expectation of the things which are coming on the world: for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 21.27. Then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 21.28. But when these things begin to happen, look up, and lift up your heads, because your redemption is near. 21.29. He told them a parable. "See the fig tree, and all the trees. 21.30. When they are already budding, you see it and know by your own selves that the summer is already near. 21.31. Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that the Kingdom of God is near. 21.32. Most assuredly I tell you, this generation will not pass away until all things are accomplished.
14. New Testament, Mark, 7.9-7.13, 9.5, 11.24-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions.
15. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5-6.8, 6.12, 6.14-6.15, 6.25-6.34, 15.3-15.6, 18.23-18.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.25. Therefore, I tell you, don't be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 6.27. Which of you, by being anxious, can add one cubit to the measure of his life? 6.28. Why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin 6.29. yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these. 6.30. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? 6.31. Therefore don't be anxious, saying, 'What will we eat?', 'What will we drink?' or, 'With what will we be clothed?' 6.32. For the Gentiles seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 6.33. But seek first God's Kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 18.23. Therefore the Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who wanted to reconcile accounts with his servants. 18.24. When he had begun to reconcile, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. 18.25. But because he couldn't pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, with his wife, his children, and all that he had, and payment to be made.
16. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 3.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

17. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. והנאך ועליו נתפסת אמר לו עקיבא הזכרתני פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בשוק העליון של ציפורי ומצאתי אחד ומתלמידי ישו הנוצרי ויעקב איש כפר סכניא שמו אמר לי כתוב בתורתכם (דברים כג, יט) לא תביא אתנן זונה [וגו'] מהו לעשות הימנו בהכ"ס לכ"ג ולא אמרתי לו כלום,אמר לי כך לימדני ישו הנוצרי (מיכה א, ז) כי מאתנן זונה קבצה ועד אתנן זונה ישובו ממקום הטנופת באו למקום הטנופת ילכו,והנאני הדבר על ידי זה נתפסתי למינות ועברתי על מה שכתוב בתורה (משלי ה, ח) הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו הרשות ואיכא דאמרי הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות והרשות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו זונה וכמה אמר רב חסדא ארבע אמות,ורבנן [האי] מאתנן זונה מאי דרשי ביה כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא כל זונה שנשכרת לבסוף היא שוכרת שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, לד) ובתתך אתנן ואתנן לא נתן לך [ותהי להפך],ופליגא דרבי פדת דא"ר פדת לא אסרה תורה אלא קריבה של גלוי עריות בלבד שנא' (ויקרא יח, ו) איש איש אל כל שאר בשרו לא תקרבו לגלות ערוה,עולא כי הוה אתי מבי רב הוה מנשק להו לאחתיה אבי ידייהו ואמרי לה אבי חדייהו ופליגא דידיה אדידיה דאמר עולא קריבה בעלמא אסור משום לך לך אמרין נזירא סחור סחור לכרמא לא תקרב,(משלי ל, טו) לעלוקה שתי בנות הב הב מאי הב הב אמר מר עוקבא [קול] שתי בנות שצועקות מגיהנם ואומרות בעוה"ז הבא הבא ומאן נינהו מינות והרשות איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא קול גיהנם צועקת ואומרת הביאו לי שתי בנות שצועקות ואומרות בעולם הזה הבא הבא,(משלי ב, יט) כל באיה לא ישובון ולא ישיגו אורחות חיים וכי מאחר שלא שבו היכן ישיגו ה"ק ואם ישובו לא ישיגו אורחות חיים,למימרא דכל הפורש ממינות מיית והא ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב חסדא ואמרה ליה קלה שבקלות עשתה בנה הקטן מבנה הגדול ואמר לה רב חסדא טרחו לה בזוודתא ולא מתה,מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות עשתה מכלל דמינות [נמי] הויא בה ההוא דלא הדרא בה שפיר ומש"ה לא מתה,איכא דאמרי ממינות אין מעבירה לא והא ההיא דאתאי קמיה דרב חסדא וא"ל [ר"ח זוידו לה זוודתא] ומתה מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות מכלל דמינות נמי הויא בה,ומעבירה לא והתניא אמרו עליו על ר"א בן דורדיא שלא הניח זונה אחת בעולם שלא בא עליה פעם אחת שמע שיש זונה אחת בכרכי הים והיתה נוטלת כיס דינרין בשכרה נטל כיס דינרין והלך ועבר עליה שבעה נהרות בשעת הרגל דבר הפיחה אמרה כשם שהפיחה זו אינה חוזרת למקומה כך אלעזר בן דורדיא אין מקבלין אותו בתשובה,הלך וישב בין שני הרים וגבעות אמר הרים וגבעות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, י) כי ההרים ימושו והגבעות תמוטינה אמר שמים וארץ בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, ו) כי שמים כעשן נמלחו והארץ כבגד תבלה,אמר חמה ולבנה בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה אמר כוכבים ומזלות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לד, ד) ונמקו כל צבא השמים,אמר אין הדבר תלוי אלא בי הניח ראשו בין ברכיו וגעה בבכיה עד שיצתה נשמתו יצתה בת קול ואמרה ר"א בן דורדיא מזומן לחיי העולם הבא [והא הכא בעבירה הוה ומית] התם נמי כיון דאביק בה טובא כמינות דמיא,בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים ויש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ואמר רבי לא דיין לבעלי תשובה שמקבלין אותן אלא שקורין אותן רבי,ר' חנינא ור' יונתן הוו קאזלי באורחא מטו להנהו תרי שבילי חד פצי אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים וחד פצי אפיתחא דבי זונות אמר ליה חד לחבריה ניזיל אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים 17a. band you derived pleasure from it, and because ofthis byou were held responsibleby Heaven. Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Akiva,you are right, as byou have reminded methat bonce I was walking in the upper marketplace of Tzippori, and I found a manwho was one bof the students of Jesus the Nazarene, and his name was Ya’akov of Kefar Sekhanya. He said to me: It is written in your Torah: “You shall not bring the payment to a prostitute,or the price of a dog, into the house of the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 23:19). bWhat isthe ihalakha /i: Is it permitted bto make fromthe payment to a prostitute for services rendered ba bathroom for a High Priestin the Temple? bAnd I said nothing to himin response., bHe said to me: Jesus the Nazarene taught me the following:It is permitted, as derived from the verse: b“For of the payment to a prostitute she has gathered them, and to the payment to a prostitute they shall return”(Micah 1:7). Since the coins bcame from a place of filth, let them go to a place of filthand be used to build a bathroom., bAnd I derived pleasure from the statement,and bdue to this, I was arrested for heresyby the authorities, because bI transgressed that which is written in the Torah:“Remove your way far from her, and do not come near the entrance of her house” (Proverbs 5:8). b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to bthe ruling authority.The Gemara notes: bAnd there arethose bwho saya different interpretation: b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy and the ruling authority; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to ba prostitute. And how muchdistance must one maintain from a prostitute? bRav Ḥisda said: Four cubits. /b,With regard to the derivation of the verse by Jesus the Nazarene, the Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Sages derive from thisphrase: b“Payment to a prostitute”?The Gemara answers: They explain it bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda says: Any prostitute who hires herselfout to others for money will become so attached to this practice that bultimately,when others no longer wish to hire her, bshewill bhireothers to engage in intercourse with her. bAs it is stated: “And in that you gave payment, and no payment is given to you, therefore you are contrary”(Ezekiel 16:34).,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Ḥisda, who stated above that the Torah requires one to maintain a distance of four cubits from a prostitute, bdisagrees withthe opinion bof Rabbi Pedat. As Rabbi Pedat says: The Torah prohibited only intimacy that involves engaging in prohibited sexual relations, as it is stated: “None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness”(Leviticus 18:6). The prohibition against intimacy in the Torah applies exclusively to sexual intercourse, and all other kinds of intimacy that do not include actual intercourse are not included in the prohibition.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Ulla would come from the study hall, he would kiss his sisters on their hands. And some say: On their chests. Andthe Gemara points out that this action of bhis disagrees withanother ruling that Ulla bhimselfissued, bas Ulla says: Mere intimacywith a woman with whom one is prohibited from engaging in sexual intercourse is bprohibited, due tothe maxim: bGo, go, we say to a nazirite, go around, go aroundbut bdo not come near to the vineyard.Just as a nazirite is warned not even to come into close proximity of a vineyard lest he consume a product of the vine, so too one is obligated to distance himself from anyone with whom intercourse is forbidden.,§ In connection to the earlier mention of heresy and the ruling authorities, the Gemara cites a verse: b“The horseleech has two daughters: Give, give”(Proverbs 30:15). bWhatis meant by b“give, give”? Mar Ukva says:This is the bvoiceof bthe two daughters who cryout bfrom Gehennadue to their suffering; bandthey are the ones who bsay in this world: Give, give,demanding dues and complete allegiance. bAnd who are they?They are bheresy and the ruling authority. There arethose bwho saythat bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says: The voice of Gehenna criesout band says: Bring me two daughters who cry and say in this world: Give, give. /b,The following verse in Proverbs makes reference to a foreign woman, which according to the Sages is a euphemism for heresy: b“None that go to her return, neither do they attain the paths of life”(Proverbs 2:19). The Gemara asks: bSincethose that are drawn to heresy bdo not return,from bwhere would they attainthe path of life? Why is it necessary for the verse to add that they do not attain the paths of life? The Gemara explains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:In general, those who go to her do not return, bandeven bif they return, they do not attain the paths of life,i.e., the pain of their regret will shorten their lives.,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that anyone who separateshimself bfrom heresyand returns from his mistaken ways must bdie? Butwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him, band she said to him: The lightest of the light,i.e., the least of the sins that she committed, is that bshe conceived her younger son fromengaging in intercourse with bher older son. And Rav Ḥisda said to her: Prepare funeral shrouds for her,i.e., yourself, as you will certainly die soon, bbut she did not die. /b,The above incident refutes the claim that anyone who repents for the sin of heresy must die, as bfromthe fact bthat she saidthat bthe lightest of the lightof her sins was that bshe conceivedone son from engaging in intercourse with another son, bby inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy,and yet she did not die. The Gemara answers: bThatis a case bwherethe woman bdid not repent properly, and due to thatreason bshe did not die. /b, bThere arethose bwho saythere is a different version of the objection to the Gemara’s statement that those who repent for the sin of heresy must die: Is that to say that if one repents bforthe sin of bheresy, yes,the result is death, whereas if one repents bforthe bsinof forbidden sexual intercourse he does bnotdie? bButwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him band Rav Ḥisda said tothose present: bPrepare funeral shrouds for her, and she died?The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact bthat she said: The lightest of the light, by inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndis it correct that one who repents bof the sinof forbidden sexual intercourse does bnotdie? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya thathe was so promiscuous that bhe did not leave one prostitute in the world with whom he did not engage in sexual intercourse. Once, he heard that there was one prostitute inone of the bcities overseas who would take a pursefull of bdinars as her payment. He took a pursefull of bdinars and went and crossed seven riversto reach bher. Whenthey were engaged in the bmattersto which they were baccustomed,a euphemism for intercourse, bshe passed windand bsaid: Just as this passed windwill bnot return to its place, so too Elazar ben Durdayya will not be accepted in repentance,even if he were to try to repent.,This statement deeply shocked Elazar ben Durdayya, and bhe went and sat between two mountains and hillsand bsaid: Mountains and hills, pray for mercy on mybehalf, so that my repentance will be accepted. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed”(Isaiah 54:10). bHe said: Heaven and earth, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey saidto him: bBefore we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment”(Isaiah 51:6)., bHe said: Sun and moon, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed”(Isaiah 24:23). bHe said: Stars and constellations, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “And all the hosts of heaven shall molder away”(Isaiah 34:4).,Elazar ben Durdayya bsaid:Clearly bthe matter depends on nothing other than myself. He placed his head between his knees and cried loudly until his soul lefthis body. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya is destined for life in the World-to-Come.The Gemara explains the difficulty presented by this story: bAnd hereElazar ben Durdayya bwasguilty of bthe sinof forbidden sexual intercourse, bandyet bhe diedonce he repented. The Gemara answers: bThere too, since he was attached so stronglyto the sin, to an extent that transcended the physical temptation he felt, bit is similar to heresy,as it had become like a form of idol worship for him.,When bRabbiYehuda HaNasi heard this story of Elazar ben Durdayya, bhe wept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come bin one moment. And RabbiYehuda HaNasi further bsays: Not only are penitents accepted, but they are even called: Rabbi,as the Divine Voice referred to Elazar ben Durdayya as Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya.,§ In relation to the issue of distancing oneself from idol worship and prostitution, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Yonatan wereonce bwalking along the roadwhen bthey came to a certain two paths, oneof which bbranched off toward the entrance ofa place of bidol worship, andthe other bone branched off toward the entrance of a brothel. One said to the other: Let us go bythe path that leads to bthe entranceof the place bof idol worship, /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. דלמא מעברין לך אמר לה [לשתמש אינש] יומא חדא בכסא דמוקרא ולמחר ליתבר אמרה ליה לית לך חיורתא ההוא יומא בר תמני סרי שני הוה אתרחיש ליה ניסא ואהדרו ליה תמני סרי דרי חיורתא היינו דקאמר ר' אלעזר בן עזריה הרי אני כבן שבעים שנה ולא בן שבעים שנה,תנא אותו היום סלקוהו לשומר הפתח ונתנה להם רשות לתלמידים ליכנס שהיה ר"ג מכריז ואומר כל תלמיד שאין תוכו כברו לא יכנס לבית המדרש,ההוא יומא אתוספו כמה ספסלי א"ר יוחנן פליגי בה אבא יוסף בן דוסתאי ורבנן חד אמר אתוספו ארבע מאה ספסלי וחד אמר שבע מאה ספסלי הוה קא חלשא דעתיה דר"ג אמר דלמא ח"ו מנעתי תורה מישראל אחזו ליה בחלמיה חצבי חיורי דמליין קטמא ולא היא ההיא ליתובי דעתיה הוא דאחזו ליה,תנא עדיות בו ביום נשנית וכל היכא דאמרינן בו ביום ההוא יומא הוה ולא היתה הלכה שהיתה תלויה בבית המדרש שלא פירשוה ואף ר"ג לא מנע עצמו מבית המדרש אפילו שעה אחת,דתנן בו ביום בא יהודה גר עמוני לפניהם בבית המדרש אמר להם מה אני לבא בקהל,א"ל ר"ג אסור אתה לבא בקהל א"ל ר' יהושע מותר אתה לבא בקהל א"ל ר"ג והלא כבר נאמר (דברים כג, ד) לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה' א"ל ר' יהושע וכי עמון ומואב במקומן הן יושבין כבר עלה סנחריב מלך אשור ובלבל את כל האומות שנאמר (ישעיהו י, יג) ואסיר גבולות עמים ועתידותיהם שוסתי ואוריד כאביר יושבים וכל דפריש מרובא פריש,אמר לו ר"ג והלא כבר נאמר (ירמיהו מט, ו) ואחרי כן אשיב את שבות בני עמון נאם ה' וכבר שבו,אמר לו ר' יהושע והלא כבר נאמר (עמוס ט, יד) ושבתי את שבות עמי ישראל ועדיין לא שבו מיד התירוהו לבא בקהל,אר"ג הואיל והכי הוה איזיל ואפייסיה לר' יהושע כי מטא לביתיה חזינהו לאשיתא דביתיה דמשחרן א"ל מכותלי ביתך אתה ניכר שפחמי אתה א"ל אוי לו לדור שאתה פרנסו שאי אתה יודע בצערן של ת"ח במה הם מתפרנסים ובמה הם נזונים,אמר לו נעניתי לך מחול לי לא אשגח ביה עשה בשביל כבוד אבא פייס,אמרו מאן ניזיל ולימא להו לרבנן אמר להו ההוא כובס אנא אזילנא שלח להו ר' יהושע לבי מדרשא מאן דלביש מדא ילבש מדא ומאן דלא לביש מדא יימר ליה למאן דלביש מדא שלח מדך ואנא אלבשיה אמר להו ר"ע לרבנן טרוקו גלי דלא ליתו עבדי דר"ג ולצערו לרבנן,א"ר יהושע מוטב דאיקום ואיזיל אנא לגבייהו אתא טרף אבבא א"ל מזה בן מזה יזה ושאינו לא מזה ולא בן מזה יאמר למזה בן מזה מימיך מי מערה ואפרך אפר מקלה א"ל ר"ע רבי יהושע נתפייסת כלום עשינו אלא בשביל כבודך למחר אני ואתה נשכים לפתחו,אמרי היכי נעביד נעבריה גמירי מעלין בקדש ואין מורידין נדרוש מר חדא שבתא ומר חדא שבתא אתי לקנאויי אלא לדרוש ר"ג תלתא שבתי וראב"ע חדא שבתא והיינו דאמר מר שבת של מי היתה של ראב"ע היתה ואותו תלמיד ר' שמעון בן יוחאי הוה:,ושל מוספין כל היום: א"ר יוחנן ונקרא פושע,ת"ר היו לפניו שתי תפלות אחת של מנחה ואחת של מוסף מתפלל של מנחה ואח"כ מתפלל של מוסף שזו תדירה וזו אינה תדירה ר' יהודה אומר מתפלל של מוסף ואח"כ מתפלל של מנחה שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת א"ר יוחנן הלכה מתפלל של מנחה ואח"כ מתפלל של מוסף,ר' זירא כי הוה חליש מגירסיה הוה אזיל ויתיב אפתחא דבי ר' נתן בר טובי אמר כי חלפי רבנן אז איקום מקמייהו ואקבל אגרא נפק אתא ר' נתן בר טובי א"ל מאן אמר הלכה בי מדרשא א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אין הלכה כר' יהודה דאמר מתפלל אדם של מוסף ואח"כ מתפלל של מנחה,א"ל רבי יוחנן אמרה אמר ליה אין תנא מיניה ארבעין זמנין א"ל חדא היא לך או חדת היא לך א"ל חדת היא לי משום דמספקא לי בר' יהושע בן לוי:,אריב"ל כל המתפלל תפלה של מוספין לאחר שבע שעות לר' יהודה עליו הכתוב אומר (צפניה ג, יח) נוגי ממועד אספתי ממך היו מאי משמע דהאי נוגי לישנא דתברא הוא כדמתרגם רב יוסף תברא אתי על שנאיהון דבית ישראל על דאחרו זמני מועדיא דבירושלים,א"ר אלעזר כל המתפלל תפלה של שחרית לאחר ארבע שעות לר' יהודה עליו הכתוב אומר נוגי ממועד אספתי ממך היו מאי משמע דהאי נוגי לישנא דצערא הוא דכתיב (תהלים קיט, כח) דלפה נפשי מתוגה רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מהכא (איכה א, ד) בתולותיה נוגות והיא מר לה 28a. There is room for concern. bPerhaps they will remove youfrom office just as they removed Rabban Gamliel. bHe said to her,based on the folk saying: bLet a person use an expensive goblet one day and let it break tomorrow.In other words, one should take advantage of an opportunity that presents itself and he need not concern himself whether or not it will last. bShe said to him: You have no whitehair, and it is inappropriate for one so young to head the Sages. The Gemara relates: bThat day, he was eighteen years old, a miracle transpired for him and eighteen rows of hair turned white.The Gemara comments: bThatexplains bthat which Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am as one who is seventy years old and he did not say: I am seventy years old,because he looked older than he actually was., bIt was taught: On that daythat they removed Rabban Gamliel from his position and appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in his place, there was also a fundamental change in the general approach of the study hall as bthey dismissed the guard at the door and permission was granted to the students to enter.Instead of Rabban Gamliel’s selective approach that asserted that the students must be screened before accepting them into the study hall, the new approach asserted that anyone who seeks to study should be given opportunity to do so. bAs Rabban Gamliel would proclaim and say: Any student whose inside,his thoughts and feelings, bare not like his outside,i.e., his conduct and his character traits are lacking, bwill not enter the study hall. /b,The Gemara relates: bOn that day several benches were addedto the study hall to accommodate the numerous students. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Abba Yosef ben Dostai and the Rabbis disputed thismatter. bOne said: Four hundred benches were addedto the study hall. bAnd one said: Seven hundred benches were addedto the study hall. When he saw the tremendous growth in the number of students, bRabban Gamliel was disheartened. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I prevented Israel fromengaging in bTorahstudy. bThey showed him in his dream white jugs filled with ashesalluding to the fact that the additional students were worthless idlers. The Gemara comments: bThat is notthe case, but bthatdream bwas shown to him to ease his mindso that he would not feel bad., bIt was taught:There is a tradition that tractate iEduyyotwas taught that day. And everywherein the Mishna or in a ibaraita bthat they say: On that day, it isreferring to bthat day. There was no ihalakhawhose ruling was pending in the study hall that they did not explainand arrive at a practical halakhic conclusion. bAnd even Rabban Gamliel did not avoid the study hall for even one moment,as he held no grudge against those who removed him from office and he participated in the halakhic discourse in the study hall as one of the Sages., bAs we learnedin a mishna: bOn that day, Yehuda, the Ammonite convert, came beforethe students in the study hall band he said to them: What is mylegal status in terms of bentering into the congregationof Israel, i.e., to marry a Jewish woman?, bRabban Gamliel said to him: You are forbidden to enter into the congregation. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You are permitted to enter into the congregation. Rabban Gamliel said toRabbi Yehoshua: bWasn’t it already stated: “An Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord;even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord forever” (Deuteronomy 23:4)? How can you permit him to enter the congregation? bRabbi Yehoshua said toRabban Gamliel: bDo Ammon and Moab reside in their place? Sennacherib already came and,through his policy of population transfer, bscrambled all the nationsand settled other nations in place of Ammon. Consequently, the current residents of Ammon and Moab are not ethnic Ammonites and Moabites, bas it is stated inreference to Sennacherib: b“I have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants”(Isaiah 10:13). bAndalthough it is conceivable that this particular convert is an ethnic Ammonite, nevertheless, there is no need for concern due to the halakhic principle: bAnything that partsfrom a group bparts from the majority,and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the congregation., bRabban Gamliel said toRabbi Yehoshua: bBut wasn’t it already stated: “But afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 49:6) band they have already returnedto their land? Therefore, he is an ethnic Ammonite and he may not convert., bRabbi Yehoshua said toRabban Gamliel: That is no proof. bWasn’t it already statedin another prophecy: b“And I will turn the captivity of My people Israeland they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them” (Amos 9:14), band they have not yet returned?In rendering the ruling, only proven facts may be taken into consideration. bThey immediately permitted him to enter the congregation.This proves that Rabban Gamliel did not absent himself from the study hall that day and participated in the halakhic discourse., bRabban Gamliel saidto himself: bSince this isthe situation, that the people are following Rabbi Yehoshua, apparently he was right. Therefore, it would be appropriate for me to bgo and appease Rabbi Yehoshua. When he reachedRabbi Yehoshua’s bhouse, he sawthat bthe walls of his house were black.Rabban Gamliel bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua in wonderment: bFrom the walls of your house it is apparent that you are a blacksmith,as until then he had no idea that Rabbi Yehoshua was forced to engage in that arduous trade in order to make a living. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: Woe unto a generation that you are its leader as you are unaware of the difficulties of Torah scholars, how they make a living and how they feed themselves. /b,Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: I insulted you, forgive me.Rabbi Yehoshua bpaid him no attentionand did not forgive him. He asked him again: bDo it in deference to my father,Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who was one of the leaders of Israel at the time of the destruction of the Temple. bHe was appeased. /b,Now that Rabbi Yehoshua was no longer offended, it was only natural that Rabban Gamliel would be restored to his position. bThey said: Who will go and inform the Sages?Apparently, they were not eager to carry out the mission that would undo the previous actions and remove Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya from his position as iNasi /i. bThis launderer said to them: I will go. Rabbi Yehoshua sent tothe Sages bto the study hall: The one who wears the uniform willcontinue to bwear the uniform,the original iNasiwill remain in his position so that bthe one who did not wear the uniform willnot bsay to the one who wears the uniform, remove your uniform and I will wear it.Apparently, the Sages believed that this emissary was dispatched at the initiative of Rabban Gamliel and they ignored him. bRabbi Akiva said to the Sages: Lock the gates so that Rabban Gamliel’s servants will not come and disturb the Sages. /b,When he heard what happened, bRabbi Yehoshua said: It is best if I go to them. He came and knocked on the door. He said to themwith a slight variation: bOne who sprinklespure water on those who are ritually impure, bson of one who sprinkleswater bshallcontinue bto sprinklewater. And it is inappropriate that he who is bneither one who sprinkles nor son of one who sprinkles will say to one who sprinkles son of one who sprinkles: Your water is cave waterand not the running water required to purify one exposed to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse band your ashes are burnt ashesand not the ashes of a red heifer. bRabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Yehoshua, have you been appeased? Everything we did was todefend byour honor.If you have forgiven him, none of us is opposed. bEarly tomorrow you and I will go toRabban Gamliel’s bdoorwayand offer to restore him to his position as iNasi /i.,The question arose what to do with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya? bThey said: What shall we do? Remove himfrom his position. That is inappropriate as we blearneda ihalakhathrough tradition: One belevatesto a higher level of bsanctity and does not downgrade.Therefore, one who was the iNasiof the Sanhedrin cannot be demoted. bLetone bSage lecture one week andthe other bSage one week, they will come to be jealousone of another, as they will be forced to appoint one as the acting head of the Sanhedrin. bRather, Rabban Gamliel will lecture three weeks and Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryawill lecture as head of the yeshiva bone week.That arrangement was adopted band that isthe explanation of the exchange in tractate iḤagiga /i: bWhose week was it? It was the week of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.One final detail: bThat studentwho asked the original question that sparked this entire incident bwas Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai. /b,We learned in the mishna: bAnd the additional prayermay be recited ball day. Rabbi Yoḥa said:Nevertheless, bonewho postpones his prayer excessively bis called negligent. /b, bThe Rabbis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIfthe obligation to recite btwo prayers was before him, one, the afternoon prayer and one, the additional prayer, he recites the afternoon prayerfirst band the additional prayer thereafter,because bthis,the afternoon prayer, bisrecited on a bfrequentbasis, band this one,the additional prayer, bisrecited on a relatively binfrequentbasis. bRabbi Yehuda says: He recites the additional prayerfirst band the afternoon prayer thereafter,because bthis, the additional prayer, is a mitzvawhose time soon belapses,as it may only be recited until the seventh hour band this, the afternoon prayer, is a mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon belapseas one may recite it until the midpoint of the afternoon. bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakha /iis that bhe recites the afternoon prayerfirst band the additional prayer thereafter,in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.,The Gemara cites additional sources relating to this issue: bWhen Rabbi Zeira would tire of his studies, he would go and sit in the doorway of Rabbi Natan bar Tovi’s study hall. He saidto himself: bWhen theentering and exiting bSages pass, I will rise before them and be rewardedfor the mitzva of honoring Torah scholars. bRabbi Natan bar Tovihimself bemerged and cameto where Rabbi Zeira was seated. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: Whojust bstated a ihalakhain the study hall?Rabbi Natan bar Tovi bsaid to him: Rabbi Yoḥajust bsaid as follows: The ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda who said: He recites the additional prayerfirst band the afternoon prayer thereafter. /b,Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him:Did bRabbi Yoḥahimself bsaythis ihalakha /i? Rabbi Natan bsaid to him: Yes. He learnedthis statement bfrom him forty times,etching it into his memory. Rabbi Natan bsaid to him:Is this ihalakhaso dear to you because bit is singular for you,as it is the only ihalakhathat you learned in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa, bor is it new to you,as you were previously unaware of this ruling? Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him:It bissomewhat bnew to me, as I was uncertainwhether this ihalakhawas said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa or in the name of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.Now it is clear to me that this ihalakhais in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:With regard to banyone who recites the additional prayer after seven hoursof the day, baccording to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: “Those who are destroyed [ inugei /i] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you,they who carried for you the burden of insult” (Zephaniah 3:18). bFrom wheremay it bbe inferred that inugeiis an expression of destruction? As Rav Yosef translatedthe verse into Aramaic: bDestruction comes upon the enemiesof bthe house of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself, bfor they have delayed the times of the Festivals in Jerusalem.This proves both that inugeimeans destruction and that destruction comes upon those who fail to fulfill a mitzva at its appointed time.,Similarly, bRabbi Elazar said: Regarding anyone who recites the morning prayer after four hoursof the day, baccording to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: “Those who are in sorrow [ inugei /i] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you,they who carried for you the burden of insult” (Zephaniah 3:18). bFrom wheremay it bbe inferred that inugeiis an expression of sorrow? As it is written: “My soul drips in sorrow [ ituga /i]”(Psalms 119:28). bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The proof that inugeiindicates suffering is bfrom here: “Her virgins are sorrowed [ inugot /i] and she is embittered”(Lamentations 1:4).
19. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. (דברים ו, ו) והיו בהויתן יהו ורבנן מ"ט אמר קרא (דברים ו, ד) שמע בכל לשון שאתה שומע,ורבי נמי הא כתיב שמע ההוא מיבעי ליה השמע לאזניך מה שאתה מוציא מפיך ורבנן סברי כמאן דאמר הקורא את שמע ולא השמיע לאזנו יצא,ורבנן נמי הכתיב והיו ההוא מיבעי ליה שלא יקרא למפרע ורבי שלא יקרא למפרע מנא ליה מדברים הדברים ורבנן דברים הדברים לא משמע להו,לימא קסבר רבי כל התורה כולה בכל לשון נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בלשון הקודש נאמרה למה לי למכתב והיו,אצטריך סלקא דעתך שמע כרבנן כתב רחמנא והיו,לימא קסברי רבנן כל התורה בלשון הקודש נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בכל לשון נאמרה למה לי למכתב שמע,איצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא והיו כרבי כתב רחמנא שמע,תפלה מנא לן דתניא שמעון הפקולי הסדיר שמונה עשרה ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר רבי יוחנן ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מאה ועשרים זקנים ובהם כמה נביאים תיקנו שמונה עשרה ברכות על הסדר,ת"ר מנין שאומרים אבות שנאמר (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' בני אלים ומנין שאומרים גבורות שנאמר (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' כבוד ועוז ומנין שאומרים קדושות שנאמר (תהלים כט, ב) הבו לה' כבוד שמו השתחוו לה' בהדרת קדש,ומה ראו לומר בינה אחר קדושה שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, כג) והקדישו את קדוש יעקב ואת אלהי ישראל יעריצו וסמיך ליה וידעו תועי רוח בינה ומה ראו לומר תשובה אחר בינה דכתיב (ישעיהו ו, י) ולבבו יבין ושב ורפא לו,אי הכי לימא רפואה בתרה דתשובה לא ס"ד דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, ז) וישוב אל ה' וירחמהו ואל אלהינו כי ירבה לסלוח,ומאי חזית דסמכת אהא סמוך אהא כתב קרא אחרינא (תהלים קג, ג) הסולח לכל עוניכי הרופא לכל תחלואיכי הגואל משחת חייכי למימרא דגאולה ורפואה בתר סליחה היא והכתיב ושב ורפא לו ההוא לאו רפואה דתחלואים היא אלא רפואה דסליחה היא,ומה ראו לומר גאולה בשביעית אמר רבא מתוך שעתידין ליגאל בשביעית לפיכך קבעוה בשביעית והאמר מר בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות במוצאי שביעית בן דוד בא מלחמה נמי אתחלתא דגאולה היא,ומה ראו לומר רפואה בשמינית אמר רבי אחא מתוך שנתנה מילה בשמינית שצריכה רפואה לפיכך קבעוה בשמינית,ומה ראו לומר ברכת השנים בתשיעית אמר רבי אלכסנדרי כנגד מפקיעי שערים דכתיב (תהלים י, טו) שבור זרוע רשע ודוד כי אמרה בתשיעית אמרה,ומה ראו לומר קיבוץ גליות לאחר ברכת השנים דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל כי קרבו לבוא וכיון שנתקבצו גליות נעשה דין ברשעים שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כה) ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סיגיך וכתיב (ישעיהו א, כו) ואשיבה שופטיך כבראשונה,וכיון שנעשה דין מן הרשעים כלו הפושעים וכולל זדים עמהם שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כח) ושבר פושעים וחטאים יחדיו (יכלו),וכיון שכלו הפושעים מתרוממת קרן צדיקים דכתיב (תהלים עה, יא) וכל קרני רשעים אגדע תרוממנה קרנות צדיק וכולל גירי הצדק עם הצדיקים שנאמר (ויקרא יט, לב) מפני שיבה תקום והדרת פני זקן וסמיך ליה וכי יגור אתכם גר,והיכן מתרוממת קרנם בירושלים שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ו) שאלו שלום ירושלם ישליו אוהביך,וכיון שנבנית ירושלים בא דוד שנאמר 17b. b“Andthese words… bshall be”(Deuteronomy 6:6), teaching that these words, the words of the iShema /i, always b“shall be” as they are,i.e., in the Hebrew language. The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Sages, what is the reasonfor their opinion? bThe verse states: “Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4), which could also be translated, “Understand, O Israel,” indicating that you may recite these words bin any language that you hear,i.e., understand.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bas well, isn’t itindeed bwritten, “hear”?What does he learn from this word, if not that the iShemamay be recited in any language? The Gemara answers: bThisword bis necessaryto teach something else: bMake heard to your ears what your mouth is saying,i.e., the iShemamust be recited audibly, not merely thought in one’s heart. The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Sagesknow this? The Gemara explains: They bhold like the one who saidthat if bone recites the iShemabut does not make it audible to his ears, he hasnevertheless bfulfilledhis obligation.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe Sages as well, isn’t itindeed bwritten, “Andthese words bshall be”?What do they learn from this, if not that the iShemamust be recited in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: bThatword bis necessaryto teach bthat one must not recitethe words of the iShema bout of order,but they “shall be” as they are, in the proper order. The Gemara asks: bAnd from where does RabbiYehuda HaNasi learn bthat one must not recitethe iShema bout of order?The Gemara answers: He derives it from the fact that the verse does not say just: bWords,but b“the words,”referring to specific words, which teaches that they must be recited in their proper order without any variation. The Gemara asks: bAndwhat do bthe Sageslearn from the phrase “the words”? The difference between bwordsand b“the words” is inconsequential according to them. /b,The Gemara analyzes the dispute: bShall we say that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bmaintainsthat bthe entire Torah may be recited in any language? As, if it enters your mindto say that the entire Torah bmay be recited only in the sacred tongue,Hebrew, and not in any other language, bwhy do Ineed the Torah bto write “andthese words bshall be”with respect to the iShema /i? Why would I think that the iShemais different from the rest of the Torah?,The Gemara rejects this argument: There is no proof from here, as even if the Torah must generally be recited in Hebrew bit isnevertheless bnecessaryto specify the matter here, since without such specification bit might have entered your mindto say that in this context b“hear”means understand, basmaintained by bthe Sages,and that the iShemamay be recited in any language. Therefore bthe Merciful One writesin the Torah, b“andthese words bshall be,”to teach us that the iShemamay be recited only in the original Hebrew.,The Gemara suggests: bShall we saythen bthat the Sages maintainthat bthe entire Torah must be recitedspecifically bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew? bAs, if it enters your mindto say that the entire Torah bmay be recited in any language, why do Ineed the Torah bto write “hear”with respect to the iShema /i? Why would one think that the iShemais different from the rest of the Torah?,The Gemara rejects this argument: Even if the Torah may generally be recited in any language, bit wasnevertheless bnecessaryto specify the matter here. Without such specification bit could enter your mind to saythat the words b“andthese words bshall be”teach that the iShemamay be recited only in Hebrew, basasserted by bRabbiYehuda HaNasi. Therefore bthe Merciful One writesthe word b“hear”in the Torah, to teach us that the iShemamay be recited in any language.,§ The ibaraitacited previously taught that the ihalakhaagainst reciting a text out of order applies to the iAmida bprayeras well. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bShimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessingsof the iAmidaprayer bbefore Rabban Gamliel in theirfixed border in Yavne,which indicates that there is a specific order to these blessings that must not be changed. bRabbi Yoḥa said, and some say that it was taught in a ibaraita /i: A hundred and twenty Elders,i.e., the Men of the Great Assembly, and bamong them several prophets, establishedthe beighteen blessingsof the iAmida bin theirfixed border,which also shows that the order of these blessings may not be changed.,The Gemara proceeds to explain this order: bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one saysthe blessing of bthe Patriarchs,the first blessing of the iAmida /i? bAs it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, mighty ones”(Psalms 29:1), which means that one should mention before the Lord the mighty ones of the world, i.e., the Patriarchs. bAnd from whereis it derived bthat onethen bsaysthe blessing of bmighty deeds? As it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength”(Psalms 29:1). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat onethen bsaysthe blessing of bholiness? As it is statedin the next verse: b“Give to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness”(Psalms 29:2).,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of bunderstanding afterthe blessing of bholiness? As it is stated: “They shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall revere the God of Israel”(Isaiah 29:23), and adjacent to that verse it is written: b“They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding”(Isaiah 29:24). This shows that it is proper for the theme of understanding to follow the theme of God’s holiness. bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of brepentance afterthe blessing of bunderstanding? As it is written: “And they will understand with their heart, repent, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10-11), showing that the theme of repentance properly follows the theme of understanding.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,that the sequence of blessings is based on this verse, bletus bsaythat btheblessing of bhealing should be said afterthe blessing of brepentance.Why, then, is the next blessing in the iAmidathe blessing of forgiveness and not the blessing of healing? The Gemara explains: bThis cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And let him return to the Lord, and He will have compassion upon him; and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon”(Isaiah 55:7), which shows that the theme of repentance should be followed by that of forgiveness.,The Gemara poses a question: bBut what did you see to rely on thisverse? bRely on the otherverse, which juxtaposes repentance to healing. The Gemara answers: bAnother verse,in which it is bwritten: “Who forgives all your iniquities, Who heals all your diseases, Who redeems your life from the pit”(Psalms 103:3–4), proves that the theme of healing should follow that of forgiveness. The Gemara asks: bIs thatverse coming bto say thatthe blessings of bredemption and healingshould be placed following the blessing of bforgiveness? But isn’t it written: “Repent, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10), which suggests that repentance should be followed by healing? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring bnotto btheliteral bhealing from illness, but ratherto bthefigurative bhealing of forgiveness,and therefore this verse too supports the sequence of forgiveness following repentance.,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of bredemption as the seventhblessing? bRava said: Sincethere is a tradition that the Jewish people are bdestined to be redeemed in the seventhyear of the Sabbatical cycle, bconsequently, they fixedredemption bas the seventhblessing. bBut didn’t the Master sayin a ibaraita /i: bIn the sixthyear of the Sabbatical cycle in the days of the arrival of the Messiah, heavenly bsoundswill be heard; bin the seventhyear there will be bwars; and upon the conclusion of the seventhyear, in the eighth year, bthe son of David,the Messiah, bwill come?The redemption will take place not during the seventh year but after it. The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the bwarthat takes place during the seventh year bis also the beginning of the redemptionprocess, and it is therefore correct to say that Israel will be redeemed in the seventh year.,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing of bhealing as the eighthblessing? bRabbi Aḥa said: Since circumcision was assigned to the eighthday of life, and circumcision brequires healing, consequently, they establishedhealing bas the eighthblessing., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the blessing ofbountiful byears as the ninthblessing? bRabbi Alexandri said:This blessing was instituted bin reference to those who raise the pricesof food. We pray for rain so that the price of produce will not rise as a result of shortages, bas it is written: “Break the arm of the wicked”(Psalms 10:15), referring to the wicked, who practice deception and extort the poor. bAnd when David expressed thisrequest, bhe expressed it in the ninthpsalm. Although today it is considered the tenth psalm, the first and second psalms are actually counted as one, and therefore this is the ninth psalm. Therefore, the blessing of the years was fixed as the ninth blessing.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing of bthe ingathering ofthe bexiles after the blessing of the years? As it is written: “And you, O mountains of Israel, you shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people Israel; for they will soon be coming”(Ezekiel 36:8), which indicates that the ingathering of the exiles will follow after Eretz Yisrael is blessed with bountiful produce. bAnd once the exiles have been gathered, judgment will be meted out to the wicked, as it is stated: “And I will turn my hand against you and purge away your dross as with lye”(Isaiah 1:25), bandimmediately after bit is written: “And I will restore your judges as at first”(Isaiah 1:26). For this reason the blessing of the restoration of judges comes after the blessing of the ingathering of the exiles., bAnd once judgment is meted out to the wicked, the transgressors,i.e., the heretics and sectarians, bwill cease to be.Consequently, the next blessing is that of the heretics, band one includes evildoers with them, as it is stated: “And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together,and they that forsake the Lord bshall cease to be”(Isaiah 1:28). The “transgressors and sinners” are the evildoers, and “they that forsake the Lord” are the heretics., bAnd once the heretics cease to be, the horn,i.e., the glory, bof the righteous will be exalted, as it is written: “All the horns of the wicked will I cut off; but the horns of the righteous shall be exalted”(Psalms 75:11). Therefore, after the blessing of the heretics, one says the blessing about the righteous. bAnd he includes the righteous converts along with the righteous, as it is stated: “You shall rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the elder”(Leviticus 19:32), band adjacent to thisit is stated: b“And if a stranger sojourns with you”(Leviticus 19:33). An “elder” is one with Torah wisdom and a “stranger” is one who has converted to Judaism., bAnd where will the hornsof the righteous bbe exalted? In Jerusalem, as it is stated: “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem; they who love you shall prosper”(Psalms 122:6). “They who love you” are the righteous. Therefore, the blessing of the rebuilding of Jerusalem is placed after the blessing of the righteous., bAnd once Jerusalem is rebuilt,the Messiah, scion of the house of bDavid, will come, as it is stated: /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70a. ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו,וגולל ספר תורה וכו' וכל כך למה כדי שלא להוציא לעז על ספר תורה,ובעשור של חומש הפקודים קורא על פה אמאי נגלול וניקרי אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אמר רב ששת לפי שאין גוללין ספר תורה בציבור מפני כבוד ציבור,ונייתי אחרינא ונקרי רב הונא בר יהודה אמר משום פגמו של ראשון וריש לקיש אמר משום ברכה שאינה צריכה,ומי חיישינן לפגמא והאמר ר' יצחק נפחא ראש חודש טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביאין שלש תורות וקורין אחת בענינו של יום ואחת של ראש חודש (טבת) ואחת של חנוכה,תלתא גברי בתלתא ספרי ליכא פגמא חד גברא בתרי ספרי איכא פגמא,ומברך עליה שמונה ברכות ת"ר על התורה כדרך שמברכים בבית הכנסת על העבודה ועל ההודאה ועל מחילת העון כתיקנה ועל המקדש בפני עצמו ועל הכהנים בפני עצמן ועל ישראל בפני עצמן ועל שאר תפלה,ת"ר ושאר התפלה רנה תחינה בקשה מלפניך על עמך ישראל שצריכין להושע וחותם בשומע תפלה ואח"כ כל אחד ואחד מביא ספר תורה מביתו וקורא בו כדי להראות חזותו לרבים,הרואה כהן גדול כו' לא מפני שאינו רשאי פשיטא מהו דתימא כדריש לקיש דאמר ריש לקיש אין מעבירין על המצות,ומאי מצוה (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך קמ"ל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אם בבגדי בוץ קורא קדש ידיו ורגליו פשט ירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג והביאו לו בגדי זהב ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו ויצא,ועשה את אילו ואת איל העם ואת שבעת כבשים תמימים בני שנה דברי ר' אליעזר רבי עקיבא אומר עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין ופר העולה ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ היו קרבין עם תמיד של בין הערבים,קדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט וירד וטבל ועלה ונסתפג,הביאו לו בגדי לבן ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו נכנס להוציא את הכף ואת המחתה קדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט וירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג,הביאו לו בגדי זהב ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו ונכנס להקטיר קטורת של בין הערבים ולהטיב את הנרות וקדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט (וירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג),הביאו לו בגדי עצמו ולבש ומלוין אותו עד ביתו ויום טוב היה עושה לאוהביו בשעה שיצא בשלום מן הקודש, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איבעיא להו היכי קאמר עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין ופר העולה ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים,או דילמא הכי קאמר עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין ופר העולה בהדייהו ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים,ותו פר העולה לרבי אליעזר דשייריה אימת עביד ליה,ותו בין לרבי אליעזר בין לרבי עקיבא אימורי חטאת אימת עביד להו,אמר רבא לא משכחת לה מתקנתא אלא או לרבי אליעזר דתנא בדבי שמואל או לרבי עקיבא כדתוספתא,דתנא דבי שמואל רבי אליעזר אומר יצא ועשה אילו ואיל העם ואימורי חטאת אבל פר העולה ושבעת כבשים ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים,רבי עקיבא דתוספתא מאי היא דתניא רבי עקיבא אומר פר העולה ושבעת כבשים עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין שנאמר (במדבר כח, כג) מלבד עולת הבקר אשר לעולת התמיד ואחר כך עבודת היום 70a. All this is bprovided that he does not skip from the end of the book to its beginning,since then it would be clear to everyone that he is skipping text.,§ It was taught in the mishna: The High Priest bfurls the Torah scrolland places it on his bosom and says: More than what I have read before you is written here. The Gemara comments: bAnd whymust he say ball this?It is bso as not to cast aspersions on the Torah scroll,because people might think that the portion he read by heart is not written there.,§ It was further taught in the mishna: The Torah portion beginning with the verse: b“And on the tenth,” from the book of Numbers(29:7), bhe reads by heart.The Gemara asks: bWhydoes he read it by heart? bLet him furlthe scroll to that portion band read itfrom the text. bRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, saidthat bRav Sheshet said:It is bbecause one may not furl a Torah scroll in public, out of respect for the community.It is inappropriate to make the community wait until they have reached the next section.,But why not blet anotherTorah scroll bbe broughtthat has previously been furled to that portion band readfrom it? bRav Huna bar Yehuda said:People might mistakenly think the second scroll was brought bdue to a flawthat was found bin the firstone. bAnd Reish Lakish saida different reason: A second scroll should not be brought bdue tothe fact that doing do will cause an bunnecessary blessingto be recited; before reading from a new scroll the High Priest would have to repeat the blessings required upon reading from the Torah. Therefore, it is preferable that he read by heart.,The Gemara questions Rav Huna bar Yehuda’s answer: bAre wereally bconcernedthat people will think the first scroll had ba flaw? Didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa say:When bthe New Moon of Tevet,which always occurs during Hanukkah, boccurs on Shabbat, one bringsand reads from bthree Torahscrolls. bOne readsfrom bonescroll bthe topic of the day,i.e., the weekly portion; bandfrom bonescroll the portion bof the New Moon; andfrom bonescroll a passage related to Hanukkah. It is apparent from the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa that many Torah scrolls may be used, and there is no concern that people will mistakenly think one or more had a flaw.,The Gemara explains: When bthree menread bfrom three scrolls there is noconcern that people will think there was ba flaw,since people assume that it is befitting for each individual to receive his own scroll. But when bone manreads bfrom two scrolls, there isa concern that people will think there is ba flaw,and they will not realize that this was done only to avoid forcing the community to wait while the scroll was furled.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAndthe High Priest brecites eight blessingsafter the reading. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat these are the eight blessings: brThe blessing bconcerning the Torahis recited bin theusual bway one recites a blessing in the synagogue:Who gives the Torah; brThe three blessings: bconcerning theTemple bservice, concerning thanksgiving, and concerning pardon of iniquity,are all recited baccording to their established formsin the prayers; brThe blessing bconcerning the Temple in and of itself; brThe blessing bconcerning the priests in and of themselves; brThe blessing bconcerning the Jewish people in and of itself; brThe blessing bconcerning the rest of the prayer. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: bAndthe blessing bconcerning the rest of the prayerreads: bSong, supplication, petition before You for Your people Israel, who need to be saved. And headds an additional supplication and bconcludesthe blessing bwith: The One Who hears prayer. And afterthe High Priest concludes his reading, beach and everyperson present bbrings a Torah scroll from his house,although in fact each person had already brought one on Yom Kippur eve, band reads from itfor himself bin order to show itsbeautiful bappearance to the community.This is considered beautification of the mitzva.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne who sees the High Priestreading the Torah does not see the bull and goat that are burned, and vice versa. This is bnot because one is not permittedto see both but because there is a distance between them and they are performed simultaneously. The Gemara comments: It is bobviousthat this is not due to a prohibition; what possible reason could there be to prohibit this? The Gemara answers: This was taught explicitly blest you say thatit is prohibited bin accordance withthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: One does not pass overthe opportunity to perform bmitzvot,even if it is in order to perform a different mitzva.,The Gemara clarifies why this principle might have applied here. bAnd what mitzvais there in hearing the reading of the High Priest? It is a fulfillment of the principle expressed in the verse: b“The king’s glory is in the multitude of people”(Proverbs 14:28). Having a large assembly involved in a mitzva gives honor to God. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat the problem with seeing both events was only a practical one., strongMISHNA: /strong bIfthe High Priest breadthe Torah binsacred white bfine linen garments, hethen bsanctified his hands and feetas he did each time before removing the priestly vestments. He then bremovedthe linen garments, bdescendedto the ritual bath, band immersed.Afterward he bascended and dried himselfwith a towel, band they brought himthe bgolden garmentsof the High Priesthood, band he dressedin them band sanctified his hands and feet. /b,The mishna addresses those offerings whose sacrifice has still not been mentioned. The verses in Leviticus, chapter 16, detail the special offerings of the atonement service of Yom Kippur. of those offerings, the ram of the High Priest and the ram of the people have still not been addressed. In addition to this, the additional offerings of Yom Kippur detailed in Numbers, chapter 29, have not yet been discussed. These include seven one-year-old lambs and a bull to be brought as a burnt-offering and a goat to be brought as a sin-offering. The mishna continues: bHe emerged and offered his ram and the ram of the people and the seven unblemished year-old lambsmandated to be offered that day. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Akiva says:Those offerings were not sacrificed at this point; brather,they were sacrificed bwith the daily morning offering; and the bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering; and the goat whoseservices bare performed outsideof the Sanctuary, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, bwere sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering. /b,After sacrificing these offerings, bhe sanctified his hands and feet and removedthe golden garments, band he descendedinto the ritual bath band immersed and ascended and dried himself. /b, bThey brought him the white garmentsagain, band he dressedin them band sanctified his hands and feet.Afterward bhe enteredthe Holy of Holies bto take out theincense bspoon and the coal pan,which he had brought there earlier. bHeagain bsanctified his hands and feet and removedthe white garments band descendedto the ritual bath band immersed and ascended and dried himselfwith a towel., bThey brought himthe bgolden garments, and he dressedin them band sanctified his hands and feet and enteredthe Sanctuary bto burn the afternoon incense and to removethe ashes from bthe lamps,which signified the end of the day’s service. bAnd he sanctified his hands and feet and removedthe golden garments, band he descendedto the ritual bath band immersed and ascended and dried himself. /b, bTheythen bbrought him his own clothing and he dressed,since the service was complete and Yom Kippur was over; and the people bescort him to his housein deference to him. bAndthe High Priest bwould make a feast for his loved onesand his friends bwhen he emerged in peace from the Sanctuary. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Akiva said the seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering; and the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering; and the goat whose services are performed outside of the Sanctuary, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, with the daily afternoon offering. It is unclear whether the middle clause concerning the bull should be read as a continuation of the first clause, or as relating to the latter clause. The Gemara seeks to clarify this ambiguity. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isRabbi Akiva bsaying?Does he mean to say the seven lambs bwere sacrificed with the daily morning offering,whereas bthe bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering and the goat whoseservices bare performed outside were sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering? /b, bOr perhaps this is what he is saying:The seven lambs bwere sacrificed with the daily morning offeringand bthe bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering together with them,whereas bthe goat whoseservices bare performed outside,i.e., in the Temple courtyard, was sacrificed bwith the daily afternoon offering. /b, bAnd furthermore,another dilemma: With regard to bthe bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering,according bto Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion: Since bhe omittedmention of bit,it must be clarified bwhenthe High Priest bperformsits sacrifice. Is it sacrificed at this point in the day, or at another time?, bAnd furthermore,another dilemma: According to bboth Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion bandaccording to bRabbi Akiva’sopinion, since neither of them mentioned the bportions of the sin-offeringto be consumed on the altar, it must be clarified bwhenthe High Priest bperforms theirservice and places them on the altar., bRava said: You will only find it properlyexplained either according btothe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer as taught by the schoolof bShmuel, oraccording btothe opinion of bRabbi Akiva astaught bin the iTosefta /i. /b, bThe school of Shmuel taughtthat bRabbi Eliezer says: He came out and offered his ram and the ram of the people and the portions of the sin-offeringto be consumed on the altar. bBut the bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering and the seven lambs and the goat whoseservices bare performed outsidewere sacrificed bwith the daily afternoon offering. /b, bWhat is Rabbi Akiva’sopinion as taught in the iTosefta /i? As it was taughtthat bRabbi Akiva says: The bullof the Yom Kippur bburnt-offering and the seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering, as it is statedwith regard to the additional offerings of other Festivals: b“Besides the morning burnt-offering which is the daily burnt-offeringyou shall sacrifice these” (Numbers 28:23), indicating that the additional offerings of the day should be sacrificed together with the daily offering. bAnd afterward the service of the day,which is unique to Yom Kippur, is performed.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
atonement, day of Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
birkat ha-minim Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
community prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
elazar, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
herr, shmuel Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
immersion Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 157
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118; Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
judge, appellation for god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
kaddish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
lod Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
lords prayer Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
manuscript corrections, interpolations and revisions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
minut, wrong belief Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
prayer Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 157; Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
priestly blessing Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
private prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
rabbi elazar ben dama Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
rabbi eliezer Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
repentence Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
ritual Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 157
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
seminal emission Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 157
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
shimon ha-pekoli Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
shmoneh esreh (eighteen benedictions) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
short prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
slaves, food allowance Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
tefillah, structure' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 567
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270
torah, reading Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 157
yavne Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
yehuda ha-nasi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
yohanan ben zakkai, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 528
yoke of heaven Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 203
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 270, 528