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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10927
Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4-8.6
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24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.15-2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.6, 19.19, 19.23-19.25, 22.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.6. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 22.32. וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 18.6. None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness. I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 22.32. And ye shall not profane My holy name; but I will be hallowed among the children of Israel: I am the LORD who hallow you,"
3. Anon., 1 Enoch, 7.1, 8.3, 9.6-9.10, 10.11, 12.4, 15.3-15.7, 16.3, 19.1, 27.2, 85.4, 89.32-89.33, 89.51-89.52, 89.54, 93.4, 93.6, 98.11, 99.2, 99.6-99.9, 106.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10.11. that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselve 12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children 15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die 15.5. and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget 15.6. children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly 15.7. piritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. 16.3. to them): 'You have been in heaven, but all the mysteries had not yet been revealed to you, and you knew worthless ones, and these in the hardness of your hearts you have made known to the women, and through these mysteries women and men work much evil on earth. 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 27.2. accursed valley between' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: 'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here 85.4. the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon 89.32. them]: ' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 89.33. from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 89.51. And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep 89.52. but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish.
4. Anon., Jubilees, 7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west.
5. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. There is one who is [counted as] a firstborn [with respect to] inheritance but not with respect to redemption from a priest; a firstborn with respect to redemption from a priest but not a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance; a firstborn [with respect to both] inheritance and redemption from a priest; and a firstborn [in respect] to neither inheritance nor redemption from a priest. Which is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance but not to redemption from a priest? One which follows one which was not viable whose head came forth alive, or one born in the ninth month whose head came out dead, or when a woman aborts something that looks like an animal, beast or bird, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: [it is not considered an opening of the womb] until [the abortion] has the form of a human being. If [a woman] aborts a sandal or a placenta or a fetus having an articulated shape, or if an embryo came out by pieces, [the infant] which follows after them is a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. If one who never had children married a woman who had already given birth, even if she had given birth when she was a slave but is now free, or [had given birth] when she was a non-Jew but has since converted, if after coming to the Israelite she gave birth, [the infant] is considered a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [the infant] is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance and for redemption from a priest, as it says: “Whatever opens the womb in Israel” (Exodus 13:2), meaning only if it opens the womb in Israel. If one had children already and married a woman who had never given birth previously Or if she converted when pregt, or if she was freed when pregt, and she gave birth; If she and a priestess gave birth, she and a Levite’s daughter, she and a woman who had already given birth; And similarly [if a woman] who did not wait three months after her husband's death, married and gave birth and it is not known if the infant was born in the ninth month since the death of the first [husband] or in the seventh month since she married the second, it is a firstborn for redemption from a priest but not a first-born [with respect] to inheritance. Which is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest? If [a woman] miscarries a sac full of blood or full of water or full of pieces of flesh; or if [a woman] miscarries something with the shape of fish or locusts or reptiles, or creeping things, or if she discharges on the fortieth day [of conception], [the infant] which follows after [these discharges] is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest."
6. Mishnah, Orlah, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.9. Doubtful orlah: in the land of Israel is prohibited, in Syria is permitted, and outside the land one may go down and purchase [from a non-Israelite] as long as he has not seen him gathering it. A vineyard planted with vegetables [which are kilayim], and they [the vegetables] are sold outside of it: in the land of Israel these are prohibited, and in Syria they are permitted; outside the land one may go down and purchase them as long as he does not gather [them] with [one’s own] hand. New [produce] is prohibited by the Torah in all places. And orlah is a halachah. And kilayim are an enactment of the scribes."
7. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.2, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. If one litigant said to the other, “I accept my father as trustworthy”, or “I accept your father as trustworthy”, or “I accept three herdsman as trustworthy”, Rabbi Meir says, “He may retract.” But the Sages say, “He cannot retract.” If one must take an oath before his fellow, and his fellow said to him, “Vow to me by the life of your head”, Rabbi Meir says, “He may retract.” But the Sages say, “He cannot retract.”" 7.1. Four deaths have been entrusted to the court: stoning, burning, slaying [by the sword] and strangulation. R. Simeon says: “burning, stoning, strangulation and slaying.” That (the previous chapter) is the manner of stoning."
8. Mishnah, Taanit, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25)."
9. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 3.3, 3.12, 4.6, 4.10, 5.2, 8.5-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.13, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.13. “A man who had a seminal emission (Baal Keri) who does not have water to dip in may read the Shema, but he may not [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and does not say the Beracha (blessing) not before it and not after it.” [These are] the words of Rebbi Meir. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, ”He may read the Shema and he may [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and he says the Beracha [both] before it and after it.” Rebbi Meir said, “One time we were sitting in the Bet Midrash (Study Hall) in front of Rebbi Akiva and we were reading the Shema, but we were not saying it loud enough to be able to hear ourselves, because of one inquisitor who was standing by the door.” They (i.e. Chachamim) said [back] to him, “The time of danger is not a proof.”" 6.18. [A person] who circumcises converts [to Judaism for their conversion] says [the following Beracha (blessing): Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu {Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of converts] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu} Lamul Et Hagerim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise converts and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet). [A person] who circumcises slaves [when they get bought by a Jew] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu] Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of slaves] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lamol Et Haavadim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise slaves and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet)."
11. Tosefta, Gittin, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
13. Tosefta, Qiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
14. Tosefta, Yevamot, 14.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Terumot, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tosefta, Shekalim, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 16.5-16.6, 18.5, 34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16.5. וַיִּקַּח ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וגו' (בראשית ב, טו), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עִלָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יד, ב): וּלְקָחוּם עַמִּים וֶהֱבִיאוּם וגו'. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר פִּתָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (הושע יד, ג): קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל ה' וגו'. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר הִנִּיחַ לוֹ וְהֵגֵן עָלָיו וְעִדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר לְהַנִּיחוֹ וּלְהָגֵן עָלָיו וּלְעַדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, נָתַן לוֹ מִצְוַת שַׁבָּת, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, יא): וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי. לְעָבְדָהּ, (שמות כ, ט): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד. וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, (דברים ה, יב): שָׁמוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ג, יב): תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים, וּכְתִיב (במדבר כח, ב): תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ. 16.6. וַיְצַו ה' אֱלֹהִים עַל הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל (בראשית ב, טז), רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר צִוָּהוּ עַל שֵׁשׁ מִצְווֹת, וַיְצַו, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (הושע ה, יא): כִּי הוֹאִיל הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי צָו. ה', עַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ויקרא כד, טז): וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם ה'. אֱלֹהִים, אֵלּוּ הַדַּיָּנִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב, כז): אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל. עַל הָאָדָם, זוֹ שְׁפִיכַת דָּמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, ו): שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם. לֵאמֹר, זֶה גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, א): לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וגו'. מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל, צִוָּהוּ עַל הַגָּזֵל. רַבָּנָן פָּתְרִין לֵיהּ כָּל עִנְיָנָא, וַיְצַו ה' אֱלֹהִים, רַחֲמָן אֲנִי וְדַיָּן אֲנִי לְהִפָּרַע. אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לוֹ אֱלֹהִים אֲנִי, נְהֹג בִּי כֵּאלוֹהַּ, שֶׁלֹא תְקַלְּלֵנִי, כְּמָה דִכְתִיב: אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל. גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת מִנַּיִן (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכָר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל, אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין מָתַי יִתְכַּשֵּׁר לַאֲכִילָה מִשֶּׁתִּשָּׁחֵט, רָמַז לוֹ עַל אֵבָר מִן הַחַי. מוֹת תָּמוּת, מִיתָה לְאָדָם, מִיתָה לְחַוָּה, מִיתָה לוֹ, מִיתָה לְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו. 18.5. עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ (בראשית ב, כד), תַּנְיָא גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּיר וְהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַאֲחוֹתוֹ בֵּין מִן הָאָב בֵּין מִן הָאֵם, יוֹצִיא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים מִן הָאֵם יוֹצִיא מִן הָאָב יְקַיֵּם, שֶׁאֵין אָב לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית כ, יב): וְגַם אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא וגו', אָמַר לָהֶן בְּשִׁיטָתָן הֵשִׁיבָן. אֲתֵיב לְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִמּוֹ. אֲתֵיב רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְהָכְתִיב (שמות ו, כ): וַיִּקַּח עַמְרָם אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד דֹּדָתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵעַתָּה אֲפִלּוּ כִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִים קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ וגו', הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בְּנֵי נֹחַ עַל הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת חַיָּבִין וְעַל הָאֲרוּסוֹת פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר זוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בַּשּׁוּק וּבָאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בְּעוּלַת בַּעַל, וְכִי נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִקְנוֹתָהּ בִּבְעִילָה, הָדָא אֲמַר בְּעִילָה בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ קוֹנֶה שֶׁלֹא כַּדָּת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מְגָרְשִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִשְׁתּוֹ מְגָרַשְׁתּוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ דּוֹפוֹרוֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁגֵּרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם וְנִתְגַיְּרוּ, אֵינִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (דברים כד, ד): לֹא יוּכַל בַּעֲלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שִׁלְחָהּ וגו', רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר בְּכָל סֵפֶר מַלְאָכִי כְּתִיב ה' צְבָאוֹת, וּבְכָאן כְּתִיב אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, טז): כִּי שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּבְיָכוֹל לֹא יָחוּל שְׁמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה, נִתְפַּחֲמוּ פְּנֵי הַנָּשִׁים מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָן וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים עֲמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבוֹכוֹת, הוּא שֶׁמַּלְאָכִי אוֹמֵר (מלאכי ב, יג): וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ, שְׁנִיָּה לְשִׁטִּים. (מלאכי ב, יג): כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת מִזְבַּח ה' בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאן קַבֵּל מֵהֶם, בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, מִשֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָטַלְתָּ יָפְיָהּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַתָּה מְשַׁלְּחָהּ, אֶתְמְהָא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרִין עַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמְרוּ בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי כָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא בַּעֲשֵׂה, וְלֹא בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אֶלָּא בְּמִיתָה, וְהֵיאַךְ עֲבִידָא (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים בָּשָׂר אֶחָד. 34.8. וְכָל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ וגו' (בראשית ח, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן הַוְצֵא כְּתִיב הַיְצֵא קְרִי. וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. וּפָרוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. (בראשית ח, יט): כָּל הַחַיָּה [ו] כָל הָרֶמֶשׂ וגו', כֹּל רוֹמֵשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ רוֹמֵשׂ מָלֵא פְּרַט לְכִלְאָיִם. לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם, פְּרַט לְסִירוּס. עַל שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, וְעַל הַדִּין, וְעַל הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל אֵבָר מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַדָּם מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכְּשָׁפִים. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַסֵּרוּס. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי עַל כָּל הָאָמוּר בַּפָּרָשָׁה נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ (דברים יח, י): לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (דברים יח, יב): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' כָּל עוֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה. 18.5. \"Therefore a man will abandon.\" It was taught: a convert that converted and was married to his sister, whether from the mother or the father - it is acceptable, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: from the mother it is acceptable, from the father, it must be established that he does not worship idols. A refutation arose: does it not say: \"And moreover, she is my sister, the daughter of my father...\" (Genesis 20:12)! He said to them: reply to them by their own reasoning. Rabbi Meir refuted: \"Therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" (Genesis 2:24). Rabbi Yocha said: they explained this verse \"therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" the one who supports his father, the one who supports his mother. Rabbi Abahu refuted: does it not say: \"And Amram took Yocheved his cousin\" (Exodus 6:20)! Rabbi Shimon the son of Rabbi Abahu said: from here would we learn that at the time of the children of Noah, Israel acted differently, before the giving of the Torah!? Rabbi Levi said: we explain the verse \"therefore a man will abandon...\" the one who is supported by his father, or by his mother. Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: the children of Noah, in matters of marriage are obligated, in matters of engagement are not. Rabbi Yonah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel said: if a whore is in the marketplace, and two men come to her, the first is exempt and the second is liable, because he was sleeping with a married woman. Did the first one intend to acquire her [as a wife]?! It is said: intercourse at the time of the children of Noah acquires, even not in the way of [later] Judaism. And how do we know that they did not divorce? Rabbi Yehuda in the name of Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Chanin in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: they did not divorce, or they both divorced each other. Rabbi Yocha said: his wife divorced him and gave him a bill of divorce. Rabbi Hiyya taught: an idol-worshipper that divorced his wife, and she went and married someone else, and then they both went and converted to Judaism, I do not apply to them the verse \"The first husband that sent her away cannot...\" (Deuteronomy 24:4). Rabbi Aha in the name of Rabbi Hanina bar Pappa said: in the whole book of Malachi it is written 'Hashem, Lord of Hosts' but here it is written 'the God of Israel' as it says: \"For I hate sending away, said Hashem, God of Israel\" (Malachi 2:16) - as if to say, God's name only rests on Israel. Rabbi Haggai said: When Israel was exiled, the women's faces were blackened from the sun, and they were left and the men went and married Amonite women. They went and circled the altar, crying, as Malachi says: \"And this do a second time\" (Malachi 2:13) - a second time in relation to Shittim. \"Cover with tears the altar of Hashem with wailing and sighing\" (ibid.), the Holy One Blessed be He said: who will accept these tears and wailing, since you stole and did violence to and took it's beauty from her, now you will send her away? And how do we know that they were fastidious about sexual impropriety like Israel? As it says: \"And he cleaved to his wife\" (Genesis 2:24) and not the wife of his friend, or another man, or an animal. Rabbi Shmuel and Rabbi Abahu and Rabbi Eleazar in the name of Rabbi Hanina said: a child of Noah who comes to his wife unnaturally is liable for the death penalty. Rabbi Assi said: every crime written about the children of Noah is not judged on the metric of positive and negative commandments; rather, they all require the death penalty. How do we know this? \"And he cleaved to his wife and they became as one flesh\" (ibid.)." 34.8. Bring forth (hayetze) with you every living thing that is with you…that they may swarm in the earth (Gen. 8:18). R. Yudan said: havtze is written, but it is read hayetze: that they may swarm in the earth - but not in the Ark. And be fruitful and multiply upon the earth - but not in the Ark. 'Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moves (kol romes) upon the earth (Gen 8:19). R. Aivu said: Kol romes is written fully [with a vav] - it excludes kilayim [mixing species]. After their families: this excludes emasculation. The children of Noah were enjoined concerning seven tings: Idolatry, incest, murder, cursing the Divine Name [blasphemy], civil law, and a limb torn from a living animal. Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel says: also concerning blood from a living animal. Rabbi Eleazar says: also against mixing species. Rabbi Shime'on ben Yochai says: also against witchcraft. Rabbi Yocha ben Beroka says: also against emasculation. Rabbi Assi said: The children of Noah were ordered regarding everything stated in the sentence: 'There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, etc.' (Deut. 18:10) and afterwards 'because it is an abomination for Ad-nai all that do this.' (Deut. 18:12)"
19. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. bOn every dayof a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges bjudge the witnesses,i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use ban appellationfor the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: bLet Yosei smite Yosei,as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When bthe judgment is over,and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, bthey do not sentencehim bto death based onthe testimony of the witnesses in which they used ban appellationfor the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. bRather, they remove allthe bpeoplewho are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges binterrogate the eldest ofthe witnesses, band say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he saysexactly what he heard. bAnd the judges stand on their feet and make a tearin their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. bAnd they do notever fully bstitchit back together again., bAnd the secondwitness bsays: I tooheard bas hedid, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. bAnd the thirdwitness, in the event that there is one, bsays: I tooheard bas hedid. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strongGEMARA: /strong The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: A blasphemer is not liable bunless he blesses,a euphemism for curses, the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matterderived? bShmuel says:It is derived from that bwhich the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ ivenokev /i] the nameof the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, bwhen he blasphemes [ ibenokvo /i] the name, he shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis it derived bthat thisword inokevis a term for blessing,i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b“How shall I curse [ iekkov /i] whom God has not cursed?”(Numbers 23:8). bAndthe bprohibitionagainst cursing God is derived bfrom here: “You shall not curse God”(Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: bBut saythat perhaps the meaning of inokev bisnot cursing, but rather bmaking a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ ivayyikkov /i] in its lid”(II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word inokevis referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. bAndthe bprohibitionagainst doing so is derived bfrom here: “And you shall destroy their nameout of that place. bYou shall not do so to the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of inokevthat for one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: bBut say thatsuch a transgression is possible, as one can bplace twowritten bnamesof God, bone on top of the other, and tearthrough bthemat once. The Gemara explains: bThatwould be defined as bmaking a hole and again making a hole,not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: bBut say thatone can betchthe bnameof God bon the point of a knife and cutthrough another name bwith it.The Gemara answers: In bthatcase, bit is the point of the knife that is cutting,not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bSaythat inokevmeans the butterance of theineffable bname ofGod. bAs it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ inikkevu /i] by name”(Numbers 1:17). bAndthe bprohibitionto do so is derived bfrom here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: bOneanswer is bthatfor one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. bFurthermore,the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” bis a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva, and a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that inokevis referring to cursing: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe verse states: “Andthe son of the Israelite woman bblasphemed [ ivayyikkov /i]the name band cursed”(Leviticus 24:11). bThat is to say thatthe meaning of inokevisto bcurse. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthis verse does not prove that the meaning of inokevis to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed bunless he does both,i.e., both inokevand cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /band stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), band it is not written: Bring forth the inokevand one who cursed. Conclude from itthat bit is oneact and not two.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]who curses his God. bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone [ iish ish /i]”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God, just blike Jewsare. bAnd they are executedfor this transgression bby the sword alone, as all deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is this ihalakha bderived from here?Rather, bit is derived from there:“And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a ibaraitathat will soon be quoted at length: b“The Lord,” thisis referring to bthe blessing,i.e., cursing, bof the nameof God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., bRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:The verse “anyone who curses his God” bis necessary only to includegentiles who curse God using bthe appellationsfor the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, bsince it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the nameof the Lord bshall be put to death,”one bmighthave thought that one bwill be liable only forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God. bFrom whereis it derived that the verse bincludesone who curses bany of the appellationsas well? bThe verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,”to indicate that one is liable to be executed bin any case.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God, one is punished bby death, and forcursing bthe appellations,one is liable to receive lashes bforviolating ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God byone of the bappellations is liableto be executed even baccording tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bWhat is the reason?It is bbecause the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn,when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that bit isonly in the case of ba convert or a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition: b“When he blasphemes the name,”i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. bBut a gentileis liable to be executed beven due tomerely cursing ban appellation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Meir do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn”?What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that ba convert or a homebornJew is liable to be executed bby stoningfor this transgression, bbut a gentileis executed bby the sword.This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsincegentiles bare includedin the ihalakhotof this verse, bthey are includedin all the ihalakhotof blasphemy. Therefore the verse bteaches usthat they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn,” according tothe opinion bof the Rabbis,since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that bit isspecifically with regard to ba convert and a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition that he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God; bbutwith regard to ba gentile, we do not requirethat he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the inclusive term b“anyonewho curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No ihalakhais derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,§ Since the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe descendants of Noah,i.e., all of humanity, bwere commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The mitzva of establishing courts of bjudgment; andthe prohibition against bblessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God; and the prohibition of bidol worship;and the prohibition against bforbidden sexual relations; andthe prohibition of bbloodshed; andthe prohibition of brobbery; andthe prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. בעתם בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות,שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות עד שנעשו חטים ככליות ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים ועדשים כדינרי זהב וצררו מהם דוגמא לדורות להודיע כמה החטא גורם שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, כה) עונותיכם הטו אלה וחטאתיכם מנעו הטוב מכם,וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס שהיו עוסקין בבנין בהמ"ק והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה למחר נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם למלאכתן וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם:,מעשה ששלחו לחוני המעגל וכו': ת"ר פעם אחת יצא רוב אדר ולא ירדו גשמים שלחו לחוני המעגל התפלל וירדו גשמים התפלל ולא ירדו גשמים עג עוגה ועמד בתוכה כדרך שעשה חבקוק הנביא שנאמר (חבקוק ב, א) על משמרתי אעמדה ואתיצבה על מצור וגו',אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בניך שמו פניהם עלי שאני כבן בית לפניך נשבע אני בשמך הגדול שאיני זז מכאן עד שתרחם על בניך התחילו גשמים מנטפין אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא להתיר שבועתך,אמר לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי בורות שיחין ומערות ירדו בזעף עד שכל טפה וטפה כמלא פי חבית ושיערו חכמים שאין טפה פחותה מלוג אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא לאבד העולם,אמר לפניו לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי רצון ברכה ונדבה ירדו כתיקנן עד שעלו כל העם להר הבית מפני הגשמים אמרו לו רבי כשם שהתפללת שירדו כך התפלל וילכו להם אמר להם כך מקובלני שאין מתפללין על רוב הטובה,אעפ"כ הביאו לי פר הודאה הביאו לו פר הודאה סמך שתי ידיו עליו ואמר לפניו רבש"ע עמך ישראל שהוצאת ממצרים אינן יכולין לא ברוב טובה ולא ברוב פורענות כעסת עליהם אינן יכולין לעמוד השפעת עליהם טובה אינן יכולין לעמוד יהי רצון מלפניך שיפסקו הגשמים ויהא ריוח בעולם מיד נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם לשדה והביאו להם כמהין ופטריות,שלח לו שמעון בן שטח אלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נידוי שאילו שנים כשני אליהו שמפתחות גשמים בידו של אליהו לא נמצא שם שמים מתחלל על ידך,אבל מה אעשה לך שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא על אביו ועושה לו רצונו ואומר לו אבא הוליכני לרחצני בחמין שטפני בצונן תן לי אגוזים שקדים אפרסקים ורמונים ונותן לו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,תנו רבנן מה שלחו בני לשכת הגזית לחוני המעגל (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור,ותגזר אומר אתה גזרת מלמטה והקדוש ברוך הוא מקיים מאמרך מלמעלה ועל דרכיך נגה אור דור שהיה אפל הארת בתפלתך,כי השפילו ותאמר גוה דור שהיה שפל הגבהתו בתפלתך ושח עינים יושיע דור ששח בעונו הושעתו בתפלתך ימלט אי נקי דור שלא היה נקי מלטתו בתפלתך ונמלט בבור כפיך מלטתו במעשה ידיך הברורין,אמר ר' יוחנן כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על מקרא זה (תהלים קכו, א) שיר המעלות בשוב ה' את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים אמר מי איכא דניים שבעין שנין בחלמא,יומא חד הוה אזל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה נטע חרובא אמר ליה האי עד כמה שנין טעין אמר ליה עד שבעין שנין אמר ליה פשיטא לך דחיית שבעין שנין אמר ליה האי [גברא] עלמא בחרובא אשכחתיה כי היכי דשתלי לי אבהתי שתלי נמי לבראי,יתיב קא כריך ריפתא אתא ליה שינתא נים אהדרא ליה משוניתא איכסי מעינא ונים שבעין שנין כי קם חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מלקט מינייהו אמר ליה את הוא דשתלתיה א"ל בר בריה אנא אמר ליה שמע מינה דניימי שבעין שנין חזא לחמריה דאתיילידא ליה רמכי רמכי,אזל לביתיה אמר להו בריה דחוני המעגל מי קיים אמרו ליה בריה ליתא בר בריה איתא אמר להו אנא חוני המעגל לא הימנוהו אזל לבית המדרש שמעינהו לרבנן דקאמרי נהירן שמעתתין כבשני חוני המעגל דכי הוי עייל לבית מדרשא כל קושיא דהוו להו לרבנן הוה מפרק להו אמר להו אנא ניהו לא הימנוהו ולא עבדי ליה יקרא כדמבעי ליה חלש דעתיה בעי רחמי ומית אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברותא או מיתותא,אבא חלקיה בר בריה דחוני המעגל הוה וכי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן לגביה ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא זימנא חדא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא שדור רבנן זוגא דרבנן לגביה למבעי רחמי דניתי מיטרא אזול לביתיה ולא אשכחוהו אזול בדברא ואשכחוהו דהוה קא רפיק יהבו ליה שלמא 23a. b“In their season”means bon Wednesday eves,i.e., Tuesday nights, band on Shabbat eves,i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat., bAs we foundin bthe days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that raininvariably bfell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grewas big bas kidneys, and barleyas big bas olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tiedup some bofthese crops as ban example [ idugma /i] forfuture bgenerations, to conveyto them bhow muchdamage bsin causes, as it is stated:“The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. bYour iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you”(Jeremiah 5:24–25)., bAnd we likewise foundthat bin the days of Herodthat bthey were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. Andas rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation bknewthat bthe work of Heavenwas being performed bby their hands. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAn incidentoccurred in bwhichthe people bsenta message bto Ḥoni HaMe’aggel.This event is related in greater detail in the following ibaraita /i. bThe Sages taught: Once, most ofthe month of bAdar had passed but rain hadstill bnot fallen. They sentthis message bto Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circlein the dust band stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower,and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat.,Ḥoni bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household.Therefore, bI take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your childrenand answer their prayers for rain. bRain began to trickledown, but only in small droplets. bHis students said to him: Rabbi, we have seenthat byoucan perform great wonders, bbutthis quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that bwe will not die. It appears to us thata small amount of brain is falling onlyto enable you bto dissolve your oath,but it is not nearly enough to save us.,Ḥoni bsaidto God: bI did not ask for this, butfor brain tofill the bcisterns, ditches, and caves.Rain bbegan to fall furiously, until each and every dropwas as big bas the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a ilog /iin size. bHis students said to him: Rabbi, we have seenthat byoucan call on God to perform miracles band we will not die,but now bit appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world. /b,Ḥoni again bsaid beforeGod: bI did not ask for thisharmful rain either, bbutfor brain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity.Subsequently, the rains bfell in their standard manner, until all of the peoplesought higher ground and bascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed thatthe rains bshould fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received, that one does not pray over an excess of good. /b,Ḥoni continued: bNevertheless, bring me a bull.I will sacrifice it as ba thanks-offeringand pray at the same time. bThey brought him a bullfor ba thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on itshead band said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannotbear beither an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with themand withheld rain, band they are unable to bearit. bYou bestowed upon themtoo much bgood, and they werealso bunable to bearit. bMay it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushroomsthat had sprouted in the strong rain., bShimon ben Shetaḥ relayed toḤoni HaMe’aggel: bIf you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For werethese byears like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rainwere entrusted bin Elijah’s hands,and he swore it would not rain, bwouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by youroath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified., bHowever, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father andhis father bdoes his bidding. Andthe son bsays tohis father: bFather, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. Andhis father bgives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice”(Proverbs 23:25)., bThe Sages taught: Whatmessage did bthe members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone,the Great Sanhedrin, bsend to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel?About you, the verse states: b“You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways.When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30).,They interpreted: b“You shall also decree a matter”; you,Ḥoni, bdecree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminatedit bwith your prayer. /b, b“When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have deliveredan undeserving generation bthrough the clean work of your hands. /b,§ The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. bRabbi Yoḥa said: All the daysof the life bof that righteous man,Ḥoni, bhe was distressed overthe meaning of bthis verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream”(Psalms 126:1). bHe saidto himself: bIs therereally a person bwho can sleep and dream for seventy years?How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream?, bOne day, he was walking along the roadwhen bhe saw a certain man planting a carob tree.Ḥoni bsaid to him: Thistree, bafter how many yearswill it bbearfruit? The man bsaid to him:It will not produce fruit buntil seventy yearshave passed. Ḥoni bsaid to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years,that you expect to benefit from this tree? bHe said to him: That manhimself bfound a worldfull bof carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants. /b,Ḥoni bsat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gatheringcarobs from that tree. Ḥoni bsaid to him:Are byou the one who plantedthis tree? The man bsaid to him: I am his son’s son.Ḥoni bsaid to him:I can blearn from this that Ihave bslept for seventy years,and indeed bhe saw that his donkey had sired several herdsduring those many years.,Ḥoni bwent home and said tothe members of the household: bIs the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is nolonger with us, but bhis son’s son isalive. bHe said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall,where he bheard the Sages sayabout one scholar: bHis ihalakhotare as enlighteningand as clear bas in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for whenḤoni HaMe’aggel bwould enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had.Ḥoni bsaid to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect.Ḥoni bbecame very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Either friendship or death,as one who has no friends is better off dead.,§ The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. bAbba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain,and bthe Sages sent a pair of Sages to himso bthat he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find himthere. bThey went to the field and found him hoeingthe ground. bThey greeted him, /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. הנך תרתי דדמיין להדדי כחדא חשיב להו והא שיתסרי והא מכל מקום לדידי חזיין לן דכתיבן לאיסורא אמר ליה וליטעמיך אי הוה כתיב להיתירא מי הוות סמכת עלייהו דמר בריה דרבנא מי חתים עלייהו השתא נמי דכתיב לאיסורא לאו מר בריה דרבנא חתים עלייהו,תני דבי רבי חייא שלישי שבבנו ושבבתו ושבבן אשתו ושבבת אשתו שניה רביעי שבחמיו ושבחמותו שניה,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי מאי שנא למעלה דקחשיב לה לאשתו ומאי שנא למטה דלא קחשיב לה לאשתו למעלה דאיסורא מכח אשתו קא אתי חשיב לה למטה דאיסורא לאו מכח אשתו קאתי לא קחשיב לה,והא בן אשתו ובת אשתו דאיסורא מכח אשתו קאתי ולא חשיב לה איידי דתנא שלשה דורות למטה דידיה ולא חשבה תנא נמי ג' דורות למטה דידה ולא חשבה,א"ל רב אשי לרב כהנא שניות דבי רבי חייא יש להן הפסק או אין להם הפסק,ת"ש דאמר רב ד' נשים יש להם הפסק ותו לא דלמא כי קאמר רב לההיא מתניתא ת"ש שלישי ורביעי שלישי ורביעי אין טפי לא דלמא משלישי ואילך מרביעי ואילך,אמר ליה רבא לרב נחמן חזי מר האי מרבנן דאתא ממערבא ואמר בעו במערבא גזרו שניות בגרים או לא גזרו שניות בגרים,אמר ליה השתא ומה ערוה גופה אי לאו שלא יאמרו באין מקדושה חמורה לקדושה קלה לא גזרו בהו רבנן שניות מיבעיא,אמר רב נחמן גרים הואיל ואתו לידן נימא בהו מלתא אחין מן האם לא יעידו ואם העידו עדותן עדות אחין מן האב מעידין לכתחלה אמימר אמר אפילו אחין מן האם נמי מעידין לכתחלה,ומ"ש מעריות ערוה לכל מסורה עדות לבית דין מסורה וגר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שיש לו אח מכל מקום זוקק את אשת אחיו ליבום ואחיו הוא לכל דבר חוץ ממי שיש לו אח מן השפחה ומן העובדת כוכבים מי שיש לו בן מכל מקום פוטר אשת אביו מן היבום וחייב על מכתו ועל קללתו ובנו לכל דבר חוץ ממי שיש לו בן מן השפחה ומן העובדת כוכבים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מכל מקום לאתויי מאי אמר רב יהודה לאתויי ממזר פשיטא אחיו הוא מהו דתימא לילף אחוה אחוה מבני יעקב מה להלן כשרין ולא פסולין אף כאן כשרין ולא פסולין קמ"ל,ואימא הכי נמי כיון דלענין יבום מיפטר נפטר 22a. bThose two,the wife of a father’s father’s brother and the sister of a father’s father, bare similar to each otherand bare counted as a singlecase, bandso bthere are sixteen.The Gemara restates Rav Hillel’s challenge to Ameimar’s opinion: bBut in any case I myself saw them written as prohibited.Rav Ashi bsaid toRav Hillel: bAnd according to your reasoning, ifin the list bit was written that they were permitted, would you have relied on that?Is the signature of bMar, son of Rabbana, signed on it?Although you saw the list, you don’t know for certain who wrote it. bNow too, that it is written that they are prohibited,the same holds true; the signature of bMar, son of Rabbana, is not signed on it,and so it cannot be relied upon to reject the opinion of Ameimar.,§ One of the Sages bof the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: The thirdgeneration bfrom one’s son and one’s daughter,i.e., one’s great-grandchildren, bandthe third generation bfrom his wife’s son and his wife’s daughter,i.e., one’s wife’s great-grandchildren, are all forbidden as bsecondaryforbidden brelationships.So too, bthe fourthgeneration bfrom his father-in-law and from his mother-in-law,i.e., his wife’s great-grandmothers, are prohibited as bsecondaryforbidden brelationships. /b, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: What is different betweenthe generations babove,referring to his wife’s great-grandmothers, such bthatthe Sage bcounts his wifeas one of the generations and refers to them as the fourth generation, band what is differentwith regard to the generations bbelow,referring to his great-granddaughters, such bthat he did not count his wifeand referred to them as only the third generation? The Gemara answers: When counting babove, the prohibition stems from his wife,as they are not his blood relatives but his wife’s. Therefore, bshe is counted.When counting bbelow,however, bthe prohibition does not stem from his wife,as they are his own blood relatives, band so she was not counted. /b,The Gemara objects: bButhe includes the granddaughter of bhis wife’s son and his wife’s daughterin his list of those bforbidden due to his wife, yet he does not count herand refer to this as the fourth generation. The Gemara answers: bSince healready btaught three generations below himself,i.e., his own great-granddaughter, bandthere bhe did not countfrom his wife because it is his own blood relative, bhe taught three generations belowhis wife band did not count her.Instead, he referred to her great-granddaughter also as three generations below to maintain the uniform style of his words., bRav Ashi said to Rav Kahana:Do those bsecondaryforbidden brelationshipstaught by one of the Sages bof the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya have a conclusion, or do they not have a conclusion?Are those specified cases alone forbidden, or are all generations above and below also forbidden?, bComeand bhearthat bwhich Rav said: Four women have a conclusion.This implies that it is only these four band no more.The Gemara rejects this: bPerhaps when Rav said this he was referringonly btothe relationships listed in bthe ibaraita /iand not to all cases of secondary relationships. The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhearfrom the ibaraitaitself, which states: bThe thirdgeneration from his son and his daughter band the fourthgeneration from his father-in-law and mother-in-law. This implies that with regard to bthe third and the fourthgenerations, byes,they are forbidden; but bmorethan that, bno.The Gemara rejects this: bPerhapsthis means bfrom the third onward and from the fourth onward.The Gemara does not resolve this issue.,§ bRava said to Rav Naḥman: Did the Master see this one of the Sages who came from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bwho said: In the West they askedwhether the Sages bissued a decreeprohibiting bsecondaryforbidden brelationships for converts, orwhether bthey did not issue a decreeprohibiting bsecondaryforbidden brelationships for converts? /b,Rav Naḥman did not answer whether he had seen this Sage, but bsaid to him: Now, with regard toall the bforbidden relationships themselves, were it notfor the fact that if converts would find that as Jews they were permitted to enter into relationships that were forbidden to them as gentiles and bwould saythat they went from ba state of more stringent sanctityas gentiles bto a state of lesser sanctityas Jews, bthen the Sages would not have decreedto prohibit these relationships. Without the rabbinic decree it would have been permitted for a convert to marry even a close female relative, even his twin sister, who also converted. This is because a convert has the legal status of a newborn, with no family ties. bIs it necessaryto state that the Sages did not extend that decree to include bsecondaryforbidden brelationships?The purpose of the rabbinic prohibitions is to protect the Torah prohibitions, but in the case of converts this particular Torah prohibition does not apply., bRav Naḥman said: Sincethe issue of bconvertsand their relatives bhas come to handand is the topic of discussion, blet us say a matterof ihalakha /i: bMaternalhalf bbrotherswho both convert bmay not testifytogether as a pair of witnesses before the court, bbut if they did testify, their testimony is valid.Although blood relatives are invalid as witnesses, converts are considered as though they have no relations. bPaternalhalf bbrotherswho both convert bmay testifytogether iab initio /i,since the ihalakhadoes not consider paternal half brothers of gentiles to be true relatives. bAmeimar said: Even maternalhalf bbrothers may also testifytogether iab initio /i. /b,In bwhatway bisthis case bdifferent from forbidden relations,where a convert may not marry his maternal sister due to rabbinic decree? The ihalakhotof bforbidden relations are handed over to all,and every individual chooses his own wife. Therefore, the Sages issued a decree to prevent confusion between the status of a convert and that of a born Jew. However, btestimony is handed over to the court,and the court knows to distinguish between the status of a born Jew and that of a convert. bAndthe legal status of ba convert whojust bconvertedis blikethat of ba childjust bborn,and all previous family ties become irrelevant., strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of banyone who has a brother of any kind,that brother bcreates a levirate bondcausing his iyevamatobe required to bperform levirate marriageif the first brother dies childless. bAnd he is his brother in all respects, except for one who has a brotherborn bfroma Canaanite bmaidservant or from a gentile woman,as these do not have the legal status of brothers. Similarly, in the case of banyone who has a child of any kind,that child bexempts his father’s wife from levirate marriage,since his father did not die childless. bAndthat child bis liableto receive capital punishment bif he strikeshis father bor curses him. And he is his child in all respects, except for whoever has a childborn bfroma Canaanite bmaidservant or from a gentile woman,as these do not have the halakhic status of children., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: With regard to the statement that a brother bof any kindcauses his iyevamato be required to perform levirate marriage, bwhatadditional case does this come bto add? Rav Yehuda said: This addsthe case of ba imamzer /i,who, notwithstanding his status, is considered a brother. The Gemara wonders: But bisn’tthat bobvious? He is his brother.The Gemara explains: This is necessary blest you say: Let us derivea verbal analogy between the word b“brother”stated in the verse with regard to levirate marriage and b“brother”stated with regard to bthe children of Jacob. Just as there,Jacob’s children bareof bunflawedlineage band notof bflawedlineage and are not imamzerim /i, bso too here,one might think that only brothers of bunflawedlineage band notbrothers of bflawedlineage, i.e., imamzerim /i, obligate the iyevamain levirate marriage. Therefore, bthis teaches usthat a imamzeris considered a brother for the purposes of levirate marriage.,The Gemara asks: bAnd say thatis bindeedthe ihalakha /i. Perhaps a brother who is a imamzerdoes not obligate his iyevamain levirate marriage. The Gemara answers: bSince with regard to levirate marriage,if the husband had a child who was a imamzerhe would bexemptthe wife from levirate marriage
24. Anon., Gerim, 1.1-1.2, 2.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
a convert is like a newborn infant (phrase, bavli) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150
abba saul Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 124
abba yudan of sidon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161, 162
abodah zarah Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
adam and law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164, 167
amemar Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150
amoraic literature, presumes kiddush ha-shem as public act Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
amphitheater Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
animals food Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 116
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 145
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 145
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 159, 160, 162
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), fifth (protocol of the conversion procedure) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), second (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), sixth (suffering of converts) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), third (acceptance of someone who claims to be a convert) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
ben petera Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160, 161
betrothal, as contract Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32
betrothal, as jewish phenomenon Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
betrothal, as matrimony Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32
betrothal, roman law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32
blessings Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
blood Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
boat (ship) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164, 167
canaan and canaanites Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164, 167
circumcision, banning of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
circumcision, baraita (second) (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
circumcision Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
cohen, s. j. d. Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 257
conversion procedure, fifth baraita (protocol of the conversion procedure in the bavli) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
corpse impurity, idolatry Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
corpse impurity Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
creation, distinctions inscribed in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
death penalty, beheading Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
death penalty, roman law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
death penalty, stoning Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
demai Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
difference, inscribed in creation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 116, 164
dominantization Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
dulkin, ryan Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 159, 160, 161, 162
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. r. sadoq Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 124, 159, 160, 161, 162
eleazar b. yosi Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 162
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160, 161, 162
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eliezer hisma Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161, 162
enoch, enochic literature Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
fornication, during betrothal Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32, 180
fornication, in rabbinic literature Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32, 180
fornication, law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
gentiles Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
grafting Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
halakha, rejected Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
halakhah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 145
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
hillul ha-shem, as raising doubt as to gods power Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
hillul ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
hirshman, m. Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 257
huqim (statutes) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
idolatry Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
immersion, baraita (second) (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
incest, laws Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150
incest, prohibitions Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150, 190
israel, and gentiles Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 244
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 145
kaddish, as public act Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
kiddush ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
kilayim, ethnogeographic limits of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
kilayim, jewish use of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
kilayim, non-jewish use of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
kinship, converts lack of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150
law, ancient near eastern Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32
law, sasanian Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 32
mamzer and legal fiction, marah laws given at Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
meir, r. Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
natural law, in rabbinic thought' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
natural law Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
noahide commandments Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 145
noahide covenant Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
noahide laws Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
non-jews, restrictions imposed on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 130
novak, d. Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 257
pseudepigrapha Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
public aspect of kiddush ha-shem and hillul ha-shem, assumed in amoraic literature Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
public aspect of kiddush ha-shem and hillul ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 64
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
rava Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 150
sexual relations, gentile with betrothed Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
sinai law before Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
statutory language Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
watchers (angels) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
wisdom (heavenly) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339