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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10927
Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 4.8
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted. 2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them."
2. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 3.3-3.4, 3.11, 3.16, 4.9-4.12, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 8.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Tosefta, Hulin, 1.1, 2.20, 3.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Tosefta, Niddah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Tosefta, Pesahim, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.22, 7.5, 7.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1, 14.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tosefta, Zevahim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Terumot, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.5.31-3.5.32 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. אלא מדרבנן וקרא אסמכתא בעלמא,אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל הנאכל כמות שהוא חי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים בסורא מתנו הכי בפומבדיתא מתנו הכי אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל שאינו נאכל על שולחן מלכים ללפת בו את הפת אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דגים קטנים וארדי ודייסא,אמר רב אסי אמר רב דגים קטנים מלוחים אין בהן משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים אמר רב יוסף אם צלאן עובד כוכבים סומך ישראל עליהם משום עירובי תבשילין ואי עבדינהו עובד כוכבים כסא דהרסנא אסור,פשיטא מהו דתימא הרסנא עיקר קמ"ל קימחא עיקר,אמר רב ברונא אמר רב עובד כוכבים שהצית את האור באגם כל החגבים שבאגם אסורין ה"ד אילימא דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא מאי איריא עובד כוכבים אפילו ישראל נמי אלא משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,כי האי גוונא מי אסיר והאמר רב חנן בר אמי א"ר פדת א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אלמא לעבורי שער קמיכוין ה"נ לגלויי אגמא קא מיכוין,לעולם דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא ומעשה שהיה בעובד כוכבים היה,גופא אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אמר רבינא הלכך האי עובד כוכבים דשדא סיכתא לאתונא וקבר בה ישראל קרא מעיקרא שפיר דמי פשיטא מהו דתימא לבשולי מנא קא מיכוין קמ"ל לשרורי מנא קא מיכוין,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים והפך בו מותר היכי דמי אילימא דאי לא הפך ביה הוה בשיל פשיטא אלא לאו דאי לא הפך לא הוה בשיל אמאי מותר בישולי של עובדי כוכבים נינהו,לא צריכא דאי לא הפך הוה בשיל בתרתי שעי והשתא קא בשיל בחדא שעתא מהו דתימא קרובי בישולא מילתא היא קמ"ל,והאמר ר' אסי א"ר יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים הא אינו כמאכל בן דרוסאי יש בו משום בשולי עובדי כוכבים,התם כגון דאותביה בסילתא ושקליה עובד כוכבים ואותביה בתנורא,תניא נמי הכי מניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים ומהפך בו עד שיבא ישראל מבית הכנסת או מבית המדרש ואינו חושש שופתת אשה קדירה על גבי כירה ובאת עובדת כוכבים 38a. bRather,the cooking of gentiles is prohibited bby rabbinic law, and the verseis cited as ba mere support. /b,The Gemara discusses the particulars of the prohibition against eating the cooking of gentiles. bRav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is eaten as it is,i.e., braw, is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.The Gemara remarks: bInthe study hall in bSura, they taught it thisway. bIn Pumbedita, they taught it like this: Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is not eaten together with bread on the table of kings is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.In other words, foods that are not eaten by distinguished individuals are not subject to this prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the practical difference bbetweenthese two opinions? The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to bsmall fish, mushrooms, and porridge.These foods are not eaten raw, but they are not eaten by distinguished individuals. Consequently, these foods are prohibited according to the version taught in Sura, but permitted according to the version taught in Pumbedita., bRav Asi saysthat bRav says: Small, salted fish are not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles,because they can be eaten raw. bRav Yosef says: If a gentile roastedthese fish, ba Jew may rely upon them foruse in the mitzva of ba joining of cooked foods,which must be prepared in order to permit cooking for Shabbat on a Festival that occurs on a Friday. bAnd if a gentile made theminto ikasa deharsena /i,a dish of fish fried in oil and flour, the dish is bprohibited.In this case, since the flour had not been edible, it is considered the cooked food of a gentile.,The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?What reason would there be to think that ikasa deharsenaprepared by a gentile is permitted? The Gemara answers: This is taught blest you saythat the bsalted fish,which one is permitted to eat even if cooked by gentiles, is the bessentialcomponent. Therefore, Rav Yosef bteaches usthat bthe flouris the bessentialcomponent, and the dish is therefore considered the cooked food of a gentile., bRav Beruna saysthat bRav says:In the case of ba gentile who ignited a fire in the meadow, all the locusts thatwere burned bin the meadow are prohibited.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we saythat the reason they are prohibited is bthat one nolonger bknows which are kosher and which are non-kosheras a result of their burning, bwhydoes Rav Beruna bspecificallydiscuss a case involving ba gentile? Evenif ba Jewburned the meadow, they would balsobe prohibited for the same reason. bRather,this is referring to a case where all the locusts were kosher, and the prohibition is bdue to the cooking of gentiles,as the locusts were effectively cooked by a gentile.,The Gemara raises an objection: bDoes anyoneactually bprohibitthe cooking of gentiles in ba case like this? But doesn’t Rav Ḥa bar Ami saythat bRabbi Pedat saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, bit is permitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked? The Gemara remarks: bEvidently,this is permitted because the gentile merely bintends to remove the hairand not to cook the ears. bHere, too,it ought to be permitted because he merely bintends to clear the meadow,not to cook the locusts.,The Gemara answers: bActually,this is referring to a case where there is a mixture of different types of locusts, and they are prohibited because one does bnot know which are kosher and which are non-kosher. Andthe reason Rav Beruna specified that the case involved a gentile is because bthe incident that occurredhappened to have boccurred withthe involvement of ba gentile. /b,§ The Gemara addresses bthematter bitself: Rabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, it is bpermitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked. bRavina said: Therefore,with regard to bthis gentile who threwa moist bpeg into the ovenin order to dry it out and harden it, band a Jew hadalready binserted a gourdin the oven bfrom the outset,the gourd is bpermitted,even though it was in effect cooked by a gentile. The reason is that the gentile had no intention to cook the vegetable. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this, blest you saythat the gentile bintends to cook the vessel,i.e., the peg, by softening it. Therefore Ravina bteaches usthat bhe intendsonly bto harden the vessel. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion with regard to the cooking of gentiles by examining the ihalakhaof meat cooked by both a gentile and a Jew. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:If ba Jew placed meat uponflaming bcoals and a gentile came and turnedthe meat bover,the meat is bpermitted.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatit is a case where bifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat bit would have cookedanyway, it is bobviousthat the meat is permitted, as the gentile’s actions did not actually alter the food. The Gemara suggests: bRather, is it nota case bwhere, ifthe gentile bhad not turned it over, it would not have cooked?But if so, bwhy is it permitted?In such a case, the meat biscertainly considered to be bthe cooking of gentilesand ought to be prohibited.,The Gemara explains: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this ihalakhawith regard to a case bwhere ifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat, bit would have cooked in two hours, and nowthat he did turn it over, bit will cook inonly bone hour. Lest you saythat bhastening the cookingprocess bisa significant bmatter,and therefore food whose preparation is expedited by a gentile is prohibited, Ravina bteaches usotherwise.,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Asi saythat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyitem bthathas been cooked blike the food of ben Derosai,i.e., partially cooked so that it is just about edible, bis not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles? Consequently,if bit is notcooked blike the food of ben Derosai, it is subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles.Accordingly, meat whose cooking was expedited by a gentile ought to be prohibited, as this ruling includes cases where it had not been cooked like the food of ben Derosai at the time of the gentile’s intervention.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Asi was referring to a case bwherethe Jew bhad placedthe meat that was not yet cooked like the food of ben Derosai bin a basketwhere it would not have cooked at all, band a gentile took it and placed it in the oven.Rabbi Asi was teaching that in such a case, when the current cooking process has yet to begin, the meat is prohibited if it had not already been cooked like the food of ben Derosai. By contrast, in the case addressed by Rabbi Yehuda, the meat was already cooking and the gentile’s actions hastened the process, but did not initiate it. In other words, the issue of cooked food like the food of ben Derosai is relevant only if the gentile takes a dish that is not being cooked at present.,The Gemara adds: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA Jew may place meat onhot bcoals andlet ba gentile come and turn it overas necessary buntil the Jew comesback bfrom the synagogue or from the study hall, andthe Jew need bnot be concernedfor the prohibition of eating cooking of gentiles. Similarly, a Jewish bwoman may set a pot upon the stove andlet ba gentile woman come /b
16. Epigraphy, Cil, 4.10674



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission fees, anxieties Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
alexander severus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
am haares Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 123
amorites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166, 256
animals food Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 116
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 160
aqueducts Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
ara pacis, baths of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
babylonia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
babylonian talmud Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166, 256
beitar Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
ben petera Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
birds Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 256
body shaming Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
bread Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 256
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166, 256
carrying Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
cheese Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 256
christians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
circumcision Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
clement of alexandria Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
court Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 123, 256
cyprus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 166
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 116
eastwood, clint Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
eggs Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 256
egypt Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
eighteen halakhot Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 160
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. r. sadoq Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 160
food Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
hadrian Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
interior and structure, merchants and vendors in Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
interior and structure, noise Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
leone, sergio Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
martial Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
mediterranean, eastern Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
nero Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
oil Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
palestine Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
pharisees Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
rabbi yose Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
rabbi yoḥa Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
rabbis, attending the baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
rome, romans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
rome (city) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
scriptores historiae augustae Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
simeon b. yoḥai, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
social hierarchy Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
society Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
splendor and beauty, as social arena Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
titus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
trajan Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
vespasian Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 241
wine' Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 212
wine Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212
yishmael, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 212