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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 4.6
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.6. אֹכֶל תִּשְׁבְּרוּ מֵאִתָּם בַּכֶּסֶף וַאֲכַלְתֶּם וְגַם־מַיִם תִּכְרוּ מֵאִתָּם בַּכֶּסֶף וּשְׁתִיתֶם׃ 2.6. Ye shall purchase food of them for money, that ye may eat; and ye shall also buy water of them for money, that ye may drink."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וְיַפְקֵד הַמֶּלֶךְ פְּקִידִים בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתוֹ וְיִקְבְּצוּ אֶת־כָּל־נַעֲרָה־בְתוּלָה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה אֶל־שׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֶל־בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים אֶל־יַד הֵגֶא סְרִיס הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַנָּשִׁים וְנָתוֹן תַּמְרוּקֵיהֶן׃ 2.3. and let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hegai the king’s chamberlain, keeper of the women; and let their ointments be given them;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.15-34.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.15. פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וְזָנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְזָבְחוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְקָרָא לְךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחוֹ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.15. lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land, and they go astray after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and they call thee, and thou eat of their sacrifice;" 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 34.15, 49.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.15. אַךְ־בְּזֹאת נֵאוֹת לָכֶם אִם תִּהְיוּ כָמֹנוּ לְהִמֹּל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 34.15. Only on this condition will we consent unto you: if ye will be as we are, that every male of you be circumcised;" 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 23.9, 25.1-25.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.9. כִּי־מֵרֹאשׁ צֻרִים אֶרְאֶנּוּ וּמִגְּבָעוֹת אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ הֶן־עָם לְבָדָד יִשְׁכֹּן וּבַגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁב׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 23.9. For from the top of the rocks I see him, And from the hills I behold him: Lo, it is a people that shall dwell alone, And shall not be reckoned among the nations." 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 4.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.18. וְאִשְׁתּוֹ הַיְהֻדִיָּה יָלְדָה אֶת־יֶרֶד אֲבִי גְדוֹר וְאֶת־חֶבֶר אֲבִי שׂוֹכוֹ וְאֶת־יְקוּתִיאֵל אֲבִי זָנוֹחַ וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי בִּתְיָה בַת־פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מָרֶד׃ 4.18. and his wife Hajehudijah bore Jered the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah—and these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took."
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’"
9. Anon., Jubilees, 22.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.
10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8, 3.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’"
11. Septuagint, Judith, 12.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

12.17. So Holofernes said to her. "Drink now, and be merry with us!
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.278 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.278. and spoke in prophetic strain as follows: "Balak has sent for me from Mesopotamia, having caused me to take a long journey from the east, that he might chastise the Hebrews by means of curses. But in what manner shall I be able to curse those who have not been cursed by God? For I shall behold them with my eyes from the loftiest mountains, and I shall see them with my mind; and I shall never be able to injure the people which shall dwell alone, not being numbered among the other nations, not in accordance with the inheritance of any particular places, or any apportionment of lands, but by reason of the peculiar nature of their remarkable customs, as they will never mingle with any other nation so as to depart from their national and ancestral ways.
13. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.3, 2.5-2.6, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. These are the festivities of the idolaters: Kalenda, Saturnalia, Kratesis, the anniversary of accession to the throne and birthdays and anniversaries of deaths, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: a death at which burning [of articles of the dead] takes place is attended by idolatry, but where there is not such burning there is no idolatry. But the day of shaving ones beard and lock of hair, or the day of landing after a sea voyage, or the day of release from prison, or if an idolater holds a banquet for his son the prohibition only applies to that day and that particular person." 2.5. Rabbi Judah said: Rabbi Ishmael put this question to Rabbi Joshua as they were walking on the way, “Why have they forbidden the cheese of non-Jews?” He replied, because they curdle it with the rennet of a nevelah (an animal that was not properly slaughtered.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said: “but is not the rennet of a burnt-offering more strictly forbidden than the rennet of a nevelah? [and yet] it was said that a priest who is not fastidious may suck it out raw.” (Though the Sages disagreed with this opinion, and they said that no benefit may be derived from it, although one who consumed it did not trespass [temple property). Rabbi Joshua responded: “The reason then is because they curdle it with the rennet from calves sacrificed to idols.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said to him: “if that be so, why do they not extend the prohibition to any benefit derived from it?” He (Rabbi Joshua) diverted him to another matter, saying: “Ishmael, how do you read for your [masc.] love is more delightful than wine” or “your [fem.] love etc. (Song of Songs 1:2” He replied: “your [fem.] love is better …” He said to him: this is not so, as it is proved by its fellow [-verse]: your ointments [masc.] have a goodly fragrance … [therefore do the maidens love you] (Song of Songs 1:3).”" 2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them." 5.5. If [a Jew] was eating with [a non-Jew] at a table and set some flasks upon the table and others upon a side-table and leaving them there went out, what is upon the table is prohibited and what is upon the side-table is permitted. And should he have said to him, “mix [some of the wine with water] and drink,” even what is upon the side-table is prohibited. Opened casks are prohibited, and the closed ones are permitted [except when he was absent a length of time] sufficient for [the non-Jew] to open it, put a new stopper on and [the new stopper] to become dry."
14. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
16. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 4.12, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.12. If he did not write for her, “You shall live in my house and be maintained from my estate throughout the duration of your widowhood”, he is nevertheless liable, because [this clause] is a condition laid down by the court. Thus did the men of Jerusalem write. The men of Galilee wrote as did the men of Jerusalem. The men of Judea used to write: “Until the heirs wish to pay you your ketubah”. Therefore if the heirs wish to, they may pay her her ketubah and dismiss her." 7.6. These leave [their marriage] without their ketubah: A wife who transgresses the law of Moses or Jewish law. And what is the law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him while in the period of her menstruation, not separating dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them. And what is Jewish practice? Going out with her head uncovered, spinning wool in the marketplace or conversing with every man. Abba Shaul says: also one who curses her husband’s parents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: also one who has a loud voice. And who is regarded as one who has a loud voice? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbors when she speaks inside her house."
17. Mishnah, Nedarim, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.12. At first they would say that three women must be divorced and receive their ketubah: She who says: “I am defiled to you”; “Heaven is between me and you”; “I have been removed from the Jews.” But subsequently they changed the ruling to prevent her from setting her eye on another and spoiling herself to her husband: She who said, “I am defiled unto you” must bring proof. “Heaven is between me and you” they [shall appease them] by a request. “I have been removed from the Jews” he [the husband] must annul his portion, and she may have relations with him, and she shall be removed from other Jews."
18. Mishnah, Yevamot, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.5. Even if he only heard from women saying, “so-and-so is dead”, this is enough. Rabbi Judah says: even if he only heard children saying, “behold we are going to mourn for a man named so-and-so and to bury him” [it is enough]. Whether [such statement was made] with the intention [of providing evidence] or was made with no such intention [it is valid]. Rabbi Judah ben Bava says: with an Israelite [the evidence is valid] only if the man had the intention [of acting as witness]. In the case of a non-Jew the evidence is invalid if his intention was [to act as witness]."
19. New Testament, Acts, 10.22, 10.36 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.22. They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say. 10.36. The word which he sent to the children of Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ -- he is Lord of all --
20. New Testament, Romans, 10.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, Matthew, 18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector.
22. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 4.10-4.11, 5.2, 8.4-8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Gittin, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.4. A daughter of a male disqualified priest (halal) is disqualified from [marrying into] the priesthood forever. Rabbi (sic!, based on Ehrfurt manuscript) says: A daughter of a male convert is like the daughter of a male halal and disqualified from the priesthood. An isah is disqualified from the priesthood (see previous halakhah); if she [the isah] got married to a Yisrael, her daughter is fit [to marry into] the priesthood. A captive woman is disqualified from the priesthood; if she got married to a Yisrael, her daughter is fit for the priesthood. A freed handmaid is disqualified from the priesthood; if she is married to a Yisrael, her daughter is fit for the priesthood. It turns out that Yisrael is a mikveh for priests [since the daughter of a pesulah with a male Yisrael is no longer pesulah] and a handmaid is a mikveh for all disqualifications."
25. Tosefta, Nedarim, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1, 14.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Tosefta, Terumot, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 13.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.5. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים רָאוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, י): וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת וגו', רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹת כּוֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּין יוֹצֵא, (בראשית ב, י): וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת, (בראשית ב, יא): שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן, זֶה בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (חבקוק א, ח): וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו. (בראשית ב, יא): הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָרָשָׁע שֶׁעָלָה וְהִקִּיף אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּיַחֶלֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מב, ו): הוֹחִלִי לֵאלֹהִים. (בראשית ב, יא): אֲשֶׁר שָׁם הַזָּהָב, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. (בראשית ב, יב): וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרָה כְּתוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, (בראשית ב, יב): שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת. (בראשית ב, יג): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִיחוֹן, זֶה מָדַי, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עִסָּה כַּנָּחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. (בראשית ב, יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר א, א): מֵהוֹדוּ וְעַד כּוּשׁ. (בראשית ב, יד): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהִיא חַדָּה וְקַלָּה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁהָיוּ מְאַשְׁרִין עַצְמָן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מִצְרַיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵירִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת, הוּא אֱדוֹם שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְעוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לִבְנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְבֵיתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּרָת עַל שׁוּם סוֹפָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, ג): פּוּרָה דָרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי. אַבְרָהָם רָאָה הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ג, יט): נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. (בראשית טו, יב): חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ג, יג): לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד. (בראשית טו, יב): גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן, אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד אִפַּרְכִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אִסְטְרָטָלִיטוּן, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִׁים, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חָנִין עַל הֲדָא דְרַבָּנָן (דברים ח, טו): הַמּוֹלִיכְךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב, נָחָשׁ זֶה בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זֶה מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן, מָה עַקְרָב זֶה מַשְׁרֶצֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. (בראשית טו, יב): נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ז, ז): דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, עַל שֵׁם (אסתר ג, א): גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. רָאָה דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ב ג): חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא, וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן יַמָּא, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן יַמָּא וְאִם לָאו מִן חוֹרְשָׁא, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא דְיַמָּא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן יַמָּא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, דְכַוָּותָא (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, עַיִ"ן תְּלוּיָה, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן הַיְאוֹר וְאִם לָאו מִן הַיַּעַר, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן נַהֲרָא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, (דניאל ז, ג): שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁנְיָן אֶלָּא סָנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֻמָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּעוֹלָם הִיא שׂוֹנְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְשַׁעְבְּדָא בָּהֶן. (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, יִרְמְיָה רָאָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרִי וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ נֶשֶׁר, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה ד, ז): עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכוֹ (ירמיה מט, כב): הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה, אָמְרִין לְדָנִיֵּאל אַתּ מָה חָמֵית לְהוֹן, אָמַר לְהוֹן חָמֵיתִי אַפִּין כְּאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי מְּרִיטוּ גַּפֵּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן אַרְעָא. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר כָּל אוֹתוֹ אֲרִי לָקָה וְלִבּוֹ לֹא לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ. וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אַף לִבּוֹ לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ד, יג): לִבְבֵהּ מִן אֲנָשָׁא יְשַׁנּוֹן. חָזֵה הֲוֵית (דניאל ז, ה): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרֵי תִנְיָנָא דָמְיָא לְדֹב, לְדב כְּתִיב זֶה מָדַי, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (ירמיה ה, ו): עַל כֵּן הִכָּם אַרְיֵה מִיַּעַר, זוֹ בָּבֶל. (ירמיה ה, ו): זְאֵב עֲרָבוֹת יְשָׁדְדֵם, זוֹ מָדַי. (ירמיה ה, ו): נָמֵר שֹׁקֵד עַל עָרֵיהֶם, זוֹ יָוָן. (ירמיה ה, ו): כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֵנָּה יִטָּרֵף, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, לָמָּה, (ירמיה ה, ו): כִּי רַבּוּ פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם עָצְמוּ מְשֻׁבוֹתֵיהֶם. (דניאל ז, ו): חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. (דניאל ז, ז): בָּאתַר דְּנָא חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דָּנִיֵּאל רָאָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד וְלָזוֹ בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, לָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לָהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): וְתִכָּפֵל. משֶׁה רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלז, ח): אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם לָךְ אֶת גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ. (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה הַשָּׁפָן הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְסִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת מָדַי מַעֲמֶדֶת צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנָהּ שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר הָיָה, טָהוֹר מֵאִמּוֹ וְטָמֵא מֵאָבִיו. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, אִמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמַי אַרְנֶבֶת שְׁמָהּ. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ פָּרַס, משֶׁה נָתַן שְׁלָשְׁתָּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָזוֹ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר (דניאל ז, ז): יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְתִכָּפֵל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם אָסָף וּמשֶׁה, אָסָף אָמַר (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. משֶׁה אָמַר (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה לַחֲזִיר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה חֲזִיר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ מוֹצִיא טְלָפָיו וְאוֹמֵר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם מִתְגָּאָה וְחוֹמֶסֶת וְגוֹזֶלֶת וְנִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת בִּימָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג הַגַּנָּבִים וְהַמְנָאֲפִים וְהַמְכַשְּׁפִים, גָּחִין וְאָמַר לַסַּנְקְלִיטִין, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עָשִׂיתִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, (ויקרא יא, ד): כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן, כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַט דָּוִד כָּלַל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ד, לד): כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָא. מְשַׁבַּח (תהלים קמז, יב): שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֶת ה'. וּמְרוֹמֵם (תהלים ל, ב): אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה'. וּמְהַדַּר (תהלים קד, א): ה' אֱלֹהַי גָדַלְתָּ מְאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. (דניאל ד, לד): דִּי כָל מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט (תהלים קלח, ב): עַל חַסְדְּךָ וְעַל אֲמִתֶּךָ. (דניאל ד, לד): וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין (תהלים צו, י): יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. (דניאל ד, לד): וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה (תהלים צג, א): ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ. (דניאל ד, לד): יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה (תהלים עה, יא): וְכָל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ. (ויקרא יא, ה): וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, (ויקרא יא, ה): כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עזרא א, ב): כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, (ויקרא יא, ו): כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְּקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס מוֹקְדוֹן כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זֶה אֱדוֹם, (ויקרא יא, ז): וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְלֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת אֶלָּא מְחָרֶפֶת וּמְגַדֶּפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים עג, כה): מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ב, מט): וְדָנִיֵּאל בִּתְרַע מַלְכָּא. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב, יט): וּמָרְדֳּכַי ישֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל רַגְלֵיהּ, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מִינָאֵי, מִן קֳדָם יְהוּדָאי אַתְּ קָאֵים, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה דְּמוּתוֹ אֲנִי רוֹאֶה וְנוֹצֵחַ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא דַי שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרֶגֶת אוֹתָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מז, ו): קָצַפְתִּי עַל עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וגו', נַחֲלָתִי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵרָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵרָה הִוא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה גוֹרֶרֶת מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲזִיר, שֶׁמַּחֲזֶרֶת עֲטָרָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו וְהָיְתָה לַה' הַמְּלוּכָה.
31. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 253 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 131 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35b. כאן קודם חזרה כאן לאחר חזרה ומשנה לא זזה ממקומה,רב מלכיא משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה אמר מפני שמחליקין פניה בשומן חזיר רב חסדא אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בחומץ רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בשרף הערלה,כמאן כי האי תנא (דתניא) ר"א אומר המעמיד בשרף הערלה אסור מפני שהוא פירי,אפי' תימא ר' יהושע עד כאן לא פליג ר' יהושע עליה דר"א אלא בקטפא דגוזא אבל בקטפא דפירא מודי,והיינו דתנן א"ר יהושע שמעתי בפירוש שהמעמיד בשרף העלין ובשרף העיקרין מותר בשרף הפגין אסור מפני שהוא פירי,בין לרב חסדא בין לרב נחמן בר יצחק תתסר בהנאה קשיא,דרש רב נחמן בריה דרב חסדא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים א, ג) לריח שמניך טובים למה ת"ח דומה לצלוחית של פלייטין מגולה ריחה נודף מכוסה אין ריחה נודף,ולא עוד אלא דברים שמכוסין ממנו מתגלין לו שנאמר (שיר השירים א, ג) עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה עלומות ולא עוד אלא שמלאך המות אוהבו שנא' עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה על מות ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמות אחד העוה"ז ואחד העוה"ב שנא' עלמות קרי ביה עולמות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו דברים של עובדי כוכבים אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה חלב שחלבו עובד כוכבים ואין ישראל רואהו והפת והשמן שלהן רבי ובית דינו התירו השמן,והשלקות וכבשין שדרכן לתת לתוכן יין וחומץ וטרית טרופה וציר שאין בה דגה כלבית שוטטת בו והחילק וקורט של חלתית ומלח שלקונדית הרי אלו אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חלב למאי ניחוש לה אי משום איחלופי טהור חיור טמא ירוק ואי משום איערובי ניקום דאמר מר חלב טהור עומד חלב טמא אינו עומד,אי דקא בעי לגבינה ה"נ הכא במאי עסקינן דקא בעי ליה לכמכא,ונשקול מיניה קלי וניקום כיון דבטהור נמי איכא נסיובי דלא קיימי ליכא למיקם עלה דמילתא,ואב"א אפי' תימא דקבעי לה לגבינה איכא דקאי ביני אטפי:,והפת: א"ר כהנא א"ר יוחנן פת לא הותרה בב"ד מכלל דאיכא מאן דשרי,אין דכי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והביא עובד כוכבים לפניו פת פורני מאפה סאה אמר רבי כמה נאה פת זו מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה מה ראו חכמים משום חתנות,אלא מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה בשדה כסבורין העם התיר רבי הפת ולא היא רבי לא התיר את הפת,רב יוסף ואיתימא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר לא כך היה מעשה אלא אמרו פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד וראה פת דחוק לתלמידים אמר רבי אין כאן פלטר כסבורין העם לומר פלטר עובד כוכבים והוא לא אמר אלא פלטר ישראל,א"ר חלבו אפילו למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים לא אמרן אלא דליכא פלטר ישראל אבל במקום דאיכא פלטר ישראל לא ורבי יוחנן אמר אפי' למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים ה"מ בשדה אבל בעיר לא משום חתנות,איבו הוה מנכית ואכיל פת אבי מצרי אמר להו רבא ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תשתעו בהדיה דאיבו דקאכיל לחמא דארמאי:,והשמן שלהן: שמן רב אמר דניאל גזר עליו ושמואל אמר 35b. bHere,with regard to the mishna in iḤullin /i, Shmuel’s comment reflects the explanation of Rabbi Yehoshua bbeforeRabbi Yehoshua’s bretractionof the assertion that it is prohibited to derive benefit from the stomach contents of an animal carcass. bThere,with regard to the mishna in iAvoda Zara /i, Shmuel’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua bafterhis bretractionof that claim. bAndalthough this indicates that the mishna in iḤullinpresents an outdated ruling that was later rescinded, ba mishna does not move from its place.In other words, once it has been taught in a certain manner, the itannawill not change the text of a mishna in order to reflect a change of opinion, so as to avoid confusion.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the decree of the Sages. bRav Malkiyya says in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava:The cheese is prohibited bbecausegentiles bsmooth its surface with pig fat. Rav Ḥisda says:It is bbecause they curdle it with vinegarproduced from their wine, from which it is prohibited to derive benefit. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:It is bbecause they curdle it with sapthat is subject to the prohibition against consuming bthe fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting [ iorla /i]. /b,Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is Rav Naḥman’s claim that the cheese of gentiles is prohibited because it is curdled in the sap of iorla /i? The Gemara answers: It is bin accordance with the opinion of this itanna /i, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iOrla1:7): bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of iorla /i,the cheese is bprohibited, becausethe sap bisconsidered to be bfruitof the tree.,The Gemara comments: bYoumay beven saythat the statement is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua,who disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as bRabbi Yehoshua disagrees with Rabbi Eliezer only with regard to the sap of a branch, but with regard to the sap of a fruitRabbi Yehoshua bconcedesthat it is prohibited as iorla /i. Rav Naḥman’s statement can be understood as referring specifically to the sap of the fruit, which would mean that it is in accordance with the opinions of both Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua.,The Gemara adds: bAnd this isin accordance with bthatwhich bwe learnedin the continuation of that mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua said: I heard explicitly thatwith regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of the leaves and the sap of the rootsof an iorlatree, the cheese bis permitted.But if it is curdled bwith the sap of unripe figs it is prohibited, becausethat sap bisconsidered to be bfruit. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty against the last two suggested reasons for the decree of the Sages. bAccording to both Rav Ḥisda,who holds that the cheese is prohibited because it is curdled with vinegar made from wine of gentiles, band Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak,who maintains that it is prohibited because it is curdled with the sap of iorla /i, bone should be prohibited fromderiving bbenefitfrom the cheese, as one may not derive benefit from either the wine of gentiles or iorla /i. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, this is bdifficult. /b,§ bRav Naḥman, son of Rav Ḥisda, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Your ointments have a goodly fragrance”(Song of Songs 1:3)? This is a metaphor for a Torah scholar: bTo what is a Torah scholar comparable? To a flask of ipelaitin /i:When it is bexposed, its scent diffuses;when it is bcovered, its scent does not diffuse. /b,The Gemara remarks: bAnd moreover,when a Torah scholar spreads his knowledge, bmatters that aregenerally bhidden from him are revealed to him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You”(Song of Songs 1:3), and one may bread intothe verse: bThe hidden [ ialumot /i]. And moreover, the Angel of Death loves him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You,”and one may bread intothe verse: The one appointed bover death [ ial mot /i]loves you. bAnd moreover,a Torah scholar binherits two worlds: Oneis bthis world, andthe other boneis bthe World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i]love You,” and one may bread intothe verse: bWorlds [ iolamot /i]. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna lists items belonging to gentiles which it is prohibited to consume, but from which it is permitted to derive benefit. bAnd these are itemsthat belong bto gentilesand are bprohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of ban item from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited: Milk that was milked by a gentile and a Jew did not see himperforming this action, band their bread and oil.The mishna notes that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band his court permitted the oilof gentiles entirely.,The mishna resumes its list: bAnd boiled and pickledvegetables, bwhoseusual bmannerof preparation involves badding wine and vinegar to them, and minced itarit /ifish, band brine that does not have a ikilbitfish floating in it, and iḥilak /i, and a sliver of iḥiltit /i, and isalkonditsalt(see 39b); all bthese are prohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of bitem from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: Concerning bmilk, with regard to whatneed bwe be concerned?Why is the milk prohibited? bIfit is bdue tothe concern that a gentile might bexchangethe milk of a kosher animal with the milk of a non-kosher animal, this concern is unfounded, as bkoshermilk is bwhitewhereas bnon-koshermilk has ba greentinge to it, and therefore they are easily distinguishable. bAnd ifit is prohibited bdue tothe concern that it might be bmixedwith non-kosher milk, let the Jew bcurdlethe milk obtained from the gentile, bas the Master said: Milkfrom ba kosheranimal bcurdles,but milk from ba non-kosheranimal bdoes not curdle. /b,The Gemara answers: bIf one desires toeat it as bcheese, indeed,one can simply curdle it, as the milk of non-kosher animals does not curdle. bWhat are we dealing with here?We are dealing with a case bwhere one desires touse the milk in ikamkha /i,also known as ikutaḥ /i, a food item that contains milk.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bButin that case, blet him take a bit ofmilk band curdleit, to test whether or not it has been mixed with the milk of a non-kosher animal: If it curdles completely, it is kosher; if some milk is left over, it is not. The Gemara explains: bSince there is also whey in kosher milk, which does not curdle, there is noway bto establishthe halakhic bmatter with regard to it.Even kosher milk will not curdle completely, and therefore this is not a reliable method to determine the halakhic status of the milk.,The Gemara presents an alternative suggestion: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that byoumay beven saythat the concern applies bwhere he intendsto use the milk btomake bcheese,as bthere ismilk bthat remains between the crevicesof curdled cheese, and therefore there is a concern that drops of non-kosher milk might be mixed with it.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd breadbelonging to gentiles is prohibited for consumption. bRav Kahana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:Unlike oil, bbread was not permitted by a court.The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat Rabbi Yoḥa states that bread was not permitted in court, can it be inferred bthat there isa different opinion bthatclaims that a court bdid permitit?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent out to the field, and a gentile brought before him a ise’aof bread baked in a large baker’s oven [ ipurnei /i]. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How exquisite is thisloaf of bbread! What did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibit it?The Gemara asks, incredulously: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them to prohibit it? It was prohibited bdue tothe concern that Jews might befriend gentiles while breaking bread with them, which could lead to bmarriagewith gentiles.,The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was not asking why bread was prohibited in general. bRather,he asked: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibitbread even bin the field,where this concern does not apply? The Gemara notes that upon hearing of this incident bthe people thoughtthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bpermitted the breadof gentiles. bButthat bis not so; RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdid notactually bpermitsuch bbread.This is why Rabbi Yoḥa emphasized that the bread of gentiles was never permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s court.,The Gemara records an alternate version of this episode. bRav Yosef, and some say Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, says:The bincident did not occurin bthismanner. bRather, they said: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent to a certain place and sawthat bbreadwas bscarce for the studentsin the study hall. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there no baker [ ipalter /i] herewho can prepare bread? Upon hearing of this incident, bthe people thought to saythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker,which would indicate that bread baked by a professional baker is permitted, even if he is a gentile. bButin reality, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstatedhis question bonlyin reference to ba Jewish baker. /b,The Gemara cites two qualifications of the leniency that people inferred from the above incident. bRabbi Ḥelbo said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, we saidthat the bread is permitted bonly where there is no Jewish baker, but in a place where there is a Jewish baker,the leniency would certainly bnotapply. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, that statementapplies only bin the field, but in the cityit would bnotapply, and the bread would still be prohibited bdue tothe possibility of bmarriagewith a gentile.,The Gemara relates: bAivu would bite and eat breadof gentiles bat the boundariesof the fields. bRava said tothe students in the study hall, band some saythat it was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said to them: bDo not speak with Aivu, as he eats bread of Arameansin deliberate violation of a rabbinic decree.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd their oilwas originally prohibited but later permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and his court. The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the origin of the prohibition of boil. Rav says: Daniel decreedthat oil is prohibited, band Shmuel says: /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל 57a. bThat which he decreed against himself,as he undergoes the following: bEvery day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b,Onkelos then bwent and raised Balaamfrom the grave bthrough necromancy. He said to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Balaam bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Balaam bsaid to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days(see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam bsaid to him:He is cooked bin boiling semen,as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then bwentand braised Jesus the Nazarenefrom the grave bthrough necromancy.Onkelos bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Jesus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themin this world? Jesus bsaid to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek,for banyone who touches them isregarded bas if he were touching the apple of his eye(see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus bsaid to him:He is punished bwith boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement.And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: bComeand bsee the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world.As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a ibaraita /i. It bis taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza,who had been humiliated, banddue to this humiliation and shame bHe destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as bthe King’s Mountain [ iTur Malka /i] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen.The details of what happened are as follows: bIt was customaryin that place bthat when they would lead a bride and groomto their wedding, bthey would take out a rooster and a hen before them,as if bto sayin the manner of a good omen: bBe fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b, bOne day a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bpassed bythere while a wedding was taking place band tookthe rooster and hen bfrom them.The residents of the city bfell upon them and beat them.The soldiers bcame and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain bthere was a certain mannamed bbar Deroma who could jumpthe distance of ba imil /i, and he killedmany of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. bThe emperorthen btook his crown and set it on the groundas a sign of mourning. bHe said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man,a euphemism for himself, band his kingdom into the hands ofonly bone man. /b,In the end it was the words issuing from bhisown bmouththat bcaused bar Deroma to stumble, as he utteredthis verse in complaint against God: b“Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?”(Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not bDavid also say this?The Gemara answers: bDavid utteredthese words bas a question,wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: bHe entered an outhouse, a snake cameand beviscerated him, and he died.The emperor bsaid: Since a miracle was performed for me,as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, bI will letthe rest of the people bbe this timeand take no further action against them. bHe let them be and wenton his way. bThey leaptabout, bate, drank, and litso many bcandlesin celebration bthat the image [ ibilyona /i]imprinted bon a seal [ igushpanka /i] was visible from a distance of a imil /i.The emperor then bsaid: The Jews are rejoicing over me.So bhe went backand bcame against them. /b, bRav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacredits inhabitants bfor three days and three nights. Andat the same time bonthe other bsideof the mountain, bweddings andother bfestivitiescontinued to be celebrated, band they did not know about each other,owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b“The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob”(Lamentations 2:2), it is related that bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhesaid that bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisis referring to the bsix hundred thousand citiesthat bKing Yannai had in the King’s Mountain.As bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of themhad a population as great basthe number of bthose who left Egypt, except for threeof those cities, the population of which bwas doublethe number of bthose who left Egypt. /b, bTheseare bthosethree cities: bKefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya.The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. bKefar Bish,Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants bwould not opentheir bhouses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayimwas referred to by that name because btheir livelihood wasderived bfromthe cultivation of bcress [ ishaḥalayim /i].As for bKefar Dikhrayya,Town of Males, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, andthen bthey would stophaving children., bUlla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds,all the more so that number of people. bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You liewith your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: With regard toEretz Yisrael bit is written: Land of the deer(see Jeremiah 3:19). bJust as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh,for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, bso too,with regard to bEretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts.This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya wereonce bsitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt,which was in that region, blet him relateit., bOne of them beganthe discussion band said:There was ban incident involving a betrothed man and womanfrom there bwho were taken captive by gentiles andthe latter bmarried them off to each other.The woman bsaid tothe man: bPlease do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you,and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. bAnd untilthe day of bhis deaththe man bdid not touchthe woman., bAnd when he diedwithout having touched her, the woman bsaid tothe Sages: bEulogize thisman bwho conquered [ ishepitpet /i] his passion [ ibeyitzro /i] more than Joseph. Asin the case of bJoseph it was only for a short timethat he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), bwhereas thisman struggled with his passion beach and every day.Furthermore, bJosephwas bnot in one bedwith Potiphar’s wife, bwhereas thisman was bin one bedwith his wife. In addition, with bJosephthe woman was bnot his wife, whereaswith bthisman she was bhis wife,as she was already betrothed to him., bAnotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said: It once happened thatthe market price of bforty ise’a /iof grain bstood at one dinar.And then bthe rate went down one ise’a[ imodeya /i],so that only thirty-nine ise’awere sold for a dinar. bAnd they checkedto see what sin had caused this, band they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They broughtthe offenders bto court and stoned them, and the rate returned to itsformer blevel. /b,Yet banotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said:There was ban incidentthere binvolving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was largeand he wished to avoid having to pay it. bWhat did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and layhis friends and his wife bin one bed. Hethen bbrought the white of an egg,which has the appearance of semen, band placed iton the sheet bbetween them. Hethen bstood witnesses over themso that they could offer testimony, band went to courtclaiming that his wife had committed adultery., bA certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Butawas bhis name. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received from Shammai the Elder: Egg whiteon a bedsheet bcontractsand hardens when heated bby fire, whereas semen is absorbedinto the sheet bby the fire. They checkedthe matter band found in accordance with his statementthat the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. bTheythen bbroughtthe husband bto court, administered lashes to him, and made him payhis wife’s bmarriage contractin full., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: But sincethose in the city bwere so righteous, what is the reason that they were punishedand destroyed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:It is bbecause they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her”(Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of bBeitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage.The Gemara explains that bit was customaryin Beitar that bwhen a boy was born they would plant a cedartree and when ba girlwas born they bwould plant a cypress [ itornita /i]. And when they wouldlater bmarryeach other bthey would cutdown these trees band constructa wedding bcanopyfor them with their branches. bOne day the emperor’s daughter passed bythere and bthe shaft of the carriagein which she was riding bbroke.Her attendants bchopped down a cedarfrom among those trees band brought it to her.Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar bcameand bfell upon them and beat them.The attendants bcameand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b“He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel”(Lamentations 2:3). bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousandofficers bearing bbattle trumpetsin their hands, bwho entered the city of Beitar whenthe enemy btook it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you saythat the city bwas closeto the sea, know that bit was a imilaway. /b, bIt issimilarly btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valleyin that region, bone flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimatedthat in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with btwo parts water to one part blood.Likewise, bit was taught in a ibaraita /i: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyardsthat had been soaked bwith the blood of Israel withoutrequiring any additional bfertilizer. /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. בבוציני,ביום השביעי כטוב לב המלך ביין אטו עד השתא לא טב לביה בחמרא אמר רבא יום השביעי שבת היה שישראל אוכלין ושותין מתחילין בד"ת ובדברי תשבחות אבל עובדי כוכבים שאוכלין ושותין אין מתחילין אלא בדברי תיפלות,וכן בסעודתו של אותו רשע הללו אומרים מדיות נאות והללו אומרים פרסיות נאות אמר להם אחשורוש כלי שאני משתמש בו אינו לא מדיי ולא פרסי אלא כשדיי רצונכם לראותה אמרו לו אין ובלבד שתהא ערומה,שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו מלמד שהיתה ושתי הרשעה מביאה בנות ישראל ומפשיטן ערומות ועושה בהן מלאכה בשבת היינו דכתיב אחר הדברים האלה כשוך חמת המלך אחשורוש זכר את ושתי ואת אשר עשתה ואת אשר נגזר עליה כשם שעשתה כך נגזר עליה,ותמאן המלכה ושתי מכדי פריצתא הואי דאמר מר שניהן לדבר עבירה נתכוונו מ"ט לא אתאי א"ר יוסי בר חנינא מלמד שפרחה בה צרעת במתניתא תנא [בא גבריאל ועשה לה זנב],ויקצף המלך מאד אמאי דלקה ביה כולי האי אמר רבא שלחה ליה בר אהורייריה דאבא אבא לקבל אלפא חמרא שתי ולא רוי וההוא גברא אשתטי בחמריה מיד וחמתו בערה בו,ויאמר המלך לחכמים מאן חכמים רבנן יודעי העתים שיודעין לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אמר להו דיינוה לי אמרו היכי נעביד נימא ליה קטלה למחר פסיק ליה חמריה ובעי לה מינן נימא ליה שבקה קא מזלזלה במלכותא אמרו לו מיום שחרב בית המקדש וגלינו מארצנו ניטלה עצה ממנו ואין אנו יודעין לדון דיני נפשות זיל לגבי עמון ומואב דיתבי בדוכתייהו כחמרא דיתיב על דורדייה,וטעמא אמרו ליה דכתיב (ירמיהו מח, יא) שאנן מואב מנעוריו ושוקט הוא אל שמריו ולא הורק מכלי אל כלי ובגולה לא הלך על כן עמד טעמו בו וריחו לא נמר מיד והקרוב אליו כרשנא שתר אדמתא תרשיש,א"ר לוי כל פסוק זה על שום קרבנות נאמר,כרשנא אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כלום הקריבו לפניך כרים בני שנה כדרך שהקריבו ישראל לפניך שתר כלום הקריבו לפניך שתי תורין אדמתא כלום בנו לפניך מזבח אדמה תרשיש כלום שימשו לפניך בבגדי כהונה דכתיב בהו (שמות כח, כ) תרשיש ושהם וישפה מרס כלום מירסו בדם לפניך מרסנא כלום מירסו במנחות לפניך ממוכן כלום הכינו שלחן לפניך,ויאמר ממוכן תנא ממוכן זה המן ולמה נקרא שמו ממוכן שמוכן לפורענות אמר רב כהנא מכאן שההדיוט קופץ בראש,להיות כל איש שורר בביתו אמר רבא אלמלא אגרות הראשונות לא נשתייר משונאיהן של ישראל שריד ופליט,אמרי מאי האי דשדיר לן להיות כל איש שורר בביתו פשיטא אפילו קרחה בביתיה פרדשכא ליהוי,ויפקד המלך פקידים א"ר מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, טז) כל ערום יעשה בדעת וכסיל יפרוש אולת,כל ערום יעשה בדעת זה דוד דכתיב (מלכים א א, ב) ויאמרו לו עבדיו יבקשו לאדני המלך נערה בתולה כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא אייתה ניהליה וכסיל יפרוש אולת זה אחשורוש דכתיב ויפקד המלך פקידים כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא איטמרה מיניה,איש יהודי היה בשושן הבירה וגו' איש ימיני מאי קאמר אי ליחוסא קאתי ליחסיה ואזיל עד בנימין אלא מאי שנא הני,תנא כולן על שמו נקראו בן יאיר בן שהאיר עיניהם של ישראל בתפלתו בן שמעי בן ששמע אל תפלתו בן קיש שהקיש על שערי רחמים ונפתחו לו,קרי ליה יהודי אלמא מיהודה קאתי וקרי ליה ימיני אלמא מבנימין קאתי אמר רב נחמן מרדכי מוכתר בנימוסו היה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אביו מבנימין ואמו מיהודה ורבנן אמרי משפחות מתגרות זו בזו משפחת יהודה אומרת אנא גרים דמתיליד מרדכי דלא קטליה דוד לשמעי בן גרא ומשפחת בנימין אמרה מינאי קאתי,רבא אמר כנסת ישראל אמרה לאידך גיסא ראו מה עשה לי יהודי ומה שילם לי ימיני מה עשה לי יהודי 12b. bwith zucchinis,indicating that often a man and his wife engage in similar actions.,The verse states: b“On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine”(Esther 1:10). The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat buntil now his heart was not merry with wine?Did it take seven days for him to achieve merriment? bRava said: The seventh day was Shabbat,when the difference between the Jewish people and the gentiles is most apparent. On Shabbat, bwhen the Jewish people eat and drink, they beginby occupying themselves bwith words of Torah and words of praisefor God. bBut the nations of the world, when they eat and drink, they begin only with words of licentiousness. /b,The Gemara continues to detail what occurred at the feast. bSo too, at the feast of that wicked man,Ahasuerus, when the men began to converse, bsome said: The Median women arethe most bbeautiful, while others said: The Persian women arethe most bbeautiful. Ahasuerus said to them: The vessel that I use,i.e., my wife, bis neither Median nor Persian, butrather bChaldean. Do you wish to see her? They said to him: Yes, provided that she be naked,for we wish to see her without any additional adornments.,The Gemara comments: Vashti was punished in this humiliating way bfor it is with the measure that a man measuresto others bthat hehimself bis measured.In other words, God punishes individuals in line with their transgressions, measure for measure. bThis teaches that the wicked Vashti would take the daughters of Israel, and strip them naked, and make them work on Shabbat.Therefore, it was decreed that she be brought before the king naked, on Shabbat. This is bas it is written: “After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her”(Esther 2:1). That is to say, bjust as she had donewith the young Jewish women, bso it was decreed upon her. /b,The verse states: b“But the queen Vashti refusedto come” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bSince she was immodest, as the Master saidabove: bThe two of them had sinful intentions, what is the reasonthat bshe did not come? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: This teaches that she broke out in leprosy,and therefore she was embarrassed to expose herself publicly. An alternative reason for her embarrassment bwas taught in a ibaraita /i:The angel bGabriel came and fashioned her a tail. /b,The verse continues: b“Therefore the king was very wrathful,and his anger burned in him” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bWhy didhis anger bburn in him so greatlymerely because she did not wish to come? bRava said:Vashti not only refused to come, but she also bsent hima message by way of a messenger: You, bson of my father’s stableman [ iahuriyyarei /i].Belshazzar, bmy father, drank wine against a thousandmen band did not become inebriated,as the verse in Daniel (5:1) testifies about him: “Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand”; band that man,referring euphemistically to Ahasuerus himself, bhas become senseless from his wine.Due to her audacity, bimmediately “his anger burned in him”(Esther 1:12).,The following verse states: b“Then the king said to the wise men,who knew the times” (Esther 1:13). The Gemara asks: bWho are these wise men?These wise men are bthe Sagesof the Jewish people, who are referred to as those b“who knew the times,” for they know how to intercalate years and fix the monthsof the Jewish calendar. Ahasuerus bsaid to them: Judge her for me.The Sages bsaidin their hearts: bWhat should we do?If bwe say to him: Kill her, tomorrow he will become sober andthen come and bdemand her from us.If bwe say to him: Let her be, she has scorned royalty,and that cannot be tolerated. Consequently, they decided not to judge the matter, and bthey said to himas follows: bFrom the day that the Temple was destroyed and we have been exiled from our land, counseland insight bhave been removed from us, and we do not know how to judge capital cases,as they are exceptionally difficult. bGo tothe people of bAmmon and Moab, who have remainedpermanently bsettled in their places like wine that is settled on its lees,and so their minds are settled as well., bAndthey provided a good breasonwhen bthey spoke to him,as they proved that one who is settled retains his reasoning: bFor it is written: “Moab has been at ease from his youth, and he has settled on his lees, and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel, neither has he gone into exile; therefore his taste has remained in him, and his scent is not changed”(Jeremiah 48:11). Ahasuerus bimmediatelyacted on their advice and asked his advisors, as it is written: b“And next to him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish,Meres, Marsena, and Memucan” (Esther 1:14)., bRabbi Levi said: This entire verselisting the names of the king’s advisors bis stated on account of offerings.Each name alludes to an aspect of the sacrificial service that was unique to the Jewish people, which the ministering angels mentioned as merit for the Jewish people., b“Carshena”; the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, didthe gentiles bever offer before You lambs [ ikarim /i] of the first year [ ishana /i], as the Jewish people have offered before You? “Shethar”; have they ever offered before You two turtledoves [ ishetei torim /i]? “Admatha”; have they ever built before You an altar of earth [ iadama /i]? “Tarshish”; have they ever ministered before You in the priestly vestments, as it is writtenthat on the fourth of the four rows of precious stones contained on the breastplate were: b“A beryl [ itarshish /i], an onyx, and a jasper”(Exodus 28:20). b“Meres”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the blood of the offerings before You? “Marsena”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the meal-offering before You? “Memucan”; have they ever prepared [ ihekhinu /i]the btable before You,on which the shewbread was placed?,The verse states: b“And Memucan said”(Esther 1:16). A Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bMemucan is Haman. And why isHaman breferred to as Memucan? Because he was prepared [ imukhan /i] tobring bcalamityupon the Jewish people. bRav Kahana said: From herewe see bthat the common man jumps to the frontand speaks first, for Memucan was mentioned last of the king’s seven advisors, and nevertheless he expressed his opinion first.,The king sent out letters to the people of all his provinces, in which it was written: b“That every man shall wield authority in his own houseand speak according to the language of his people” (Esther 1:22). bRava said: Were it not for the first letterssent by Ahasuerus, which everybody discounted, bthere would not have been left among the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, ba remt or a refugee.Since these first letters were the subject of ridicule, people didn’t take the king seriously and did not immediately act upon the directive of the later letters, calling for the Jewish people’s destruction.,The Gemara continues. The reason that the first letters were not taken seriously is that btheywho received them would bsay: What is this that he has sent us: “That every man shall wield authority in his own house”?This is bobvious; evena lowly bweaver is commander [ iparedashekha /i] in his house.If so, why then did the king find it necessary to make such a proclamation?,The verse describes Ahasuerus’s search for a new wife by stating: b“And let the king appoint officersin all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle” (Esther 2:3). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge, but a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16)? The verse highlights the difference between two kings’ approaches to finding a wife., b“In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge”; thisstatement is referring to bDavid,who also sought a wife for himself, bas it is written: “And his servants said to him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin”(I Kings 1:2). Since he sought one maiden, bwhoever had a daughter brought her to him,for everyone wanted his daughter to be the king’s wife. With regard to the continuation of the verse: b“But a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16), bthisstatement bisreferring to bAhasuerus, as it is written: “And let the king appoint officers”to seek out many maidens. Since it became clear that the king would have relations with all of them, but in the end he would choose only one as his bride, bwhoever had a daughter hid her from him. /b,The verse that initially describes Mordecai states: b“There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle,whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a bBenjamite”(Esther 2:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is itconveying in the verse by bsayingthe names of Mordecai’s ancestors? bIfthe verse in fact bcomes totrace his bancestry, it should continue tracinghis lineage bbackall the way bto Benjamin,the founder of his tribe. bRather, what is differentabout these names that they deserve special mention?,The Gemara answers: A Sage btaughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAll of them are names by whichMordecai bwas called.He was called b“the son of Jair”because he was bthe son who enlightened [ iheir /i] the eyes ofall of bthe Jewish people with his prayers; “the son of Shimei”because he was bthe son whom God heard [ ishama /i] his prayers; “the son of Kish” because he knocked [ ihikish /i] on the gates of mercy and they were opened to him. /b,The Gemara points out a contradiction: Mordecai bis referred to as a “Jew [ iYehudi /i],” apparentlyindicating that bhe came fromthe tribe of bJudah,but in the continuation of the verse bhe is called “Benjamite” [ iYemini /i], which indicates that he came fromthe tribe of bBenjamin. Rav Naḥman said: Mordecai was crowned withhonorary bnames. iYehudiis one such honorary epithet, due to its allusion to the royal tribe of Judah, but it is not referring to Mordecai’s tribal affiliation., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidan alternative explanation: Mordecai’s bfather was fromthe tribe of bBenjamin, and his mother was fromthe tribe of bJudah.Therefore, he was both a iYemini /i, a Benjamite, and a iYehudi /i, from the tribe of Judah. bAnd the Rabbis saythat the dual lineage is due to a dispute: bThe families competedwith beach otherover which tribe could take credit for Mordecai. bThe family of Judahwould bsay: I caused the birth of Mordecai,as only bbecause David did not kill Shimei, the son of Gera,when he cursed him (see II Samuel 16) was it possible for Mordecai to be born later from his descendants. bAnd the family of Benjamin saidin response: In the end bhe came from me,as he in fact was from Benjamin’s tribe., bRava said: The Congregation of Israelat the time bsaidthis bfrom the opposite perspective,not as a boast, but as a complaint, remarking: bSee what a Judean has done to me and how a Benjamite has repaid me. What a Judean has done to meis referring to
37. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85b. it is only bthe ibaraita /ithat bteachesthat he plows and then brepeatsthe plowing. It would appear, then, that the mishna and ibaraitaexpress different opinions, and it may be that according to the mishna one does not need to plow in the second year at all.,The Gemara dismisses this suggestion: bThisis bnot difficult;it is possible that the mishna and the ibaraitado not disagree, and bhere,the mishna, which does not require plowing a second time, bis referring to a cultivatedfield, whereas bthere,the ibaraita bis referring to an uncultivatedfield, and therefore it requires that the field be plowed a second time.,The Gemara concludes: bWhathalakhic conclusion bwasreached baboutthis matter? bComeand bhearthe resolution from that bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: For the first year, bone plowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsows half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. For the second year, one again bplowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsowsthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year. It is evident from this ibaraitathat during the second year as well, the field is plowed before it is sown.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: One brings the iomeronly fromthe bsouthern fields of Eretz Yisrael, as upon thosefields, the bsun risesand shines, band from thosefields, the bsunalso bsets.Those fields are exposed to abundant sunlight, and so they produce a superior-quality crop., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAbba Shaul saysthat bthe iomerwould come fromgrain grown in bthe valley of Beit Mikle.The field there bwas about three ise’a /i, and it was a southern field, andthe bsun would riseand shine bupon it, andthe bsun would set from it.During the first year, the farmer bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowed half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. During the second year, he again bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowedthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year.,The Gemara demonstrates the efficacy of this method: bRav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi had a tract of land. He plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowed half ofit. The next year, bhe plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowedthe other bhalf of it. Andthis method was so effective that his field bproduced twiceas much wheat as other fields its size, bandit was of such a superior quality that bhe soldthe bwheatto be used bas fine flour [ ilismida /i]for the meal offerings in the Temple.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd ifthe flour bbecame wormy,it is bunfitfor use in a meal offering. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFine flour the majority of which became wormyis bunfit. Andsimilarly, bwheatkernels bthe majority of which became wormyare bunfit,and they may not be used to produce fine flour for meal offerings. bRabbi Yirmeya asks:What is the meaning of this latter ruling? Is it saying only that if the bmajority ofan individual bwheatkernel becomes wormy the flour produced from it is unfit, boris it saying that when the bmajority of a ise’a /iof kernels becomes wormy the entire ise’ais bunfit?The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava asks:If bone consecratedgrains of wormy wheat for use in a meal offering, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bthem due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? One is flogged for consecrating a blemished animal as an offering (see iTemura6b); does the same apply to consecrating wormy wheat? Does one say that bsincethe wheat is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ bWe learnedin a mishna belsewhere( iMiddot2:5) with regard to the wood logs that are burned on the altar: Priests inspect them before they are used and bany log in which a worm is foundis bunfit foruse bon the altar.In reference to this mishna, bShmuel says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlywith regard to ba wetlog, as a wormy section cannot be removed. bButif a wormy section is found in ba drylog, the priest bscrapesthe wormy spot baway, andthe log is bfitfor use., bRava asks:If bone consecrateda wormy log to be used on the altar, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bit due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? Does one say that bsincethe log is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., strongMISHNA: /strong Olive trees in bTekoaare the bprimarysource bof oilto be used in meal offerings. bAbba Shaul says: Secondary toTekoa bis Regev on theeast bbank of the JordanRiver. bAll the regions were validfor oil to be brought from them, bbutit was bfrom herethat bthey would bringit., bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil from olives taken bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfrom an irrigatedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfroman olive grove where grain bwas sown betweenthe trees. bBut if one did bringa meal offering containing oil from such groves, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil from bunripe olives [ ianpiktan /i], but if one did bringit, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil bfrom olives that were soaked in water, nor from pickledolives, bnor from boiledolives, bandeven if bone did bringit, it is bnot valid. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara notes the effect of Tekoa’s oil on those living there: The verse states: b“And Joab sent to Tekoa, and fetched from there a wise woman”(II Samuel 14:2). bWhat is differentabout bTekoathat Joab chose to bring a woman from there? bRabbi Yoḥa says: Sincethe residents of Tekoa bare accustomed touse bolive oil, wisdom is prevalent there. /b,§ The Gemara digresses to discuss the tribal portion of Asher, in which the city of Tekoa is located: bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In his blessing to the tribe of Asher, Moses said: “He will be pleasing to his brothers, band immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24). bThisis referring to bthe portion of Asher, as the oil flowsthere blike a spring.The Gemara relates: bThey saidthat bonce, the people of Laodicea were in need of oil. They appointeda gentile bmessenger [ ipolmostos /i]and bsaid to him: Go and bring us one million imanehworth bof oil. /b, bHefirst bwent to Jerusalemto procure the oil, but residents there did not have that quantity of oil. bThey said to him: Go to Tyre,which was a commercial city. bHe went to Tyre,but they also did not have enough oil. bThey said to him: Go to Gush Ḥalav,which is located in the portion of Asher. bHe went to Gush Ḥalav,and bthey said to him: Go to so-and-so, to that field.He went there band foundsomeone bhoeing [ iozek /i] under his olive trees.The messenger bsaid tothat man: bDo you havethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need?The man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I complete my labor,i.e., hoeing. The messenger bwaited untilthe man bcompleted his labor. /b, bAfter he completed his labor,the man bslung his toolsover his shoulders bbehind him,a manner typical of poor laborers, and started walking, band he was removing stonesfrom his orchard bas he went along the path.Upon seeing this behavior, which suggested the man was merely a laborer, the messenger questioned whether the man was truly able to provide him with the oil. bHe said tothe man: Can it be that byoureally bhavethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need? It seems to me that the Jewsof Gush Ḥalav bare making a laughingstock of meby sending me here. bWhen he reached his city,the man’s bmaidservant brought out to him a kettle [ ikumkemos /i] of hotwater, band he washed his hands and his feet.Afterward, bshe brought out to him a golden basin filled with oil, in which he immersed his hands and feet, in fulfillment of thatwhich bis statedwith regard to the Tribe of Asher: b“And immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24)., bAfter they ate and drank,the man bmeasured outfor the messenger bone million imanehworth bof oil.The man bsaid to him:Are you sure that byou do not need any moreoil? The messenger bsaid to him: Yes,I do need more, bbut I do not havethe bmoneyfor it. The man bsaid to him: If you wish to takemore oil, btakeit band I will goback to Laodicea bwith you and collect the moneyfor the extra oil there. The messenger agreed and the man bmeasured outan additional b180,000 imanehworth bof oil.Concerning this incident, people bsaid:The messenger had such an enormous burden of oil that bhe left neither a horse, nor a mule, nor a camel, nor a donkey inall of bEretz Yisrael that he did not rentin order to help transport the oil back to Laodicea., bWhenthe messenger finally breached his city, the people of his city came out to praise him [ ilekaleso /i]for achieving this tremendous feat. The messenger bsaid to them: Do not praise me. Rather,praise bthisman bwho has come with me, asit is bhewho bmeasured for me one million imanehworth bof oil, and he extended a debt to me for 180,000 imanehworth bof oil.This incident was bin fulfillment of thatwhich bis stated: “There is one who seems to be rich, yet has nothing; there is one who seems to be poor, yet has great wealth”(Proverbs 13:7).,§ The mishna teaches: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from olives bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove.The mishna continues to state that one may not bring a meal offering containing oil from unripe olives, and, according to one version of the mishna’s text, it adds that even if one did bring a meal offering containing such oil, it is not valid. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from bunripe olives, /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. כמאן מצלינן על קצירי ועל מריעי [כמאן כר' יוסי] מדאמר קצירי ומריעי שמע מינה קצירי קצירי ממש מריעי רבנן:,ומותר בעבה: מתני' דלא כבבלאי דאמר ר' זירא בבלאי טפשאי דאכלי לחמא בלחמא,א"ר חסדא דמשאיל להון להלין נקדני דהוצל הדין דייסא היכין מעלי למיכלה דחיטי בלחמא דחיטי ודשערי בלחמא דשערי או דלמא דחיטי בדשערי ודשערי בדחיטי,רבא אכליה בחסיסי רבה בר רב הונא אשכחי' לרב הונא דקאכיל דייסא באצבעתיה אמ' ליה אמאי קאכיל מר בידיה א"ל הכי אמר רב דייסא באצבעתא בסים וכל דכן בתרתין וכל דכן בתלת,אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן אמר ליה רב הונא לרבה בריה מזמנים לך למיכל דייסא עד פרסה למיכל בישרא דתורא עד תלתא פרסין אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן א"ל רב הונא לרבה בריה כל מידעם לא תפלוט קמיה רבך לבר מן קרא ודייסא שהן דומין לפתילתא של אבר ואפילו קמי שבור מלכא פלוט,רבי יוסי ורבי יהודה חד אכיל דייסא באצבעתיה וחד אכיל בהוצא א"ל דאכיל בהוצא לדאכיל באצבעתיה עד מתי אתה מאכילני צואתך אמר ליה דאכיל באצבעתיה לדאכיל בהוצא עד מתי אתה מאכילני רוקך,רבי יהודה ורבי שמעון אייתו לקמייהו בלוספיין רבי יהודה אכל ר' שמעון לא אכל א"ל רבי יהודה מאי טעמא לא אכיל מר אמר ליה ר' שמעון אלו אין יוצאין מבני מעים כל עיקר אמר ליה רבי יהודה כ"ש שנסמוך עליהן למחר,רבי יהודה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' טרפון אמר ליה רבי טרפון היום פניך צהובין אמר ליה אמש יצאו עבדיך לשדה והביאו לנו תרדין ואכלנום בלא מלח ואם אכלנום במלח כל שכן שהיו פנינו צהובין,אמרה ההיא מטרוניתא לרבי יהודה מורה ורוי אמר לה הימנותא בידא דההיא איתתא אי טעימנא אלא קידושא ואבדלתא וארבעה כסי דפסחא וחוגרני צידעי מן הפסח עד העצרת אלא (קהלת ח, א) חכמת אדם תאיר פניו,אמר לי' ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהודה פניך דומין אי כמלוי רבית אי כמגדלי חזירין א"ל ביהודאי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא אית לי מן ביתא עד בי מדרשא וכל שעה ושעה אני נכנס לכל אחד ואחד,ר' יהודה כד אזיל לבי מדרשא שקיל גולפא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה רבי שמעון שקיל צנא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה,דביתהו דרבי יהודה נפקת נקטת עמרא עבדה גלימא דהוטבי כד נפקת לשוקא מיכסיא ביה וכד נפיק רבי יהודה לצלויי הוה מיכסי ומצלי וכד מיכסי ביה הוה מברך ברוך שעטני מעיל,זימנא חדא גזר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל תעניתא ר' יהודה לא אתא לבי תעניתא אמרין ליה לא אית ליה כסויא שדר ליה גלימא ולא קביל 49b. bIn accordance with whoseopinion bdo we prayevery day bfor the sick and for the suffering? In accordance with whoseopinion? bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,who holds that one is judged every day, not only on Rosh HaShana, and therefore it is appropriate to pray for people every day. bFromthe fact bthat he said: The sick and the suffering,one can blearn fromhis statement that the term: bThe sick,is referring to bactual sickpeople, while the term: bThe suffering,is referring to bthe Sages,who typically are physically frail.,§ It is stated in the mishna that one who vowed that loose cooked food is forbidden to him is bpermitted totaste ba thickcooked food. The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance with thecustom of the bBabylonians, as Rabbi Zeira said: Babylonians are foolish, as they eat bread with bread.They eat thick porridge with their bread, which is essentially eating one kind of bread with another. According to their custom, one who vows that cooked foods are forbidden to him is prohibited from eating even a thick cooked food.,In that context, bRav Ḥisda said that those fastidiousresi-dents bof Huzal,Babylonia bwere asked: How is it best to eat this porridge?Should bwheatporridge be eaten bwith wheat bread and barleyporridge bwith barley bread, or perhaps wheatporridge should be eaten bwith barleybread band barleyporridge bwith wheatbread?,The Gemara relates: bRava would eathis bread bwith iḥasisei /i,a porridge made of toasted barley grains. bRabba, son of Rav Huna, found Rav Huna eating porridge with his fingers. He said to him: Why is the Master eating with his hands?Rav Huna bsaid to him: Thisis what bRav said: Porridgeeaten bwith a finger is tasty, and all the more soif it is eaten bwith twofingers, band all the more so with three.It is more enjoyable to eat porridge with your hands., bRav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba:If byou are invited to eat porridge,for such a meal you should travel bup tothe distance of ba parasang [ iparsa /i].If you are invited bto eat ox meat,you should travel bup to three parasangs. Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba: You should not spit out anything before your teacher,as this is disrespectful, bapart from gourd and porridge, as they are likea burning blead wickin the intestines when they cannot be digested, bandtherefore bspitthem bout even before King Shapur,due to the danger involved.,The Gemara relates more incidents: bRabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yehudadined together. bOneof them bate porridge with his fingers, andthe other bone ate with a fork [ ihutza /i].The one bwho was eating with a fork said tothe one bwho was eating with his fingers: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your filth?Must I keep eating off of your dirty fingernails? The one bwho was eating with his fingers said tothe one bwho was eating with a fork: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your spittle,as you eat with a fork which you then put back in the common bowl.,iBelospayin /i,a type of figs, bwere brought before Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda atethem, but bRabbi Shimon did not eatthem. bRabbi Yehuda said to him: What is the reasonthat the bMaster is not eating? Rabbi Shimon said to him: These do not leave the intestines at all.They remain undigested. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:If so, ball the more that one can rely on themto feel full btomorrow. /b, bRabbi Yehuda was sitting before Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Your face today is ruddy,i.e., a rosy, healthy color. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Last night your servants,i.e., we students, bwent out to the field, and beets were brought to us, and we ate them without salt.This is the reason for our healthy complexion. bAnd had we eaten them with salt, all the more so would our faces have been ruddy. /b,The Gemara cites related incidents: bA certaingentile blady [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda,whose face was ruddy: How can one bteachthe Jews bandbe ba drunkat the same time? bHe said to her:I place my bintegrity in the hands of this womanand should no longer be deemed credible bif Iever btasteany wine bexceptfor that of ikiddush /i, ihavdala /i, and the four cups of Passover. Andafter I drink those four cups bI tie my temples from Passover to iShavuot /i,as wine gives me a headache. bRather,my complexion is explained by the verse b“A man’s wisdom makes his face to shine”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda: Your face is similar either to usurers or to pig breeders.These people would earn a good living without expending much energy, which gave them plump, healthy complexions. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Bothof these occupations bare prohibited to Jews. Rather,my face is ruddy because bI have twenty-four bathroomson the way bfrom my home to the study hall, and all the time I enter each and every oneof them. He did not suffer from constipation, which had a beneficial effect on his complexion.,§ The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehuda would go to the study hall he would carry a pitcher [ igulefa /i] on his shoulderto sit on, bsaying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit.It brought him honor by enabling him to avoid sitting on the floor of the study hall. Similarly, bRabbi Shimon would carry a basket on his shoulder, saying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit. /b,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Yehuda’s wife went outto the market, bcollected wool,and bmade a thick [ ihutevei /i] cloak. When she would go out to the market she would cover herself with it, and when Rabbi Yehuda would go out to pray he would cover himselfwith the cloak band pray. And when hewould bcover himself with it he would recite the blessing: Blessed is He who wrapped me in a coat,as he took much pleasure in it.,On bone occasion Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,the iNasi /i, bdecreed a fast. Rabbi Yehuda did not come to the house of the fast,where everyone gathered. The people bsaid toRabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Rabbi Yehuda bdoes not havea dignified garment to bcoverhimself with, and therefore he shies away from public events. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsent him a cloakof his own, bbutRabbi Yehuda bdid not acceptthis gift.
39. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. תני תנא קמיה דרבא ורב ספרא צהבו פניו דרב ספרא אמר לו רבא לאו כגון מר אלא כגון רב חנינא ורב אושעיא דהוו אושכפי בארעא דישראל והוו יתבי בשוקא דזונות ועבדי להו מסאני לזונות ועיילי להו אינהו מסתכלי בהו ואינהו לא מדלן עינייהו לאיסתכולי בהו ומומתייהו הכי בחייהן רבנן קדישי דבארעא דישראל:,שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא אוהבן מי שאינו כועס ומי שאינו משתכר ומי שאינו מעמיד על מדותיו שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא שונאן המדבר א' בפה ואחד בלב והיודע עדות בחבירו ואינו מעיד לו והרואה דבר ערוה בחבירו ומעיד בו יחידי,כי הא דטוביה חטא ואתא זיגוד לחודיה ואסהיד ביה קמיה דרב פפא נגדיה לזיגוד א"ל טוביה חטא וזיגוד מינגד אמר ליה אין דכתיב (דברים יט, טו) לא יקום עד אחד באיש ואת לחודך אסהדת ביה שם רע בעלמא קא מפקת ביה,אמר רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב מותר לשנאתו שנאמר (שמות כג, ה) כי תראה חמור שנאך רובץ תחת משאו מאי שונא אילימא שונא נכרי והא תניא שונא שאמרו שונא ישראל ולא שונא נכרי,אלא פשיטא שונא ישראל ומי שריא למסניה והכתיב (ויקרא יט, יז) לא תשנא את אחיך בלבבך אלא דאיכא סהדי דעביד איסורא כולי עלמא נמי מיסני סני ליה מאי שנא האי אלא לאו כי האי גוונא דחזיא ביה איהו דבר ערוה,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מצוה לשנאתו שנאמר (משלי ח, יג) יראת ה' (שונאי) רע אמר רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מהו למימרא ליה לרביה למשנייה אמר ליה אי ידע דמהימן לרביה כבי תרי לימא ליה ואי לא לא לימא ליה,תנו רבנן שלשה חייהן אינם חיים הרחמנין והרתחנין ואניני הדעת ואמר רב יוסף כולהו איתנהו בי,תנו רבנן שלשה שונאין זה את זה אלו הן הכלבים והתרנגולין והחברין וי"א אף הזונות וי"א אף תלמידי חכמים שבבבל,ת"ר שלשה אוהבין זה את זה אלו הן הגרים ועבדים ועורבין,ארבעה אין הדעת סובלתן אלו הן דל גאה ועשיר מכחש וזקן מנאף ופרנס מתגאה על הציבור בחנם ויש אומרים אף המגרש את אשתו פעם ראשונה ושניה ומחזירה,ותנא קמא זימנא דכתובתה מרובה אי נמי יש לו בנים הימנה ולא מצי מגרש לה,חמשה דברים צוה כנען את בניו אהבו זה את זה ואהבו את הגזל ואהבו את הזמה ושנאו את אדוניכם ואל תדברו אמת,ששה דברים נאמרים בסוס אוהב את הזנות ואוהב את המלחמה ורוחו גסה ומואס את השינה ואוכל הרבה ומוציא קמעה וי"א אף מבקש להרוג בעליו במלחמה,שבעה מנודין לשמים אלו הן יהודי שאין לו אשה ושיש לו אשה ואין לו בנים ומי שיש לו בנים ואין מגדלן לתלמוד תורה ומי שאין לו תפילין בראשו ותפילין בזרועו וציצית בבגדו ומזוזה בפתחו והמונע מנעלים מרגליו וי"א אף מי שאין מיסב בחבורה של מצוה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי שמואל בר מרתא אמר רב משום רבי יוסי איש הוצל מניין שאין שואלין בכלדיים שנאמר (דברים יח, יג) תמים תהיה עם ה' אלהיך,ומניין היודע בחבירו שהוא גדול ממנו אפילו בדבר אחד שחייב לנהוג בו כבוד שנאמר (דניאל ו, ד) כל קבל די רוח יתירא ביה [ומלכא עשית להקמותיה על כל מלכותא],והיושבת על דם טהור אסורה לשמש עד כמה אמר רב עונה,תנא הוא יוסף איש הוצל הוא יוסף הבבלי הוא איסי בן גור אריה הוא איסי בן יהודה הוא איסי בן גמליאל הוא איסי בן מהללאל ומה שמו איסי בן עקביה שמו הוא רבי יצחק בן טבלא הוא רבי יצחק בן חקלא הוא רבי יצחק בן אלעא הוא 113b. When bthe itannataughtthis ibaraita bbefore Rava and Rav Safra, Rav Safra’s face lit upwith joy, as he was listed among those praised by God. bRava said to him:This does not refer to someone blike the Master. Rather,the statement applies to people like bRav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya, who were cobblers in Eretz Yisrael, and they would sit in the marketplace of prostitutes and fashion shoes for prostitutes. Andthe prostitutes bwould entertheir shops and blook at them.However, due to their piety, these Sages bdid not raise their eyes to look atthe women. And those prostitutes were so impressed with this behavior that when they bswore,they would say bas follows: By the lives of the holy Sages of Eretz Yisrael.It is this type of bachelor who is praised by Heaven.,The Gemara cites a similar statement. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, loves threepeople: bOne who does not get angry; one who does not get drunk; and one who is forgiving. The Holy One, Blessed be He, hates threepeople: bOne who says onestatement bwith his mouth andmeans banother in his heart,i.e., a hypocrite; bone who knows testimony about anotherperson band does not testify on his behalf; and one who observes a licentious matterperformed bby anotherperson band testifies against him alone.His testimony is meaningless, as he is the only witness; consequently, he merely gives the individual a bad reputation.,The Gemara comments: This is blikethat incident bwhere Tuveya sinnedwith immorality, band Zigud came alone to testify about him before Rav Pappa.Rav Pappa instructed that bZigud be lashed.Zigud bsaid to him: Tuveya sinned and Zigud is lashed,an objection that became a popular saying. bHe said to him: Yes, as it is written: “One witness shall not rise up against a man”(Deuteronomy 19:15), band you testified against him alone. You have merely given him a bad reputation. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said:Although one who sees another committing a sin should not testify against him by himself, bhe isnonetheless bpermitted to hate him, as it is stated: “If you see the donkey of he who hates you lying under its load”(Exodus 23:5). The Gemara clarifies this verse: bWhatis the meaning of he bwho hates youmentioned in the verse? bIf you sayit is referring to ba gentile who hatesyou, bbut wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat the phrase: bHe who hates, ofwhich the Torah bspoke, is a Jew who hatesyou, bnot a gentile who hatesyou?, bRather,it is bobviousthat the verse is referring to ba Jew who hatesyou. bBut is one permitted to hatea fellow Jew? bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not hate your brother in your heart”(Leviticus 19:17), which clearly prohibits the hatred of another Jew? bRather,perhaps you will say that the verse is referring to a situation bwhere there are witnesses that he performed a sin.However, in that case, beveryoneelse should balso hate him. What is differentabout this particular person who hates him? bRather, is it notreferring bto a case like this, when he saw himperform ba licentious matter?He is therefore permitted to hate him for his evil behavior, whereas others who are unaware of his actions may not hate him., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Not only is this permitted, it is even ba mitzva to hate him, as it is stated: “The fear of God is to hate evil”(Proverbs 8:13). bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said to Rav Ashi: What isthe ihalakhawith regard btowhether one who saw someone sin may btell his teacherso that bhetoo bwill hate him?Rav Ashi bsaid to him: Ifthe student bknowsthat he is btrusted by his teacher as twowitnesses, and therefore his statement will be accepted, bheshould btell him, and ifhe is bnottrusted by his teacher as two witnesses, he should bnot tell him. /b, bThe Sages taught:There are bthreetypes of people bwhose lives are not lives,due to their constant suffering: bThe compassionate, the hot tempered, and the delicate. Rav Yosef said: All of theseattributes barefound bin me. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups bhate othermembers of the same group: bDogs, roosters, and the Persian priests. And some say: Also prostitutes. And some say: Also Torah scholars in Babylonia. /b,Likewise, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups blove one another: Converts, slaves, and ravens. /b, bFourtypes of people bcannot be enduredby anyone: bAn arrogant pauper; a wealthy person who deniesmonetary claims against him; ba lecherous old man; and a leader who lords over the community for no cause. And some say: Also one who divorces his wife once and twice and takes her backa third time. He should decide definitively whether or not he wants her.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy didn’t bthe first itanna /imention this case of a man who remarries his wife after two divorces? The Gemara answers: bSometimesthe husband’s payment to her in the event of divorce, as stipulated in bher marriage contract, is large,and since he is unable to pay he is forced to take her back. bAlternatively, he has children with her and cannot divorce her,as he wants someone to care for them.,The Gemara continues: bCanaan commanded his sonswith regard to bfive mattersthat are apparently normal behavior for slaves: bLove one another, love robbery, love promiscuity, hate your masters, and do not speak the truth. /b, bSix matters are said with regard to a horse:It bloves promiscuity,it bloves war, its demeanor is arrogant, it despises sleep, it eats much, and it excretes little. And some say:Just as a horse always rushes straight into the heat of a battle, it balso attempts to kill its master in war. /b, bSevenare bostracized by Heaven,despite the fact that they have not been ostracized in any court: bA Jew who does not have a wife; and one who has a wife but has no sons; and one who has sons whom he does not raise toengage in bTorah study; and one who does not have phylacteries on his head, and phylacteries on his arm, and ritual fringes on his garment, and a imezuzain his doorway; and one who withholds shoes from his feet. And some say: Also one who does not sit with a groupthat is partaking of a feast in celebration bof a mitzva. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Shmuel bar Marta saidthat Rav said, citing bRabbi Yosei of Hutzal: From whereis it derived bthat onemay bnot consult astrologers? As it is stated: “You shall be wholehearted with the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 18:13). The Torah demands absolute faith in God and acceptance of His justice, without attempting to predict the future., bAnd from whereis it derived concerning bone who knows about another that he is greater than him, even in one matter, that he must treat him with respect? As it is stated: “Because a surpassing spirit was in him, the king thought to set him over the whole realm”(Daniel 6:4). This verse teaches that one who is in any way greater than another person is worthy of his respect., bAndit was also stated by Rabba bar bar Ḥana: With regard to a woman who was bobservingher days of ritually bpure blood,and those days have ended, she bis prohibited to engage in intimacyimmediately, lest she see ritually impure blood. Any blood emitted by a woman within forty days after giving birth to a male child or eighty days after giving birth to a female child is ritually pure. After this period of time has passed, a woman should not have relations with her husband immediately. The Gemara asks: bUntil whenis she prohibited to her husband? bRav said:She must wait ba set interval of timefor the ritual impurity of a inidda /i, i.e., either one day or one night.,With regard to Rabbi Yosei of Hutzal, it was btaught:The bYosef of Hutzalmentioned in other places in the Gemara bisthe same person as bYosef the Babylonian.Yosef is the full name of Yosei. Furthermore, bhe isalso known as bIsi ben Gur Arye, he is Isi ben Yehuda, he is Isi ben Gamliel,and bhe is Isi ben Mahalalel. And what is hisreal bname? Hisreal bnameis bIsi ben Akavya.Similarly, the Sage bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavla isalso known as bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Ḥakla,who bis Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Ela.These are two cases of one Sage with several names.
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106a. מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל רוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הוא הולך ובא עמהן כיון שדוממו הרוחות עמד קנה במקומו,אבל בלעם הרשע ברכן בארז מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ושרשיו מועטין ואין גזעו מחליף אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית מיד עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול ממנו קולמוס לכתוב ממנו ס"ת נביאים וכתובים,(במדבר כד, כא) וירא את הקיני וישא משלו אמר לו בלעם ליתרו קיני לא היית עמנו באותה עצה מי הושיבך אצל איתני עולם,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה אלו הן בלעם איוב ויתרו בלעם שיעץ נהרג איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו לישב בלשכת הגזית שנאמר (דברי הימים א ב, נה) ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים סוכתים המה הקינים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב וכתיב (שופטים א, טז) ובני קיני חותן משה עלו מעיר התמרים,(במדבר כד, כג) וישא משלו ויאמר אוי מי יחיה משמו אל (אמר רשב"ל אוי מי שמחיה עצמו בשם אל) א"ר יוחנן אוי לה לאומה שתמצא בשעה שהקב"ה עושה פדיון לבניו מי מטיל כסותו בין לביא ללביאה בשעה שנזקקין זה עם זה,(במדבר כד, כד) וצים מיד כתים אמר רב ליבון אספיר (במדבר כד, כד) וענו אשור וענו עבר עד אשור קטלי מיקטל מכאן ואילך משעבדי שיעבודי,(במדבר כד, יד) הנני הולך לעמי לכה איעצך אשר יעשה העם הזה לעמך עמך לעם הזה מיבעי ליה א"ר אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים,אמר להם אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא והם מתאוים לכלי פשתן בוא ואשיאך עצה עשה להן קלעים והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים וימכרו להן כלי פשתן,עשה להן קלעים מהר שלג עד בית הישימות והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים ובשעה שישראל אוכלין ושותין ושמחין ויוצאין לטייל בשוק אומרת לו הזקינה אי אתה מבקש כלי פשתן זקינה אומרת לו בשוה וילדה אומרת לו בפחות שתים ושלש פעמים,ואח"כ אומרת לו הרי את כבן בית שב ברור לעצמך וצרצורי של יין עמוני מונח אצלה ועדיין לא נאסר (יין של עמוני ולא) יין של נכרים אמרה לו רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין כיון ששתה בער בו,אמר לה השמיעי לי הוציאה יראתה מתוך חיקה אמרה לו עבוד לזה אמר לה הלא יהודי אני אמרה לו ומה איכפת לך כלום מבקשים ממך אלא פיעור [והוא אינו יודע שעבודתה בכך] ולא עוד אלא שאיני מנחתך עד שתכפור בתורת משה רבך שנא' (הושע ט, י) המה באו בעל פעור וינזרו לבשת ויהיו שקוצים באהבם,(במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ר"א אומר שטים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שנתעסקו בדברי שטות,ותקראן לעם לזבחי אלהיהן רבי אלעזר אומר ערומות פגעו בהן רבי יהושע אומר שנעשו כולן בעלי קריין,מאי לשון רפידים רבי אליעזר אומר רפידים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שריפו עצמן מדברי תורה שנאמר (ירמיהו מז, ג) לא הפנו אבות אל בנים מרפיון ידים,אמר רבי יוחנן כל מקום שנאמר וישב אינו אלא לשון צער שנא' (במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ויחל העם לזנות אל בנות מואב (בראשית לז, א) וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען ויבא יוסף את דבתם רעה אל אביהם ונאמר (בראשית מז, כז) וישב ישראל בארץ גשן ויקרבו ימי ישראל למות (מלכים א ה, ה) וישב יהודה וישראל לבטח איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו (מלכים א יא, יד) ויקם ה' שטן לשלמה את הדד האדומי מזרע המלך הוא באדום,(במדבר לא, ח) ואת מלכי מדין הרגו על חלליהם וגו' את בלעם בן בעור הרגו בחרב בלעם מאי בעי התם א"ר יוחנן שהלך ליטול שכר עשרים וארבעה אלף [שהפיל מישראל] אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניה,(יהושע יג, כב) ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם קוסם נביא הוא א"ר יוחנן בתחלה נביא ולבסוף קוסם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגרי 106a. breplenishesitself, as if it is cut another grows, band its roots are numerous. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it. bRather, it goes and comes withthe winds. And bonce the winds subside the reed remains in its place. /b, bBut Balaam the wicked blessed them with a cedar.There is an aspect of curse in that blessing, as he was saying they will be bjust like a cedarthat bdoes not stand in a placenear bwater, and its roots are fewrelative to its height, band its trunk does not replenishitself, as if it is cut it does not grow back. And bevenif ball the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it; but bonce a southern wind gusts it immediately uprootsthe cedar band overturns it on its face. Moreover,it is bthe reed that was privileged tohave ba quill [ ikulmos /i] taken from it to write scrolls of Torah, Prophets, and Writings.Therefore, the curse of Ahijah is better than the blessing of Balaam.,§ It is stated with regard to Balaam: b“And he looked at the Kenite and he took up his parableand said: Though firm is your dwelling place, and though your nest be set in rock” (Numbers 24:21). bBalaam said to Yitro: Kenite,were byou not in Egypt with us in that counselto drown the newborn males of Israel? bWho placed you alongside the mighty of the world? /b,The Gemara comments: bAnd that is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Simai says: Three wereassociates bin that counsel, and they are: Balaam, Job, and Yitro. Balaam, who advisedto drown the newborn males, bwas killed. Job, who was silentand was reluctant to express his opinion, bwas sentenced tosuffer bafflictions. And Yitro, who fledafter he disagreed with that counsel and Pharaoh sought to kill him, bhis descendants were privileged to sitas scribes in session with the Sanhedrin bin the Chamber of Hewn Stone, as it is stated: “And the families of the scribes who dwelt in Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These were the Kenites who came of Hammath the father of the house of Rechab”(I Chronicles 2:55). bAnd it is written therewith regard to the identity of the Kenites: b“And the children of the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees”(Judges 1:16).,With regard to the verse: b“And he took up his parable, and said: Alas, he who lives from what God has appointed him”(Numbers 24:23), bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Woe unto one who sustains himselfin an indulgent manner bin the name of God,i.e., Balaam, whose livelihood was from speaking in the name of God. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Woe unto the nation that will be foundhindering the Jewish people bat the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, redeems His children. Who places his garment between a male lion and a female lion when they are mating?One who does so will certainly die.,With regard to the verse: b“And ships come from the coast of Kittim”(Numbers 24:24), bRav says:This is bthe Roman legion [ ilibbun aspir /i]that will attack Assyria. b“And they shall afflict Assyria, and they shall afflict Eber”(Numbers 24:24). bBeforethey reach bAssyria they will killthe Jewish people; bfrom thatpoint bforward they will enslave themand not kill them.,§ Balaam said to Balak: b“Behold, I go to my people; come therefore, and I shall advise you what this people shall do to your people”(Numbers 24:14). Ostensibly, bhe should havesaid: What byour peopleshall do bto this people. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says:Balaam spoke blike a person who curses himselfbut does not wish to utter so awful a matter bandinstead bascribes his curse totake effect on bothers. /b,Balaam bsaid to them: The God of theseJewish people bdespises lewdness, and they desire linen garments,as they have no new garments; bcome, and I will give you advice. Make for themenclosures using wall bhangings and seat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outsidethe enclosure band a young woman inside, andhave the women bsell them linen garments. /b,Balak bmade for themenclosures using wall bhangings from the snow mountain,the Ḥermon, buntil Beit HaYeshimot, and he sat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outside and a young woman on the inside. And at the time when Jewish people were eating and drinking and were glad and going out to stroll in the marketplace, the old woman would say toa Jew: bAren’t you seeking linen garments?He would enter the enclosure and ask the price, bthe old woman would quote hima price bequalto its value, band the young woman would quote hima price blessthan its value. That scenario would repeat itself btwo or three times. /b, bAnd thereafter she would say to him: You are like a member of our household, sitand bchoose for yourselfthe merchandise that you want. bAnd a jug of Ammonite wine was placed near her, andneither bAmmonite wine nor gentile wine had been prohibited yetfor Jews. bShe said to him: Is it your wish to drink a cup of wine? Once he drankthe wine, his evil inclination bburned within him. /b, bHethen bsaid to her: Submit to meand engage in intercourse with me. bShethen bremovedthe bidolthat bshe worshipped from her lap and said to him: Worship this. He said to her: Am I not Jewish?I am therefore forbidden from engaging in idol worship. bShe said to him: And what is your concern? We are asking you to do nothing more than defecatein its presence. bBut he does not know that its worshipis conducted bin thatmanner. Once he did so, she said to him: bMoreover, I will not leave you until you deny the Torah of Moses your teacher, as it is stated: “But when they came to Ba’al-Peor they separated themselves to the shameful item; and they became detestable like that which they loved”(Hosea 9:10). They devoted themselves to the disgrace of defecation, and detested the name of God.,With regard to the verse: b“And Israel dwelt in Shittim”(Numbers 25:1), bRabbi Eliezer says: Shittimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they were engaged in matters of nonsense [ ishetut /i],i.e., prostitution and idol worship.,With regard to the verse: b“And they called [ ivatikrena /i] the people to the offerings of their gods”(Numbers 25:2), bRabbi Eliezer says: Naked women encountered them. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They all became those who experienced a seminal emission [ ikerayin /i]resulting from the lust that they experienced.,Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the names of places, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the connotation of the bterm Rephidim(see Exodus 19:2)? bRabbi Eliezer says: Rephidimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they enfeebled [ irippu /i] themselves with regard toengaging in bmatters of Torah, as it is stated: “The fathers do not look back to their children from feebleness [ irifyon /i] of hands”(Jeremiah 47:3). There too, the connotation of the name is dereliction in the study of Torah., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Everywhere that it is stated: And he dwelt, it is nothing other than an expression of pain,of an impending calamity, bas it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab”(Numbers 25:1). It is stated: b“And Jacob dwelt in the land where his father had sojourned in the land of Canaan”(Genesis 37:1), and it is stated thereafter: b“And Joseph brought evil report of them to his father”(Genesis 37:2), which led to the sale of Joseph. bAnd it is stated: “And Israel dweltin the land of Egypt bin the land of Goshen”(Genesis 47:27), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the time drew near that Israel was to die”(Genesis 47:29). It is stated: b“And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree”(I Kings 5:5), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in Edom”(I Kings 11:14).,§ With regard to Balaam, it is stated: b“And they slew the kings of Midian, with the rest of their slain…And Balaam, son of Beor, they slew with the sword”(Numbers 31:8). The Gemara asks: bBalaam, what did he seek there;what was his role in that war? He lived in Aram. bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to collect payment for twenty-four thousandmembers bof the Jewish people, whom he felledwith his advice. bMar Zutra bar Toviya saysthat bRav saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: A camel goes to seek hornsand bthe ears that it had are severed from it.Not only was Balaam unsuccessful in collecting his fee, he also lost his life.,It is stated: b“And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner,did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22). The Gemara asks: Was he ba diviner? He is a prophet. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initiallyhe was ba prophet, but ultimately,he lost his capacity for prophecy and remained merely ba diviner. Rav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say:This woman bwasdescended bfrom princes and rulers,and bwas licentious with carpenters. /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. ומאי ר' מאיר דתניא לא תצא אשה במפתח שבידה ואם יצאת חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון,כובלת מאן דכר שמה,חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני וכן בכובלת וכן בצלוחית של פלייטון לא תצא ואם יצאה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון במה דברים אמורים כשיש בהם בושם אבל אין בהם בושם חייבת,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה זאת אומרת המוציא אוכלין פחות מכשיעור בכלי חייב דהא אין בה בושם כפחות מכשיעור בכלי דמי וקתני חייבת,רב אשי אמר בעלמא אימא לך פטור ושאני הכא דליתיה לממשא כלל:,(עמוס ו, ו) וראשית שמנים ימשחו אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל זה פלייטון,מתיב רב יוסף אף על פלייטון גזר רבי יהודה בן בבא ולא הודו לו ואי אמרת משום תענוג אמאי לא הודו לו,אמר ליה אביי ולטעמיך הא דכתיב (עמוס ו, ו) השותים במזרקי יין ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר קנישקנין וחד אמר שמזרקין כוסותיהן זה לזה הכא נמי דאסיר והא רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי ריש גלותא ושתה בקנישקנין ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי,אלא כל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ואית ביה שמחה גזרו רבנן אבל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ולית ביה שמחה לא גזרו רבנן:,(עמוס ו, ד) השוכבים על מטות שן וסרוחים על ערשותם אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שהיו משתינין מים בפני מטותיהן ערומים,מגדף בה ר' אבהו אי הכי היינו דכתיב (עמוס ו, ז) לכן עתה יגלו בראש גולים משום דמשתינין מים בפני מטותיהם ערומים יגלו בראש גולים,אלא א"ר אבהו אלו בני אדם שהיו אוכלים ושותים זה עם זה ודובקין מטותיהן זו בזו ומחליפין נשותיהן זה עם זה ומסריחין ערסותם בשכבת זרע שאינו שלהן,א"ר אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא ג' דברים מביאין את האדם לידי עניות ואלו הן המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום ומזלזל בנטילת ידים ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו,המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דמהדר אפיה לפורייה אבל לבראי לית לן בה,ומהדר אפיה לפורייה נמי לא אמרן אלא לארעא אבל במנא לית לן בה,ומזלזל בנטילת ידים אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דלא משא ידיה כלל אבל משא ולא משא לית לן בה,ולאו מלתא היא דאמר רב חסדא אנא משאי מלא חפני מיא ויהבו לי מלא חפני טיבותא,ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו אמר רבא על עסקי תכשיטיה וה"מ הוא דאית ליה ולא עביד:,דרש רבא בריה דרב עילאי מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, טז) ויאמר ה' יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל ומשקרות עינים דהוה מלאן כוחלא לעינייהו ומרמזן הלוך וטפוף שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה (ישעיהו ג, טז) וברגליהן תעכסנה אמר רב יצחק דבי ר' אמי מלמד שמטילות מור ואפרסמון במנעליהן ומהלכות בשוקי ירושלים וכיון שמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות בקרקע ומתיזות עליהם ומכניסות בהן יצר הרע כארס בכעוס,מאי פורענותיהם כדדריש רבה בר עולא (ישעיהו ג, כד) והיה תחת בושם מק יהיה מקום שהיו מתבשמות בו נעשה נמקים נמקים (ישעיהו ג, כד) ותחת חגורה נקפה מקום שהיו חגורות בצלצול נעשה נקפים נקפים (ישעיהו ג, כד) ותחת מעשה מקשה קרחה מקום שהיו מתקשטות בו נעשה קרחים קרחים (ישעיהו ג, כד) ותחת פתיגיל מחגורת שק פתחים המביאין לידי גילה יהיו למחגורת שק (ישעיהו ג, כד) כי תחת יופי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי חלופי שופרא כיבא,(ישעיהו ג, יז) (וספח) ה' קדקוד בנות ציון אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שפרחה בהן צרעת כתיב הכא ושפח וכתיב התם (ויקרא יד, נו) לשאת ולספחת,וה' פתהן יערה רב ושמואל חד אמר שנשפכו כקיתון וחד אמר שנעשו פתחיהן כיער,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אנשי ירושלים אנשי שחץ היו אדם אומר לחברו במה סעדת היום בפת עמילה או בפת שאינה עמילה ביין גורדלי או 62b. bAndto bwhatstatement of bRabbi Meiris the Gemara referring? bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA woman may not go outon Shabbat bwith a key that is in her hand, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exemptsa woman who goes out bwith a bundle of fragrant herbs and with a flask of balsam oil [ ipalyaton /i]. /b,The Gemara finds the statement of Rabbi Eliezer difficult: bA bundle of fragrant herbs; who mentionedanything about bthat?Rabbi Meir did not mention a bundle of herbs; why did Rabbi Eliezer mention it in his response?,The Gemara answers that the ibaraita bis incomplete and it teaches the following: And likewise, with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and likewise with a flask of balsam oil she may not go out, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exempts inthe cases of ba bundle of fragrant herbs and a flask of balsam oil. In whatcase bis this statement said?In a case bwherethe vessels bhave perfume in them; however,in a case where bthey do not have perfume in them, she is liablefor carrying the flask out into the public domain on Shabbat., bRav Adda bar Ahava said: That is to saythat bone who carries outa measure of bfoodthat is bless than the measurethat determines liability on Shabbat, but he does so bin a vessel, he is liable.Although he is not liable for carrying the food out into the public domain, he is liable for carrying out the vessel. In that case, the vessel is not subordinate to the food, and therefore it is significant. bSincethe case of the flask bin which there is no perfume is comparable tothe case in which there is bless than therequired bmeasurementof food bin a vessel, and it was taughtin the case of the flask that bshe is liableeven though the fragrance of the perfume remains in the vessel, it stands to reason that one who carries a vessel containing less than a measure of food is also liable., bRav Ashi said:That is no proof because, bin general, I would say to youthat bhe is exemptin a case where there is less than the measure that determines liability for food. bHowever, it is different here,in the case of the empty flask of perfume bas,in that case, bthere is no substanceat all. Because the vessel is completely empty, he is liable for carrying the flask.,Related to the mention of perfume, the Gemara cites several statements. It is stated: “That drink wine in imizrekei /i, band anoint themselves with the chief ointments;but they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph” (Amos 6:6). bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: “ /bThe chief ointments” bis balsam oil. /b, bRav Yosef raised an objectionfrom the iTosefta /i: bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava issued a decree on balsam oil as well,prohibiting its use due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple, bandthe Sages bdid not agree with him. And if you saythat balsam oil is the chief ointment cited in the verse, and the decree was issued bdue tothe bpleasureit provides, bwhy didn’tthe Sages bagree with hisdecree? Doesn’t the verse criticize those who do not feel the pain of the people?, bAbaye said to him: And according to your reasoning, that which is writtenin the same verse: b“That drink wine in imizrekei /i”; Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asidisagree over the meaning of the term imizrekei /i. bOne said:They are bmulti-spouted vessels [ ikenishkanin /i],wine vessels with spouts from which several people can drink at one time, band one said that they throw [ imezarkin /i] their cups to one anotherin joy and jest. bIs that also prohibited? Didn’t Rabba bar Rav Huna visit the house of the Exilarch andsee the Exilarch bdrinkfrom ba multi-spouted vessel, andRabba bar Rav Huna bdid not say anything to him? /b, bRather,the principle is as follows: With regard to bany matter in which there isan element of bpleasure and in which there isan element of bjoy, the Sages issued a decreeprohibiting it due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple. bHowever,with regard to ba matter in which there isan element of bpleasure and in which there is noelement of bjoy, the Sages did not issue a decree.Since there is no element of joy in balsam oil, even though it is precious and pleasurable, they did not issue a decree prohibiting it.,The Gemara interprets additional verses related to the critique of the leadership of Samaria. It is stated: b“That lie upon beds of ivory and stretch [ iseruḥim /i] upon their couchesand eat the lambs out of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall” (Amos 6:4). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Thisterm, iseruḥim /i, interpreted homiletically, bteachesthat their sin was that bthey would urinate before their bedswhile bnaked. /b, bRabbi Abbahu ridiculed thatinterpretation: bIf so,that this is the meaning of the term iseruḥim /i, bis thisthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exilesand the revelry of those iseruḥimshall pass away” (Amos 6:7), bbecause they urinate before their bedswhile bnaked they will be exiled at the head of exiles?Although doing so is revolting, a punishment so severe is certainly excessive., bRather, Rabbi Abbahu said:This verse is referring to a grave sin. bThese are people who would eat and drink with each other, and join their beds to each other, and swap wives with each other, and defile their beds with semen that was not theirs.That is the meaning of iseruḥimupon their couches. For those severe transgressions they deserved to be exiled at the head of exiles.,On a related note, bRabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a ibaraita /i: Three matters bring a person toa state of bpovertyas a divine punishment from Heaven: bOne who urinates before his bedwhile bnaked, and one who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, and one whose wife curses him in his presence. /b,The Gemara explains: With regard to bone who urinates before his bedwhile bnaked, Rava said: We only said thisprohibition in a case bwhere he turns his face toward his bedand urinates toward it; bhowever,if he turns his face and urinates btoward the outerportion of the room, bwe have noproblem bwith it. /b, bAndwhere bone turns his face toward his bed, too, we only said thisprohibition in a case bwhere he urinates on the ground; however,if he urinates binto a vessel, we have noproblem bwith itsince that is not considered disgusting.,With regard to bone who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, Rava said: We only saidthis statement in a case bwhere he does not wash his hands at all; however,if bhe washeshis hands band does not washthem with a significant amount of water, bwe have noproblem bwith it. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd that is notso, bas Rav Ḥisda said: I washmy hands bwith handfuls of water andthey bgave mein reward bhandfuls of prosperity.Apparently, in order to garner the benefits of ritual washing of his hands, one should use a significant amount of water.,With regard to bone whose wife curses him in his presence, Rava said:This is referring to a case where she curses him bover mattersrelating to bher ornaments,i.e., she complains that he does not provide her with jewelry. The Gemara comments: bAnd that applies only when he hasthe resources to buy her jewelry bbut does not doso; however, if he does not have sufficient resources he need not be concerned.,Since the Gemara spoke of sins in the First Temple era, it continues to explain other verses with similar content. bRava, son of Rav Ilai, interpretedthe following verse bhomiletically. What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughtyand walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet” (Isaiah 3:16)? br“Because the daughters of Zion are haughty,” indicates bthat they would walk with upright statureand carry themselves in an immodest way. br b“And walk with outstretched necks,”indicates bthat they would walkin small steps, bheel to toe,so onlookers would notice them. br b“Wanton eyes,”indicates bthat they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadow and beckon.br b“Walking and mincing [ itafof /i] as they go,”indicates bthat thewealthy women bwould walka btallwoman balongsidea bshortone so that the tall woman would stand out. This is derived from the interchangeability of the letters itetand itzadi /i; itzafo /i, meaning, in this case, to be seen. br b“Making a tinkling [ ite’akasna /i] with their feet,” Rabbi Yitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that they would place myrrh and balsam in their shoes and would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. And once they approacheda place where the byoung men of Israelwere congregated, bthey would stamptheir feet bon the ground and splash the perfume toward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ ike’eres bakhos /i]. /b, bWhat was their punishmentfor these sins? bAs Rabba bar Ulla taught: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell, there shall be a stench;and instead of a belt, a rope; and instead of well-set hair, baldness; and instead of a fine dress, a girding of sackcloth; instead of beauty, a brand” (Isaiah 3:24). brHe explains: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell there shall be a stench,” indicates that bthe place that they would perfume became decaying sores.br b“And instead of a sash, a rope [ inikpe /i],”indicates that bthe place where they were girded with a sash becamecovered with bmany bruises[inekafim/b]. br b“And instead of well-set hair, baldness,”indicates that bthe place where they would styletheir hair bbecame baldspots. br b“And instead of a fine dress [ ipetigil /i], a girding of sackcloth,”indicates that the borifices [ ipetaḥim /i] that lead to pleasure [ igil /i] will becomea place bfor a girding of sackcloth.br b“Instead of beauty, a brand [ iki /i],” Rava said: That isthe popular expression bthat people say: Instead of beauty, a sore [ ikiva /i]. /b,With regard to a different verse: b“The Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zionand the Lord will lay bare their secret parts” (Isaiah 3:17). And the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the heads of the daughters of Zion; bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This teaches that there was an outbreak of leprosy among them. It is written here, scab [ isippaḥ /i], and it is written there,among the types of leprosy: b“For a sore, and for a scab [ isappaḥat /i],and for a bright spot” (Leviticus 14:56).,With regard to the verse: bAnd the Lord will lay bare their secret parts [ ipot’hen ye’areh /i], Rav and Shmueldisagree. bOne says:It means bthat they,i.e., their innards, bwere poured out [ iye’areh /i] like a jug. And one says: That their orifices [ ipitḥeihen /i] werecovered with hair as thick bas a forest [ iya’ar /i]. /b,On the topic of the sins of Jerusalem and the abundance that existed before its destruction, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The people of Jerusalem were people of arrogance.They would couch their crude behavior in euphemisms. bA person would say to another: On what did you dine today? Well-kneaded bread or bread that is not well-kneaded? On white wine or /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. אלא לאסור יום שלפניו ה"נ לא נצרכה אלא לאסור יום שלאחריו כמאן כרבי יוסי דאמר בין לפניו בין לאחריו אסור אי הכי בעשרים ותשעה נמי מאי איריא דהוי יומא דמקמי יומא דמיתוקם תמידא תיפוק ליה דה"ל יומא דבתר עשרין ותמניא ביה,דתניא בעשרים ותמני' ביה אתת בשורתא טבתא ליהודאי דלא יעידון מן אורייתא שפעם אחת נגזרה גזירה על ישראל שלא יעסקו בתורה ושלא ימולו את בניהם ושיחללו שבתות מה עשה יהודה בן שמוע וחביריו הלכו ונטלו עצה ממטרוניתא אחת שכל גדולי רומי מצויין אצלה,אמרה להם עמדו והפגינו בלילה הלכו והפגינו בלילה אמרו אי שמים לא אחים אנחנו לא בני אב אחד אנחנו לא בני אם אחת אנחנו מה נשתנינו מכל אומה ולשון שאתם גוזרין עלינו גזירות רעות ובטלום ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אמר אביי לא נצרכה אלא לחדש מעובר,רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא לחדש חסר כל שלאחריו בתענית אסור בהספד מותר וזה הואיל ומוטל בין שני ימים טובים עשאוהו כיו"ט עצמו ואפילו בהספד נמי אסור,אמר מר מתמניא ביה ועד סוף מועדא איתותב חגא דשבועיא דלא למיספד למה לי למימר מתמניא ביה לימא מתשעה ביה ותמניא גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא דאיתוקם ביה תמידא,כיון דאילו מקלע (ליה) מילתא ובטליניה לשבעה תמניא גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא קמא דאיתותב ביה חגא דשבועיא,השתא דאתית להכי עשרים ותשעה נמי כיון דאילו מיקלע מילתא ובטליניה לעשרים ותמניא עשרין ותשעה גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא דמקמי יומא דאיתוקם תמידא,איתמר ר' חייא בר אסי אמר רב הלכה כר' יוסי ושמואל אמר הלכה כר' מאיר,ומי אמר שמואל הכי והתניא רשב"ג אומר ומה תלמוד לומר בהון בהון שתי פעמים לומר לך שהן אסורין לפניהן ולאחריהן מותרין ואמר שמואל הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,מעיקרא סבר כיון דליכא תנא דמיקל כרבי מאיר אמר הלכה כרבי מאיר כיון דשמעיה לרבן שמעון דמיקל טפי אמר הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,וכן אמר באלי אמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הלכה כרבי יוסי א"ל רבי חייא לבאלי אסברא לך כי אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כרבי יוסי אדלא להתענאה,ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן אע"פ שאמרו מקדימין ולא מאחרין 18a. bonly to prohibiteulogizing on bthe day before. Here too, it is necessaryto mention Passover bonly to prohibiteulogizing on the bfollowing day.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this ruling? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, who saidthat eulogizing is bprohibited bothon the day bbeforethe date recorded in iMegillat Ta’anit bandon the bfollowing day.The Gemara asks: bIf so,with regard to bthe twenty-ninthof Adar btoo, whystate bspecificallythat eulogizing is prohibited then bbecause it is the day before the day on which the daily offering was established? Let him derivethis prohibition from the fact bthat it is the day after the twenty-eighth ofAdar., bAs it is taughtin iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bOn the twenty-eighth ofAdar bgood tidings came to the Jews, that they would not be restricted from Torahstudy, and they declared this date a commemorative day. The ibaraitaproceeds to describe the events of this day. bAs on one occasion the wicked empire,Rome, bissued a decree of apostasy against the Jews, that they may not occupy themselves with Torahstudy, band that they may not circumcise their sons, and that they must desecrate Shabbat.What did bYehuda ben Shammua and his colleagues do? They went and soughtthe badvice of a certainRoman bmatron [ imatronita /i] whosecompany was kept bby all the prominentpeople bof Rome. /b, bShe said to them: Arise and cry out [ ihafginu /i] at night. They went and cried out at night, saying: O Heaven! Are we not brothers? Are we not children of one father? Are we notthe bchildren of one mother? How are we different from any other nation and tongue that yousingle us out and bissue against us evil decrees?Their cries were effective, bandthe authorities bannulledthe decrees, band they made that daya commemorative bholiday. /b,§ Since the twenty-eighth of Adar is also a commemorative day, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, it is also prohibited to fast on the following day. The question therefore remains: Why was it necessary to list the New Moon of Nisan, when the day before was already prohibited? bAbaye said: It is necessaryto include the New Moon of Nisan bonly forthe case of ba full,thirty-day bmonth.If the month of Adar is thirty days long, fasting on the thirtieth day would be prohibited only because it is the day preceding the New Moon, not because it follows the twenty-eighth of Adar., bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou saythat we are dealing bwith a deficient month,with twenty-nine days, the inclusion of the New Moon of Nisan can still be explained. The reason is that with regard to balldays bthat followthe dates listed in iMegillat Ta’anit /i, bfasting is prohibited but eulogizing is permitted. Butin bthiscase, bsincethe twenty-ninth of Adar bis positioned between twocommemorative bholidays,the twenty-eighth of Adar and the New Moon of Nisan, the Sages bmade it likea commemorative bholiday in its own right, andit is therefore bprohibited even to eulogizeon this date.,§ bThe Master saidabove, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bFrom the eighth ofNisan buntil the end of the festivalof Passover, bthe festival of iShavuotwas restored,and it was decreed bnot to eulogizeduring this period. The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed it bto say: From the eighth ofNisan? bLetthe itanna bsay: From the ninth ofNisan, band the eighth itselfwill still be prohibited because, basstated earlier, bit is the day on which the daily offering was established. /b,The Gemara answers: bSince ifa calamitous bevent happened and they canceled the sevendays commemorating the establishment of the daily offering, bthe eighthday bitselfwill remain bprohibited, as it is the first day on which the festival of iShavuotwas restored.Since this date is not merely the last of the series for the daily offering, but it also commemorates the restoration of iShavuot /i, it is not affected by the cancellation of the previous seven days.,The Gemara notes: bNow that you have arrived at thisconclusion, the same logic can be applied to bthe twenty-ninthof Adar bas well: Since ifa calamitous bevent happened and they canceledthe commemoration of bthe twenty-eighthof Adar, nevertheless, bthe twenty-ninthday bitselfwill remain bprohibited, as it is the first day on which the daily offering was established. /b, bIt was statedthat there is a dispute between iamora’im /i: bRav Ḥiyya bar Asi saidthat bRav said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,that with regard to all the days mentioned in iMegillat Ta’aniton which eulogizing is prohibited, it is likewise prohibited to eulogize on the day before and the day after. bAnd Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,the itannaof the unattributed mishna, who said that although it is prohibited to eulogize on the day before, it is permitted on the day after.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Shmuelactually bsay this? But isn’t ittaught in a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: And whatis the meaning when iMegillat Ta’anit bstates: On them, on them, twice,in the phrases: Not to eulogize on them, and: Not to fast on them. This phrase is repeated bto say to youthat fasting and eulogizing bon thesedays themselves bis prohibited,but on the days bbeforeand on the bfollowingdays it is bpermitted. And Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.How, then, can it be said that Shmuel ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir?,The Gemara answers: bInitially,Shmuel bmaintainedthat bsince there is noother itannaas lenient as Rabbi Meir, he saidthat bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir. When he heard thatthe opinion of bRabban Shimonben Gamliel bwas more lenient,he said that bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Shmuel consistently ruled in the most lenient manner possible on this issue., bAnd similarly,the Sage bBali saidthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei.The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ḥiyyabar Abba bsaid to Bali: I will explainthis ruling bto you. When Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,he was not referring to all matters. Rather, he spoke specifically bwith regard tothe day before those dates concerning which iMegillat Ta’anitsaid: bFasting is prohibited.However, with regard to those days on which it is prohibited to eulogize, he did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that eulogizing on the following day is permitted.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsay this? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa sayas a principle that bthe ihalakha /iis always in accordance with ban unattributed mishna. And we learnedin a mishna: bAlthoughthe Sages bsaid,with regard to reading of the Scroll of Esther, that bonemay read it bearlier but onemay bnotread it blater, /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

44. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. וסיפא איצטריכא ליה פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין תחת ראשיהם,פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן שמעת מינה בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן אמר רב פפא לא תימא תחת ראשיהן אלא אימא כנגד ראשיהן אמר רב משרשיא שמעת מינה תפילין מן הצד שפיר דמי,הכי נמי מסתברא דכנגד ראשיהן דאי סלקא דעתך תחת ראשיהן ותיפוק לי משום כלאים דהא איכא אבנט ונהי נמי דניתנו ליהנות בהן הא מתהני מכלאים,הניחא למ"ד אבנטו של כהן גדול (בשאר ימות השנה) זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט אלא למאן דאמר אבנטו של כ"ג לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט מאי איכא למימר,וכי תימא כלאים בלבישה והעלאה הוא דאסור בהצעה שרי והתניא (ויקרא יט, יט) לא יעלה עליך אבל אתה מותר להציעו תחתיך אבל אמרו חכמים אסור לעשות כן שמא תיכרך נימא אחת על בשרו,וכ"ת דמפסיק ליה מידי ביני ביני והאמר ר"ש בן פזי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר רבי משום קהלא קדישא שבירושלים אפי' עשר מצעות זו על גב זו וכלאים תחתיהן אסור לישן עליהן אלא לאו שמע מינה כנגד ראשיהן שמע מינה,רב אשי אמר לעולם תחת ראשיהן והא קא מתהני מכלאים בגדי כהונה קשין הן כי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דר' יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא,ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ,ובמדינה לא והתניא בעשרים וחמשה [בטבת] יום הר גרזים [הוא] דלא למספד,יום שבקשו כותיים את בית אלהינו מאלכסנדרוס מוקדון להחריבו ונתנו להם באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהונה ונתעטף בבגדי כהונה ומיקירי ישראל עמו ואבוקות של אור בידיהן וכל הלילה הללו הולכים מצד זה והללו הולכים מצד זה עד שעלה עמוד השחר,כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיע לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה לשמעון הצדיק ירד ממרכבתו והשתחוה לפניו אמרו לו מלך גדול כמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמר להם דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי,אמר להם למה באתם אמרו אפשר בית שמתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך עובדי כוכבים להחריבו אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו כותיים הללו שעומדים לפניך אמר להם הרי הם מסורין בידיכם,מיד נקבום בעקביהם ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותן על הקוצים ועל הברקנים עד שהגיעו להר גרזים כיון שהגיעו להר גריזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשינין כדרך שבקשו לעשות לבית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אי בעית אימא ראויין לבגדי כהונה ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,חזן הכנסת נוטל ספר תורה ש"מ חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דכ"ג היא,וכהן גדול עומד מכלל שהוא יושב והא אנן תנן 69a. That mishna’s teaching highlighting the prohibition to sleep in priestly vestments bis needed for the latter clauseof that mishna, which states: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.Since they are allowed to sleep on them, it must be emphasized that they may not sleep while wearing them.,The Gemara considers resolving the dilemma from the latter clause: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.The Gemara suggests: bLearn from thisthat bit is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Rav Pappa said: Do not saythat the mishna means they may actually place the vestments bunder their headsas a pillow; brather, saythat the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads. Rav Mesharshiyya said:Given this understanding of that mishna, one can blearn from herethat one who places bphylacteries to the sideof his head when he sleeps has done bwell;there is no concern that he will turn over in his sleep and lie upon them., bSo too, it is reasonableto say bthatthe mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their headsand not under their heads; bas, if it could enter your mindto say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed bunder their heads, and I would derivethat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact the priestly vestments contain a forbidden mixture of bdiverse kinds, asamong them bthere isthe bbelt,which is woven from a mixture of wool and linen. bAnd even ifit is assumed bthat it is permitted to derive benefit frompriestly vestments, it would still be prohibited to lie upon them because by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kinds. /b,The Gemara elaborates on the preceding argument: If one claims that the mishna permits priests to sleep upon their vestments, bit works out well according to the one who said: The belt of the High Priestworn on Yom Kippur, which does not contain diverse kinds, bis the same as the belt of a common priest.According to this view, the common priest’s belt does not contain diverse kinds, and therefore it may be permitted for a priest to sleep upon it. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bthe High Priest’s belton Yom Kippur bis not the same as the belt of a common priest,and that the belt of the common priest is made of diverse kinds, bwhat is there to say?How could the mishna possibly permit priests to sleep upon their vestments?, bAnd if you saythat with regard to the prohibition of bdiverse kindsonly bwearingor bplacingthe garment bupon oneself is prohibited, but spreading them outand lying upon them on bis permitted,and as such it should be permitted for the priests to sleep upon their vestments, this is incorrect. As, bwasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“Neither shall there come upon youa garment of diverse kinds”(Leviticus 19:19), which implies: bBut you are permitted to spread it beneath youto lie upon. This is true according to Torah law, bbut the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, lest a fiber wrap upon his flesh,which would lead to the transgression of the Torah prohibition., bAnd if you saythat a priest could still avoid the prohibition of diverse kinds by bplacing a separation betweenhimself and the belt containing diverse kinds, bdidn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem: Evenif there are bten mattressespiled bone atop the other anda garment of bdiverse kindsis placed bunderneath themall, bit is prohibited to sleep upon them?This is because the rabbinic decree is applied equally to all cases irrespective of whether the original concern exists. Therefore, there can be no way for the priests to sleep upon the vestments without transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds. bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthe preceding discussion that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads?The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat this is indeed so., bRav Ashi said: Actually,the mishna may be understood as permitting the vestments to be placed bunder their heads.One should not object that by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kindsbecause bpriestly vestments,and specifically the belt, bare stiff,and therefore the prohibition of diverse kinds does not apply to them. This is bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna, son of Rabbi Yehoshua, said: This stiff felt [ inamta /i],made of diverse kinds, that is produced binthe city of bNeresh, is permitted,since a stiff object does not wrap around the body to provide warmth, and therefore the person wearing is not considered to have derived benefit from it.,Since the mishna’s intention is uncertain, it cannot provide a clear proof for the dilemma of whether it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. The Gemara therefore suggests another proof: bComeand bhearan explicit ibaraitaconcerning this issue: With regard to bpriestly vestments, it is prohibited to go out to the country,i.e., outside the Temple, while bwearing them, but in the Temple it is permittedfor the priests to wear them, bwhether during theTemple bservice or not during the service, due tothe fact bthat it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Learn from thisthat it is indeed permitted.,§ The ibaraitataught that the priestly vestments may not be worn outside the Temple. The Gemara challenges this: Is it really bnotpermitted to wear priestly vestments bin the country? Wasn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bThe twenty-fifth of Tevetis known as bthe day of Mount Gerizim,which was established as a joyful day, and therefore beulogizingis bnotpermitted.,What occurred on that date? It was on that bday that the Samaritans [ ikutim /i] requested the House of our Lord from Alexander the Macedonian in order to destroy it, and he gave it to them,i.e., he gave them permission to destroy it. People bcame and informedthe High Priest, bShimon HaTzaddik,of what had transpired. bWhat did he do? He donned the priestly vestments and wrapped himself in the priestly vestments. And the nobles of the Jewish Peoplewere bwith him,with btorches of fire in their hands. And all that night, these,the representatives of the Jewish people, bapproached from this side, and those,the armies of Alexander and the Samaritans, bapproached from that side, until dawn,when they finally saw one another., bWhen dawn arrived,Alexander bsaid tothe Samaritans: bWho are thesepeople coming to meet us? bThey said to him:These are the bJews who rebelled against you. When he reached Antipatris, the sun shone andthe two camps bmet each other. WhenAlexander bsaw Shimon HaTzaddik, he descended from his chariot and bowed before him.His escorts bsaid to him:Should ban important king such as you bow to this Jew?He bsaid to them:I do so because bthe image of this man’s face is victorious before me on my battlefields,i.e., when I fight I see his image going before me as a sign of victory, and therefore I know that he has supreme sanctity., bHe saidto the representatives of the Jewish people: bWhy have you come? They saidto him: bIs it possible thatthe Temple, the bhouse in which we pray for you and for your kingdom not to be destroyed, gentiles willtry to bmislead you into destroying it,and we would remain silent and not tell you? bHe said to them: Who are thesepeople who want to destroy it? The Jews bsaid to him:They are bthese Samaritans who stand before you. He said to them:If so, bthey are delivered into your handsto deal with them as you please., bImmediately, they stabbedthe Samaritans bin their heels and hung them from their horses’ tails and continued to drag them over the thorns and thistles until they reached Mount Gerizim. When they arrived at Mount Gerizim,where the Samaritans had their temple, bthey plowed it over and seededthe area bwith leeks,a symbol of total destruction. This was bjust as they had sought to do to the House of our Lord. And they made that day a festivalto celebrate the salvation of the Temple and the defeat of the Samaritans.,It is apparent from the ibaraitathat Shimon HaTzaddik wore the priestly vestments even outside the Temple. This would seem to be in contravention of the ruling of the other ibaraitaprohibiting this. The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bIf you wish, sayShimon HaTzaddik did not wear a set of genuine, sanctified priestly vestments; rather, he wore garments that were bfitting to be priestly vestmentsin that they were made of the same material and design. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that he indeed wore a set of genuine priestly vestments, but in times of great need, such as when one seeks to prevent the destruction of the Temple, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord, they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126).,§ It was taught in the mishna: bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scrolland gives it to the head of the synagogue, who gives it to the deputy High Priest, who gives it to the High Priest. The Gemara suggests: bLearn from herethat bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher.Although the High Priest is considered everyone’s teacher and master, honor was nevertheless extended to other individuals without fear of impugning the High Priest’s honor. bAbaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here because bthe entireprocess bis for the honor of the High Priest.The passing of the Torah scroll to people of increasing importance demonstrates that the High Priest is considered the most important of all those present.,§ It was further taught in the mishna: bThe High Priest standsand receives the scroll from the Deputy. bBy inference,until that point bhehad been bsitting. But didn’t we learnin a mishna:
45. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 26 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

46. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 6.2

47. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.1

48. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 3.1-3.4

139. 'Now our Lawgiver being a wise man and specially endowed by God to understand all things, took a comprehensive view of each particular detail, and fenced us round with impregnable ramparts and walls of iron, that we might not mingle at all with any of the other nations, but remain pure in body and soul, free from all vain imaginations, worshiping the one Almighty God above the whole


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba yudan of sidon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
alexander the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167, 255
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126, 249, 255
arab/arabic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
archaeology, arch(a)eological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
archives Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
ass Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 255
babata Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
banquet, holofernes Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 152
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 249
ben petera Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
blood Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
boat (ship) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
bread Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 255; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 134
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167, 255
cheese Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 255
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 249
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
commensality Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 103, 134
cornelius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 167
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
eliezer hisma Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 161
elmslie, w. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 255
epstein, j. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 219
foodways Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 156
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 219
godfearers Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 66
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
halakha, intensification Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
hebrew script (ancient) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
idolatry Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 219; Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168, 171
jew-gentile, association Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 66
jew-gentile, separation Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62
jew-gentile, social contact Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 66
jew-gentile, table-fellowship Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 66
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
land of israel (palestine) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
libations Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 152
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
matrimonial formulae Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168, 171
nabataean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
oil Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 219
olive oil Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 134
oracles Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing, defilement by association (moral) Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168, 171
rava Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
sexual immorality Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62
shimon ben elazar Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
shimon the righteous Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
sin, gentile behaviour Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62, 66
sin, idolatry Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 62, 66
synagogue Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 66; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
table-fellowship, between jews and gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 152
tannaic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 168
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
wine' Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 103
wine Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 219
yohanan (ben nappaha), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171