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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10927
Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.12
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.45. תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל־בּוֹ׃ 12.45. A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof."
2. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.1-2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises." 2.2. We may allow them to heal us when the healing relates to money, but not personal healing; Nor should we have our hair cut by them in any place, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages said: in a public place it is permitted, but not when the two persons are alone."
3. Mishnah, Berachot, 2.1, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If one was reading in the Torah [the section of the Shema] and the time for its recital arrived, if he directed his heart [to fulfill the mitzvah] he has fulfilled his obligation. In the breaks [between sections] one may give greeting out of respect and return greeting; in the middle [of a section] one may give greeting out of fear and return it, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: in the middle one may give greeting out of fear and return it out of respect, in the breaks one may give greeting out of respect and return greeting to anyone." 5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
4. Mishnah, Megillah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. If one reads it with breaks, or naps [in between readings], he has fulfilled his obligation. If he was copying it, explaining it or correcting [a scroll of Esther], if he directed his heart, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If it was written with arsenic, with red chalk, with gum or with sulfate of copper, or on paper or on scratch paper, he has not fulfilled his obligation, unless it is written in Assyrian on parchment and in ink."
5. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. One who blows into a pit or a cistern or a jug, if he heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he hears the echo [also], he has not fulfilled his obligation. And also one who was passing behind a synagogue or if his house was next to the synagogue and he heard the sound of the shofar or of the megillah [being read], if he directed his heart (had intention), then he has fulfilled his obligation, but if not he has not fulfilled his obligation. Even though this one heard and this one heard, this one directed his heart and this one did not."
6. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands);
7. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.3-3.5, 5.2, 8.4-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.13, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.13. “A man who had a seminal emission (Baal Keri) who does not have water to dip in may read the Shema, but he may not [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and does not say the Beracha (blessing) not before it and not after it.” [These are] the words of Rebbi Meir. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, ”He may read the Shema and he may [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and he says the Beracha [both] before it and after it.” Rebbi Meir said, “One time we were sitting in the Bet Midrash (Study Hall) in front of Rebbi Akiva and we were reading the Shema, but we were not saying it loud enough to be able to hear ourselves, because of one inquisitor who was standing by the door.” They (i.e. Chachamim) said [back] to him, “The time of danger is not a proof.”" 6.18. [A person] who circumcises converts [to Judaism for their conversion] says [the following Beracha (blessing): Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu {Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of converts] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu} Lamul Et Hagerim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise converts and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet). [A person] who circumcises slaves [when they get bought by a Jew] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu] Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of slaves] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lamol Et Haavadim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise slaves and to draw from them the blood of the covet, because if not for the blood of the covet heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covet day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covet)."
9. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
10. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Qiddushin, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.11. Rabbi Meir used to say: It is possible for a man and wife to raise 5 nations. How so? A man who (sic! reading Ehrfurt manuscript's מי against Vienna's גוי) has a male and female slave and they have 2 sons. One of [the sons] converts—behold one of them is a convert, one is a Gentile. Their master converts, he converts the slaves and they have a son—he is a mamzer. The female slave is freed and that slave has sex with her and they have a son—the child is a slave. They are both freed and have a son—the child is a freedman. It is possible for a man to sell to his father and pay his mother her ketubah. How so? A man who has a male and female slave and they have a son. He frees his female slave and marries her and writes his property to her son. He sells it to his father and pays his mother her ketubah."
12. Tosefta, Shabbat, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע בר' (חנינא) אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דמשחרי לך פרסאי וגרבי בך ורעיי בך שקצי בחוטרא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא אמר ליה שבור מלכא לשמואל אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דאתו רומאי ושבו לך וטחני בך קשייתא ברחייא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא,בר הדיא מפשר חלמי הוה מאן דיהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה למעליותא ומאן דלא יהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה לגריעותא אביי ורבא חזו חלמא אביי יהיב ליה זוזא ורבא לא יהיב ליה אמרי ליה אקרינן בחלמין (דברים כח, לא) שורך טבוח לעיניך וגו' לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מעוצבא דלבך לאביי א"ל מרווח עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מחדוא דלבך,אמרי ליה אקרינן (דברים כח, מא) בנים ובנות תוליד וגו' לרבא אמר ליה כבישותיה לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישי ומינסבן בנתך לעלמא ומדמיין באפך כדקא אזלן בשביה,אקריין (דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישין את אמרת לקריבך והיא אמרה לקריבה ואכפה לך ויהבת להון לקריבה דהוי כעם אחר לרבא א"ל דביתהו שכיבא ואתו בניה ובנתיה לידי איתתא אחריתי דאמר רבא אמר ר' ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב מאי דכתיב בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר זו אשת האב,אקרינן בחלמין (קהלת ט, ז) לך אכול בשמחה לחמך לאביי אמר ליה מרווח עסקך ואכלת ושתית וקרית פסוקא מחדוא דלבך לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך טבחת ולא אכלת ושתית וקרית לפכוחי פחדך,אקרינן (דברים כח, לח) זרע רב תוציא השדה לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, מ) זיתים יהיו לך בכל גבולך וגו' לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ וגו' לאביי א"ל נפק לך שמא דריש מתיבתא הוית אימתך נפלת בעלמא לרבא אמר ליה בדיינא דמלכא אתבר ומתפסת בגנבי ודייני כולי עלמא קל וחומר מינך למחר אתבר בדיינא דמלכא ואתו ותפשי ליה לרבא.,אמרי ליה חזן חסא על פום דני לאביי א"ל עיף עסקך כחסא לרבא א"ל מריר עסקך כי חסא,אמרי ליה חזן בשרא על פום דני לאביי אמר ליה בסים חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא וחמרא מינך לרבא אמר ליה תקיף חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא למיכל ביה,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דתלי בדיקלא לאביי אמר ליה מדלי עסקך כדיקלא לרבא אמר ליה חלי עסקך כתמרי,אמרי ליה חזן רומנא דקדחי אפום דני לאביי אמר ליה עשיק עסקך כרומנא לרבא אמר ליה קאוי עסקך כרומנא,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דנפל לבירא לאביי א"ל מתבעי עסקך כדאמר נפל פתא בבירא ולא אשתכח לרבא א"ל פסיד עסקך ושדי' ליה לבירא,אמרי ליה חזינן בר חמרא דקאי אאיסדן ונוער לאביי אמר ליה מלכא הוית וקאי אמורא עלך לרבא א"ל פטר חמור גהיט מתפילך א"ל לדידי חזי לי ואיתיה אמר ליה וא"ו דפטר חמור ודאי גהיט מתפילך,לסוף אזל רבא לחודיה לגביה אמר ליה חזאי דשא ברייתא דנפל אמר ליה אשתך שכבא אמר ליה חזיא ככי ושני דנתור א"ל בנך ובנתך שכבן אמר ליה חזאי תרתי יוני דפרחן א"ל תרי נשי מגרשת אמר ליה חזאי תרי גרגלידי דלפתא אמר ליה תרין קולפי בלעת אזל רבא ההוא יומא ויתיב בי מדרשא כוליה יומא אשכח הנהו תרי סגי נהורי דהוו קמנצו בהדי הדדי אזל רבא לפרוקינהו ומחוהו לרבא תרי דלו למחוייה אחריתי אמר מסתיי תרין חזאי,לסוף אתא רבא ויהיב ליה אגרא א"ל חזאי אשיתא דנפל א"ל נכסים בלא מצרים קנית א"ל חזאי אפדנא דאביי דנפל וכסיין אבקיה א"ל אביי שכיב ומתיבתיה אתיא לגבך א"ל חזאי אפדנא דידי דנפיל ואתו כולי עלמא שקיל לבינתא לבינתא א"ל שמעתתך מבדרן בעלמא א"ל חזאי דאבקע רישי ונתר מוקרי א"ל אודרא מבי סדיא נפיק א"ל אקריון הללא מצראה בחלמא א"ל ניסא מתרחשי לך,הוה קא אזיל בהדיה בארבא אמר בהדי גברא דמתרחיש ליה ניסא למה לי בהדי דקא סליק נפל סיפרא מיניה אשכחיה רבא וחזא דהוה כתיב ביה כל החלומות הולכין אחר הפה רשע בדידך קיימא וצערתן כולי האי כולהו מחילנא לך בר מברתיה דרב חסדא יהא רעוא דלמסר ההוא גברא לידי דמלכותא דלא מרחמו עליה,אמר מאי אעביד גמירי דקללת חכם אפילו בחנם היא באה וכ"ש רבא דבדינא קא לייט אמר איקום ואגלי דאמר מר גלות מכפרת עון,קם גלי לבי רומאי אזל יתיב אפתחא דריש טורזינא דמלכא ריש טורזינא חזא חלמא א"ל חזאי חלמא דעייל מחטא באצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה לא א"ל ולא מידי א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בתרתין אצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה ולא א"ל א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בכולה ידא א"ל נפל תכלא בכולהו שיראי שמעי בי מלכא ואתיוה לריש טורזינא קא קטלי ליה א"ל אנא אמאי אייתו להאי דהוה ידע ולא אמר אייתוהו לבר הדיא אמרי ליה אמטו זוזא דידך חרבו 56a. On a similar note, the Gemara relates that the Roman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rabbi Ḥaya: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: You will see the Persians capture you, and enslave you, and force you to herd unclean animals with a golden staff. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Rabbi Yehoshua band that night he sawit in his dream. bKing Shapurof Persia bsaid to Shmuel: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream. Shmuel said to him: You will see the Romans come and take you into captivityand force you bto grind date pits in mills of gold. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Shmuel, band that night he sawit in his dream.,The Gemara relates: bBar Haddaya was an interpreter of dreams.For bone who gave him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bfavorably, andfor bone who did not give him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bunfavorably.The Gemara relates: There was an incident in which both bAbaye and Rava saw anidentical bdreamand they asked bar Haddaya to interpret it. bAbaye gave him moneyand paid his fee, bwhile Rava did not give himmoney. bThey said to him:The verse: b“Your ox shall be slain before your eyesand you shall not eat thereof” (Deuteronomy 28:31) bwas read to us in our dream. Heinterpreted their dream and bto Rava he said: Your business will be lost and you will derive no pleasure from eating because of theextreme bsadness of your heart. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will be unable to eat due to the joy in your heart. /b, bThey said to him:The verse, b“You shall beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be yours; for they shall go into captivity”(Deuteronomy 28:41), bwas read to usin our dream. He interpreted their dreams, and bto Rava he said itsliteral, badversesense. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous, and your daughters will be married to outsiders and it will seem to you as if they were taken in captivity. /b,They said to him: bThe verse: “Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous. You say,that they should marry byour relatives andyour wife bsaysthat they should marry bher relatives and she will imposeher will bupon you and they will be givenin marriage bto her relatives, which is like another nationas far as you are concerned. bTo Rava he said: Your wife will die and your sons and daughters will come into the hands of another woman. As Rava saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba saidthat bRav said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenin the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”? Thisrefers to bthe father’s wife,the stepmother.,They said to him: The verse: b“Go your way, eat your bread with joy,and drink your wine with a merry heart” (Ecclesiastes 9:7) bwas read to us in our dream. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will eat and drink and read the verse out of the joy of your heart. To Rava he said: Your business will be lost, you will slaughter but not eat, you will drinkwine and breadpassages from the Bible in order bto allay your fears. /b,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall carry much seed out into the field,and shall gather little in; for the locust shall consume it” (Deuteronomy 28:38), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse, that he will enjoy an abundant harvest. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse, that his harvest will be destroyed.,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall have olive-trees throughout all your borders,but you shall not anoint yourself with the oil; for your olives shall drop off” (Deuteronomy 28:40), bwas read to usin our dream. And again, bto Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse.,They said to him: The verse: b“All the peoples of the earth shall seethat the name of the Lord is called upon you; and they shall be afraid of you” (Deuteronomy 28:10), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your name will become well-known as head of the yeshiva, and you will be feared by all. To Rava he said: The king’s treasury was brokeninto band you will be apprehended as a thief, and everyone will draw an ia fortioriinference from you:If Rava who is wealthy and of distinguished lineage can be arrested on charges of theft, what will become of the rest of us? Indeed, bthe next day, the king’s treasury was burglarized, and they came and apprehended Rava. /b,Abaye and Rava bsaid to him: We saw lettuce on the mouth of the barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will double like lettucewhose leaves are wide and wrinkled. bTo Rava he said: Your work will be bitter likea blettucestalk., bThey said to him: We saw meat on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your wine will be sweet and everyone will come to buy meat and wine from you. To Rava he said: Your wine will spoil, and everyone will go to buy meat in order to eat with it,to dip the meat in your vinegar., bThey said to him: We saw a barrel hanging from a palm tree. To Abaye he said: Your business will rise like a palm tree. To Rava he said: Your work will be sweet like dateswhich are very cheap in Babylonia, indicating that you will be compelled to sell your merchandise at a cheap price., bThey said to him: We saw a pomegranate taking root on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will increase in value like a pomegranate. To Rava he said: Your work will go sour like a pomegranate. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a barrel fall into a pit. To Abaye he said: Your merchandise will be in demand asthe adage bsays: Bread falls in a pit and is not found.In other words, everyone will seek your wares and they will not find them due to increased demand. bTo Rava he said: Your merchandise will be ruined and you will throw itaway binto a pit. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a donkey-foal standing near our heads, braying. To Abaye he said: You will be a king,that is to say, bhead of the yeshiva, and an interpreter will stand near youto repeat your teachings to the masses out loud. bTo Rava he said:I see the words ipeter ḥamor /i, first-born donkey, erased from your phylacteries.Rava bsaid to him: I myself saw it and it is there.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him:The letter ivavofthe word ipeter ḥamoris certainly erased from your phylacteries. /b, bUltimately, Rava went tobar Haddaya balone.Rava bsaid to him: I saw the outer door of my house fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Your wife will die,as she is the one who protects the house. Rava bsaid to him: I saw my front and back teeth fall out. He said to him: Your sons and daughters will die.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two doves that were flying. He said to him: You will divorce two women.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two turnip-heads [ igargelidei /i]. He said to him: You will receive two blows with a clubshaped like a turnip. bThat same day Rava went and sat in the study hall the entire day. He discovered these two blind people who were fighting with each other. Rava went to separate them and they struck Rava twoblows. When bthey raisedtheir staffs bto strike him an additional blow, he said:That is benough for me, Ionly bsaw two. /b, bUltimately, Rava came and gave him,bar Haddaya, ba fee. Andthen Rava, bsaid to him: I saw my wall fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: You will acquire property without limits.Rava bsaid to him: I saw Abaye’s house [ iappadna /i] fall and its dust covered me.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Abaye will die and his yeshiva will come to you.Rava bsaid to him: I saw my house fall, and everyone came and took the bricks. He said to him: Your teachings will be disseminated throughout the world.Rava bsaid to him: I saw that my head split and my brain fell out. He said to him: A feather will fall out of the pillownear your head. Rava bsaid to him: The Egyptian ihallel /i,the ihallelthat celebrates the Exodus, bwas read to me in a dream. He said to him: Miracles will be performed for you. /b,Bar Haddaya bwas going withRava bon a ship;bar Haddaya bsaid: Why am Igoing bwith a person for whom miracles will be performed,lest the miracle will be that the ship will sink and he alone will be saved. bAsbar Haddaya bwas climbingonto the ship ba book fell from him. Rava foundit band saw: All dreams follow the mouth, written therein. He saidto bar Haddaya: bScoundrel. It wasdependent bon you, and you caused me so much suffering. I forgive you for everything except for the daughterof bRav Ḥisda,Rava’s wife, whom bar Haddaya predicted would die. bMay it beYour bwill that this man be delivered into the hands of a kingdom that has no compassion on him. /b,Bar Haddaya bsaidto himself: bWhat will I do? We learnedthrough tradition bthat the curse of a Sage,even if bbaseless, comestrue? bAnd all the more soin the case of bRava, as he cursedme bjustifiably. He saidto himself: bI will get up and go into exile,as bthe Master said: Exile atones for transgression. /b, bHe arose and exiled himself to the seat of the Romangovernment. bHe went and sat by the entrance,where bthe keeper of the king’s wardrobestood. bThe wardrobe guard dreamed a dream.He bsaid tobar Haddaya: bI saw in the dream that a needle pierced my finger.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw a worm that fellbetween bmy two fingers,eating them. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin, bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw that a worm fellupon bmy entire hand,eating it. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: A worm fellupon and ate ball the silkgarments. bThey heardof this bin the king’s palace and they brought the wardrobe keeper and werein the process of bexecuting him. He said to them: Why me? Bring the one who knew and did not saythe information that he knew. bThey broughtbar Haddaya band said to him: Because of your izuz /i, ruincame upon
14. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. המרת דת פוסלת ואין המרת דת פוסלת במעשר,כל ערל לא יאכל בו למה לי בו אינו אוכל אבל אוכל הוא במצה ומרור,ואיצטריך למכתב ערל ואיצטריך למכתב כל בן נכר דאי כתב רחמנא ערל משום דמאיס אבל בן נכר דלא מאיס אימא לא ואי כתב רחמנא כל בן נכר משום דאין לבו לשמים אבל ערל דלבו לשמים אימא לא צריכא,(שמות יב, ט) ממנו ממנו למה לי לכדרבה א"ר יצחק,אמר מר ר"ע אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (ויקרא כב, ד) איש איש לרבות את הערל ואימא לרבות את האונן א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אמר קרא (ויקרא כב, י) וכל זר זרות אמרתי לך ולא אנינות,אימא ולא ערלות הא כתיב איש איש,ומה ראית מסתברא ערלות הוה ליה לרבויי שכן מעשי"ם כרותי"ם בדב"ר העב"ד מחוסר מעשה ומעשה בגופו וענוש כרת וישנו לפני הדבור ומילת זכריו ועבדיו מעכבת,אדרבה אנינות הוה ליה לרבויי שכן ישנה בכל שעה ונוהגת באנשים ונשים ואין בידו לתקן עצמו,הנך נפישן רבא אמר בלא הנך נפישן נמי לא מצית אמרת אמר קרא איש איש איזהו דבר שישנו באיש ואינו באשה הוי אומר זה ערלות,ורבי עקיבא האי תושב ושכיר מאי עביד ליה אמר רב שמעיא לאתויי ערבי מהול וגבעוני מהול,והני מולין נינהו והא תנן קונם שאני נהנה לערלים מותר בערלי ישראל ואסור במולי עובדי כוכבים קונם שאני נהנה למולין מותר במולי עובדי כוכבים ואסור בערלי ישראל,אלא לאתויי גר שמל ולא טבל וקטן שנולד כשהוא מהול וקסבר צריך להטיף ממנו דם ברית,ור' אליעזר לטעמיה דאמר גר שמל ולא טבל גר מעליא הוא וקסבר קטן כשנולד מהול אין צריך להטיף ממנו דם ברית,ור' אליעזר האי איש איש מאי עביד ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בעי רב חמא בר עוקבא קטן ערל מהו לסוכו בשמן של תרומה ערלות שלא בזמנה מעכבא או לא מעכבא,א"ר זירא ת"ש אין לי אלא מילת זכריו בשעת עשיה ועבדיו בשעת אכילה מנין ליתן את האמור של זה בזה ואת האמור של זה בזה ת"ל (שמות יב, מח) אז אז לגזירה שוה,בשלמא עבדיו משכחת לה דאיתנהו בשעת אכילה וליתנהו בשעת עשיה כגון דזבנינהו ביני ביני,אלא זכריו דאיתנהו בשעת אכילה וליתנהו בשעת עשיה היכי משכחת לה לאו דאתילוד בין עשיה לאכילה ש"מ ערלות שלא בזמנה הויא ערלות,אמר רבא ותסברא (שמות יב, מח) המול לו כל זכר אמר רחמנא ואז יקרב לעשותו והאי לאו בר מהילא הוא אלא הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שחלצתו חמה,וניתוב ליה כל שבעה (דאמר שמואל חלצתו חמה נותנין לו כל שבעה) דיהבינן ליה כל שבעה ונימהליה מצפרא בעינן 71a. that bapostasy [ imeshumadut /i] disqualifies,as the term “stranger” in this context is understood to refer to a Jew whose conduct makes him estranged from God, and he is disqualified from eating the Paschal lamb, bbut apostasy does not disqualifyone from eating btithe. /b,The Gemara asks further: If so, with regard to the phrase “from it” in the verse b“No uncircumcised person shall eat from it”(Exodus 12:48), which again emphasizes “from it” and not from another item, bwhy do Ineed it? The Gemara answers: This teaches that only bfrom it,the Paschal lamb, one who is uncircumcised bmay not eat, but he eats imatzaand bitter herbs.One who is uncircumcised is obligated to eat imatzaand bitter herbs on Passover, just like any other Jew.,The Gemara continues: bAnd it was necessaryfor the Torah bto writethe prohibition with regard to ban uncircumcisedman, band it was necessaryfor the Torah bto writea separate prohibition with regard to bany stranger. As, if the Merciful One had writtenonly about ban uncircumcisedman, one might have thought that only for him is it prohibited to eat from the Paschal lamb bbecausethe foreskin bis repulsive, butwith regard to ba stranger,who bis not repulsive, saythat it is bnotprohibited. bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly about bany stranger,one might have concluded that only for him is it prohibited to eat from the Paschal lamb bbecause his heart is notdirected btoward Heavendue to his apostasy, bbutwith regard to ban uncircumcisedman, bwhose heart isdirected btoward Heaven,and it is only on account of unavoidable circumstances that he has not undergone circumcision, bsaythat there is bnoprohibition against his eating the Paschal lamb. Therefore, bit is necessaryto teach both cases.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the phrase b“of it”in the verse “Do not eat of it raw, nor boiled in water, but roasted in fire” (Exodus 12:9), and the phrase b“of it”in the verse “And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning” (Exodus 12:10), both of which are terms of exclusion, bwhy do Ineed them? The Gemara answers that they are necessary bfor that which Rabba saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said,as will be explained later (74a)., bThe Master saidabove in the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Akiva saysthat it bis not necessaryto derive by way of a verbal analogy the ihalakhathat an uncircumcised priest may not eat iteruma /i, basthe verse bsays: “Any man [ iish ish /i]from the seed of Aaron who is a leper or a izavshall not eat of the holy things” (Leviticus 22:4). The repetition of the word iishcomes bto include an uncircumcisedman and indicate that he too may not partake of consecrated food. The Gemara asks: bBut saythat the verse comes bto include an acute mournerin the prohibition against eating iteruma /i. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The verse states: “No foreignermay eat of the holy thing” (Leviticus 22:10), which indicates: A disqualification stemming from bforeignness I told youprevents one from eating iteruma /i, bbut nota disqualification based on bacute mourning. /b,The Gemara asks: bSaythat the verse comes to teach that a disqualification stemming from foreignness prevents one from eating iteruma /i, bbut nota disqualification based on the priest’s black of circumcision,and so it should be permitted for an uncircumcised priest to partake of iteruma /i. The Gemara answers: bIsn’t it written: “Any man [ iish ish /i],”where the repetition of the word iishcomes to include an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition?,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did you seethat led you to include an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition against eating iterumaand exclude an acute mourner? The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonthat black of circumcision should be includedand should preclude a priest’s eating iteruma /i, basthe ihalakhotgoverning an uncircumcised man are stringent in several respects, as alluded to by the following mnemonic of key words: bActs; ikaretim /i; thedivine bword; the slave.The Gemara explains: An uncircumcised man blacksthe bactof circumcision, bandthis bactis performed bon his body;the failure to perform circumcision is bpunishable by ikaret /i;circumcision bexisted before thedivine bwordwas spoken at Mount Sinai, as the mitzva of circumcision had already been given to Abraham; band thelack of bcircumcision of one’s malechildren band slaves precludesone’s eating the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara counters: bOn the contrary, acute mourning should be includedand it should prevent a priest from eating iteruma /i, basacute mourning bisrelevant bat any time, it applies toboth bmen and women, and it is not inthe mourner’s bpower to render himself fituntil after the deceased is buried.,The Gemara answers: bThesearguments for including an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition baremore bnumerous. Rava said:Even bwithoutthe rationale that bthesearguments baremore bnumerous, you still cannot saythat an acute mourner should be included and an uncircumcised priest should be excluded, as bthe verse states: “Any man [ iish ish /i],”emphasizing maleness. Now, bwhat matter applies to a man and not to a woman? You must saythat bit is lack of circumcision,and therefore it cannot be that the phrase comes to include acute mourning in the prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Akiva dowith bthisphrase: b“A sojourner and a hired servant,”as it is not needed for the Paschal lamb? bRav Shemaya said:It serves bto include a circumcised Arab and a circumcised Gibeonitein the prohibition against the eating of the Paschal lamb. Although they have been circumcised, it is prohibited for them to partake of the offering.,The Gemara poses a question: bAnd are theseconsidered bcircumcised? But didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iNedarim31b): If one vowed: bThe benefit that Imight gain bfrom the uncircumcised is ikonam /ito me, i.e., forbidden to me like consecrated property, then it bis permittedfor him to derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jews, andit bis prohibitedfor him to derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world,as gentiles are considered uncircumcised even if they have their foreskins removed. And conversely, if he vowed: bThe benefit that Imight gain bfrom the circumcised is ikonam /ito me, it is bpermittedfor him to derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world,as they are not considered circumcised, bandit bis prohibitedfor him to derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jews.This indicates that the circumcision of gentiles is disregarded., bRather,the phrase “a sojourner and a hired servant” comes bto includein the prohibition against eating of the Paschal lamb ba convertto Judaism bwho was circumcised but did notyet bimmersein a ritual bath, band a child who was born circumcised,i.e., without a foreskin. Although he does not have a foreskin, he is still seen as lacking the act of circumcision. bAnd he,Rabbi Akiva, bmaintainsthat bit is necessary to drip covetal blood from him,in lieu of circumcision, in order to usher him into the covet of Abraham, even though he has no foreskin that can be removed., bAnd Rabbi Eliezer,who uses the words “a sojourner and a hired servant” for a verbal analogy, conforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he said: A convert who was circumcised but did notyet bimmerse is a proper convertin every way. Therefore, the verse cannot come to exclude such an individual. bAnd he maintainsthat in the case of ba child who was born circumcised, it is not necessary to drip covetal blood from him.Since he was born without a foreskin, no additional procedure is necessary.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Eliezer dowith bthisinclusive phrase b“any man [ iish ish /i]”?The Gemara answers: He maintains that bthe Torah spoke in the language of men,meaning that no special ihalakhais derived from this expression, as it is common biblical vernacular., bRav Ḥama bar Ukva raises a dilemma:With regard to ban uncircumcised childwho is less than eight days old and not yet fit for circumcision, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith respect bto anointing him with oil of iteruma /i?The Gemara explains the two sides of the question: Does black of circumcision not at itsappointed btime,meaning before the obligation of circumcision goes into effect, bprecludethe infant’s benefiting from iteruma /i, as he has the status of an one who is uncircumcised, borperhaps it bdoes not precludehis benefiting from iteruma /i, as he is not considered uncircumcised until the mitzva of circumcision is applicable?, bRabbi Zeira said: Comeand bheara proof from the following ibaraita /i: bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhaconcerning bthe circumcision of one’s malechildren bat the time of the preparation,i.e., the slaughter, of the Paschal lamb, as it is stated: “Let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it” (Exodus 12:48), bandthe ihalakhaconcerning the circumcision of bone’s slaves at the time of the eatingof the Paschal lamb, as it is stated: “But every man’s servant…when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat from it” (Exodus 12:44). bFrom wheredo I derive that it is proper bto applythe prohibition bthat was stated about thiscase bto thatcase, bandthe prohibition bthat was said about thatcase bto thiscase, i.e., that the circumcision of both one’s male children and one’s slaves is indispensable both at the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and at the time of its consumption? The itannaanswers that bthe verse statesthe term b“then”with regard to male children and the term b“then”with regard to slaves bas a verbal analogy. /b,The Gemara comments: bGranted,with regard to bone’s slaves you finda case bwhere they are present at the time of eating but they were not present at the time of preparation; for example, if he purchased them in the meantime,i.e., they did not belong to him when the Paschal lamb was slaughtered but he bought them immediately afterward, before it was time to eat it., bHowever,with regard to bhis malechildren, bhow can you finda case bwhere they are present at the time of eating, but they were not present at the time of preparation?Does it bnotinvolve a situation bwhere they were born betweenthe time of the Paschal lamb’s bpreparation andthe time of its beating? Learn from thisthat black of circumcision,even bnot at,i.e., before, bitsappointed btime, isnevertheless considered black of circumcisionthat prevents the father from partaking of the offering., bRava said: Andhow can byou understandit that way? How can you think that the lack of circumcision of a newborn child precludes his father’s eating from the Paschal lamb? Doesn’t bthe Merciful One state: “Let all his males be circumcised,”followed by b“and then let him come near and keep it”(Exodus 12:48), bandas bthisinfant bis notyet bfit for circumcisionhe cannot possibly preclude the father’s partaking of the offering? bRather, with whatcase bare we dealing here?With the case, bfor example,of a baby who was exempt from circumcision at the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb because he was sick with a high fever, and subsequently bthe fever left himand he recovered. In such a case, failure to immediately circumcise his son precludes the father’s eating from the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If the case is one of a child recovering from an illness, blet us give him the full sevendays that he needs to recuperate properly. bAs Shmuel said:In the case of a baby that was sick with a high fever, and subsequently bthe fever left him, one gives him a full seven daysto heal and only then is he circumcised, but not before. The Gemara answers: The case is in fact one where bwealready bgave him a full sevendays to heal, but they culminated on the eve of Passover. The Gemara asks: bButif the seven-day recovery period ended on the eve of Passover, why did the father wait until the time of eating the Paschal lamb, i.e., the first night of Passover? bHe should have circumcised himalready bin the morning,before the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb. The Gemara answers: bWe require /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba yudan of sidon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 162
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
amphitheater Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 159, 162
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
barber Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 237
blessings Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
cattle Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 237
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
circumcision, as synonymous with conversion' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 342
circumcision Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164, 237
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 237
demai Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 164
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 159, 162
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. simeon Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 159, 162
eleazar b. yosi Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 162
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 162
eliezer hisma Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 162
elmslie, w. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 237
intention, circumcision Schick, Intention in Talmudic Law: Between Thought and Deed (2021) 67
intention, fulfillment of mitzvot Schick, Intention in Talmudic Law: Between Thought and Deed (2021) 67