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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10882
Thucydides, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, 2.59.3


ὁ δὲ ὁρῶν αὐτοὺς πρὸς τὰ παρόντα χαλεπαίνοντας καὶ πάντα ποιοῦντας ἅπερ αὐτὸς ἤλπιζε, ξύλλογον ποιήσας ʽἔτι δ’ ἐστρατήγεἰ ἐβούλετο θαρσῦναί τε καὶ ἀπαγαγὼν τὸ ὀργιζόμενον τῆς γνώμης πρὸς τὸ ἠπιώτερον καὶ ἀδεέστερον καταστῆσαι: παρελθὼν δὲ ἔλεξε τοιάδε.When he saw them exasperated at the present turn of affairs and acting exactly as he had anticipated, he called an assembly, being (it must be remembered) still general, with the double object of restoring confidence and of leading them from these angry feelings to a calmer and more hopeful state of mind. He accordingly came forward and spoke as follows:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

3 results
1. Aristophanes, Knights, 191 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

191. ἡ δημαγωγία γὰρ οὐ πρὸς μουσικοῦ
2. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.44.1, 1.81.6, 1.87.2, 1.139.4, 1.140.1, 1.144.1, 2.21.3, 2.22.1, 2.34.6, 2.38.1, 2.42.4, 2.43.3, 2.43.5-2.43.6, 2.59.1-2.59.2, 2.60.1, 2.60.5, 2.61.2, 2.62.4-2.62.5, 2.63.2-2.63.3, 2.64.1, 2.65.1, 2.65.3-2.65.6, 2.65.8-2.65.9, 3.36.2, 3.36.6, 3.37-3.38, 3.37.2, 3.38.1-3.38.2, 3.40.4, 3.42.1, 3.49.1, 4.21.3, 4.28.3, 6.14, 6.15.2, 6.29, 6.61, 7.77.4, 8.1.1-8.1.2, 8.1.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.44.1. Such were the words of the Corinthians. When the Athenians had heard both out, two assemblies were held. In the first there was a manifest disposition to listen to the representations of Corinth ; in the second, public feeling had changed, and an alliance with Corcyra was decided on, with certain reservations. It was to be a defensive, not an offensive alliance. It did not involve a breach of the treaty with Peloponnese : Athens could not be required to join Corcyra in any attack upon Corinth . But each of the contracting parties had a right to the other's assistance against invasion, whether of his own territory, or that of an ally. 1.81.6. For let us never be elated by the fatal hope of the war being quickly ended by the devastation of their lands. I fear rather that we may leave it as a legacy to our children; so improbable is it that the Athenian spirit will be the slave of their land, or Athenian experience be cowed by war. 1.87.2. He said that he could not determine which was the loudest acclamation (their mode of decision is by acclamation not by voting); the fact being that he wished to make them declare their opinion openly and thus to increase their ardor for war. Accordingly he said, ‘All Lacedaemonians who are of opinion that the treaty has been broken, and that Athens is guilty, leave your seats and go there,’ pointing out a certain place; ‘all who are of the opposite opinion, there.’ 1.139.4. There were many speakers who came forward and gave their support to one side or the other, urging the necessity of war, or the revocation of the decree and the folly of allowing it to stand in the way of peace. Among them came forward Pericles, son of Xanthippus, the first man of his time at Athens, ablest alike in counsel and in action, and gave the following advice:— 1.140.1. ‘There is one principle, Athenians, which I hold to through everything, and that is the principle of no concession to the Peloponnesians. I know that the spirit which inspires men while they are being persuaded to make war, is not always retained in action; that as circumstances change, resolutions change. Yet I see that now as before the same, almost literally the same, counsel is demanded of me; and I put it to those of you, who are allowing yourselves to be persuaded, to support the national resolves even in the case of reverses, or to forfeit all credit for their wisdom in the event of success. For sometimes the course of things is as arbitrary as the plans of man; indeed this is why we usually blame chance for whatever does not happen as we expected. 1.144.1. I have many other reasons to hope for a favorable issue, if you can consent not to combine schemes of fresh conquest with the conduct of the war, and will abstain from willfully involving yourselves in other dangers; indeed, I am more afraid of our own blunders than of the enemy's devices. 2.21.3. Knots were formed in the streets and engaged in hot discussion; for if the proposed sally was warmly recommended, it was also in some cases opposed. Oracles of the most various import were recited by the collectors, and found eager listeners in one or other of the disputants. Foremost in pressing for the sally were the Acharnians, as constituting no small part of the army of the state, and as it was their land that was being ravaged. In short, the whole city was in a most excited state; Pericles was the object of general indignation; his previous counsels were totally forgotten; he was abused for not leading out the army which he commanded, and was made responsible for the whole of the public suffering. 2.22.1. He, meanwhile, seeing anger and infatuation just now in the ascendant, and confident of his wisdom in refusing a sally, would not call either assembly or meeting of the people, fearing the fatal results of a debate inspired by passion and not by prudence. Accordingly, he addressed himself to the defence of the city, and kept it as quiet as possible 2.34.6. After the bodies have been laid in the earth, a man chosen by the state, of approved wisdom and eminent reputation, pronounces over them an appropriate panegyric; after which all retire. 2.38.1. Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; 2.42.4. But none of these allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink from danger. No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk, to make sure of their vengeance and to let their wishes wait; and while committing to hope the uncertainty of final success, in the business before them they thought fit to act boldly and trust in themselves. Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonor, but met danger face to face, and after one brief moment, while at the summit of their fortune, escaped, not from their fear, but from their glory. 2.43.3. For heroes have the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its epitaph declares it, there is enshrined in every breast a record unwritten with no tablet to preserve it, except that of the heart. 2.43.5. For it is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have nothing to hope for: it is rather they to whom continued life may bring reverses as yet unknown, and to whom a fall, if it came, would be most tremendous in its consequences. 2.43.6. And surely, to a man of spirit, the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more grievous than the unfelt death which strikes him in the midst of his strength and patriotism! 2.59.1. After the second invasion of the Peloponnesians a change came over the spirit of the Athenians. Their land had now been twice laid waste; and war and pestilence at once pressed heavy upon them. 2.59.2. They began to find fault with Pericles, as the author of the war and the cause of all their misfortunes, and became eager to come to terms with Lacedaemon, and actually sent ambassadors thither, who did not however succeed in their mission. Their despair was now complete and all vented itself upon Pericles. 2.60.1. ‘I was not unprepared for the indignation of which I have been the object, as I know its causes; and I have called an assembly for the purpose of reminding you upon certain points, and of protesting against your being unreasonably irritated with me, or cowed by your sufferings. 2.60.5. And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. 2.61.2. I am the same man and do not alter, it is you who change, since in fact you took my advice while unhurt, and waited for misfortune to repent of it; and the apparent error of my policy lies in the infirmity of your resolution, since the suffering that it entails is being felt by every one among you, while its advantage is still remote and obscure to all, and a great and sudden reverse having befallen you, your mind is too much depressed to persevere in your resolves. 2.62.4. Confidence indeed a blissful ignorance can impart, ay, even to a coward's breast, but disdain is the privilege of those who, like us, have been assured by reflection of their superiority to their adversary. 2.62.5. And where the chances are the same, knowledge fortifies courage by the contempt which is its consequence, its trust being placed, not in hope, which is the prop of the desperate, but in a judgment grounded upon existing resources, whose anticipations are more to be depended upon. 2.63.2. Besides, to recede is no longer possible, if indeed any of you in the alarm of the moment has become enamored of the honesty of such an unambitious part. For what you hold is, to speak somewhat plainly, a tyranny; to take it perhaps was wrong, but to let it go is unsafe. 2.64.1. But you must not be seduced by citizens like these nor be angry with me,—who, if I voted for war, only did as you did yourselves,—in spite of the enemy having invaded your country and done what you could be certain that he would do, if you refused to comply with his demands; and although besides what we counted for, the plague has come upon us—the only point indeed at which our calculation has been at fault. It is this, I know, that has had a large share in making me more unpopular than I should otherwise have been,—quite undeservedly, unless you are also prepared to give me the credit of any success with which chance may present you. 2.65.1. Such were the arguments by which Pericles tried to cure the Athenians of their anger against him and to divert their thoughts from their immediate afflictions. 2.65.3. In fact, the public feeling against him did not subside until he had been fined. 2.65.4. Not long afterwards, however, according to the way of the multitude, they again elected him general and committed all their affairs to his hands, having now become less sensitive to their private and domestic afflictions, and understanding that he was the best man of all for the public necessities. 2.65.5. For as long as he was at the head of the state during the peace, he pursued a moderate and conservative policy; and in his time its greatness was at its height. When the war broke out, here also he seems to have rightly gauged the power of his country. 2.65.6. He outlived its commencement two years and six months, and the correctness of his previsions respecting it became better known by his death. 2.65.8. The causes of this are not far to seek. Pericles indeed, by his rank, ability, and known integrity, was enabled to exercise an independent control over the multitude—in short, to lead them instead of being led by them; for as he never sought power by improper means, he was never compelled to flatter them, but, on the contrary, enjoyed so high an estimation that he could afford to anger them by contradiction. 2.65.9. Whenever he saw them unseasonably and insolently elated, he would with a word reduce them to alarm; on the other hand, if they fell victims to a panic, he could at once restore them to confidence. In short, what was nominally a democracy became in his hands government by the first citizen. 3.36.2. and after deliberating as to what they should do with the former, in the fury of the moment determined to put to death not only the prisoners at Athens, but the whole adult male population of Mitylene, and to make slaves of the women and children. It was remarked that Mitylene had revolted without being, like the rest, subjected to the empire; and what above all swelled the wrath of the Athenians was the fact of the Peloponnesian fleet having ventured over to Ionia to her support, a fact which was held to argue a long-meditated rebellion. 3.36.6. An assembly was therefore at once called, and after much expression of opinion upon both sides, Cleon, son of Cleaenetus, the same who had carried the former motion of putting the Mitylenians to death, the most violent man at Athens, and at that time by far the most powerful with the commons, came forward again and spoke as follows:— 3.38.1. For myself, I adhere to my former opinion, and wonder at those who have proposed to reopen the case of the Mitylenians, and who are thus causing a delay which is all in favour of the guilty, by making the sufferer proceed against the offender with the edge of his anger blunted; although where vengeance follows most closely upon the wrong, it best equals it and most amply requites it. I wonder also who will be the man who will maintain the contrary, and will pretend to show that the crimes of the Mitylenians are of service to us, and our misfortunes injurious to the allies. 3.38.2. Such a man must plainly either have such confidence in his rhetoric as to adventure to prove that what has been once for all decided is still undetermined, or be bribed to try to delude us by elaborate sophisms. 3.40.4. To sum up shortly, I say that if you follow my advice you will do what is just towards the Mitylenians, and at the same time expedient; while by a different decision you will not oblige them so much as pass sentence upon yourselves. For if they were right in rebelling, you must be wrong in ruling. However, if, right or wrong, you determine to rule, you must carry out your principle and punish the Mitylenians as your interest requires; or else you must give up your empire and cultivate honesty without danger. 3.42.1. ‘I do not blame the persons who have reopened the case of the Mitylenians, nor do I approve the protests which we have heard against important questions being frequently debated. I think the two things most opposed to good counsel are haste and passion; haste usually goes hand in hand with folly, passion with coarseness and narrowness of mind. 3.49.1. Such were the words of Diodotus. The two opinions thus expressed were the ones that most directly contradicted each other; and the Athenians, notwithstanding their change of feeling, now proceeded to a division, in which the show of hands was almost equal, although the motion of Diodotus carried the day. 4.21.3. Foremost to encourage them in this policy was Cleon, son of Cleaenetus, a popular leader of the time and very powerful with the multitude, who persuaded them to answer as follows: First, the men in the island must surrender themselves and their arms and be brought to Athens . Next; the Lacedaemonians must restore Nisaea, Pegae, Troezen, and Achaia, all places acquired not by arms, but by the previous convention, under which they had been ceded by Athens herself at a moment of disaster, when a truce was more necessary to her than at present. This done they might take back their men, and make a truce for as long as both parties might agree. 6.15.2. By far the warmest advocate of the expedition was, however, Alcibiades, son of Clinias, who wished to thwart Nicias both as his political opponent and also because of the attack he had made upon him in his speech, and who was, besides, exceedingly ambitious of a command by which he hoped to reduce Sicily and Carthage, and personally to gain in wealth and reputation by means of his successes. 7.77.4. Others before us have attacked their neighbors and have done what men will do without suffering more than they could bear; and we may now justly expect to find the gods more kind, for we have become fitter objects for their pity than their jealousy. And then look at yourselves, mark the numbers and efficiency of the heavy infantry marching in your ranks, and do not give way too much to despondency, but reflect that you are yourselves at once a city wherever you sit down, and that there is no other in Sicily that could easily resist your attack, or expel you when once established. 8.1.1. Such were the events in Sicily . When the news was brought to Athens, for a long while they disbelieved even the most respectable of the soldiers who had themselves escaped from the scene of action and clearly reported the matter, a destruction so complete not being thought credible. When the conviction was forced upon them, they were angry with the orators who had joined in promoting the expedition, just as if they had not themselves voted it, and were enraged also with the reciters of oracles and soothsayers, and all other omenmongers of the time who had encouraged them to hope that they should conquer Sicily . 8.1.2. Already distressed at all points and in all quarters, after what had now happened, they were seized by a fear and consternation quite without example. It was grievous enough for the state and for every man in his proper person to lose so many heavy infantry, cavalry, and able-bodied troops, and to see none left to replace them; but when they saw, also, that they had not sufficient ships in their docks, or money in the treasury, or crews for the ships, they began to despair of salvation. They thought that their enemies in Sicily would immediately sail with their fleet against Piraeus, inflamed by so signal a victory; while their adversaries at home, redoubling all their preparations, would vigorously attack them by sea and land at once, aided by their own revolted confederates. 8.1.4. In short, as is the way of a democracy, in the panic of the moment they were ready to be as prudent as possible. These resolves were at once carried into effect.
3. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.6.35, 1.7.32 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.7.32. This much, however, I can say in defence of both parties, that the storm absolutely prevented them from doing any of the things which the generals had planned. And as witnesses to this fact you have those who were saved by mere chance, among whom is one of our generals, who came through safely on a disabled ship, and whom they now bid you judge by the same vote (although at that time he needed to be picked up himself) by which you judge those who did not do what they 406 B.C. were ordered to do.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abstract nominal phrases in thucydides, as subjects Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
abstract nominal phrases in thucydides, circumstances / conditions / states of affairs stressed by Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 281, 282
alcibiades Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 164
alcidas Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 256
ambiguity de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
arginusae de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
athenian empire Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 535
athens de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
athens and athenians, and corcyrean alliance Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
athens and athenians, and mytilenean revolt Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
athens and athenians, exposed to forces beyond their control Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
causation in thucydides, and idea of contest Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280
choice (primarily in thucydides), and freedom Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
choice (primarily in thucydides), impairment / erasure of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
choice (primarily in thucydides), scope for Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
cleon Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 163, 535; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
consolation Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
cowardice Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
daring/boldness (tolme) Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
democracy de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
diodotus, ὀργή defeated by Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
emotions, anger management de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
euryptolemus de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
expectation (negative and positive) Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
fear, pericles confronted with Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275, 280, 281
hope, and fear Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
individuals, withstanding necessity Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227, 280, 281, 282
irrational impulses, and choice Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
irrational impulses, and human nature Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
irrational impulses, athenians beset by Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280, 281, 282, 299
irrational impulses, dominating intellect Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
macedonia Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 535
mycalessus, and compounds of πίπτω Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
mytilene de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
necessity (in thucydides), and dual motivation model Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
nicias Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 535
peloponnesian war, as attacker Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
pericles, and balance Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 281, 282, 285
pericles, and stronger Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280
pericles, antitheses involving γνώμη in speeches of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 284, 285
pericles, exceptionality of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
pericles, prevailing over irrationality Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227, 280, 281, 282
pericles Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
philip ii of macedon Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 535
plague' Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 199
plague, and compounds of πίπτω Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
politics, hope in greek and roman Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 138
present things / circumstances (τὰ παρόντα, τὰ ὑπάρχοντα, τὰ πράγματα etc.) Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 281, 282, 285
sicilian expedition Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 164, 535
sicily Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 164
sparta and spartans, responsibility for peloponnesian war Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227
speech, and narrative de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
substantivized neuter phrases, and pericles Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280, 281
thracian allies of athens Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
thucydides, son of melesias, chance Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 535
thucydides de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
tragic perspective of thucydides Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
xenophon de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 223
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), and antithesis Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 284, 285
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), championed by pericles Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282, 284
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), equivocalness of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), meaning of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282, 299
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), struggling with contrary impulses Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 285
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), vs. external circumstances Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 284, 285
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), vs. passion Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282, 284, 285
κρείσσων (stronger), passions as Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280
τύχη (chance, fortune), and pericles Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 285
ἐλπίς (hope or expectation) and ἐλπίζω and εὔελπις, and thracian allies Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 299
ἐλπίς (hope or expectation) and ἐλπίζω and εὔελπις, in pericles speeches Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 285
ἔρως, and sicilian expedition Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 275
ἵστημι, compounds of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 280
ὀργή and ὀργίζομαι Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 227, 282, 285, 299