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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10882
Thucydides, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, 2.40


nanWe cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it. 2 Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes no part in these duties not as unambitious but as useless, we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all. 3 Again, in our enterprises we present the singular spectacle of daring and deliberation, each carried to its highest point, and both united in the same persons; although usually decision is the fruit of ignorance, hesitation of reflection. But the palm of courage will surely be adjudged most justly to those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet are never tempted to shrink from danger. 4 In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring not by receiving favors. Yet, of course, the doer of the favor is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. 5 And it is only the Athenians who, fearless of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the confidence of liberality.


nannan,We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it. ,Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes no part in these duties not as unambitious but as useless, we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all. ,Again, in our enterprises we present the singular spectacle of daring and deliberation, each carried to its highest point, and both united in the same persons; although usually decision is the fruit of ignorance, hesitation of reflection. But the palm of courage will surely be adjudged most justly to those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet are never tempted to shrink from danger. ,In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring not by receiving favors. Yet, of course, the doer of the favor is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. ,And it is only the Athenians who, fearless of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the confidence of liberality.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 629-664, 628 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

628. ἐξ οὗ γε χοροῖσιν ἐφέστηκεν τρυγικοῖς ὁ διδάσκαλος ἡμῶν
2. Aristophanes, Knights, 506-550, 505 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

505. ὦ παντοίας ἤδη Μούσης
3. Aristophanes, Clouds, 360, 333 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

333. κυκλίων τε χορῶν ᾀσματοκάμπτας ἄνδρας μετεωροφένακας
4. Aristophanes, Frogs, 676-705, 710, 718-733, 675 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

675. Μοῦσα χορῶν ἱερῶν: ἐπίβηθι καὶ ἔλθ' ἐπὶ τέρψιν ἀοιδᾶς ἐμᾶς
5. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 400-597, 399 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

399. Who is the despot of this land? To whom must I announce
6. Herodotus, Histories, 3.82, 7.139 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.82. Such was the judgment of Megabyzus. Darius was the third to express his opinion. “It seems to me,” he said, “that Megabyzus speaks well concerning democracy but not concerning oligarchy. For if the three are proposed and all are at their best for the sake of argument, the best democracy and oligarchy and monarchy, I hold that monarchy is by far the most excellent. ,One could describe nothing better than the rule of the one best man; using the best judgment, he will govern the multitude with perfect wisdom, and best conceal plans made for the defeat of enemies. ,But in an oligarchy, the desire of many to do the state good service often produces bitter hate among them; for because each one wishes to be first and to make his opinions prevail, violent hate is the outcome, from which comes faction and from faction killing, and from killing it reverts to monarchy, and by this is shown how much better monarchy is. ,Then again, when the people rule it is impossible that wickedness will not occur; and when wickedness towards the state occurs, hatred does not result among the wicked, but strong alliances; for those that want to do the state harm conspire to do it together. This goes on until one of the people rises to stop such men. He therefore becomes the people's idol, and being their idol is made their monarch; and thus he also proves that monarchy is best. ,But (to conclude the whole matter in one word) tell me, where did freedom come from for us and who gave it, from the people or an oligarchy or a single ruler? I believe, therefore, that we who were liberated through one man should maintain such a government, and, besides this, that we should not alter our ancestral ways that are good; that would not be better.” 7.139. Here I am forced to declare an opinion which will be displeasing to most, but I will not refrain from saying what seems to me to be true. ,Had the Athenians been panic-struck by the threatened peril and left their own country, or had they not indeed left it but remained and surrendered themselves to Xerxes, none would have attempted to withstand the king by sea. What would have happened on land if no one had resisted the king by sea is easy enough to determine. ,Although the Peloponnesians had built not one but many walls across the Isthmus for their defense, they would nevertheless have been deserted by their allies (these having no choice or free will in the matter, but seeing their cities taken one by one by the foreign fleet), until at last they would have stood alone. They would then have put up quite a fight and perished nobly. ,Such would have been their fate. Perhaps, however, when they saw the rest of Hellas siding with the enemy, they would have made terms with Xerxes. In either case Hellas would have been subdued by the Persians, for I cannot see what advantage could accrue from the walls built across the isthmus, while the king was master of the seas. ,As it is, to say that the Athenians were the saviors of Hellas is to hit the truth. It was the Athenians who held the balance; whichever side they joined was sure to prevail. choosing that Greece should preserve her freedom, the Athenians roused to battle the other Greek states which had not yet gone over to the Persians and, after the gods, were responsible for driving the king off. ,Nor were they moved to desert Hellas by the threatening oracles which came from Delphi and sorely dismayed them, but they stood firm and had the courage to meet the invader of their country.
7. Isocrates, Orations, 4.93, 4.95-4.99 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Lysias, Orations, 2.33-2.45 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Plato, Greater Hippias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

285b. Soc. Then the Lacedaemonians in not giving you money and entrusting their sons to you, act contrary to law. Hipp. I agree to that; for you seem to be making your argument in my favour, and there is no need of my opposing it. Soc. Then my friends, we find that the Lacedaemonians are law-breakers, and that too in the most important affairs—they who are regarded as the most law-abiding of men. But then, for Heaven’s sake, Hippias, what sort of discourses are those for which they applaud you and which they enjoy hearing?
10. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

315c. eated high on a chair in the doorway opposite; and sitting around him on benches were Eryximachus, son of Acumenus, Phaedrus of Myrrhinous, Andron son of Androtion and a number of strangers,—fellow-citizens of Hippias and some others. They seemed to be asking him a series of astronomical questions on nature and the heavenly bodies, while he, seated in his chair, was distinguishing and expounding to each in turn the subjects of their questions. Nay more, Tantalus also did I there behold. Hom. Od. 11.582 —for you know Prodicus of Ceos is in Athens too:
11. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.1-1.22, 1.8.1, 1.13.6, 1.70.3, 1.73-1.74, 1.73.2-1.73.74, 1.75.4, 1.76.1, 1.77, 1.124, 1.129.3, 1.130, 1.139, 2.1-2.2, 2.11, 2.13, 2.34-2.39, 2.34.5, 2.36.3, 2.37.1, 2.37.3, 2.38.1-2.38.2, 2.39.2, 2.40.1-2.40.2, 2.40.4-2.40.5, 2.41-2.46, 2.41.1, 2.41.3-2.41.4, 2.43.1, 2.47.3-2.47.54, 2.48.3, 2.60-2.65, 2.60.5, 2.61.3, 2.62.4-2.62.5, 2.63.2, 2.97, 3.30, 3.37-3.48, 3.37.2, 3.58.4, 3.81-3.84, 3.82.4, 3.87, 3.104, 4.50.1-4.50.2, 4.85-4.87, 4.92, 5.1, 5.32.1, 6.9.3, 6.16-6.18, 6.18.3, 6.76.3, 6.82.3, 6.85.1, 7.69.2, 8.53.3, 8.66 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.8.1. The islanders, too, were great pirates. These islanders were Carians and Phoenicians, by whom most of the islands were colonized, as was proved by the following fact. During the purification of Delos by Athens in this war all the graves in the island were taken up, and it was found that above half their inmates were Carians: they were identified by the fashion of the arms buried with them, and by the method of interment, which was the same as the Carians still follow. 1.13.6. Subsequently the Ionians attained to great naval strength in the reign of Cyrus, the first king of the Persians, and of his son Cambyses, and while they were at war with the former commanded for a while the Ionian sea. Polycrates also, the tyrant of Samos, had a powerful navy in the reign of Cambyses with which he reduced many of the islands, and among them Rhenea, which he consecrated to the Delian Apollo. About this time also the Phocaeans, while they were founding Marseilles, defeated the Carthaginians in a sea-fight. 1.70.3. Again, they are adventurous beyond their power, and daring beyond their judgment, and in danger they are sanguine; your wont is to attempt less than is justified by your power, to mistrust even what is sanctioned by your judgment, and to fancy that from danger there is no release. 1.73.2. We need not refer to remote antiquity: there we could appeal to the voice of tradition, but not to the experience of our audience. But to the Median war and contemporary history we must refer, although we are rather tired of continually bringing this subject forward. In our action during that war we ran great risk to obtain certain advantages: you had your share in the solid results, do not try to rob us of all share in the good that the glory may do us. 1.73.3. However, the story shall be told not so much to deprecate hostility as to testify against it, and to show, if you are so ill-advised as to enter into a struggle with Athens, what sort of an antagonist she is likely to prove. 1.73.4. We assert that at Marathon we were at the front, and faced the barbarian single-handed. That when he came the second time, unable to cope with him by land we went on board our ships with all our people, and joined in the action at Salamis . This prevented his taking the Peloponnesian states in detail, and ravaging them with his fleet; when the multitude of his vessels would have made any combination for self-defence impossible. 1.73.5. The best proof of this was furnished by the invader himself. Defeated at sea, he considered his power to be no longer what it had been, and retired as speedily as possible with the greater part of his army. 1.75.4. And at last, when almost all hated us, when some had already revolted and had been subdued, when you had ceased to be the friends that you once were, and had become objects of suspicion and dislike, it appeared no longer safe to give up our empire; especially as all who left us would fall to you. 1.76.1. You, at all events, Lacedaemonians, have used your supremacy to settle the states in Peloponnese as is agreeable to you. And if at the period of which we were speaking you had persevered to the end of the matter, and had incurred hatred in your command, we are sure that you would have made yourselves just as galling to the allies, and would have been forced to choose between a strong government and danger to yourselves. 1.129.3. which contained the following answer:—‘Thus saith King Xerxes to Pausanias. For the men whom you have saved for me across sea from Byzantium, an obligation is laid up for you in our house, recorded forever; and with your proposals I am well pleased. Let neither night nor day stop you from diligently performing any of your promises to me, neither for cost of gold nor of silver let them be hindered, nor yet for number of troops, wherever it may be that their presence is needed; but with Artabazus, an honorable man whom I send you, boldly advance my objects and yours, as may be most for the honor and interest of us both.’ 2.34.5. The dead are laid in the public sepulchre in the most beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with the exception of those slain at Marathon, who for their singular and extraordinary valor were interred on the spot where they fell. 2.36.3. Lastly, there are few parts of our dominions that have not been augmented by those of us here, who are still more or less in the vigor of life; while the mother country has been furnished by us with everything that can enable her to depend on her own resources whether for war or for peace. 2.37.1. Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. 2.37.3. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace. 2.38.1. Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; 2.38.2. while the magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbor, so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own. 2.39.2. In proof of this it may be noticed that the Lacedaemonians do not invade our country alone, but bring with them all their confederates; while we Athenians advance unsupported into the territory of a neighbor, and fighting upon a foreign soil usually vanquish with ease men who are defending their homes. 2.40.1. We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it. 2.40.2. Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes no part in these duties not as unambitious but as useless, we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all. 2.40.4. In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring not by receiving favors. Yet, of course, the doer of the favor is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. 2.40.5. And it is only the Athenians who, fearless of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the confidence of liberality. 2.41.1. In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas ; while I doubt if the world can produce a man, who where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to so many emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility as the Athenian. 2.41.3. For Athens alone of her contemporaries is found when tested to be greater than her reputation, and alone gives no occasion to her assailants to blush at the antagonist by whom they have been worsted, or to her subjects to question her title by merit to rule. 2.41.4. Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; and far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishable monuments behind us. 2.43.1. So died these men as became Athenians. You, their survivors, must determine to have as unaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier issue. And not contented with ideas derived only from words of the advantages which are bound up with the defence of your country, though these would furnish a valuable text to a speaker even before an audience so alive to them as the present, you must yourselves realize the power of Athens, and feed your eyes upon her from day to day, till love of her fills your hearts; and then when all her greatness shall break upon you, you must reflect that it was by courage, sense of duty, and a keen feeling of honor in action that men were enabled to win all this, and that no personal failure in an enterprise could make them consent to deprive their country of their valor, but they laid it at her feet as the most glorious contribution that they could offer. 2.47.3. Not many days after their arrival in Attica the plague first began to show itself among the Athenians. It was said that it had broken out in many places previously in the neighborhood of Lemnos and elsewhere; but a pestilence of such extent and mortality was nowhere remembered. 2.47.4. Neither were the physicians at first of any service, ignorant as they were of the proper way to treat it, but they died themselves the most thickly, as they visited the sick most often; nor did any human art succeed any better. Supplications in the temples, divinations, and so forth were found equally futile, till the overwhelming nature of the disaster at last put a stop to them altogether. 2.48.3. All speculation as to its origin and its causes, if causes can be found adequate to produce so great a disturbance, I leave to other writers, whether lay or professional; for myself, I shall simply set down its nature, and explain the symptoms by which perhaps it may be recognized by the student, if it should ever break out again. This I can the better do, as I had the disease myself, and watched its operation in the case of others. 2.60.5. And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. 2.61.3. For before what is sudden, unexpected, and least within calculation the spirit quails; and putting all else aside, the plague has certainly been an emergency of this kind. 2.62.4. Confidence indeed a blissful ignorance can impart, ay, even to a coward's breast, but disdain is the privilege of those who, like us, have been assured by reflection of their superiority to their adversary. 2.62.5. And where the chances are the same, knowledge fortifies courage by the contempt which is its consequence, its trust being placed, not in hope, which is the prop of the desperate, but in a judgment grounded upon existing resources, whose anticipations are more to be depended upon. 2.63.2. Besides, to recede is no longer possible, if indeed any of you in the alarm of the moment has become enamored of the honesty of such an unambitious part. For what you hold is, to speak somewhat plainly, a tyranny; to take it perhaps was wrong, but to let it go is unsafe. 3.58.4. Look at the sepulchres of your fathers, slain by the Medes and buried in our country, whom year by year we honored with garments and all other dues, and the first fruits of all that our land produced in their season, as friends from a friendly country and allies to our old companions in arms! Should you not decide aright, your conduct would be the very opposite to ours. Consider only: 3.82.4. Words had to change their ordinary meaning and to take that which was now given them. Reckless audacity came to be considered the courage of a loyal ally; prudent hesitation, specious cowardice; moderation was held to be a cloak for unmanliness; ability to see all sides of a question inaptness to act on any. Frantic violence, became the attribute of manliness; cautious plotting, a justifiable means of self-defence. 5.32.1. About the same time in this summer Athens succeeded in reducing Scione, put the adult males to death, and making slaves of the women and children, gave the land for the Plataeans to live in. She also brought back the Delians to Delos, moved by her misfortunes in the field and by the commands of the god at Delphi . 6.9.3. Against your character any words of mine would be weak enough; if I were to advise your keeping what you have got and not risking what is actually yours for advantages which are dubious in themselves, and which you may or may not attain. I will, therefore, content myself with showing that your ardour is out of season, and your ambition not easy of accomplishment. 6.18.3. And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop; we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it, for, if we cease to rule others, we are in danger of being ruled ourselves. Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others, unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs. 6.76.3. No; but the same policy which has proved so successful in Hellas is now being tried in Sicily . After being chosen as the leaders of the Ionians and of the other allies of Athenian origin, to punish the Mede, the Athenians accused some of failure in military service, some of fighting against each other, and others, as the case might be, upon any colourable pretext that could be found, until they thus subdued them all. 6.82.3. After the Median war we had a fleet, and so got rid of the empire and supremacy of the Lacedaemonians, who had no right to give orders to us more than we to them, except that of being the strongest at that moment; and being appointed leaders of the king's former subjects, we continue to be so, thinking that we are least likely to fall under the dominion of the Peloponnesians, if we have a force to defend ourselves with, and in strict truth having done nothing unfair in reducing to subjection the Ionians and islanders, the kinsfolk whom the Syracusans say we have enslaved. 7.69.2. Meanwhile Nicias, appalled by the position of affairs, realizing the greatness and the nearness of the danger now that they were on the point of putting out from shore, and thinking, as men are apt to think in great crises, that when all has been done they have still something left to do, and when all has been said that they have not yet said enough, again called on the captains one by one, addressing each by his father's name and by his own, and by that of his tribe, and adjured them not to belie their own personal renown, or to obscure the hereditary virtues for which their ancestors were illustrious; he reminded them of their country, the freest of the free, and of the unfettered discretion allowed in it to all to live as they pleased; and added other arguments such as men would use at such a crisis, and which, with little alteration, are made to serve on all occasions alike—appeals to wives, children, and national gods,—without caring whether they are thought common-place, but loudly invoking them in the belief that they will be of use in the consternation of the moment. 8.53.3. Upon their replying that they had not, he then plainly said to them: ‘This we cannot have unless we have a more moderate form of government, and put the offices into fewer hands, and so gain the king's confidence, and forthwith restore Alcibiades, who is the only man living that can bring this about. The safety of the state, not the form of its government, is for the moment the most pressing question, as we can always change afterwards whatever we do not like.'
12. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 31.1, 67.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Aristotle, Metaphysics, 3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.285, 20.141 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.1-5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.1. Cum audissem audivissem ER Antiochum, Brute, ut solebam, solebam Vict. solebat cum M. Pisone in eo gymnasio, quod Ptolomaeum vocatur, unaque nobiscum Q. frater et T. Pomponius Luciusque Cicero, frater noster cognatione patruelis, amore germanus, constituimus inter nos ut ambulationem postmeridianam conficeremus in Academia, maxime quod is locus ab omni turba id temporis vacuus esset. itaque ad tempus ad Pisonem omnes. inde sermone vario sex illa a Dipylo stadia confecimus. cum autem venissemus in Academiae non sine causa nobilitata spatia, solitudo erat ea, quam volueramus. 5.2. tum Piso: Naturane nobis hoc, inquit, datum dicam an errore quodam, ut, cum ea loca videamus, in quibus memoria dignos viros acceperimus multum esse versatos, magis moveamur, quam si quando eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus aut scriptum aliquod aliquid R legamus? velut ego nunc moveor. venit enim mihi Platonis in mentem, quem accepimus primum hic disputare solitum; cuius etiam illi hortuli propinqui propinqui hortuli BE non memoriam solum mihi afferunt, sed ipsum videntur in conspectu meo ponere. hic Speusippus, hic Xenocrates, hic eius auditor Polemo, cuius illa ipsa sessio fuit, quam videmus. Equidem etiam curiam nostram—Hostiliam dico, non hanc novam, quae minor mihi esse esse mihi B videtur, posteaquam est maior—solebam intuens Scipionem, Catonem, Laelium, nostrum vero in primis avum cogitare; tanta vis admonitionis inest in locis; ut non sine causa ex iis memoriae ducta sit disciplina. 5.3. Tum Quintus: Est plane, Piso, ut dicis, inquit. nam me ipsum huc modo venientem convertebat ad sese Coloneus ille locus, locus lucus Valckenarius ad Callimach. p. 216 cf. Va. II p. 545 sqq. cuius incola Sophocles ob oculos versabatur, quem scis quam admirer quamque eo delecter. me quidem ad altiorem memoriam Oedipodis huc venientis et illo mollissimo carmine quaenam essent ipsa haec hec ipsa BE loca requirentis species quaedam commovit, iiter scilicet, sed commovit tamen. Tum Pomponius: At ego, quem vos ut deditum Epicuro insectari soletis, sum multum equidem cum Phaedro, quem unice diligo, ut scitis, in Epicuri hortis, quos modo praeteribamus, praeteribamus edd. praeteriebamus sed veteris proverbii admonitu vivorum memini, nec tamen Epicuri epicureum Non. licet oblivisci, si cupiam, cuius imaginem non modo in tabulis nostri familiares, sed etiam in poculis et in anulis nec tamen ... anulis habent Non. p. 70 anulis anellis Non. anelis R ambus anulis V habent. habebant Non. 5.4. Hic ego: Pomponius quidem, inquam, noster iocari videtur, et fortasse suo iure. ita enim se Athenis collocavit, ut sit paene unus ex Atticis, ut id etiam cognomen videatur habiturus. Ego autem tibi, Piso, assentior usu hoc venire, ut acrius aliquanto et attentius de claris viris locorum admonitu admonitum Non. cogitemus. ut acrius...cogitemus Non. p. 190, 191 scis enim me quodam tempore Metapontum venisse tecum neque ad hospitem ante devertisse, devertisse Lambini vetus cod. in marg. ed. rep. ; divertisse quam Pythagorae ipsum illum locum, ubi vitam ediderat, sedemque viderim. hoc autem tempore, etsi multa in omni parte Athenarum sunt in ipsis locis indicia summorum virorum, tamen ego illa moveor exhedra. modo enim fuit Carneadis, Carneadis Mdv. carneades quem videre videor—est enim nota imago—, a sedeque ipsa tanta tanti RN ingenii magnitudine orbata desiderari illam vocem puto. 5.5. Tum Piso: Quoniam igitur aliquid omnes, quid Lucius noster? inquit. an eum locum libenter libenter diligenter R invisit, ubi Demosthenes et Aeschines inter se decertare soliti sunt? suo enim quisque enim unus quisque BE studio maxime ducitur. Et ille, cum erubuisset: Noli, inquit, ex me quaerere, qui in Phalericum etiam descenderim, quo in loco ad fluctum aiunt declamare solitum Demosthenem, ut fremitum assuesceret voce vincere. modo etiam paulum ad dexteram dextram RN de via declinavi, ut ad Pericli ad Pericli Gz. apicii R ad pericii BE ad peridis ( corr. in periclis) N ad periculis V sepulcrum sepulchrum BEV accederem. quamquam id quidem infinitum est in hac urbe; quacumque enim ingredimur, in aliqua historia vestigium ponimus. 5.6. Tum Piso: Atqui, Cicero, inquit, ista studia, si ad imitandos summos viros spectant, ingeniosorum sunt; sin tantum modo ad indicia veteris memoriae cognoscenda, curiosorum. te autem hortamur omnes, currentem quidem, ut spero, ut eos, quos novisse vis, imitari etiam velis. Hic ego: Etsi facit hic quidem, inquam, Piso, ut vides, ea, quae praecipis, tamen mihi grata hortatio tua est. Tum ille amicissime, ut solebat: Nos vero, inquit, omnes omnia ad huius adolescentiam conferamus, in primisque ut aliquid suorum studiorum philosophiae quoque impertiat, vel ut te imitetur, quem amat, vel ut illud ipsum, quod studet, facere possit ornatius. sed utrum hortandus es nobis, Luci, inquit, an etiam tua sponte propensus es? mihi quidem Antiochum, quem audis, satis belle videris attendere. Tum ille timide vel potius verecunde: Facio, inquit, equidem, sed audistine modo de Carneade? rapior illuc, revocat autem Antiochus, nec est praeterea, quem audiamus. 5.1.  My dear Brutus, — Once I had been attending a lecture of Antiochus, as I was in the habit of doing, with Marcus Piso, in the building called the School of Ptolemy; and with us were my brother Quintus, Titus Pomponius, and Lucius Cicero, whom I loved as a brother but who was really my first cousin. We arranged to take our afternoon stroll in the Academy, chiefly because the place would be quiet and deserted at that hour of the day. Accordingly at the time appointed we met at our rendezvous, Piso's lodgings, and starting out beguiled with conversation on various subjects the three-quarters of a mile from the Dipylon Gate. When we reached the walks of the Academy, which are so deservedly famous, we had them entirely to ourselves, as we had hoped. 5.2.  Thereupon Piso remarked: "Whether it is a natural instinct or a mere illusion, I can't say; but one's emotions are more strongly aroused by seeing the places that tradition records to have been the favourite resort of men of note in former days, than by hearing about their deeds or reading their writings. My own feelings at the present moment are a case in point. I am reminded of Plato, the first philosopher, so we are told, that made a practice of holding discussions in this place; and indeed the garden close at hand yonder not only recalls his memory but seems to bring the actual man before my eyes. This was the haunt of Speusippus, of Xenocrates, and of Xenocrates' pupil Polemo, who used to sit on the very seat we see over there. For my own part even the sight of our senate-house at home (I mean the Curia Hostilia, not the present new building, which looks to my eyes smaller since its enlargement) used to call up to me thoughts of Scipio, Cato, Laelius, and chief of all, my grandfather; such powers of suggestion do places possess. No wonder the scientific training of the memory is based upon locality. 5.3.  "Perfectly true, Piso," rejoined Quintus. "I myself on the way here just now noticed yonder village of Colonus, and it brought to my imagination Sophocles who resided there, and who is as you know my great admiration and delight. Indeed my memory took me further back; for I had a vision of Oedipus, advancing towards this very spot and asking in those most tender verses, 'What place is this?' — a mere fancy no doubt, yet still it affected me strongly." "For my part," said Pomponius, "you are fond of attacking me as a devotee of Epicurus, and I do spend much of my time with Phaedrus, who as you know is my dearest friend, in Epicurus's Gardens which we passed just now; but I obey the old saw: I 'think of those that are alive.' Still I could not forget Epicurus, even if I wanted; the members of our body not only have pictures of him, but even have his likeness on their drinking-cups and rings. 5.4.  "As for our friend Pomponius," I interposed, "I believe he is joking; and no doubt he is a licensed wit, for he has so taken root in Athens that he is almost an Athenian; in fact I expect he will get the surname of Atticus! But I, Piso, agree with you; it is a common experience that places do strongly stimulate the imagination and vivify our ideas of famous men. You remember how I once came with you to Metapontum, and would not go to the house where we were to stay until I had seen the very place where Pythagoras breathed his last and the seat he sat in. All over Athens, I know, there are many reminders of eminent men in the actual place where they lived; but at the present moment it is that alcove over there which appeals to me, for not long ago it belonged to Carneades. I fancy I see him now (for his portrait is familiar), and I can imagine that the very place where he used to sit misses the sound of his voice, and mourns the loss of that mighty intellect. 5.5.  "Well, then," said Piso, "as we all have some association that appeals to us, what is it that interests our young friend Lucius? Does he enjoy visiting the spot where Demosthenes and Aeschines used to fight their battles? For we are all specially influenced by our own favourite study." "Pray don't ask me," answer Lucius with a blush; "I have actually made a pilgrimage down to the Bay of Phalerum, where they say Demosthenes used to practise declaiming on the beach, to learn to pitch his voice so as to overcome an uproar. Also only just now I turned off the road a little way on the right, to visit the tomb of Pericles. Though in fact there is no end to it in this city; wherever we go we tread historic ground. 5.6.  "Well, Cicero," said Piso, "these enthusiasms befit a young man of parts, if they lead him to copy the example of the great. If they only stimulate antiquarian curiosity, they are mere dilettantism. But we all of us exhort you — though I hope it is a case of spurring a willing steed — to resolve to imitate your heroes as well as to know about them." "He is practising your precepts already, Piso," said I, "as you are aware; but all the same thank you for encouraging him." "Well," said Piso, with his usual amiability, "let us all join forces to promote the lad's improvement; and especially let us try to make him spare some of his interest for philosophy, either so as to follow the example of yourself for whom he has such an affection, or in order to be better equipped for the very study to which he is devoted. But, Lucius," he asked, "do you need our urging, or have you a natural leaning of your own towards philosophy? You are keeping Antiochus's lectures, and seem to me to be a pretty attentive pupil." "I try to be," replied Lucius with a timid or rather a modest air; "but have you heard any lectures on Carneades lately? He attracts me immensely; but Antiochus calls me in the other direction; and there is no other lecturer to go to.
16. Cicero, De Oratore, 2.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.36. Historia vero testis temporum, lux veritatis, vita memoriae, magistra vitae, nuntia vetustatis, qua voce alia nisi oratoris immortalitati commendatur? Nam si qua est ars alia, quae verborum aut faciendorum aut legendorum scientiam profiteatur; aut si quisquam dicitur nisi orator formare orationem eamque variare et distinguere quasi quibusdam verborum sententiarumque insignibus; aut si via ulla nisi ab hac una arte traditur aut argumentorum aut sententiarum aut denique discriptionis atque ordinis, fateamur aut hoc, quod haec ars profiteatur, alienum esse aut cum alia aliqua arte esse commune: sed si in hac una est ea ratio atque doctrina, non, si qui aliarum artium bene locuti sunt, eo minus id est huius unius proprium;
17. Cicero, Pro Sestio, 98-100 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.271, 6.813, 6.823 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.271. exultant, whether false or true she sung: 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers
19. Vergil, Eclogues, 1.6, 5.61 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.6. it careless in the shade, and, at your call 5.61. but with thy voice art thou, thrice happy boy
20. Gorgias Atheniensis, Fragments, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Plutarch, Aristides, 21.1-21.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Plutarch, Pericles, 8.6, 28.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.6. Again, Stesimbrotus says that, in his funeral oration over those who had fallen in the Samian War, he declared that they had become immortal, like the gods; the gods themselves, he said, we cannot see, but from the honors which they receive, and the blessings which they bestow, we conclude that they are immortal. So it was, he said, with those who had given their lives for their country. 28.3. At all events, since it is not the wont of Duris, even in cases where he has no private and personal interest, to hold his narrative down to the fundamental truth, it is all the more likely that here, in this instance, he has given a dreadful portrayal of the calamities of his country, that he might calumniate the Athenians. When Pericles, after his subjection of Samos, had returned to Athens, he gave honorable burial to those who had fallen in the war, and for the oration which he made, according to the custom, over their tombs, he won the greatest admiration.
23. Lucian, Athletics, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. But perhaps you will take the equipment of your tragedians and comedians, and when you get your marching orders put on those wide mouthed headpieces, to scare the foe with their appalling terrors; of course, and you can put the stilted things on your feet; they will be light for running away (if that should be advisable), or, if you are in pursuit, the strides they lend themselves to will make your enemy’s escape impossible. Seriously now, are not these refinements of yours all child’s play — something for your idle, slack youngsters to do? If you really want to be free and happy, you must have other exercises than these; your training must be a genuine martial one; no toy contests with friends, but real ones with enemies; danger must be an element in your character development. Never mind dust and oil; teach them to use bow and javelin; and none of your light darts diverted by a puff of wind; let it be a ponderous spear that whistles as it flies; to which add stones, a handful each, the axe, the shield, the breastplate, and the helmet. h3 class="sectionedit33
24. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.4, 2.31.5, 10.16.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.29.4. There is also a monument for all the Athenians whose fate it has been to fall in battle, whether at sea or on land, except such of them as fought at Marathon. These, for their valor, have their graves on the field of battle, but the others lie along the road to the Academy, and on their graves stand slabs bearing the name and parish of each. First were buried those who in Thrace, after a victorious advance as far as Drabescus c. 465 B.C., were unexpectedly attacked by the Edonians and slaughtered. There is also a legend that they were struck by lightning. 2.31.5. Not far from Artemis Lycea are altars close to one another. The first of them is to Dionysus, surnamed, in accordance with an oracle, Saotes (Saviour); the second is named the altar of the Themides (Laws), and was dedicated, they say, by Pittheus. They had every reason, it seems to me, for making an altar to Helius Eleutherius (Sun, God of Freedom), seeing that they escaped being enslaved by Xerxes and the Persians. 10.16.6. The Euboeans of Carystus too set up in the sanctuary of Apollo a bronze ox, from spoils taken in the Persian war. The Carystians and the Plataeans dedicated oxen, I believe, because, having repulsed the barbarian, they had won a secure prosperity, and especially a land free to plough. The Aetolian nation, having subdued their neighbors the Acarians, sent statues of generals and images of Apollo and Artemis.
25. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.55. So far Pisistratus. To return to Solon: one of his sayings is that 70 years are the term of man's life.He seems to have enacted some admirable laws; for instance, if any man neglects to provide for his parents, he shall be disfranchised; moreover there is a similar penalty for the spendthrift who runs through his patrimony. Again, not to have a settled occupation is made a crime for which any one may, if he pleases, impeach the offender. Lysias, however, in his speech against Nicias ascribes this law to Draco, and to Solon another depriving open profligates of the right to speak in the Assembly. He curtailed the honours of athletes who took part in the games, fixing the allowance for an Olympic victor at 500 drachmae, for an Isthmian victor at 100 drachmae, and proportionately in all other cases. It was in bad taste, he urged, to increase the rewards of these victors, and to ignore the exclusive claims of those who had fallen in battle, whose sons ought, moreover, to be maintained and educated by the State.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
aegean Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
afterlife, in material culture Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 5, 6
afterlife, late fifth-century ideas Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 607
afterlife, separating body and soul Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 6
afterlife Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 607
agathoi Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
alcamenes Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 87
alcibiades Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217, 218; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
amphipolis Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
ancestors Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 5
andreia Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 214, 218
anger Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350
anonymus iamblichi, iamblichus framing of Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 290
anonymus iamblichi, importance of Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 290
antonius, m. Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
aphrodite, pythios of delphi Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
archidamus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 86
archytas Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108
areopagus, trials at Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 290
argos Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 6
aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic, competition among Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
aristogeiton, and harmodios Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
aristophanes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
aristotle, as supposed source for the precepts Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108
aristotle Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 221
aristoxenus, reliability as a source Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108
arsaces Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
artaphernes Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
artemis, proseoa of artemisium Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
asia minor Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
assembly, athenian (ekklesia) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
assyrian writing Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539, 666
astronomy Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
athenagoras Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 221
athenian character Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 196
athenian empire Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 196, 540
athenians, treatment of dead Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
athens, war dead of Shilo, Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics (2022) 6
athens Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91, 214, 217, 218
athens and athenians, in peloponnesian war era Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
athens and athenians, in persian war era Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
athletics Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
atramytium Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
attica Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
augustus Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
battle, death in Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
battle Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
beauty Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108, 229
blood, and war Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
blood rituals Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
brasidas Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91
bronze Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
brutus, lucius Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70
calculation Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 214, 217, 350
carians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
cartledge, paul, vii Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
carystians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
christianity / christians Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
church fathers Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
cicero, philippics Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
citizenship Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
city, ‚learning city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
civic life Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
classical period Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
cleisthenes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
cleon Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 271
constant, benjamin Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
constitution Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
corcyra Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 221, 779
cretans Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 87
dahl, robert Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
dead, treatment of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
death Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
debate Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
dedications, after plataea Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
delian league Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
delphi Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
delphi and delphians, dedications at Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
democracy, ancient and modern, theory of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
democracy, ancient and modern Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
demos (damos), empowerment of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
demosthenes Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350
demosthenes funeral speech, authenticity Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
demosthenes funeral speech Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
dialectic Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 44
diallaktes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
dionysius of halicarnassus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 86, 87; Montanari and Rengakos, In the Company of Many Good Poets. Collected Papers of Franco Montanari: Vol. I: Ancient Scholarship (2023) 748
eder, walter Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
egalitarianism Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
egyptians Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 87
epideixis Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
epitaph Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
epitaphios logos Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262; Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
epitaphs, from persian wars Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
euripides Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
extravagance Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108
fear Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217
fine, the' Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 229
finley, m. i. Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
foreigners Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 290
funeral oration, extant speeches Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
funeral oration, myths in Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
funeral oration Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
funerary monument Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
games Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 607
gorgias Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 44
gorgias funeral speech Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
greek democracy and philosophy Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70
hansen, mogens Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
harmodios and aristogeiton Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
hekate Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
helios, eleutherios of troezen Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
hermocrates Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 221
hero Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
herodotus, and the athenian audience Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
herodotus, historical perspective of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
herodotus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
heroes Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
heroism Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
hipparchos Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
hippias Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
hippocratic writers Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
homosexuality Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
hyperides funeral speech Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
iconographical representations of sacrifice Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
identity, greek Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
immortality, and the cult of the war dead Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
immortality, contrast with mortality and relation to ritual practices Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
inscriptions, of kritios and nesiotes harmodios and aristogeiton Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
isocrates Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 229
jurors, juries, athenian (dikastai) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
lacedaemonians Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 87
language Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 214, 217
laudatio, laudationes Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
laudes athenarum Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
law, rule of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
law Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
leosthenes Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
lycurgus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 87
lysias funeral oration, authenticity Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
lysias funeral oration, dating Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
marathon Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
masculinity Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217, 218
mathematics Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
mcpherran, m. l. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 607
medeiosnan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 779
megarians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
memory, collective memory Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
meteorology Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
mortality, contrast with immortality and relation to ritual practices Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
mourning Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
music Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
myth Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
narrative Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 218
negotium Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70
nicias Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217, 218
nomothetes, nomothetai Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
numbers Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350
ober, josiah, vii–viii Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
oidipous Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
oligarchic conspiracy/revolution (nan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
oracles, delphic Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
oracles, interpreted by athenians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
oracles Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
otium Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70
participation in government Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
pathos Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217
patroclus Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
pay, for attending the assembly, for jurors Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
pay, for attending the assembly Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
pederasty Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
peisistratus Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
peloponnese Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
peloponnesian war Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
peparethians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
pericles Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 86, 87; Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262; Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70; Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91, 214, 217, 218; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
pericles funeral speech Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70
pericles of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
persia and persians, war with greeks Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
persuasion Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91
pisander Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
plague Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 779
plataea Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539
plato, as supposed source for the precepts Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108
plato Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
platos menexenus Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
plutarch, lives Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 779
polybus Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
practice (askēsis, meletē), in ionian thought Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 290
procedure, legal Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 290
protagoras Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
raaflaub, kurt Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
reader / readership Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
reform Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
religion Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
rhetoric, epideictic Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 290
rhetoric/rhetorical Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91, 217, 218
rhetoric Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 44
sarcophagi, greek Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
sarcophagi, portraits on Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
sarcophagi, roman Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
self-representation Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
servilius vatia isauricus, p. Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
socrates, as orator Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 44
socrates Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 44
solon Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 540
sophists Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
sortition Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
space, material space Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
speeches Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91, 350
stasis Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 217
statuary, harmodios and aristogeiton of kritios and nesiotes Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
stewart, andrew Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 221
style, pathos Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes (2009) 290
supplicatio, supplicationes Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70
teutiaplus Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91
thucydides, and herodotus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
thucydides, on persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
thucydides, on spartans Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311
thucydides, pericles funeral oration Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
thucydides, son of melesias, audience, reader Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 540, 779
thucydides, son of melesias, documents, letters, treaties etc. Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 539, 666
thucydides, son of melesias, manuscript traditionnan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 271
thucydides, speeches Barbato, The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past (2020) 40
thucydides Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 86, 87; Duffalo, The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate (2006) 70; Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 70; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 91, 214, 350; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
tradition Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 94
tragedy / tragic Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 156
troezenians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 110
trojan war Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
wallace, robert, viii Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 191
war, and hero-cult Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
war (battles) Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 262
war dead, religious status of the war dead Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
war dead, sacrifices to the war dead Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
war dead Ekroth, The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period (2013) 262
xenophon, cyropaedia Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 779
xerxes Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 311; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 666
zhmud, l. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 108