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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10882
Thucydides, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, 2.21.3


κατὰ ξυστάσεις τε γιγνόμενοι ἐν πολλῇ ἔριδι ἦσαν, οἱ μὲν κελεύοντες ἐπεξιέναι, οἱ δέ τινες οὐκ ἐῶντες. χρησμολόγοι τε ᾖδον χρησμοὺς παντοίους, ὧν ἀκροᾶσθαι ὡς ἕκαστος ὥρμητο. οἵ τε Ἀχαρνῆς οἰόμενοι παρὰ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἐλαχίστην μοῖραν εἶναι Ἀθηναίων, ὡς αὐτῶν ἡ γῆ ἐτέμνετο, ἐνῆγον τὴν ἔξοδον μάλιστα. παντί τε τρόπῳ ἀνηρέθιστο ἡ πόλις, καὶ τὸν Περικλέα ἐν ὀργῇ εἶχον, καὶ ὧν παρῄνεσε πρότερον ἐμέμνηντο οὐδέν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκάκιζον ὅτι στρατηγὸς ὢν οὐκ ἐπεξάγοι, αἴτιόν τε σφίσιν ἐνόμιζον πάντων ὧν ἔπασχον.Knots were formed in the streets and engaged in hot discussion; for if the proposed sally was warmly recommended, it was also in some cases opposed. Oracles of the most various import were recited by the collectors, and found eager listeners in one or other of the disputants. Foremost in pressing for the sally were the Acharnians, as constituting no small part of the army of the state, and as it was their land that was being ravaged. In short, the whole city was in a most excited state; Pericles was the object of general indignation; his previous counsels were totally forgotten; he was abused for not leading out the army which he commanded, and was made responsible for the whole of the public suffering.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Aristophanes, Birds, 962, 978, 521 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

521. Λάμπων δ' ὄμνυς' ἔτι καὶ νυνὶ τὸν χῆν', ὅταν ἐξαπατᾷ τι.
2. Aristophanes, Women of The Assembly, 1013, 1012 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1012. ἀναγκάσει τουτί σε. τοῦτο δ' ἔστι τί;
3. Aristophanes, Knights, 1126-1150, 123, 1321-1322, 396, 1125 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1125. αὐτός τε γὰρ ἥδομαι
4. Aristophanes, Clouds, 332 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

332. Θουριομάντεις ἰατροτέχνας σφραγιδονυχαργοκομήτας
5. Aristophanes, Peace, 1044-1126, 1043 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1043. ὄπτα καλῶς νυν αὐτά: καὶ γὰρ οὑτοσὶ
6. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 1067-1069, 1074, 1096-1126, 1044 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1044. τάλαιν' ἐγὼ τῆς ὕβρεος ἧς ὑβρίζομαι.
7. Herodotus, Histories, 7.140-7.142 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.140. The Athenians had sent messages to Delphi asking that an oracle be given them, and when they had performed all due rites at the temple and sat down in the inner hall, the priestess, whose name was Aristonice, gave them this answer: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"Wretches, why do you linger here? Rather flee from your houses and city, /l lFlee to the ends of the earth from the circle embattled of Athens! /l lThe head will not remain in its place, nor in the body, /l lNor the feet beneath, nor the hands, nor the parts between; /l lBut all is ruined, for fire and the headlong god of war speeding in a Syrian chariot will bring you low. /l /quote , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"Many a fortress too, not yours alone, will he shatter; /l lMany a shrine of the gods will he give to the flame for devouring; /l lSweating for fear they stand, and quaking for dread of the enemy, /l lRunning with gore are their roofs, foreseeing the stress of their sorrow; /l lTherefore I bid you depart from the sanctuary. /l lHave courage to lighten your evil. /l /quote 7.141. When the Athenian messengers heard that, they were very greatly dismayed, and gave themselves up for lost by reason of the evil foretold. Then Timon son of Androbulus, as notable a man as any Delphian, advised them to take boughs of supplication and in the guise of suppliants, approach the oracle a second time. ,The Athenians did exactly this; “Lord,” they said, “regard mercifully these suppliant boughs which we bring to you, and give us some better answer concerning our country. Otherwise we will not depart from your temple, but remain here until we die.” Thereupon the priestess gave them this second oracle: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"Vainly does Pallas strive to appease great Zeus of Olympus; /l lWords of entreaty are vain, and so too cunning counsels of wisdom. /l lNevertheless I will speak to you again of strength adamantine. /l lAll will be taken and lost that the sacred border of Cecrops /l lHolds in keeping today, and the dales divine of Cithaeron; /l lYet a wood-built wall will by Zeus all-seeing be granted /l lTo the Trito-born, a stronghold for you and your children. /l /quote , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"Await not the host of horse and foot coming from Asia, /l lNor be still, but turn your back and withdraw from the foe. /l lTruly a day will come when you will meet him face to face. /l lDivine Salamis, you will bring death to women's sons /l lWhen the corn is scattered, or the harvest gathered in. /l /quote 7.142. This answer seemed to be and really was more merciful than the first, and the envoys, writing it down, departed for Athens. When the messengers had left Delphi and laid the oracle before the people, there was much inquiry concerning its meaning, and among the many opinions which were uttered, two contrary ones were especially worthy of note. Some of the elder men said that the gods answer signified that the acropolis should be saved, for in old time the acropolis of Athens had been fenced by a thorn hedge, ,which, by their interpretation, was the wooden wall. But others supposed that the god was referring to their ships, and they were for doing nothing but equipping these. Those who believed their ships to be the wooden wall were disabled by the two last verses of the oracle: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"Divine Salamis, you will bring death to women's sons /l lWhen the corn is scattered, or the harvest gathered in. /l /quote ,These verses confounded the opinion of those who said that their ships were the wooden wall, for the readers of oracles took the verses to mean that they should offer battle by sea near Salamis and be there overthrown.
8. Plato, Laches, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

195e. Lach. I do: it seems to be the seers whom he calls the courageous: for who else can know for which of us it is better to be alive than dead? And yet, Nicias, do you avow yourself to be a seer, or to be neither a seer nor courageous? Nic. What! Is it now a seer, think you, who has the gift of judging what is to be dreaded and what to be dared? Lach. That is my view: who else could it be? Nic. Much rather the man of whom I speak, my dear sir: for the seer’s business is to judge only the signs of what is yet to come—whether a man is to meet with death or disease or loss of property
9. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

933c. to commit such an act, or to frighten the mass of men, like children, with bogeys, and so compel the legislator and the judge to cure men of such fears, inasmuch as, first, the man who attempts poisoning knows not what he is doing either in regard to bodies (unless he be a medical expert) or in respect of sorceries (unless he be a prophet or diviner). So this statement shall stand
10. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

92c. An. And trust I never may. Soc. How then, my good sir, can you tell whether a thing has any good or evil in it, if you are quite without experience of it? An. Easily: the fact is, I know what these people are, whether I have experience of them or not. Soc. You are a wizard, perhaps, Anytus; for I really cannot see, from what you say yourself, how else you can know anything about them. But we are not inquiring now who the teachers are
11. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

364c. any misdeed of a man or his ancestors, and that if a man wishes to harm an enemy, at slight cost he will be enabled to injure just and unjust alike, since they are masters of spells and enchantments that constrain the gods to serve their end. And for all these sayings they cite the poets as witnesses, with regard to the ease and plentifulness of vice, quoting: Evil-doing in plenty a man shall find for the seeking;
12. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.139.1, 1.140.4-1.140.5, 2.8.2, 2.17.1, 2.20.4, 2.22.1, 2.54.2-2.54.5, 2.59.1-2.59.3, 2.60.1, 2.60.5, 2.63.2, 2.64.1, 2.65, 2.65.1, 2.65.4, 4.28.5, 5.11, 5.13, 5.16, 5.18-5.19, 5.26.4, 6.15.2, 6.27.3, 7.50.4, 8.1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.139.1. To return to the Lacedaemonians. The history of their first embassy, the injunctions which it conveyed, and the rejoinder which it provoked, concerning the expulsion of the accursed persons, have been related already. It was followed by a second, which ordered Athens to raise the siege of Potidaea, and to respect the independence of Aegina . Above all, it gave her most distinctly to understand that war might be prevented by the revocation of the Megara decree, excluding the Megarians from the use of Athenian harbors and of the market of Athens . 1.140.4. I hope that you will none of you think that we shall be going to war for a trifle if we refuse to revoke the Megara decree, which appears in front of their complaints, and the revocation of which is to save us from war, or let any feeling of self-reproach linger in your minds, as if you went to war for slight cause. 1.140.5. Why, this trifle contains the whole seal and trial of your resolution. If you give way, you will instantly have to meet some greater demand, as having been frightened into obedience in the first instance; while a firm refusal will make them clearly understand that they must treat you more as equals. 2.8.2. Everywhere predictions were being recited and oracles being chanted by such persons as collect them, and this not only in the contending cities. 2.17.1. When they arrived at Athens, though a few had houses of their own to go to, or could find an asylum with friends or relatives, by far the greater number had to take up their dwelling in the parts of the city that were not built over and in the temples and chapels of the heroes, except the Acropolis and the temple of the Eleusinian Demeter and such other places as were always kept closed. The occupation of the plot of ground lying below the citadel called the Pelasgian had been forbidden by a curse; and there was also an ominous fragment of a Pythian oracle which said— Leave the Pelasgian parcel desolate, woe worth the day that men inhabit it! 2.22.1. He, meanwhile, seeing anger and infatuation just now in the ascendant, and confident of his wisdom in refusing a sally, would not call either assembly or meeting of the people, fearing the fatal results of a debate inspired by passion and not by prudence. Accordingly, he addressed himself to the defence of the city, and kept it as quiet as possible 2.54.2. Among other things which they remembered in their distress was, very naturally, the following verse which the old men said had long ago been uttered: A Dorian war shall come and with it death. 2.54.3. So a dispute arose as to whether dearth and not death had not been the word in the verse; but at the present juncture, it was of course decided in favor of the latter; for the people made their recollection fit in with their sufferings. I fancy, however, that if another Dorian war should ever afterwards come upon us, and a dearth should happen to accompany it, the verse will probably be read accordingly. 2.54.4. The oracle also which had been given to the Lacedaemonians was now remembered by those who knew of it. When the God was asked whether they should go to war, he answered that if they put their might into it, victory would be theirs, and that he would himself be with them. 2.54.5. With this oracle events were supposed to tally. For the plague broke out so soon as the Peloponnesians invaded Attica, and never entering Peloponnese (not at least to an extent worth noticing), committed its worst ravages at Athens, and next to Athens, at the most populous of the other towns. Such was the history of the plague. 2.59.1. After the second invasion of the Peloponnesians a change came over the spirit of the Athenians. Their land had now been twice laid waste; and war and pestilence at once pressed heavy upon them. 2.59.2. They began to find fault with Pericles, as the author of the war and the cause of all their misfortunes, and became eager to come to terms with Lacedaemon, and actually sent ambassadors thither, who did not however succeed in their mission. Their despair was now complete and all vented itself upon Pericles. 2.59.3. When he saw them exasperated at the present turn of affairs and acting exactly as he had anticipated, he called an assembly, being (it must be remembered) still general, with the double object of restoring confidence and of leading them from these angry feelings to a calmer and more hopeful state of mind. He accordingly came forward and spoke as follows: 2.60.1. ‘I was not unprepared for the indignation of which I have been the object, as I know its causes; and I have called an assembly for the purpose of reminding you upon certain points, and of protesting against your being unreasonably irritated with me, or cowed by your sufferings. 2.60.5. And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. 2.63.2. Besides, to recede is no longer possible, if indeed any of you in the alarm of the moment has become enamored of the honesty of such an unambitious part. For what you hold is, to speak somewhat plainly, a tyranny; to take it perhaps was wrong, but to let it go is unsafe. 2.64.1. But you must not be seduced by citizens like these nor be angry with me,—who, if I voted for war, only did as you did yourselves,—in spite of the enemy having invaded your country and done what you could be certain that he would do, if you refused to comply with his demands; and although besides what we counted for, the plague has come upon us—the only point indeed at which our calculation has been at fault. It is this, I know, that has had a large share in making me more unpopular than I should otherwise have been,—quite undeservedly, unless you are also prepared to give me the credit of any success with which chance may present you. 2.65.1. Such were the arguments by which Pericles tried to cure the Athenians of their anger against him and to divert their thoughts from their immediate afflictions. 2.65.4. Not long afterwards, however, according to the way of the multitude, they again elected him general and committed all their affairs to his hands, having now become less sensitive to their private and domestic afflictions, and understanding that he was the best man of all for the public necessities. 5.26.4. I certainly all along remember from the beginning to the end of the war its being commonly declared that it would last thrice nine years. 6.15.2. By far the warmest advocate of the expedition was, however, Alcibiades, son of Clinias, who wished to thwart Nicias both as his political opponent and also because of the attack he had made upon him in his speech, and who was, besides, exceedingly ambitious of a command by which he hoped to reduce Sicily and Carthage, and personally to gain in wealth and reputation by means of his successes. 6.27.3. The matter was taken up the more seriously, as it was thought to be ominous for the expedition, and part of a conspiracy to bring about a revolution and to upset the democracy. 7.50.4. All was at last ready, and they were on the point of sailing away, when an eclipse of the moon, which was then at the full, took place. Most of the Athenians, deeply impressed by this occurrence, now urged the generals to wait; and Nicias, who was somewhat over-addicted to divination and practices of that kind, refused from that moment even to take the question of departure into consideration, until they had waited the thrice nine days prescribed by the soothsayers. The besiegers were thus condemned to stay in the country; 8.1.1. Such were the events in Sicily . When the news was brought to Athens, for a long while they disbelieved even the most respectable of the soldiers who had themselves escaped from the scene of action and clearly reported the matter, a destruction so complete not being thought credible. When the conviction was forced upon them, they were angry with the orators who had joined in promoting the expedition, just as if they had not themselves voted it, and were enraged also with the reciters of oracles and soothsayers, and all other omenmongers of the time who had encouraged them to hope that they should conquer Sicily .
13. Xenophon, Constitution of The Athenians, 2.18 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.34.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.34.4. The Oropians have near the temple a spring, which they call the Spring of Amphiaraus; they neither sacrifice into it nor are wont to use it for purifications or for lustral water. But when a man has been cured of a disease through a response the custom is to throw silver and coined gold into the spring, for by this way they say that Amphiaraus rose up after he had become a god. Iophon the Cnossian, a guide, produced responses in hexameter verse, saying that Amphiaraus gave them to the Argives who were sent against Thebes . These verses unrestrainedly appealed to popular taste. Except those whom they say Apollo inspired of old none of the seers uttered oracles, but they were good at explaining dreams and interpreting the flights of birds and the entrails of victims.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abstract nominal phrases in thucydides, circumstances / conditions / states of affairs stressed by Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
acharnae/acharnians Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
acharnians Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 173, 552
alcibiades Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
amphiaraus, peace Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
anger Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
anytos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
archidamos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
archidamus Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
aristophanes, comic poet Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 173
aristophanes Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
aristophanes ridicule of seers in Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
aristotle Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 173
atheism, decree of diopeithes against Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
athenian empire Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
chresmologoi Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
chrêsmologos Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
corcyra Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 432
dicaeopolis Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
dillery, john Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
divination, and authority Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
divination, and crisis Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
divination, and war Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
divination, not admitted in court role in public life Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
divination, not admitted in court through chresmologoi Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
eikos/eikota Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
ergon Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
ethos Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
hermippus (comic poet), fates Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
herodotus Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
hierokles Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
individuals, withstanding necessity Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
irrational impulses, athenians beset by Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
kolias Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
logographers Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 173
mania Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 213
nikias Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
oracles, responses adduced in assembly' Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
oracles (messages), interpretation of Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
pericles, and balance Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
pericles, prevailing over irrationality Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
pharmaka Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
pisistratos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
plague Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 432, 552
plato Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
present things / circumstances (τὰ παρόντα, τὰ ὑπάρχοντα, τὰ πράγματα etc.) Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
sokrates, on anytos as mantis Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 251
sophists, sophistic movement Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 432
thucydides, son of melesias, manuscript traditionnan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
thucydides son of olorus religious motifs in Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 113
xenophon, ps.-xenophon, ath. pol. Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
zeus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 552
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), championed by pericles Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), meaning of Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
γνώμη (and γιγνώσκω), vs. passion Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282
ὀργή and ὀργίζομαι Joho, Style and Necessity in Thucydides (2022) 282