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10882
Thucydides, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, 2.13


nanWhile the Peloponnesians were still mustering at the Isthmus, or on the march before they invaded Attica, Pericles, son of Xanthippus, one of the ten generals of the Athenians, finding that the invasion was to take place, conceived the idea that Archidamus, who happened to be his friend, might possibly pass by his estate without ravaging it. This he might do, either from a personal wish to oblige him, or acting under instructions from Lacedaemon for the purpose of creating a prejudice against him, as had been before attempted in the demand for the expulsion of the accursed family. He accordingly took the precaution of announcing to the Athenians in the assembly that, although Archidamus was his friend, yet this friendship should not extend to the detriment of the state, and that in case the enemy should make his houses and lands an exception to the rest and not pillage them, he at once gave them up to be public property, so that they should not bring him into suspicion. 2 He also gave the citizens some advice on their present affairs in the same strain as before. They were to prepare for the war, and to carry in their property from the country. They were not to go out to battle, but to come into the city and guard it, and get ready their fleet, in which their real strength lay. They were also to keep a tight rein on their allies — the strength of Athens being derived from the money brought in by their payments, and success in war depending principally upon conduct and capital. 3 Here they had no reason to despond. Apart from other sources of income, an average revenue of six hundred talents of silver was drawn from the tribute of the allies; and there were still six thousand talents of coined silver in the Acropolis, out of nine thousand seven hundred that had once been there, from which the money had been taken for the Propylaia of the Acropolis, the other public buildings, and for Potidaea. 4 This did not include the uncoined gold and silver in public and private offerings, the sacred vessels for the processions and games, the Median spoils, and similar resources to the amount of five hundred talents. 5 To this he added the treasures of the other sanctuaries. These were by no means inconsiderable, and might fairly be used. Nay, if they were ever absolutely driven to it, they might take even the gold ornaments of the Goddess herself; for the statue contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable. This might be used for self-preservation, and must every penny of it be restored. 6 Such was their financial position — surely a satisfactory one. Then they had an army of thirteen thousand heavy infantry, besides sixteen thousand more in the garrisons and on home duty at Athens. 7 This was at first the number of men on guard in the event of an invasion: it was composed of the oldest and youngest levies and the resident aliens who had heavy armor. The Phaleric wall ran for four miles, before it joined that round the city; and of this last nearly five had a guard, although part of it was left without one, viz. that between the Long Wall and the Phaleric. Then there were the Long Walls to Piraeus, a distance of some four miles and a half, the outer of which was manned. Lastly, the circumference of Piraeus with Munychia was nearly seven miles and a half; only half of this, however, was guarded. 8 Pericles also showed them that they had twelve hundred horse including mounted archers, with sixteen hundred archers unmounted, and three hundred galleys fit for service. 9 Such were the resources of Athens in the different departments when the Peloponnesian invasion was impending and hostilities were being commenced. Pericles also urged his usual arguments for expecting a favorable issue to the war.


nannan, While the Peloponnesians were still mustering at the Isthmus, or on the march before they invaded Attica, Pericles, son of Xanthippus, one of the ten generals of the Athenians, finding that the invasion was to take place, conceived the idea that Archidamus, who happened to be his friend, might possibly pass by his estate without ravaging it. This he might do, either from a personal wish to oblige him, or acting under instructions from Lacedaemon for the purpose of creating a prejudice against him, as had been before attempted in the demand for the expulsion of the accursed family. He accordingly took the precaution of announcing to the Athenians in the assembly that, although Archidamus was his friend, yet this friendship should not extend to the detriment of the state, and that in case the enemy should make his houses and lands an exception to the rest and not pillage them, he at once gave them up to be public property, so that they should not bring him into suspicion. ,He also gave the citizens some advice on their present affairs in the same strain as before. They were to prepare for the war, and to carry in their property from the country. They were not to go out to battle, but to come into the city and guard it, and get ready their fleet, in which their real strength lay. They were also to keep a tight rein on their allies—the strength of Athens being derived from the money brought in by their payments, and success in war depending principally upon conduct and capital. ,Here they had no reason to despond. Apart from other sources of income, an average revenue of six hundred talents of silver was drawn from the tribute of the allies; and there were still six thousand talents of coined silver in the Acropolis, out of nine thousand seven hundred that had once been there, from which the money had been taken for the porch of the Acropolis, the other public buildings, and for Potidaea . ,This did not include the uncoined gold and silver in public and private offerings, the sacred vessels for the processions and games, the Median spoils, and similar resources to the amount of five hundred talents. ,To this he added the treasures of the other temples. These were by no means inconsiderable, and might fairly be used. Nay, if they were ever absolutely driven to it, they might take even the gold ornaments of Athena herself; for the statue contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable. This might be used for self-preservation, and must every penny of it be restored. ,Such was their financial position—surely a satisfactory one. Then they had an army of thirteen thousand heavy infantry, besides sixteen thousand more in the garrisons and on home duty at Athens . ,This was at first the number of men on guard in the event of an invasion: it was composed of the oldest and youngest levies and the resident aliens who had heavy armor. The Phaleric wall ran for four miles, before it joined that round the city; and of this last nearly five had a guard, although part of it was left without one, viz. that between the Long Wall and the Phaleric. Then there were the Long Walls to Piraeus, a distance of some four miles and a half, the outer of which was manned. Lastly, the circumference of Piraeus with Munychia was nearly seven miles and a half; only half of this, however, was guarded. ,Pericles also showed them that they had twelve hundred horse including mounted archers, with sixteen hundred archers unmounted, and three hundred galleys fit for service. , Such were the resources of Athens in the different departments when the Peloponnesian invasion was impending and hostilities were being commenced. Pericles also urged his usual arguments for expecting a favorable issue to the war.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 729, 71 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

71. ἀπολλύμενοι. σφόδρα γὰρ ἐσῳζόμην ἐγὼ
2. Aristophanes, Knights, 792-794, 1304 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Aristophanes, Peace, 629-635, 628 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

628. ἐν δίκῃ μὲν οὖν, ἐπεί τοι τὴν κορώνεών γέ μου
4. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.7, 1.71.4, 1.90, 1.121.3, 1.122.1, 1.125.2, 1.137, 1.140-1.144, 1.144.1, 2.14-2.17, 2.20-2.23, 2.40, 2.52, 2.59, 2.65, 2.65.13, 4.14.3, 6.42, 6.51, 6.64, 7.18.2, 7.27.5, 8.15.1, 8.73.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.71.4. Here, at least, let your procrastination end. For the present, assist your allies and Potidaea in particular, as you promised, by a speedy invasion of Attica, and do not sacrifice friends and kindred to their bitterest enemies, and drive the rest of us in despair to some other alliance. 1.121.3. which they possess shall be raised by us from our respective antecedent resources, and from the monies at Olympia and Delphi . A loan from these enables us to seduce their foreign sailors by the offer of higher pay. For the power of Athens is more mercenary than national; while ours will not be exposed to the same risk, as its strength lies more in men than in money. 1.122.1. We have also other ways of carrying on the war, such as revolt of their allies, the surest method of depriving them of their revenues, which are the source of their strength, and establishment of fortified positions in their country, and various operations which cannot be foreseen at present. For war of all things proceeds least upon definite rules, but draws principally upon itself for contrivances to meet an emergency; and in such cases the party who faces the struggle and keeps his temper best meets with most security, and he who loses his temper about it with correspondent disaster. 1.125.2. This decided, it was still impossible for them to commence at once, from their want of preparation; but it was resolved that the means requisite were to be procured by the different states, and that there was to be no delay. And indeed, in spite of the time occupied with the necessary arrangements, less than a year elapsed before Attica was invaded, and the war openly begun. 1.144.1. I have many other reasons to hope for a favorable issue, if you can consent not to combine schemes of fresh conquest with the conduct of the war, and will abstain from willfully involving yourselves in other dangers; indeed, I am more afraid of our own blunders than of the enemy's devices. 2.65.13. So superfluously abundant were the resources from which the genius of Pericles foresaw an easy triumph in the war over the unaided forces of the Peloponnesians. 4.14.3. Great was the melee, and quite in contradiction to the naval tactics usual to the two combatants; the Lacedaemonians in their excitement and dismay being actually engaged in a sea-fight on land, while the victorious Athenians, in their eagerness to push their success as far as possible, were carrying on a land-fight from their ships. 7.18.2. But the Lacedaemonians derived most encouragement from the belief that Athens, with two wars on her hands, against themselves and against the Siceliots, would be more easy to subdue, and from the conviction that she had been the first to infringe the truce. In the former war, they considered, the offence had been more on their own side, both on account of the entrance of the Thebans into Plataea in time of peace, and also of their own refusal to listen to the Athenian offer of arbitration, in spite of the clause in the former treaty that where arbitration should be offered there should be no appeal to arms. For this reason they thought that they deserved their misfortunes, and took to heart seriously the disaster at Pylos and whatever else had befallen them. 7.27.5. They were deprived of their whole country: more than twenty thousand slaves had deserted, a great part of them artisans, and all their sheep and beasts of burden were lost; and as the cavalry rode out daily upon excursions to Decelea and to guard the country, their horses were either lamed by being constantly worked upon rocky ground, or wounded by the enemy. 8.15.1. While the revolted places were all engaged in fortifying and preparing for the war, news of Chios speedily reached Athens . The Athenians thought the danger by which they were now menaced great and unmistakable, and that the rest of their allies would not consent to keep quiet after the secession of the greatest of their number. In the consternation of the moment they at once took off the penalty attaching to whoever proposed or put to the vote a proposal for using the thousand talents which they had jealously avoided touching throughout the whole war, and voted to employ them to man a large number of ships, and to send off at once under Strombichides, son of Diotimus, the eight vessels, forming part of the blockading fleet at Spiraeum, which had left the blockade and had returned after pursuing and failing to overtake the vessels with Chalcideus. These were to be followed shortly afterwards by twelve more under Thrasycles, also taken from the blockade.
5. Aeschines, Letters, 1.39 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 26.4, 27.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 12.39 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12.39. 1.  The statue of Athens was a work of Pheidias, and Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, had been appointed overseer of the undertaking. But sometimes assistants of Pheidias, who had been prevailed upon by Pericles' enemies, took seats as suppliants at the altars of the gods; and when they were called upon to explain their surprising action, they claimed that they would show that Pheidias had possession of a large amount of the sacred funds, with the connivance and assistance of Pericles the overseer.,2.  Consequently, when the Assembly convened to consider the affair, the enemies of Pericles persuaded the people to arrest Pheidias and lodged a charge against Pericles himself of stealing sacred property. Furthermore, they falsely accused the sophist Anaxagoras, who was Pericles' teacher, of impiety against the gods; and they involved Pericles in their accusations and malicious charges, since jealousy made them eager to discredit the eminence as well as the fame of the man.,3.  But Pericles, knowing that during the operations of war the populace has respect for noble men because of their urgent need of them, whereas in times of peace they keep bringing false accusations against the very same men because they have nothing to do and are envious, came to the conclusion that it would be to his own advantage to embroil the state in a great war, in order that the city, in its need of the ability and skill in generalship of Pericles, should pay no attention to the accusations being lodged against him and would have neither leisure nor time to scrutinize carefully the accounting he would render of the funds.,4.  Now when the Athenians voted to exclude the Megarians from both their market and harbours, the Megarians turned to the Spartans for aid. And the Lacedaemonians, being won over by the Megarians, in the most open manner dispatched ambassadors in accordance with the decision of the Council of the League, ordering the Athenians to rescind the action against the Megarians and threatening, if they did not accede, to wage war upon them together with the forces of their allies.,5.  When the Assembly convened to consider the matter, Pericles, who far excelled his fellow citizens in skill of oratory, persuaded the Athenians not to rescind the action, saying that for them to accede to the demands of the Lacedaemonians, contrary to their own interests, would be the first step toward slavery. Accordingly he advised that they bring their possessions from the countryside into the city and fight it out with the Spartans by means of their command of the sea.
8. Plutarch, Pericles, 9.2-9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.2. In the beginning, as has been said, pitted as he was against the reputation of Cimon, he tried to ingratiate himself with the people. And since he was the inferior in wealth and property, by means of which Cimon would win over the poor,—furnishing a dinner every day to any Athenian who wanted it, bestowing raiment on the elderly men, and removing the fences from his estates that whosoever wished might pluck the fruit,—Pericles, outdone in popular arts of this sort, had recourse to the distribution of the people’s own wealth. This was on the advice of Damonides, of the deme Oa, as Aristotle has stated. Aristot. Const. Ath. 27.4 .
9. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.19.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Aeschines, Or., 1.39

11. Epigraphy, Ig I , 49

12. Epigraphy, Ig I , 49

13. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 2318



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acting Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 349
actions Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 352
aelius aristides Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
aeschylus Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
alcibiades Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536, 673
anger Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350
aristophanes, comic poet Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536, 673
aristophanes Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
aristotle Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 359; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
athenaion politeia, politics Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
athenian dēmos Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
athenian empire Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 267
athens Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 340, 342, 344, 352, 353, 354, 355, 357, 358
athos Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 679
attica Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 267
battle exhortation Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 343
bithynia Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
calculation Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 343, 346, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 358
cimon Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
cleruchies Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
coinage Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 61
comedy Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
comic hero Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
damonides of oea Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
debate Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350, 353, 358
demagogues Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
demos, and elite in fifth-century athens Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
demos, as benefactor Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
demosthenes Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 350, 351, 353, 355, 357, 358, 359
dicaeopolis Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
diodorus siculus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 679
dionysius of halicarnassus Montanari and Rengakos, In the Company of Many Good Poets. Collected Papers of Franco Montanari: Vol. I: Ancient Scholarship (2023) 748
division Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
egesta Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536
egyptian expedition Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 679
eikos Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 349
emotions Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 346, 355
euboea Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 679
fear Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 343, 348, 349, 352
financial Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 359
financial rhetoric Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 357, 358, 359
group Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
hermocrates Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
herodotus Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 61
judgment Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 343, 353
kynossema Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 679
language Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 349, 351
laos, largesse, politics of Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
law courts Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
lucian Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
means of Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341
megaloprepeia Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
misthos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
money, public Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
money Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 340, 344, 348, 354, 355, 357
narrative Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 355, 359
nicias Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 353; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536
numbers Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 339, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 359
numerosity Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 351, 352
oligarchic conspiracy/revolution (nan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
oratory Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 343
ostracism Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
peloponnesian war Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
pericles Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
persuasion Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 357, 359
plato Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
plutarch Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156; Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
ps.-aristotle, athenaion politeia Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
readers Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 353
rhetoric of numbers Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 339, 341, 343, 349, 351, 353, 355
sicily Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536
sight Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 341, 343, 344, 346, 348, 352, 355
speeches Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 339, 341, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 353, 355
springhouse decree (athens) Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
thucydides, historian Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
thucydides, son of melesias, causes, causality Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 673
thucydides Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 339, 341, 342, 343, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 357, 359; Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 61
unity Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
war Michalopoulos et al., The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature (2021) 193
wealth Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 156
xenophon' Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 359