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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10882
Thucydides, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, 1.1.1-1.1.2
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1. Aristophanes, Knights, 1304 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Herodotus, Histories, 1.65 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.65. So Croesus learned that at that time such problems were oppressing the Athenians, but that the Lacedaemonians had escaped from the great evils and had mastered the Tegeans in war. In the kingship of Leon and Hegesicles at Sparta, the Lacedaemonians were successful in all their other wars but met disaster only against the Tegeans. ,Before this they had been the worst-governed of nearly all the Hellenes and had had no dealings with strangers, but they changed to good government in this way: Lycurgus, a man of reputation among the Spartans, went to the oracle at Delphi . As soon as he entered the hall, the priestess said in hexameter: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"You have come to my rich temple, Lycurgus, /l lA man dear to Zeus and to all who have Olympian homes. /l lI am in doubt whether to pronounce you man or god, /l lBut I think rather you are a god, Lycurgus. /l /quote ,Some say that the Pythia also declared to him the constitution that now exists at Sparta, but the Lacedaemonians themselves say that Lycurgus brought it from Crete when he was guardian of his nephew Leobetes, the Spartan king. ,Once he became guardian, he changed all the laws and took care that no one transgressed the new ones. Lycurgus afterwards established their affairs of war: the sworn divisions, the bands of thirty, the common meals; also the ephors and the council of elders.
3. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.7, 1.10.2, 1.18.1, 1.20.3, 1.21.1, 1.22, 1.22.1, 1.22.4, 1.23.4, 1.23.6, 1.70, 1.78, 1.78.4, 1.114.1, 1.121.3, 1.127.1, 1.138.3, 1.139.1, 1.139.4, 1.140.1, 1.144.1, 1.145, 2.13, 2.13.2, 2.34.6, 2.34.8, 2.60.5, 2.65, 2.65.11, 2.72-2.74, 4.21.3, 6.1-6.5, 6.6.1, 6.9-6.24, 6.31, 6.31.1, 6.54-6.55, 7.18.2, 8.15.1, 8.73.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.10.2. For I suppose if Lacedaemon were to become desolate, and the temples and the foundations of the public buildings were left, that as time went on there would be a strong disposition with posterity to refuse to accept her fame as a true exponent of her power. And yet they occupy two-fifths of Peloponnese and lead the whole, not to speak of their numerous allies without. Still, as the city is neither built in a compact form nor adorned with magnificent temples and public edifices, but composed of villages after the old fashion of Hellas, there would be an impression of inadequacy. Whereas, if Athens were to suffer the same misfortune, I suppose that any inference from the appearance presented to the eye would make her power to have been twice as great as it is. 1.18.1. But at last a time came when the tyrants of Athens and the far older tyrannies of the rest of Hellas were, with the exception of those in Sicily, once and for all put down by Lacedaemon ; for this city, though after the settlement of the Dorians, its present inhabitants, it suffered from factions for an unparalleled length of time, still at a very early period obtained good laws, and enjoyed a freedom from tyrants which was unbroken; it has possessed the same form of government for more than four hundred years, reckoning to the end of the late war, and has thus been in a position to arrange the affairs of the other states. Not many years after the deposition of the tyrants, the battle of Marathon was fought between the Medes and the Athenians. 1.20.3. There are many other unfounded ideas current among the rest of the Hellenes, even on matters of contemporary history which have not been obscured by time. For instance, there is the notion that the Lacedaemonian kings have two votes each, the fact being that they have only one; and that there is a company of Pitane, there being simply no such thing. So little pains do the vulgar take in the investigation of truth, accepting readily the first story that comes to hand. 1.21.1. On the whole, however, the conclusions I have drawn from the proofs quoted may, I believe, safely be relied on. Assuredly they will not be disturbed either by the lays of a poet displaying the exaggeration of his craft, or by the compositions of the chroniclers that are attractive at truth's expense; the subjects they treat of being out of the reach of evidence, and time having robbed most of them of historical value by enthroning them in the region of legend. Turning from these, we can rest satisfied with having proceeded upon the clearest data, and having arrived at conclusions as exact as can be expected in matters of such antiquity. 1.22.1. With reference to the speeches in this history, some were delivered before the war began, others while it was going on; some I heard myself, others I got from various quarters; it was in all cases difficult to carry them word for word in one's memory, so my habit has been to make the speakers say what was in my opinion demanded of them by the various occasions, of course adhering as closely as possible to the general sense of what they really said. 1.22.4. The absence of romance in my history will, I fear, detract somewhat from its interest; but if it be judged useful by those inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the interpretation of the future, which in the course of human things must resemble if it does not reflect it, I shall be content. In fine, I have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time. 1.23.4. which was begun by the Athenians and Peloponnesians by the dissolution of the thirty years' truce made after the conquest of Euboea . 1.23.6. The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of sight. The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. Still it is well to give the grounds alleged by either side, which led to the dissolution of the treaty and the breaking out of the war. 1.78.4. But we are not yet by any means so misguided, nor, so far as we can see, are you; accordingly, while it is still open to us both to choose aright, we bid you not to dissolve the treaty, or to break your oaths, but to have our differences settled by arbitration according to our agreement. Or else we take the gods who heard the oaths to witness, and if you begin hostilities, whatever line of action you choose, we will try not to be behindhand in repelling you.’ 1.114.1. This was soon afterwards followed by the revolt of Euboea from Athens . Pericles had already crossed over with an army of Athenians to the island, when news was brought to him that Megara had revolted, that the Peloponnesians were on the point of invading Attica, and that the Athenian garrison had been cut off by the Megarians, with the exception of a few who had taken refuge in Nisaea . The Megarians had introduced the Corinthians, Sicyonians, and Epidaurians into the town before they revolted. Meanwhile Pericles brought his army back in all haste from Euboea . 1.121.3. which they possess shall be raised by us from our respective antecedent resources, and from the monies at Olympia and Delphi . A loan from these enables us to seduce their foreign sailors by the offer of higher pay. For the power of Athens is more mercenary than national; while ours will not be exposed to the same risk, as its strength lies more in men than in money. 1.138.3. For Themistocles was a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of genius; indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite extraordinary and unparalleled. By his own native capacity, alike unformed and unsupplemented by study, he was at once the best judge in those sudden crises which admit of little or of no deliberation, and the best prophet of the future, even to its most distant possibilities. An able theoretical expositor of all that came within the sphere of his practice, he was not without the power of passing an adequate judgment in matters in which he had no experience. He could also excellently divine the good and evil which lay hid in the unseen future. In fine, whether we consider the extent of his natural powers, or the slightness of his application, this extraordinary man must be allowed to have surpassed all others in the faculty of intuitively meeting an emergency. 1.139.1. To return to the Lacedaemonians. The history of their first embassy, the injunctions which it conveyed, and the rejoinder which it provoked, concerning the expulsion of the accursed persons, have been related already. It was followed by a second, which ordered Athens to raise the siege of Potidaea, and to respect the independence of Aegina . Above all, it gave her most distinctly to understand that war might be prevented by the revocation of the Megara decree, excluding the Megarians from the use of Athenian harbors and of the market of Athens . 1.139.4. There were many speakers who came forward and gave their support to one side or the other, urging the necessity of war, or the revocation of the decree and the folly of allowing it to stand in the way of peace. Among them came forward Pericles, son of Xanthippus, the first man of his time at Athens, ablest alike in counsel and in action, and gave the following advice:— 1.140.1. ‘There is one principle, Athenians, which I hold to through everything, and that is the principle of no concession to the Peloponnesians. I know that the spirit which inspires men while they are being persuaded to make war, is not always retained in action; that as circumstances change, resolutions change. Yet I see that now as before the same, almost literally the same, counsel is demanded of me; and I put it to those of you, who are allowing yourselves to be persuaded, to support the national resolves even in the case of reverses, or to forfeit all credit for their wisdom in the event of success. For sometimes the course of things is as arbitrary as the plans of man; indeed this is why we usually blame chance for whatever does not happen as we expected. 1.144.1. I have many other reasons to hope for a favorable issue, if you can consent not to combine schemes of fresh conquest with the conduct of the war, and will abstain from willfully involving yourselves in other dangers; indeed, I am more afraid of our own blunders than of the enemy's devices. 2.13.2. He also gave the citizens some advice on their present affairs in the same strain as before. They were to prepare for the war, and to carry in their property from the country. They were not to go out to battle, but to come into the city and guard it, and get ready their fleet, in which their real strength lay. They were also to keep a tight rein on their allies—the strength of Athens being derived from the money brought in by their payments, and success in war depending principally upon conduct and capital. 2.34.6. After the bodies have been laid in the earth, a man chosen by the state, of approved wisdom and eminent reputation, pronounces over them an appropriate panegyric; after which all retire. 2.34.8. Meanwhile these were the first that had fallen, and Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium. When the proper time arrived, he advanced from the sepulchre to an elevated platform in order to be heard by as many of the crowd as possible, and spoke as follows: 2.60.5. And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. 2.65.11. This, as might have been expected in a great and sovereign state, produced a host of blunders, and amongst them the Sicilian expedition; though this failed not so much through a miscalculation of the power of those against whom it was sent, as through a fault in the senders in not taking the best measures afterwards to assist those who had gone out, but choosing rather to occupy themselves with private cabals for the leadership of the commons, by which they not only paralyzed operations in the field, but also first introduced civil discord at home. 4.21.3. Foremost to encourage them in this policy was Cleon, son of Cleaenetus, a popular leader of the time and very powerful with the multitude, who persuaded them to answer as follows: First, the men in the island must surrender themselves and their arms and be brought to Athens . Next; the Lacedaemonians must restore Nisaea, Pegae, Troezen, and Achaia, all places acquired not by arms, but by the previous convention, under which they had been ceded by Athens herself at a moment of disaster, when a truce was more necessary to her than at present. This done they might take back their men, and make a truce for as long as both parties might agree. 6.6.1. Such is the list of the peoples, Hellenic and barbarian, inhabiting Sicily, and such the magnitude of the island which the Athenians were now bent upon invading; being ambitious in real truth of conquering the whole, although they had also the specious design of succouring their kindred and other allies in the island. 6.31.1. Indeed, at this moment, when they were now upon the point of parting from one another, the danger came more home to them than when they voted for the expedition; although the strength of the armament, and the profuse provision which they remarked in every department, was a sight that could not but comfort them. As for the foreigners and the rest of the crowd, they simply went to see a sight worth looking at and passing all belief. Indeed this armament that first sailed out was by far the most costly and splendid Hellenic force that had ever been sent out by a single city up to that time. 7.18.2. But the Lacedaemonians derived most encouragement from the belief that Athens, with two wars on her hands, against themselves and against the Siceliots, would be more easy to subdue, and from the conviction that she had been the first to infringe the truce. In the former war, they considered, the offence had been more on their own side, both on account of the entrance of the Thebans into Plataea in time of peace, and also of their own refusal to listen to the Athenian offer of arbitration, in spite of the clause in the former treaty that where arbitration should be offered there should be no appeal to arms. For this reason they thought that they deserved their misfortunes, and took to heart seriously the disaster at Pylos and whatever else had befallen them. 8.15.1. While the revolted places were all engaged in fortifying and preparing for the war, news of Chios speedily reached Athens . The Athenians thought the danger by which they were now menaced great and unmistakable, and that the rest of their allies would not consent to keep quiet after the secession of the greatest of their number. In the consternation of the moment they at once took off the penalty attaching to whoever proposed or put to the vote a proposal for using the thousand talents which they had jealously avoided touching throughout the whole war, and voted to employ them to man a large number of ships, and to send off at once under Strombichides, son of Diotimus, the eight vessels, forming part of the blockading fleet at Spiraeum, which had left the blockade and had returned after pursuing and failing to overtake the vessels with Chalcideus. These were to be followed shortly afterwards by twelve more under Thrasycles, also taken from the blockade.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acharnae/acharnians Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 77
acropolis of athens Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 501, 525
aegean islands Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 525
agora of athens Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 342
alcibiades Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 343, 448, 449, 536; Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
alcidas Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 465
alcmeonids Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 525, 533
anger Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 77, 78
antigone Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
antigone (sophocles) Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
archidamus Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 77, 78
aristophanes, comic poet Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536
asia minor Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 525
astyochus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 465
athenagoras Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 524
athenian character Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585
athenian empire Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 454
attica Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 448, 571
augustus, duke of saxony Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 801
cnemos Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 465
corcyra Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 457, 524
corinthian gulf Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 449
egesta Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 536
eikos/eikota Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
elites/masses Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
ephorus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 694
epideixis/epideictic Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73
epigram Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 38
episodes, of antigone (sophocles) Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
ergon Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 77, 78
eros Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
ethos Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 77
eulogy, of human beings Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
herodotus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 444, 513, 563, 585, 694
hieronymus of cardia Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 717
hipparchos (son of peisistratus) Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 340, 343
hippias (son of peisistratus) Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 340, 342, 343
leader/leadership Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
logos/logoi Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 78
lycurgus (spartan) Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585
mantinea, battle of Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 343, 585, 618
naupactus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 566
nicias Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 448, 449, 536, 585; Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
oenoe Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 571
oral tradition Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 566
paean, to human beings Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
pericles Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 73, 78
phormio Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 449
piraeus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 362, 525, 533
pitanate lochos Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 563, 566
plague Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 454, 457
plataea Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 566
plutarch, life of lycurgus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585
plutarch Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585
pothos Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
sicilian debate Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 448
sicilian expedition Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 362, 449, 457, 618; Spatharas, Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens (2019) 78
sicily Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 362, 536
socrates Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585
stasima, of antigone (sophocles) Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
structure, of antigone (sophocles) Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 484
theseus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 525
thirty years peace Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 498, 513, 618
thucydides, son of melesias, archaeology Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 342, 585, 717
thucydides, son of melesias, audience, reader Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 340, 342, 343, 498, 513, 585, 801
thucydides, son of melesias, autopsy Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 501
thucydides, son of melesias, causes, causality Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 457, 498
thucydides, son of melesias, digressions Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 340, 498, 501
thucydides, son of melesias, documents, letters, treaties etc. Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 498
thucydides, son of melesias, historical accuracy Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 498, 501, 513
thucydides, son of melesias, historical truth Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 343, 563
thucydides, son of melesias, language Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 362, 533, 566
thucydides, son of melesias, manuscript traditionnan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 340, 533
thucydides Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 38
universal historiography' Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 694
valla, l. Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 801
winsheim, v. Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 801
winsheim, v. (son) Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 801
wittenberg Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 801
xenophon Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 585