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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10834
Theophrastus, Characters, 16


nanThe Superstitious Man, δεισιδαιμονίας (xxviii) Superstition would seem to be simply cowardice in regard to the supernatural. The Superstitious man is one who will wash his hands at a fountain, sprinkle himself from a temple-font, put a bit of laurel-leaf into his mouth, and so go about the day. If a weasel run across his path, he will not pursue his walk until someone else has traversed the road, or until he has thrown three stones across it. When he sees a serpent in his house, if it be the red snake, he will invoke Sabazius, — if the sacred snake, he will straightway place a shrine on the spot. He will pour oil from his flask on the smooth stones at the cross-roads, as he goes by, and will fall on his knees and worship them before he departs. If a mouse gnaws through a meal-bag, he will go to the expounder of sacred law and ask what is to be done; and, if the answer is, "give it to a cobbler to stitch up," he will disregard the counsel, and go his way, and expiate the omen by sacrifice. He is apt, also, to purify his house frequently, alleging that Hecate has been brought into it by spells; and, if an owl is startled by him in his walk, he will exclaim "Glory be to Athene!" before he proceeds. He will not tread upon a tombstone, or come near a dead body or a woman defiled by childbirth, saying that it is expedient for him not to be polluted. Also on the fourth and seventh days of each month he will order his servants to mull wine, and go out and buy myrtle-wreaths, frankincense, and smilax; and, on coming in, will spend the day in crowning the Hermaphrodites. When he has seen a vision, he will go to the interpreters of dreams, the seers, the augurs, to ask them to what god or goddess he ought to pray. Every month he will repair to the priests of the Orphic Mysteries, to partake in their rites, accompanied by his wife, or (if she is too busy) by his children and their nurse. He would seem, too, to be of those who are scrupulous in sprinkling themselves with sea-water; and, if ever he observes anyone feasting on the garlic at the cross-roads, he will go away, pour water over his head, and, summoning the priestesses, bid them carry a squill or a puppy around him for purification. And, if he sees a maniac or an epileptic man, he will shudder and spit into his bosom.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 38 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

38. Themselves both first and last. Why do I raise
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.69-1.70 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.69. /in hope that he may accept the savour of lambs and unblemished goats, and be willing to ward off the pestilence from us. When he had thus spoken he sat down, and among them arose Calchas son of Thestor, far the best of bird-diviners, who knew the things that were, and that were to be, and that had been before 1.70. /and who had guided the ships of the Achaeans to Ilios by his own prophetic powers which Phoebus Apollo had bestowed upon him. He with good intent addressed the gathering, and spoke among them:Achilles, dear to Zeus, you bid me declare the wrath of Apollo, the lord who strikes from afar.
3. Aristophanes, Clouds, 332 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

332. Θουριομάντεις ἰατροτέχνας σφραγιδονυχαργοκομήτας
4. Euripides, Fragments, 953 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Euripides, Hippolytus, 607-608, 653-655, 948-957, 317 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

317. My hands are pure, but on my soul there rests a stain. Nurse
6. Herodotus, Histories, 2.171 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.171. On this lake they enact by night the story of the god's sufferings, a rite which the Egyptians call the Mysteries. I could say more about this, for I know the truth, but let me preserve a discreet silence. ,Let me preserve a discreet silence, too, concerning that rite of Demeter which the Greeks call dateThesmophoria /date , except as much of it as I am not forbidden to mention. ,The daughters of Danaus were those who brought this rite out of Egypt and taught it to the Pelasgian women; afterwards, when the people of the Peloponnese were driven out by the Dorians, it was lost, except in so far as it was preserved by the Arcadians, the Peloponnesian people which was not driven out but left in its home.
7. Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease, 2, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

909a. hall hold intercourse with them, save only those who take part in the nocturnal assembly, and they shall company with them to minister to their souls’ salvation by admonition; and when the period of their incarceration has expired, if any of them seems to be reformed, he shall dwell with those who are reformed, but if not, and if he be convicted again on a like charge, he shall be punished by death. But as to all those who have become like ravening beasts, and who, besides holding that the gods are negligent
9. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

81a. Men. Now does it seem to you to be a good argument, Socrates? Soc. It does not. Men. Can you explain how not? Soc. I can; for I have heard from wise men and women who told of things divine that— Men. What was it they said ? Soc. Something true, as I thought, and admirable. Men. What was it? And who were the speakers? Soc. They were certain priests and priestesses who have studied so as to be able to give a reasoned account of their ministry; and Pindar also
10. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.104.1-3.104.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.104.1. The same winter the Athenians purified Delos, in compliance, it appears, with a certain oracle. It had been purified before by Pisistratus the tyrant; not indeed the whole island, but as much of it as could be seen from the temple. All of it was, however, now purified in the following way. 3.104.2. All the sepulchres of those that had died in Delos were taken up, and for the future it was commanded that no one should be allowed either to die or to give birth to a child in the island; but that they should be carried over to Rhenea, which is so near to Delos that Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, having added Rhenea to his other island conquests during his period of naval ascendancy, dedicated it to the Delian Apollo by binding it to Delos with a chain. The Athenians, after the purification, celebrated, for the first time, the quinquennial festival of the Delian games.
12. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.1.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.1.10. Shall we then consider whether the rulers or the ruled live the pleasanter life? Certainly, replied Aristippus. To take first the nations known to us. In Asia the rulers are the Persians; the Syrians, Lydians and Phrygians are the ruled. In Europe the Scythians rule, and the Maeotians are ruled. In Africa the Carthaginians rule, and the Libyans are ruled. Which of the two classes, think you, enjoys the pleasanter life? Or take the Greeks, of whom you yourself are one; do you think that the controlling or the controlled communities enjoy the pleasanter life?
13. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 57.3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 3.17 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.259, 19.199, 25.79 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Cicero, On Divination, 1.7, 2.19, 2.36, 2.125 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.7. Sed haec quidem laus Academiae praestantissumi philosophi iudicio et testimonio conprobata est. Etenim nobismet ipsis quaerentibus, quid sit de divinatione iudicandum, quod a Carneade multa acute et copiose contra Stoicos disputata sint, verentibusque, ne temere vel falsae rei vel non satis cognitae adsentiamur, faciendum videtur, ut diligenter etiam atque etiam argumenta cum argumentis comparemus, ut fecimus in iis tribus libris, quos de natura deorum scripsimus. Nam cum omnibus in rebus temeritas in adsentiendo errorque turpis est, tum in eo loco maxime, in quo iudicandum est, quantum auspiciis rebusque divinis religionique tribuamus; est enim periculum, ne aut neglectis iis impia fraude aut susceptis anili superstitione obligemur. 2.19. Aut si negas esse fortunam et omnia, quae fiunt quaeque futura sunt, ex omni aeternitate definita dicis esse fataliter, muta definitionem divinationis, quam dicebas praesensionem esse rerum fortuitarum. Si enim nihil fieri potest, nihil accidere, nihil evenire, nisi quod ab omni aeternitate certum fuerit esse futurum rato tempore, quae potest esse fortuna? qua sublata qui locus est divinationi? quae a te fortuitarum rerum est dicta praesensio. Quamquam dicebas omnia, quae fierent futurave essent, fato contineri. Anile sane et plenum superstitionis fati nomen ipsum; sed tamen apud Stoicos de isto fato multa dicuntur; de quo alias; nunc quod necesse est. 2.36. deorum enim numini parere omnia. Haec iam, mihi crede, ne aniculae quidem existimant. An censes, eundem vitulum si alius delegerit, sine capite iecur inventurum; si alius, cum capite? Haec decessio capitis aut accessio subitone fieri potest, ut se exta ad immolatoris fortunam accommodent? non perspicitis aleam quandam esse in hostiis deligendis, praesertim cum res ipsa doceat? Cum enim tristissuma exta sine capite fuerunt, quibus nihil videtur esse dirius, proxuma hostia litatur saepe pulcherrime. Ubi igitur illae minae superiorum extorum? aut quae tam subito facta est deorum tanta placatio? Sed adfers in tauri opimi extis immolante Caesare cor non fuisse; id quia non potuerit accidere, ut sine corde victuma illa viveret, iudicandum esse tum interisse cor, cum immolaretur. 2.125. Quotus igitur est quisque, qui somniis pareat, qui intellegat, qui meminerit? quam multi vero, qui contemt eamque superstitionem inbecilli animi atque anilis putent! Quid est igitur, cur his hominibus consulens deus somniis moneat eos, qui illa non modo cura, sed ne memoria quidem digna ducant? Nec enim ignorare deus potest, qua mente quisque sit, nec frustra ac sine causa quid facere dignum deo est, quod abhorret etiam ab hominis constantia. Ita, si pleraque somnia aut ignorantur aut negleguntur, aut nescit hoc deus aut frustra somniorum significatione utitur; et horum neutrum in deum cadit; nihil igitur a deo somniis significari fatendum est. 1.7. At any rate, this praiseworthy tendency of the Academy to doubt has been approved by the solemn judgement of a most eminent philosopher. [4] Accordingly, since I, too, am in doubt as to the proper judgement to be rendered in regard to divination because of the many pointed and exhaustive arguments urged by Carneades against the Stoic view, and since I am afraid of giving a too hasty assent to a proposition which may turn out either false or insufficiently established, I have determined carefully and persistently to compare argument with argument just as I did in my three books On the Nature of the Gods. For a hasty acceptance of an erroneous opinion is discreditable in any case, and especially so in an inquiry as to how much weight should be given to auspices, to sacred rites, and to religious observances; for we run the risk of committing a crime against the gods if we disregard them, or of becoming involved in old womens superstition if we approve them. [5] 1.7. As briefly as I could, I have discussed divination by means of dreams and frenzy, which, as I said, are devoid of art. Both depend on the same reasoning, which is that habitually employed by our friend Cratippus: The human soul is in some degree derived and drawn from a source exterior to itself. Hence we understand that outside the human soul there is a divine soul from which the human soul is sprung. Moreover, that portion of the human soul which is endowed with sensation, motion, and carnal desire is inseparable from bodily influence; while that portion which thinks and reasons is most vigorous when it is most distant from the body. 2.19. But if you deny the existence of chance and assert that the course of everything present or future has been inevitably determined from all eternity, then you must change your definition of divination, which you said was the foreknowledge of things that happen by chance. For if nothing can happen, nothing befall, nothing come to pass, except what has been determined from all eternity as bound to happen at a fixed time, how can there be such a thing as chance? And if there is no such thing as chance, what room is there for that divination, which you termed a foreknowledge of things that happen by chance? And you were inconsistent enough, too, to say that everything that is or will be is controlled by Fate! Why, the very word Fate is full of superstition and old womens credulity, and yet the Stoics have much to say of this Fate of yours. A discussion on Fate is reserved for another occasion; at present I shall speak of it only in so far as it is necessary. [8] 2.36. Upon my word, no old woman is credulous enough now to believe such stuff! Do you believe that the same bullock, if chosen by one man, will have a liver without a head, and if chosen by another will have a liver with a head? And is it possible that this sudden going or coming of the livers head occurs so that the entrails may adapt themselves to the situation of the person who offers the sacrifice? Do you Stoics fail to see in choosing the victim it is almost like a throw of the dice, especially as facts prove it? For when the entrails of the first victim have been without a head, which is the most fatal of all signs, it often happens that the sacrifice of the next victim is altogether favourable. Pray what became of the warnings of the first set of entrails? And how was the favour of the gods so completely and so suddenly gained?[16] But, you say, Once, when Caesar was offering a sacrifice, there was no heart in the entrails of the sacrificial bull; and, and, since it would have been impossible for the victim to live without a heart, the heart must have disappeared at the moment of immolation. 2.125. But how often, pray, do you find anyone who pays any attention to dreams or who understands or remembers them? On the other hand, how many treat them with disdain, and regard a belief in them as the superstition of a weak and effeminate mind! Moreover, why does God, in planning for the good of the human race, convey his warnings by means of dreams which men consider unworthy not only of worrying about, but even of remembering? For it is impossible that God does not know how people generally regard dreams; and to do anything needlessly and without a cause is unworthy of a god and is inconsistent even with the habits of right-thinking men. And hence, if most dreams are unnoticed and disregarded, either God is ignorant of that fact, or he does a vain thing in conveying information by means of dreams; but neither supposition accords with the nature of a god, therefore, it must be admitted that God conveys no information by means of dreams. [61]
17. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.55, 1.94, 2.5, 2.70, 2.72, 3.92 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.55. An outcome of this theology was first of all your doctrine of Necessity or Fate, heimarmenē, as you termed it, the theory that every event is the result of an eternal truth and an unbroken sequence of causation. But what value can be assigned to a philosophy which thinks that everything happens by fate? it is a belief for old women, and ignorant old women at that. And next follows your doctrine of mantikē, or Divination, which would so steep us in superstition, if we consented to listen to you, that we should be the devotees of soothsayers, augurs, oracle-mongers, seers and interpreters of dreams. 1.94. You yourself just now, when reeling off the list of philosophers like the censor calling the roll of the Senate, said that all those eminent men were fools, idiots and madmen. But if none of these discerned the truth about the divine nature, it is to be feared that the divine nature is entirely non‑existent. "For as for your school's account of the matter, it is the merest fairy-story, hardly worthy of old wives at work by lamplight. You don't perceive what a number of things you are let in for, if we consent to admit that men and gods have the same form. You will have to assign to god exactly the same physical exercises and care of the person as are proper to men: he will walk, run, recline, bend, sit, hold things in the hand, and lastly even converse and make speeches. 2.5. how is the latter fact more evident than the former? Nothing but the presence in our minds of a firmly grasped concept of the deity could account for the stability and permanence of our belief in him, a belief which is only strengthened by the passage of the ages and grows more deeply rooted with each successive generation of mankind. In every other case we see that fictitious and unfounded opinions have dwindled away with lapse of time. Who believes that the Hippocentaur or the Chimaera ever existed? Where can you find an old wife senseless enough to be afraid of the monsters of the lower world that were once believed in? The years obliterate the inventions of the imagination, but confirm the judgements of nature. "Hence both in our own nation and among all others reverence for the gods and respect for religion grow continually stronger and more profound. 2.70. Do you see therefore how from a true and valuable philosophy of nature has been evolved this imaginary and fanciful pantheon? The perversion has been a fruitful source of false beliefs, crazy errors and superstitions hardly above the level of old wives' tales. We know what the gods look like and how old they are, their dress and their equipment, and also their genealogies, marriages and relationships, and all about them is distorted into the likeness of human frailty. They are actually represented as liable to passions and emotions — we hear of their being in love, sorrowful, angry; according to the myths they even engage in wars and battles, and that not only when as in Homer two armies and contending and the gods take sides and intervene on their behalf, but they actually fought wars of their own, for instance with the Titans and with the Giants. These stories and these beliefs are utterly foolish; they are stuffed with nonsense and absurdity of all sorts. 2.72. Persons who spent whole days in prayer and sacrifice to ensure that their children should outlive them were termed 'superstitious' (from superstes, a survivor), and the word later acquired a wider application. Those on the other hand who carefully reviewed and so to speak retraced all the lore of ritual were called 'religious' from relegere (to retrace or re‑read), like 'elegant' from eligere (to select), 'diligent' from diligere (to care for), 'intelligent' fromintellegere (to understand); for all these words contain the same sense of 'picking out' (legere) that is present in 'religious.' Hence 'superstitious' and 'religious' came to be terms of censure and approval respectively. I think that I have said enough to prove the existence of the gods and their nature. 3.92. But at all events a god could have come to the aid of those great and splendid cities and have preserved them — for you yourselves are fond of saying that there is nothing that a god cannot accomplish, and that without any toil; as man's limbs are effortlessly moved merely by his mind and will, so, as you say, the god's power can mould and move and alter all things. Nor do you say this as some superstitious fable or old wives' tale, but you give a scientific and systematic account of it: you allege that matter, which constitutes and contains all things, is in its entirety flexible and subject to change, so that there is nothing that cannot be moulded and transmuted out of it however suddenly, but the moulder and manipulator of this universal substance is divine providence, and therefore providence, whithersoever it moves, is able to perform whatever it will. Accordingly either providence does not know its own powers, or it does not regard human affairs, or it lacks power of judgement to discern what is the best.
18. Livy, History, 39.8.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 7.257-7.263 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Tibullus, Elegies, 1.2.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

21. Plutarch, Sayings of The Spartans, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 4, 6, 3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Moreover, many writers have held her to be the daughter of Hermes, Cf. 355 f, infra . and many others the daughter of Prometheus, Cf. 365 f, infra, and Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, i. 106. 1, 21 (p. 382, Potter). because of the belief that Prometheus is the discoverer of wisdom and forethought, and Hermes the inventor of grammar and music. For this reason they call the first of the Muses at Hermopolis Isis as well as Justice: for she is wise, as I have said, supra, 351 f. and discloses the divine mysteries to those who truly and justly have the name of bearers of the sacred vessels and wearers of the sacred robes. These are they who within their own soul, as though within a casket, bear the sacred writings about the gods clear of all superstition and pedantry; and they cloak them with secrecy, thus giving intimations, some dark and shadowy, some clear and bright, of their concepts about the gods, intimations of the same sort as are clearly evidenced in the wearing of the sacred garb. Cf. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, No. 754 (not included in the third edition), or Altertümer von Pergamon, viii. 2, p. 248, no. 326; also Moralia, 382 c. For this reason, too, the fact that the deceased votaries of Isis are decked with these garments is a sign that these sacred writings accompany them, and that they pass to the other world possessed of these and of naught else. It is a fact, Clea, that having a beard and wearing a coarse cloak does not make philosophers, nor does dressing in linen and shaving the hair make votaries of Isis; but the true votary of Isis is he who, when he has legitimately received what is set forth in the ceremonies connected with these gods, uses reason in investigating and in studying the truth contained therein. 3. Moreover, many writers have held her to be the daughter of Hermes, and many others the daughter of Prometheus, because of the belief that Prometheus is the discoverer of wisdom and forethought, and Hermes the inventor of grammar and music. For this reason they call the first of the Muses at Hermopolis Isis as well as Justice: for she is wise, as I have said, and discloses the divine mysteries to those who truly and justly have the name of "bearers of the sacred vessels" and "wearers of the sacred robes." These are they who within their own soul, as though within a casket, bear the sacred writings about the gods clear of all superstition and pedantry; and they cloak them with secrecy, thus giving intimation, some dark and shadowy, some clear and bright, of their concepts about the gods, intimations of the same sort as are clearly evidenced in the wearing of the sacred garb. For this reason, too, the fact that the deceased votaries of Isis are decked with these garments is a sign that these sacred writings accompany them, and that they pass to the other world possessed of these and of naught else. It is a fact, Clea, that having a beard and wearing a coarse cloak does not make philosophers, nor does dressing in linen and shaving the hair make votaries of Isis; but the true votary of Isis is he who, when he has legitimately received what is set forth in the ceremonies connected with these gods, uses reason in investigating and in studying the truth contained therein.
23. Plutarch, On Superstition, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Plutarch, Lycurgus, 27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Statius, Thebais, 4.414 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 52 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. The Galli, when dead, are not buried like other men, but when a Gallus dies his companions carry him out into the suburbs, and laying him out on the bier on which they had carried him they cover him with stones, and after this return home. They wait then for seven days, after which they enter the temple. Should they enter before this they would be guilty of blasphemy.
27. Lucian, The Lover of Lies, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.27.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.27.6. A Roman senator, Antoninus, made in our own day a bath of Asclepius and a sanctuary of the gods they call Bountiful. 138 or 161 A.D. He made also a temple to Health, Asclepius, and Apollo, the last two surnamed Egyptian. He moreover restored the portico that was named the Portico of Cotys, which, as the brick of which it was made had been unburnt, had fallen into utter ruin after it had lost its roof. As the Epidaurians about the sanctuary were in great distress, because their women had no shelter in which to be delivered and the sick breathed their last in the open, he provided a dwelling, so that these grievances also were redressed. Here at last was a place in which without sin a human being could die and a woman be delivered.
29. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 8.7 (2nd cent. CE

30. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.20 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.20. 20.For holy men were of opinion that purity consisted in a thing not being mingled with its contrary, and that mixture is defilement. Hence, they thought that nutriment should be assumed from fruits, and not from dead bodies, and that we should not, by introducing that which is animated to our nature, defile what is administered by nature. But they conceived, that the slaughter of animals, as they are sensitive, and the depriving them of their souls, is a defilement to the living; and that the pollution is much greater, to mingle a body which was once sensitive, but is now deprived of sense, with a sensitive and living being. Hence, universally, the purity pertaining to piety consists in rejecting and abstaining from many things, and in an abandonment of such as are of a contrary nature, and the assumption of such as are appropriate and concordant. On this account, venereal connexions are attended with defilement. For in these, a conjunction takes place of the female with the male; and the seed, when retained by the woman, and causing her to be pregt, defiles the soul, through its association with the body; but when it does not produce conception, it pollutes, in consequence of becoming a lifeless mass. The connexion also of males with males defiles, because it is an emission of seed as it were into a dead body, and because it is contrary to nature. And, in short, all venery, and emissions of the seed in sleep, pollute, because the soul becomes mingled with the body, and is drawn down to pleasure. The passions of the soul likewise defile, through the complication of the irrational and effeminate part with reason, the internal masculine part. For, in a certain respect, defilement and pollution manifest the mixture of things of an heterogeneous nature, and especially when the abstersion of this mixture is attended with difficulty. Whence, also, in tinctures which are produced through mixture, one species being complicated with another, this mixture is denominated a defilement. As when some woman with a lively red Stains the pure iv'ry --- says Homer 22. And again painters call the mixtures of colours, |134 corruptions. It is usual, likewise to denominate that which is unmingled and pure, incorruptible, and to call that which is genuine, unpolluted. For water, when mingled with earth, is corrupted, and is not genuine. But water, which is diffluent, and runs with tumultuous rapidity, leaves behind in its course the earth which it carries in its stream. When from a limpid and perennial fount It defluous runs --- as Hesiod says 23. For such water is salubrious, because it is uncorrupted and unmixed. The female, likewise, that does not receive into herself the exhalation of seed, is said to be uncorrupted. So that the mixture of contraries is corruption and defilement. For the mixture of dead with living bodies, and the insertion of beings that were once living and sentient into animals, and of dead into living flesh, may be reasonably supposed to introduce defilement and stains to our nature; just, again, as the soul is polluted when it is invested with the body. Hence, he who is born, is polluted by the mixture of his soul with body; and he who dies, defiles his body, through leaving it a corpse, different and foreign from that which possesses life. The soul, likewise, is polluted by anger and desire, and the multitude of passions of which in a certain respect diet is a co-operating cause. But as water which flows through a rock is more uncorrupted than that which runs through marshes, because it does not bring with it much mud; thus, also, the soul which administers its own affairs in a body that is dry, and is not moistened by the juices of foreign flesh, is in a more excellent condition, is more uncorrupted, and is more prompt for intellectual energy. Thus too, it is said, that the thyme which is the driest and the sharpest to the taste, affords the best honey to bees. The dianoetic, therefore, or discursive power of the soul, is polluted; or rather, he who energizes dianoetically, when this energy is mingled with the energies of either the imaginative or doxastic power. But purification consists in a separation from all these, and the wisdom which is adapted to divine concerns, is a desertion of every thing of this kind. The proper nutriment likewise, of each thing, is that which essentially preserves it. Thus you may say, that the nutriment of a stone is the cause of its continuing to be a stone, and of firmly remaining in a lapideous form; but the nutriment of a plant is that which preserves it in increase and fructification; and of an animated body, that which preserves its composition. It is one thing, however, |135 to nourish, and another to fatten; and one thing to impart what is necessary, and another to procure what is luxurious. Various, therefore, are the kinds of nutriment, and various also is the nature of the things that are nourished. And it is necessary, indeed, that all things should be nourished, but we should earnestly endeavour to fatten our most principal parts. Hence, the nutriment of the rational soul is that which preserves it in a rational state. But this is intellect; so that it is to be nourished by intellect; and we should earnestly endeavour that it may be fattened through this, rather than that the flesh may become pinguid through esculent substances. For intellect preserves for us eternal life, but the body when fattened causes the soul to be famished, through its hunger after a blessed life not being satisfied, increases our mortal part, since it is of itself insane, and impedes our attainment of an immortal condition of being. It likewise defiles by corporifying the soul, and drawing her down to that which is foreign to her nature. And the magnet, indeed, imparts, as it were, a soul to the iron which is placed near it; and the iron, though most heavy, is elevated, and runs to the spirit of the stone. Should he, therefore, who is suspended from incorporeal and intellectual deity, be anxiously busied in procuring food which fattens the body, that is an impediment to intellectual perception? Ought he not rather, by contracting hat is necessary to the flesh into that which is little and easily procured, he himself nourished, by adhering to God more closely than the iron to the magnet? I wish, indeed, that our nature was not so corruptible, and that it were possible we could live free from molestation, even without the nutriment derived from fruits. O that, as Homer 24 says, we were not in want either of meat or drink, that we might be truly immortal! --- the poet in thus speaking beautifully signifying, that food is the auxiliary not only of life, but also of death. If therefore, we were not in want even of vegetable aliment, we should be by so much the more blessed, in proportion as we should be more immortal. But now, being in a mortal condition, we render ourselves, if it be proper so to speak, still more mortal, through becoming ignorant that, by the addition of this mortality, the soul, as Theophrastus says, does not only confer a great benefit on the body by being its inhabitant, but gives herself wholly to it. 25 Hence, it is much |136 to be wished that we could easily obtain the life celebrated in fables, in which hunger and thirst are unknown; so that, by stopping the everyway-flowing river of the body, we might in a very little time be present with the most excellent natures, to which he who accedes, since deity is there, is himself a God. But how is it possible not to lament the condition of the generality of mankind, who are so involved in darkness as to cherish their own evil, and who, in the first place, hate themselves, and him who truly begot them, and afterwards, those who admonish them, and call on them to return from ebriety to a sober condition of being? Hence, dismissing things of this kind, will it not be requisite to pass on to what remains to be discussed? SPAN
31. Augustine, The City of God, 6.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6.9. And as to those very offices of the gods, so meanly and so minutely portioned out, so that they say that they ought to be supplicated, each one according to his special function - about which we have spoken much already, though not all that is to be said concerning it - are they not more consistent with mimic buffoonery than divine majesty? If any one should use two nurses for his infant, one of whom should give nothing but food, the other nothing but drink, as these make use of two goddesses for this purpose, Educa and Potina, he should certainly seem to be foolish, and to do in his house a thing worthy of a mimic. They would have Liber to have been named from liberation, because through him males at the time of copulation are liberated by the emission of the seed. They also say that Libera (the same in their opinion as Venus) exercises the same function in the case of women, because they say that they also emit seed; and they also say that on this account the same part of the male and of the female is placed in the temple, that of the male to Liber, and that of the female to Libera. To these things they add the women assigned to Liber, and the wine for exciting lust. Thus the Bacchanalia are celebrated with the utmost insanity, with respect to which Varro himself confesses that such things would not be done by the Bacchanals except their minds were highly excited. These things, however, afterwards displeased a saner senate, and it ordered them to be discontinued. Here, at length, they perhaps perceived how much power unclean spirits, when held to be gods, exercise over the minds of men. These things, certainly, were not to be done in the theatres; for there they play, not rave, although to have gods who are delighted with such plays is very like raving. But what kind of distinction is this which he makes between the religious and the superstitious man, saying that the gods are feared by the superstitious man, but are reverenced as parents by the religious man, not feared as enemies; and that they are all so good that they will more readily spare those who are impious than hurt one who is innocent? And yet he tells us that three gods are assigned as guardians to a woman after she has been delivered, lest the god Silvanus come in and molest her; and that in order to signify the presence of these protectors, three men go round the house during the night, and first strike the threshold with a hatchet, next with a pestle, and the third time sweep it with a brush, in order that these symbols of agriculture having been exhibited, the god Silvanus might be hindered from entering, because neither are trees cut down or pruned without a hatchet, neither is grain ground without a pestle, nor grain heaped up without a besom. Now from these three things three gods have been named: Intercidona, from the cut made by the hatchet; Pilumnus, from the pestle; Diverra, from the besom;- by which guardian gods the woman who has been delivered is preserved against the power of the god Silvanus. Thus the guardianship of kindly-disposed gods would not avail against the malice of a mischievous god, unless they were three to one, and fought against him, as it were, with the opposing emblems of cultivation, who, being an inhabitant of the woods, is rough, horrible, and uncultivated. Is this the innocence of the gods? Is this their concord? Are these the health-giving deities of the cities, more ridiculous than the things which are laughed at in the theatres? When a male and a female are united, the god Jugatinus presides. Well, let this be borne with. But the married woman must be brought home: the god Domiducus also is invoked. That she may be in the house, the god Domitius is introduced. That she may remain with her husband, the goddess Manturn is used. What more is required? Let human modesty be spared. Let the lust of flesh and blood go on with the rest, the secret of shame being respected. Why is the bed-chamber filled with a crowd of deities, when even the groomsmen have departed? And, moreover, it is so filled, not that in consideration of their presence more regard may be paid to chastity, but that by their help the woman, naturally of the weaker sex, and trembling with the novelty of her situation, may the more readily yield her virginity. For there are the goddess Virginiensis, and the god-father Subigus, and the goddess-mother Prema, and the goddess Pertunda, and Venus, and Priapus. What is this? If it was absolutely necessary that a man, laboring at this work, should be helped by the gods, might not some one god or goddess have been sufficient? Was Venus not sufficient alone, who is even said to be named from this, that without her power a woman does not cease to be a virgin? If there is any shame in men, which is not in the deities, is it not the case that, when the married couple believe that so many gods of either sex are present, and busy at this work, they are so much affected with shame, that the man is less moved, and the woman more reluctant? And certainly, if the goddess Virginiensis is present to loose the virgin's zone, if the god Subigus is present that the virgin may be got under the man, if the goddess Prema is present that, having been got under him, she may be kept down, and may not move herself, what has the goddess Pertunda to do there? Let her blush; let her go forth. Let the husband himself do something. It is disgraceful that any one but himself should do that from which she gets her name. But perhaps she is tolerated because she is said to be a goddess, and not a god. For if she were believed to be a male, and were called Pertundus, the husband would demand more help against him for the chastity of his wife than the newly-delivered woman against Silvanus. But why am I saying this, when Priapus, too, is there, a male to excess, upon whose immense and most unsightly member the newly-married bride is commanded to sit, according to the most honorable and most religious custom of matrons? Let them go on, and let them attempt with all the subtlety they can to distinguish the civil theology from the fabulous, the cities from the theatres, the temples from the stages, the sacred things of the priests from the songs of the poets, as honorable things from base things, truthful things from fallacious, grave from light, serious from ludicrous, desirable things from things to be rejected, we understand what they do. They are aware that that theatrical and fabulous theology hangs by the civil, and is reflected back upon it from the songs of the poets as from a mirror; and thus, that theology having been exposed to view which they do not dare to condemn, they more freely assail and censure that picture of it, in order that those who perceive what they mean may detest this very face itself of which that is the picture - which, however, the gods themselves, as though seeing themselves in the same mirror, love so much, that it is better seen in both of them who and what they are. Whence, also, they have compelled their worshippers, with terrible commands, to dedicate to them the uncleanness of the fabulous theology, to put them among their solemnities, and reckon them among divine things; and thus they have both shown themselves more manifestly to be most impure spirits, and have made that rejected and reprobated theatrical theology a member and a part of this, as it were, chosen and approved theology of the city, so that, though the whole is disgraceful and false, and contains in it fictitious gods, one part of it is in the literature of the priests, the other in the songs of the poets. Whether it may have other parts is another question. At present, I think, I have sufficiently shown, on account of the division of Varro, that the theology of the city and that of the theatre belong to one civil theology. Wherefore, because they are both equally disgraceful, absurd, shameful, false, far be it from religious men to hope for eternal life from either the one or the other. In fine, even Varro himself, in his account and enumeration of the gods, starts from the moment of a man's conception. He commences the series of those gods who take charge of man with Janus, carries it on to the death of the man decrepit with age, and terminates it with the goddess N nia, who is sung at the funerals of the aged. After that, he begins to give an account of the other gods, whose province is not man himself, but man's belongings, as food, clothing, and all that is necessary for this life; and, in the case of all these, he explains what is the special office of each, and for what each ought to be supplicated. But with all this scrupulous and comprehensive diligence, he has neither proved the existence, nor so much as mentioned the name, of any god from whom eternal life is to be sought - the one object for which we are Christians. Who, then, is so stupid as not to perceive that this man, by setting forth and opening up so diligently the civil theology, and by exhibiting its likeness to that fabulous, shameful, and disgraceful theology, and also by teaching that that fabulous sort is also a part of this other, was laboring to obtain a place in the minds of men for none but that natural theology, which he says pertains to philosophers, with such subtlety that he censures the fabulous, and, not daring openly to censure the civil, shows its censurable character by simply exhibiting it; and thus, both being reprobated by the judgment of men of right understanding, the natural alone remains to be chosen? But concerning this in its own place, by the help of the true God, we have to discuss more diligently.
32. Eunapius, Lives of The Philosophers, 459 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

33. Libanius, Orations, 1.245 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 654-655, 653



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexandria de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 278
alimentary Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
amulets Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
ancestors, wicked (incl. titans) Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
aphrodite, in the hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
apollo Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
ara Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
areopagos, legal procedures Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
aristotle Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
artemis Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
artemis (goddess) Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
asceticism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
asclepius de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 277
asia minor de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 278
astrology Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
atargatis Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
ateles, atelestoi Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
atheism, atheists Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
athens, crossroads shrine Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 161
athens de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 279
bacchanalia affair Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
bacchic de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 278
barbarian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
birth Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
body and soul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
britannia Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
calchas Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
carthage Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
clarus Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
comedy Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
concubine/pallake, also hetaira, prostitute, whore Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
crete Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
cult Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
cursed Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
cybele de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 280
death, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
debate Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
deisidaimon Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
deisidaimonía Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
delphi Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
demosthenes Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
derveni papyrus de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 405
dietary restrictions Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
dionysus, as releaser Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
divination Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
egypt Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
eleusinian, orpheus, orphic, samothracian, bacchic, dionysiac de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 278
eleusinian, orpheus, orphic, samothracian de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 276, 278
eleusis/eleusinian de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 276
ephesus Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
epicurus, epicurean Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
epimenides Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
eschatology, and gold leaves/orphics Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
euages/euageo, in gold leaves Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
eusébeia Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
external vs. internal Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
fire Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
fluchzustand/loimos Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
foreigners, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
gaul, gallic Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
gender, and age Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 51
gender Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
gold Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
gold leaves Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
hades, place de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 276, 405
hebrew Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
hippocrates Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
hippolytus Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
holy man Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
honor Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
irrationality Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
kallistrate Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
katharos, in gold leaves of psyche/soul Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
kouretes de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 278
lakedaimon, leos, daughters of Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 161
law courts Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
lucilius balbus, quintus Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 51
lyssa, macbeth effect Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
magic, malign Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
magic Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
magician, cf. magos, shaman, sorcerer, witch Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
marcus aurelius Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
marginality Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
meat-eating, prohibited for orphics Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
menander Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
mixing Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
musaeus Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
music, in the orphic initiation rituals Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
music Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
mystery cults, orphic Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
necromancy Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
neighbor, neighborhood Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
nightmares Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
oath, in the hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
omens Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
oracle Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
orpheotelestai Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145; de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 276, 278, 279, 280
orpheus, as founder of mysteries and religious reformer Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
orpheus, transmitter of mysteries de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 405
orphic, initiation rituals Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
orphic, life Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
orphic, see bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 275
orphic, see mystery cults de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 277, 278, 279
orphic de Jáuregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010) 405
orphism' Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
orphism Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
parker, robert Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
penance, penitence Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
persephone Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
phaedra Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
philosophy Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
phren/phrenes, seat of purity/impurity, in the hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
piety Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
plague Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193
plato, on orpheotelestai Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
platonic tradition Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
pollution/miasma Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
prayer Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 125
progonos Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
psyche as seat of purity/impurity, in the gold leaves Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
purity, purification Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145
purity systems, categorization of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
religion Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
rhetorical exercise Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
ritual Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
ritual purity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
roman law Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
sacrifice Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
salvation, and orphism Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
sardis Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
sexual relations abstinence from Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
sexual relations in roman philosophy Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
slaves Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
sorcerer, cf. magician, magos, shaman, witch Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
space, sacred Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
step-kin Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414
stoicism Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 51
suicide Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
superstition Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305; Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36; Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 414; Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 51; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
supplication, in the gold leaves Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
supplication, in the hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
theology Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305
theophemos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
theophrastos, on the superstitious man Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
theophrastus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305; Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 193; Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 161; Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 259
thera, parallels with Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 161
theseus Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145; Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
tomb Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
tullius cicero, marcus Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 51
vegetarianism Graf and Johnston, Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (2007) 145; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 264
vengeance, cf. punishment, revenge, timoria Riess, Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens (2012) 205
washing, ritual, of ears in the hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 205
washing Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 36
washing of hands Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 23
witchcraft, accusations of Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 293
xerxes Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 305