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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10659
Tertullian, On The Games, 3


nanFortified by this knowledge against heathen views, let us rather turn to the unworthy reasonings of our own people; for the faith of some, either too simple or too scrupulous, demands direct authority from Scripture for giving up the shows, and holds out that the matter is a doubtful one, because such abstinence is not clearly and in words imposed upon God's servants. Well, we never find it expressed with the same precision, You shall not enter circus or theatre, you shall not look on combat or show; as it is plainly laid down, You shall not kill; you shall not worship an idol; you shall not commit adultery or fraud. Exodus 20:14 But we find that that first word of David bears on this very sort of thing: Blessed, he says, is the man who has not gone into the assembly of the impious, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of scorners. Though he seems to have predicted beforehand of that just man, that he took no part in the meetings and deliberations of the Jews, taking counsel about the slaying of our Lord, yet divine Scripture has ever far-reaching applications: after the immediate sense has been exhausted, in all directions it fortifies the practice of the religious life, so that here also you have an utterance which is not far from a plain interdicting of the shows. If he called those few Jews an assembly of the wicked, how much more will he so designate so vast a gathering of heathens! Are the heathens less impious, less sinners, less enemies of Christ, than the Jews were then? And see, too, how other things agree. For at the shows they also stand in the way. For they call the spaces between the seats going round the amphitheatre, and the passages which separate the people running down, ways. The place in the curve where the matrons sit is called a chair. Therefore, on the contrary, it holds, unblessed is he who has entered any council of wicked men, and has stood in any way of sinners, and has sat in any chair of scorners. We may understand a thing as spoken generally, even when it requires a certain special interpretation to be given to it. For some things spoken with a special reference contain in them general truth. When God admonishes the Israelites of their duty, or sharply reproves them, He has surely a reference to all men; when He threatens destruction to Egypt and Ethiopia, He surely pre-condemns every sinning nation, whatever. If, reasoning from species to genus, every nation that sins against them is an Egypt and Ethiopia; so also, reasoning from genus to species, with reference to the origin of shows, every show is an assembly of the wicked.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.4, 11.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.4. וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.7. וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you." 11.7. And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1-1.2, 96.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃ 1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 96.5. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃ 1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful." 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 96.5. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens."
4. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 12.10-12.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.11. And again thus sayith Isaiah; The Lord said unto my Christ the Lord, of whose right hand I laid hold, that the nations should give ear before Him, and I will break down the strength of kings. See how David calleth Him Lord, and calleth Him not Son.
5. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them."
6. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.15. For let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evil doer, or as a meddler in other men's matters.
7. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 98.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

98.8. לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זֶה מָכִיר וגו' וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו (בראשית מט, י), שֶׁבָּא וְנִתְחַבֵּט לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. וְלוֹ יִקְהַת עַמִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּא וּמַקְהֶה שִׁנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה וְרוֹדָה. וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרֵי הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶחָד מִימִין וְאֶחָד מִשְׂמֹאל. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, נִמְנוּ וְאָמְרוּ הִלֵּל מִשֶּׁל מִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְגִלַּת יֻחָסִים מָצְאוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּכְתִיב בָּהּ הִלֵּל מִדָּוִד. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִן דִּשְׁפַטְיָה בֶּן אֲבִיטָל. דְּבֵית כַּלְבָּא שָׂבוֹעַ מִדְּכָלֵב. דְּבֵית צִיצִית הַכַּסָּת, מִן דְּאַבְנֵר. דְּבֵית כּוֹבְשִׁין, מִן דְּאַחְאָב. דְּבֵית יָצְאָה, מִן דְּאָסָף. דְּבֵית יֵהוּא, מִן צִפּוֹרִין. דְּבֵית יַנַּאי, מִן דְּעֵלִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן דְּיוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מִדִּנְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא. 98.8. ... “…and to him will be a gathering of peoples.” (Genesis 49:10) This refers to Jerusalem, which in the future will blunt the teeth of the nations of the world, as it says “And it shall come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a stone of burden for all peoples…” (Zechariah 12:3)"
9. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 97, 141 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

141. Free-will in men and angels Justin: But that you may not have a pretext for saying that Christ must have been crucified, and that those who transgressed must have been among your nation, and that the matter could not have been otherwise, I said briefly by anticipation, that God, wishing men and angels to follow His will, resolved to create them free to do righteousness; possessing reason, that they may know by whom they are created, and through whom they, not existing formerly, do now exist; and with a law that they should be judged by Him, if they do anything contrary to right reason: and of ourselves we, men and angels, shall be convicted of having acted sinfully, unless we repent beforehand. But if the word of God foretells that some angels and men shall be certainly punished, it did so because it foreknew that they would be unchangeably [wicked], but not because God had created them so. So that if they repent, all who wish for it can obtain mercy from God: and the Scripture foretells that they shall be blessed, saying, 'Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputes not sin;' that is, having repented of his sins, that he may receive remission of them from God; and not as you deceive yourselves, and some others who resemble you in this, who say, that even though they be sinners, but know God, the Lord will not impute sin to them. We have as proof of this the one fall of David, which happened through his boasting, which was forgiven then when he so mourned and wept, as it is written. But if even to such a man no remission was granted before repentance, and only when this great king, and anointed one, and prophet, mourned and conducted himself so, how can the impure and utterly abandoned, if they weep not, and mourn not, and repent not, entertain the hope that the Lord will not impute to them sin? And this one fall of David, in the matter of Uriah's wife, proves, sirs, that the patriarchs had many wives, not to commit fornication, but that a certain dispensation and all mysteries might be accomplished by them; since, if it were allowable to take any wife, or as many wives as one chooses, and how he chooses, which the men of your nation do over all the earth, wherever they sojourn, or wherever they have been sent, taking women under the name of marriage, much more would David have been permitted to do this. When I had said this, dearest Marcus Pompeius, I came to an end.
13. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.40 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.40. In like manner does He also know the very time it behooved Him to suffer, since the law prefigures His passion. Accordingly, of all the festal days of the Jews He chose the passover. Luke 22:i In this Moses had declared that there was a sacred mystery: It is the Lord's passover. Leviticus 23:5 How earnestly, therefore, does He manifest the bent of His soul: With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer. Luke 22:15 What a destroyer of the law was this, who actually longed to keep its passover! Could it be that He was so fond of Jewish lamb? But was it not because He had to be led like a lamb to the slaughter; and because, as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so was He not to open His mouth, Isaiah 53:7 that He so profoundly wished to accomplish the symbol of His own redeeming blood? He might also have been betrayed by any stranger, did I not find that even here too He fulfilled a Psalm: He who ate bread with me has lifted up his heel against me. And without a price might He have been betrayed. For what need of a traitor was there in the case of one who offered Himself to the people openly, and might quite as easily have been captured by force as taken by treachery? This might no doubt have been well enough for another Christ, but would not have been suitable in One who was accomplishing prophecies. For it was written, The righteous one did they sell for silver. Amos 2:6 The very amount and the destination of the money, which on Judas' remorse was recalled from its first purpose of a fee, and appropriated to the purchase of a potter's field, as narrated in the Gospel of Matthew, were clearly foretold by Jeremiah: And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him who was valued and gave them for the potter's field. When He so earnestly expressed His desire to eat the passover, He considered it His own feast; for it would have been unworthy of God to desire to partake of what was not His own. Then, having taken the bread and given it to His disciples, He made it His own body, by saying, This is my body, that is, the figure of my body. A figure, however, there could not have been, unless there were first a veritable body. An empty thing, or phantom, is incapable of a figure. If, however, (as Marcion might say,) He pretended the bread was His body, because He lacked the truth of bodily substance, it follows that He must have given bread for us. It would contribute very well to the support of Marcion's theory of a phantom body, that bread should have been crucified! But why call His body bread, and not rather (some other edible thing, say) a melon, which Marcion must have had in lieu of a heart! He did not understand how ancient was this figure of the body of Christ, who said Himself by Jeremiah: I was like a lamb or an ox that is brought to the slaughter, and I knew not that they devised a device against me, saying, Let us cast the tree upon His bread, which means, of course, the cross upon His body. And thus, casting light, as He always did, upon the ancient prophecies, He declared plainly enough what He meant by the bread, when He called the bread His own body. He likewise, when mentioning the cup and making the new testament to be sealed in His blood, Luke 22:20 affirms the reality of His body. For no blood can belong to a body which is not a body of flesh. If any sort of body were presented to our view, which is not one of flesh, not being fleshly, it would not possess blood. Thus, from the evidence of the flesh, we get a proof of the body, and a proof of the flesh from the evidence of the blood. In order, however, that you may discover how anciently wine is used as a figure for blood, turn to Isaiah, who asks, Who is this that comes from Edom, from Bosor with garments dyed in red, so glorious in His apparel, in the greatness of his might? Why are your garments red, and your raiment as his who comes from the treading of the full winepress? The prophetic Spirit contemplates the Lord as if He were already on His way to His passion, clad in His fleshly nature; and as He was to suffer therein, He represents the bleeding condition of His flesh under the metaphor of garments dyed in red, as if reddened in the treading and crushing process of the wine-press, from which the labourers descend reddened with the wine-juice, like men stained in blood. Much more clearly still does the book of Genesis foretell this, when (in the blessing of Judah, out of whose tribe Christ was to come according to the flesh) it even then delineated Christ in the person of that patriarch, saying, He washed His garments in wine, and His clothes in the blood of grapes Genesis 49:11 - in His garments and clothes the prophecy pointed out his flesh, and His blood in the wine. Thus did He now consecrate His blood in wine, who then (by the patriarch) used the figure of wine to describe His blood.
16. Tertullian, Apology, 21.6, 39.1, 39.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Tertullian, On Baptism, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4. But it will suffice to have thus called at the outset those points in which withal is recognised that primary principle of baptism - which was even then fore-noted by the very attitude assumed for a type of baptism - that the Spirit of God, who hovered over (the waters) from the beginning, would continue to linger over the waters of the baptized. But a holy thing, of course, hovered over a holy; or else, from that which hovered over that which was hovered over borrowed a holiness, since it is necessary that in every case an underlying material substance should catch the quality of that which overhangs it, most of all a corporeal of a spiritual, adapted (as the spiritual is) through the subtleness of its substance, both for penetrating and insinuating. Thus the nature of the waters, sanctified by the Holy One, itself conceived withal the power of sanctifying. Let no one say, Why then, are we, pray, baptized with the very waters which then existed in the first beginning? Not with those waters, of course, except in so far as the genus indeed is one, but the species very many. But what is an attribute to the genus reappears likewise in the species. And accordingly it makes no difference whether a man be washed in a sea or a pool, a stream or a fount, a lake or a trough; nor is there any distinction between those whom John baptized in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber, unless withal the eunuch whom Philip baptized in the midst of his journeys with chance water, derived (therefrom) more or less of salvation than others. Acts 8:26-40 All waters, therefore, in virtue of the pristine privilege of their origin, do, after invocation of God, attain the sacramental power of sanctification; for the Spirit immediately supervenes from the heavens, and rests over the waters, sanctifying them from Himself; and being thus sanctified, they imbibe at the same time the power of sanctifying. Albeit the similitude may be admitted to be suitable to the simple act; that, since we are defiled by sins, as it were by dirt, we should be washed from those stains in waters. But as sins do not show themselves in our flesh (inasmuch as no one carries on his skin the spot of idolatry, or fornication, or fraud), so persons of that kind are foul in the spirit, which is the author of the sin; for the spirit is lord, the flesh servant. Yet they each mutually share the guilt: the spirit, on the ground of command; the flesh, of subservience. Therefore, after the waters have been in a manner endued with medicinal virtue through the intervention of the angel, the spirit is corporeally washed in the waters, and the flesh is in the same spiritually cleansed.
18. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 6, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Moreover, we must inquire likewise touching schoolmasters; nor only of them, but also all other professors of literature. Nay, on the contrary, we must not doubt that they are in affinity with manifold idolatry: first, in that it is necessary for them to preach the gods of the nations, to express their names, genealogies, honourable distinctions, all and singular; and further, to observe the solemnities and festivals of the same, as of them by whose means they compute their revenues. What schoolmaster, without a table of the seven idols, will yet frequent the Quinquatria? The very first payment of every pupil he consecrates both to the honour and to the name of Minerva; so that, even though he be not said to eat of that which is sacrificed to idols nominally (not being dedicated to any particular idol), he is shunned as an idolater. What less of defilement does he recur on that ground, than a business brings which, both nominally and virtually, is consecrated publicly to an idol? The Minervalia are as much Minerva's, as the Saturnalia Saturn's; Saturn's, which must necessarily be celebrated even by little slaves at the time of the Saturnalia. New-year's gifts likewise must be caught at, and the Septimontium kept; and all the presents of Midwinter and the feast of Dear Kinsmanship must be exacted; the schools must be wreathed with flowers; the flamens' wives and the diles sacrifice; the school is honoured on the appointed holy-days. The same thing takes place on an idol's birthday; every pomp of the devil is frequented. Who will think that these things are befitting to a Christian master, unless it be he who shall think them suitable likewise to one who is not a master? We know it may be said, If teaching literature is not lawful to God's servants, neither will learning be likewise; and, How could one be trained unto ordinary human intelligence, or unto any sense or action whatever, since literature is the means of training for all life? How do we repudiate secular studies, without which divine studies cannot be pursued? Let us see, then, the necessity of literary erudition; let us reflect that partly it cannot be admitted, partly cannot be avoided. Learning literature is allowable for believers, rather than teaching; for the principle of learning and of teaching is different. If a believer teach literature, while he is teaching doubtless he commends, while he delivers he affirms, while he recalls he bears testimony to, the praises of idols interspersed therein. He seals the gods themselves with this name; whereas the Law, as we have said, prohibits the names of gods to be pronounced, and this name to be conferred on vanity. Hence the devil gets men's early faith built up from the beginnings of their erudition. Inquire whether he who catechizes about idols commit idolatry. But when a believer learns these things, if he is already capable of understanding what idolatry is, he neither receives nor allows them; much more if he is not yet capable. Or, when he begins to understand, it behooves him first to understand what he has previously learned, that is, touching God and the faith. Therefore he will reject those things, and will not receive them; and will be as safe as one who from one who knows it not, knowingly accepts poison, but does not drink it. To him necessity is attributed as an excuse, because he has no other way to learn. Moreover, the not teaching literature is as much easier than the not learning, as it is easier, too, for the pupil not to attend, than for the master not to frequent, the rest of the defilements incident to the schools from public and scholastic solemnities.
19. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 33 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. Tertullian, On The Games, 15, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1. You Servants of God, about to draw near to God, that you may make solemn consecration of yourselves to Him, seek well to understand the condition of faith, the reasons of the Truth, the laws of Christian Discipline, which forbid among other sins of the world, the pleasures of the public shows. You who have testified and confessed that you have done so already, review the subject, that there may be no sinning whether through real or wilful ignorance. For such is the power of earthly pleasures, that, to retain the opportunity of still partaking of them, it contrives to prolong a willing ignorance, and bribes knowledge into playing a dishonest part. To both things, perhaps, some among you are allured by the views of the heathens who in this matter are wont to press us with arguments, such as these: (1) That the exquisite enjoyments of ear and eye we have in things external are not in the least opposed to religion in the mind and conscience; and (2) That surely no offense is offered to God, in any human enjoyment, by any of our pleasures, which it is not sinful to partake of in its own time and place, with all due honour and reverence secured to Him. But this is precisely what we are ready to prove: That these things are not consistent with true religion and true obedience to the true God. There are some who imagine that Christians, a sort of people ever ready to die, are trained into the abstinence they practise, with no other object than that of making it less difficult to despise life, the fastenings to it being severed as it were. They regard it as an art of quenching all desire for that which, so far as they are concerned, they have emptied of all that is desirable; and so it is thought to be rather a thing of human planning and foresight, than clearly laid down by divine command. It were a grievous thing, forsooth, for Christians, while continuing in the enjoyment of pleasures so great, to die for God! It is not as they say; though, if it were, even Christian obstinacy might well give all submission to a plan so suitable, to a rule so excellent.
21. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.9.1-4.9.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.9.1. To Minucius Fundanus. I have received an epistle, written to me by Serennius Granianus, a most illustrious man, whom you have succeeded. It does not seem right to me that the matter should be passed by without examination, lest the men be harassed and opportunity be given to the informers for practicing villainy. 4.9.2. If, therefore, the inhabitants of the province can clearly sustain this petition against the Christians so as to give answer in a court of law, let them pursue this course alone, but let them not have resort to men's petitions and outcries. For it is far more proper, if any one wishes to make an accusation, that you should examine into it. 4.9.3. If any one therefore accuses them and shows that they are doing anything contrary to the laws, do you pass judgment according to the heinousness of the crime. But, by Hercules! If any one bring an accusation through mere calumny, decide in regard to his criminality, and see to it that you inflict punishment.Such are the contents of Hadrian's rescript.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

18b. ומי יימר דהכי איכא [א"ל השתא חזית] הוו הנהו כלבי דהוו קא אכלי אינשי שקל קלא שדא בהו הוו קאתו למיכליה אמר אלהא דמאיר ענני שבקוה ויהבה ליה,לסוף אשתמע מילתא בי מלכא אתיוה אסקוה לזקיפה אמר אלהא דמאיר ענני אחתוה אמרו ליה מאי האי אמר להו הכי הוה מעשה,אתו חקקו לדמותיה דר' מאיר אפיתחא דרומי אמרי כל דחזי לפרצופא הדין לייתיה יומא חדא חזיוהי רהט אבתריה רהט מקמייהו על לבי זונות איכא דאמרי בשולי עובדי כוכבים חזא טמש בהא ומתק בהא איכא דאמרי אתא אליהו אדמי להו כזונה כרכתיה אמרי חס ושלום אי ר' מאיר הוה לא הוה עביד הכי,קם ערק אתא לבבל איכא דאמרי מהאי מעשה ואיכא דאמרי ממעשה דברוריא:,תנו רבנן ההולך לאיצטדינין ולכרקום וראה שם את הנחשים ואת החברין בוקיון ומוקיון ומוליון ולוליון בלורין סלגורין הרי זה מושב לצים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך וגו' כי אם בתורת ה' חפצו הא למדת. שדברים הללו מביאין את האדם לידי ביטול תורה,ורמינהי [הולכין] לאיצטדינין מותר מפני שצווח ומציל ולכרקום מותר מפני ישוב מדינה ובלבד שלא יתחשב עמהם ואם נתחשב עמהם אסור קשיא איצטדינין אאיצטדינין קשיא כרקום אכרקום,בשלמא כרקום אכרקום ל"ק כאן במתחשב עמהן כאן בשאין מתחשב עמהן אלא איצטדינין אאיצטדינין קשיא,תנאי היא דתניא אין הולכין לאיצטדינין מפני מושב לצים ור' נתן מתיר מפני שני דברים אחד מפני שצווח ומציל ואחד מפני שמעיד עדות אשה להשיאה,תנו רבנן אין הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות מפני שמזבלין שם זיבול לעבודת כוכבים דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים מקום שמזבלין אסור מפני חשד עבודת כוכבים ומקום שאין מזבלין שם אסור מפני מושב לצים,מאי בינייהו אמר ר' חנינא מסורא נשא ונתן איכא בינייהו,דרש ר' שמעון בן פזי מאי דכתיב אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך בעצת רשעים ובדרך חטאים לא עמד ובמושב לצים לא ישב וכי מאחר שלא הלך היכן עמד ומאחר שלא עמד היכן ישב ומאחר שלא ישב היכן לץ,אלא לומר לך שאם הלך סופו לעמוד ואם עמד סופו לישב ואם ישב סופו ללוץ ואם לץ עליו הכתוב אומר (משלי ט, יב) אם חכמת חכמת לך ואם לצת לבדך תשא,א"ר אליעזר כל המתלוצץ יסורין באין עליו שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, כב) ועתה אל תתלוצצו פן יחזקו מוסריכם אמר להו רבא לרבנן במטותא בעינא מינייכו דלא תתלוצצו דלא ליתו עלייכו יסורין,אמר רב קטינא כל המתלוצץ מזונותיו מתמעטין שנאמר (הושע ז, ה) משך ידו את לוצצים אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל המתלוצץ נופל בגיהנם שנאמר (משלי כא, כד) זד יהיר לץ שמו עושה בעברת זדון ואין עברה אלא גיהנם שנאמר (צפניה א, טו) יום עברה היום ההוא,אמר ר' אושעיא כל המתייהר נופל בגיהנם שנאמר זד יהיר לץ שמו עושה בעברת זדון ואין עברה אלא גיהנם שנאמר יום עברה היום ההוא אמר רבי חנילאי בר חנילאי כל המתלוצץ גורם כלייה לעולם שנאמר ועתה אל תתלוצצו פן יחזקו מוסריכם כי כלה ונחרצה שמעתי,אמר רבי אליעזר קשה היא שתחילת' יסורין וסופו כלייה דרש ר' שמעון בן פזי אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות של עובדי כוכבים ובדרך חטאים לא עמד זה שלא עמד בקנגיון ובמושב לצים לא ישב שלא ישב בתחבולות,שמא יאמר אדם הואיל ולא הלכתי לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות ולא עמדתי בקנגיון אלך ואתגרה בשינה ת"ל ובתורתו יהגה יומם ולילה,אמר רב שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך בעצת רשעים זה 18b. bAnd who can say that this isthe case, that I will be saved by this utterance? Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: You will now see. There were thesecarnivorous bdogs that would devour people;Rabbi Meir btook a clodof earth, bthrewit bat them,and when bthey came to devour him, he said: God of Meir answer me!The dogs then bleft himalone, bandafter seeing this the guard bgavethe daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon btoRabbi Meir., bUltimately the matter was heardin bthe king’s court,and the guard, who bwas brought and taken to be hanged, said: God of Meir answer me!They then blowered him down,as they were unable to hang him. bThey said to him: What is this? He said to them: This was the incidentthat occurred, and he proceeded to relate the entire story to them., bTheythen bwentand bengraved the image of Rabbi Meir at the entrance of Romewhere it would be seen by everyone, and they bsaid: Anyone who seesa man with bthis face should bring himhere. bOne day,Romans bsawRabbi Meir and bran after him,and bhe ran away from themand bentered a brothelto hide. bSome sayhe then escaped capture because bhe sawfood bcooked by gentilesand bdipped [ itemash /i] thisfinger binthe food band tastedit bwith thatother finger, and thereby fooled them into thinking that he was eating their food, which they knew Rabbi Meir would not do. And bsome saythat he escaped detection because bElijah came, appeared to them as a prostituteand bembracedRabbi Meir. The Romans who were chasing him bsaid: Heaven forbid, if this were Rabbi Meir, he would not actin bthatmanner.,Rabbi Meir barose, fled,and barrived in Babylonia.The Gemara notes: bThere arethose bwho saythat he fled because bof this incident, and there arethose bwho saythat he fled due to embarrassment bfrom the incident involvinghis wife bBerurya. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:With regard to bone who goes to stadiums [ ile’itztadinin /i]where people are killed in contests with gladiators or beasts, bor to a camp of besiegers [ iulkharkom /i]where different forms of entertainment are provided for the besieging army, bandhe bsees therethe acts of bthe diviners and those who cast spells,or the acts of the clowns known as ibukiyon /i, or imukiyon /i, or imuliyon /i, or iluliyon /i,or ibelurin /i,or isalgurin /i, this iscategorized as b“the seat of the scornful”; and with regard tosuch places bthe verse states: “Happy is the man that has not walkedin the council of the wicked, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful. bBut his delight is in the Torah of the Lord”(Psalms 1:1–2). bYou learnfrom here bthat these matters bring a person to derelictionof the study bof Torah,since had he not sat in “the seat of the scornful,” he would delight in the study of Torah., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom another ibaraita /i: bOne is permittedto bgo to stadiums, because he can scream and savethe life of a Jew who would otherwise be killed there; band it is permittedto go bto a camp of besiegers, becauseat times one can provide for the public bwelfareby petitioning the besiegers and saving the residents of the btown, provided that he is not countedas one bof them; but if he is countedas one bof them, it is prohibited.This is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between the statement about attending bstadiumsin the first ibaraitaand the statement baboutattending bstadiumsin the second ibaraita /i, and is similarly bdifficultas there is a contradiction between the statement about ba camp of besiegersin the first ibaraitaand the statement babout a camp of besiegersin the second ibaraita /i.,The Gemara continues: bGranted,the apparent contradiction between one statement about ba camp of besiegersand the other statement babout a camp of besiegersis bnot difficult,as bhere,the first ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he is countedas one bof them,and bthere,the second ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he is not countedas one bof them. Butwith regard to the contradiction between the ruling about attending bstadiumsin the first ibaraitaand the ruling baboutattending bstadiumsin the second ibaraita /i, it is bdifficult. /b,The Gemara answers: This issue bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not go to stadiums, becausethey are considered b“the seat of the scornful.” And Rabbi Natan permitsattending stadiums bdue to tworeasons; boneis bbecause he can scream and savethe life of someone who would otherwise be killed, bandthe other boneis bbecauseeven if he cannot save the man’s life, bhe can provide testimonythat ba woman’shusband died, which will enable her bto marryagain., bThe Sages taught: One may not go to theaters [ iletarteiot /i] or circuses [ iulkirkaseiot /i] because they sacrifice offerings there toobjects of bidol worship;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is prohibitedto go to ba place where they sacrificeofferings, bdue to a suspicion of idol worship, and it isalso bprohibitedto go to ba place where they do not sacrificeofferings, bdue toit being considered b“the seat of the scornful.” /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the Rabbis and that of Rabbi Meir? After all, according to both opinions it is prohibited to attend theaters or circuses. bRabbi Ḥanina of Sura said:The difference bbetween themarises in the case of one who bengaged in businessthere. According to Rabbi Meir, the profits are forbidden as the proceeds of idol worship, as Rabbi Meir maintains that the gentiles certainly worship idols at theaters or circuses. Conversely, according to the Rabbis, the profits are forbidden only if it is established that they worshipped idols there.,§ Apropos the earlier discussion of the evils of scornfulness, the Gemara cites several statements that criticize such behavior. bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Happy is the man that has not walked in the counsel of the wicked, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful”(Psalms 1:1)? bSince he did not walkin the counsel of the wicked, bhowcould bhe standwith them? bAnd since he did not stand, howcould bhe sitwith them? bAnd since he did not sitwith them, bhowcould bhehave bscorned?Since he never joined the company of the wicked, he would have no reason to be involved with them in any manner., bRather,the verse serves bto say to you that if he walkedwith the wicked, bhe will ultimately standwith them. bAnd if he stoodwith them, bhe will ultimately sitin their company, band if he sat, he will ultimately scornalong with them. bAnd if he scorned, the verse says about him: “If you are wise, you are wise for yourself; and if you scorn, you alone shall bear it”(Proverbs 9:12)., bRabbi Eliezer says:Concerning banyone who scoffs, suffering will befall him, as it is stated: “Now therefore do not be scoffers, lest your suffering be made strong”(Isaiah 28:22). Similarly, bRava said to the Sageswho were sitting before him: bPlease, I ask of you that you not scoff, so that suffering will not befall you. /b, bRav Ketina says:Concerning banyone who scoffs, his sustece is lessened, as it is stated: “He stretches out his hand with scorners”(Hosea 7:5), meaning that God withdraws His providence from scoffers and does not provide for them. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Anyone who scoffs falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “A proud and haughty man, scorner is his name, he acts in arrogant wrath”(Proverbs 21:24). bAnd wrathmeans bnothing other than Gehenna, as it is statedwith regard to the Day of Judgment: b“That day is a day of wrath”(Zephaniah 1:15)., bRabbi Oshaya says,based on the same verse: bAnyone who is haughty falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “A proud and haughty man, scorner is his name, he acts in arrogant wrath”(Proverbs 21:24). bAnd wrath means nothing other than Gehenna, as it is stated: “That day is a day of wrath”(Zephaniah 1:15). bRabbi Ḥanilai bar Ḥanilai says: Anyone who scoffs causes exterminationto be wrought bupon the world, as it is stated: “Now therefore do not be scoffers, lest your suffering be made strong; for an extermination wholly determined have I heardfrom the Lord, the God of hosts, upon the whole land” (Isaiah 28:22)., bRabbi Eliezer says:Scoffing bis a severesin, bas at firstone is punished with bsuffering, and ultimatelyone is punished with bextermination. Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi taught: “Happy is the man that has not walkedin the counsel of the wicked,” this is referring btothe btheaters and circuses of gentiles; “nor stood in the way of sinners,” thisis referring to bone who has not stoodas an observer bat bestial contests [ ibekinigiyyon /i]; “nor sat in the seat of the scornful,”this is referring to bone who has not sat in the bad companyof people who engage in scoffing and jeering., bLest a person say: Since I did not go to theaters and circuses, and did not stand in bestial contests, I will go and indulge in sleep, the verse states: “And he meditates in His law day and night”(Psalms 1:2). This demonstrates that it is not sufficient simply to avoid transgressions; rather, it is necessary to engage actively in Torah study.,§ The Gemara relates an alternative homiletic interpretation of the verse discussed above. bRav Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: “Happy is the man that has not walked in the counsel of the wicked”(Psalms 1:1); bthis /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adaptation Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
adultery Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285
amorites,ways of Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
amphitheatre,theatre Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
animals Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
apocalypticism Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
appropriate/appropriation Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
apuleius Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
bath Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
beast hunts Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
beasts Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
belief/believers Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81, 96
biblicism Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
bread Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
carthage Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 161
catholic Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
christ,antichrist Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
christians & christianity,on roman entertainment Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155, 160, 161, 169
church fathers Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
cicero Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
circus Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
classical Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
clement of alexandria,controversial or polemical aspects Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 375
clement of alexandria Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
context Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
conversion/converts Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
cult/cults,oriental cult Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
cult/cults Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
cyrus Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 295
daemons Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
danger Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
david,davidic origin / descent Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 295
david Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285, 295
definition Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
deutero-isaiah Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 295
development Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
discussion Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96, 137
dissidents Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
distinctive Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
donatism Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
education Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
ethics Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
ethnic Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
faith xiii Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
festivals Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
forbidden Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
forgiveness of sins Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285
fornication Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
gladiatorial combat Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
gnosticism,specific doctrines Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 375
god Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
gods Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81, 95
greek Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
groups Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
guide Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
history Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
hope Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
idol/s Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
images Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
immorality Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
irenaeus Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
israel Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
jerome Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 161
jesus Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 295
judaism,rabbinic judaism Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285, 295
justin Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
language Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
latin Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
law Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
lenient members Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
light Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
literature Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81, 96
maccabees,i Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
maccabees,ii Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
marcus aurelius Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 811
martyrdom Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
meir,r. Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160
meir Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137
mekhilta de arayot Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155, 160
messiah Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 295
mishnah Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160
north african christianity Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
oriental Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
originality Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
parallels,n Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81, 137
patriarch,biblical Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285
philosophy/philosophers Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81
plato/platonism Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
pliny,letter to trajan on christians' Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 811
prohibition Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96, 137
public Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96
puritanical Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
rabbinic literature Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160, 161
rabbis / rabbinic judaism Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285, 295
reading Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
repentance Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285
rigorism Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
roman entertainment,as distraction from torah Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 169
roman entertainment,christian attitudes Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155, 160, 161, 169
roman entertainment,pagan critiques Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
scorners,sitting with Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160, 161, 169
sectarianism (separatism) Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
seneca Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95, 96
shows Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95, 96, 137
sin/sinner Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81, 137
sin Witter et al. (2021), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity, 285
social Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
society Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
sources Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 96, 137
statues Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
stoicism Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
tatian Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 155
tertullian Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39; Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160, 161, 169
theaters,and the imperial cult Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160
torah,opposite spectacle Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 169
tosefta Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 160, 169
tradition Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 39
weak individuals Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 95
worship Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 81