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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10600
Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 19


nanBut do you, who have not the perception of these things, be instructed by us who know them: though you do profess to despise death, and to be sufficient of yourselves for everything. But this is a discipline in which your philosophers are so greatly deficient, that some of them receive from the king of the Romans 600 aurei yearly, for no useful service they perform, but that they may not even wear a long beard without being paid for it! Crescens, who made his nest in the great city, surpassed all men in unnatural love (παιδεραστία), and was strongly addicted to the love of money. Yet this man, who professed to despise death, was so afraid of death, that he endeavoured to inflict on Justin, and indeed on me, the punishment of death, as being an evil, because by proclaiming the truth he convicted the philosophers of being gluttons and cheats. But whom of the philosophers, save you only, was he accustomed to inveigh against? If you say, in agreement with our tenets, that death is not to be dreaded, do not court death from an insane love of fame among men, like Anaxagoras, but become despisers of death by reason of the knowledge of God. The construction of the world is excellent, but the life men live in it is bad; and we may see those greeted with applause as in a solemn assembly who know not God. For what is divination? And why are you deceived by it? It is a minister to you of worldly lusts. You wish to make war, and you take Apollo as a counsellor of slaughter. You want to carry off a maiden by force, and you select a divinity to be your accomplice. You are ill by your own fault; and, as Agamemnon wished for ten councillors, so you wish to have gods with you. Some woman by drinking water gets into a frenzy, and loses her senses by the fumes of frankincense, and you say that she has the gift of prophecy. Apollo was a prognosticator and a teacher of soothsayers: in the matter of Daphne he deceived himself. An oak, forsooth, is oracular, and birds utter presages! And so you are inferior to animals and plants! It would surely be a fine thing for you to become a divining rod, or to assume the wings of a bird! He who makes you fond of money also foretells your getting rich; he who excites to seditions and wars also predicts victory in war. If you are superior to the passions, you will despise all worldly things. Do not abhor us who have made this attainment, but, repudiating the demons, follow the one God. All things John 1:3 were made by Him, and without Him not one thing was made. If there is poison in natural productions, this has supervened through our sinfulness. I am able to show the perfect truth of these things; only do you hearken, and he who believes will understand.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. The heavens, revolving under His government, are subject to Him in peace. Day and night run the course appointed by Him, in no wise hindering each other. The sun and moon, with the companies of the stars, roll on in harmony according to His command, within their prescribed limits, and without any deviation. The fruitful earth, according to His will, brings forth food in abundance, at the proper seasons, for man and beast and all the living beings upon it, never hesitating, nor changing any of the ordices which He has fixed. The unsearchable places of abysses, and the indescribable arrangements of the lower world, are restrained by the same laws. The vast unmeasurable sea, gathered together by His working into various basins, never passes beyond the bounds placed around it, but does as He has commanded. For He said, Thus far shall you come, and your waves shall be broken within you. Job 38:11 The ocean, impassable to man and the worlds beyond it, are regulated by the same enactments of the Lord. The seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, peacefully give place to one another. The winds in their several quarters fulfil, at the proper time, their service without hindrance. The ever-flowing fountains, formed both for enjoyment and health, furnish without fail their breasts for the life of men. The very smallest of living beings meet together in peace and concord. All these the great Creator and Lord of all has appointed to exist in peace and harmony; while He does good to all, but most abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to His compassions through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever. Amen.
2. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 48.14-48.16 (1st cent. CE

48.14.  My concern is partly indeed for you, but partly also for myself. For if, when a philosopher has taken a government in hand, he proves unable to produce a united city, this is indeed a shocking state of affairs, one admitting no escape, just as if a shipwright while sailing in a ship should fail to render the ship seaworthy, or as if a man who claimed to be a pilot should swerve toward the wave itself, or as if a builder should obtain a house and, seeing that it was falling to decay, should disregard this fact but, giving it a coat of stucco and a wash of colour, should imagine that he is achieving something. If my purpose on this occasion were to speak in behalf of concord, I should have had a good deal to say about not only human experiences but celestial also, to the effect that these divine and grand creations, as it happens, require concord and friendship; otherwise there is danger of ruin and destruction for this beautiful work of the creator, the universe. 48.15.  But perhaps I am talking too long, when I should instead go and call the proconsul to our meeting. Accordingly I shall say only this much more — is it not disgraceful that bees are of one mind and no one has ever seen a swarm that is factious and fights against itself, but, on the contrary, they both work and live together, providing food for one another and using it as well? "What!" some one objects, "do we not find there too bees that are called drones, annoying creatures which devour the honey?" Yes, by Heaven, we do indeed; but still the farmers often tolerate even them, not wishing to disturb the hive, and believe it better to waste some of the honey rather than to throw all the bees into confusion. 48.16.  But at Prusa, it may be, there are no lazy drones, buzzing in impotence, sipping the honey. Again, it is a great delight to observe the ants, how they go forth from the nest, how they aid one another with their loads, and how they yield the trails to one another. Is it not disgraceful, then, as I was saying, that human beings should be more unintelligent than wild creatures which are so tiny and unintelligent? Now this which I have been saying is in a way just idle talk. And civil strife does not deserve even to be named among us, and let no man mention it.
3. Juvenal, Satires, 15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. New Testament, Acts, 17.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection.
5. New Testament, Romans, 8.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us.
6. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Suetonius, Iulius, 42 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tacitus, Annals, 16.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.21.  After the slaughter of so many of the noble, Nero in the end conceived the ambition to extirpate virtue herself by killing Thrasea Paetus and Barea Soranus. To both he was hostile from of old, and against Thrasea there were additional motives; for he had walked out of the senate, as I have mentioned, during the discussion on Agrippina, and at the festival of the Juvenalia his services had not been conspicuous — a grievance which went the deeper that in Patavium, his native place, the same Thrasea had sung in tragic costume at the . . . Games instituted by the Trojan Antenor. Again, on the day when sentence of death was all but passed on the praetor Antistius for his lampoons on Nero, he proposed, and carried, a milder penalty; and, after deliberately absenting himself from the vote of divine honours to Poppaea, he had not assisted at her funeral. These memories were kept from fading by Cossutianus Capito. For, apart from his character with its sharp trend to crime, he was embittered against Thrasea, whose influence, exerted in support of the Cilician envoys prosecuting Capito for extortion, had cost him the verdict.
10. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 3.2, 9.2, 19.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for. 9.2. 2 Therefore when he was brought forward the Pro-Consul asked him if he were Polycarp, and when he admitted it he tried to persuade him to deny, saying: "Respect your age," and so forth, as they are accustomed to say: "Swear by the genius of Caesar, repent, say: `Away with the Atheists'"; but Polycarp, with a stern countece looked on all the crowd of lawless heathen in the arena, and waving his hand at them, he groaned and looked up to heaven and said: "Away with the Atheists. 19.1. 1 Such was the lot of the blessed Polycarp, who though he was, together with those from Philadelphia, the twelfth martyr in Smyrna, is alone especially remembered by all, so that he is spoken of in every place, even by the heathen. He was not only a famous teacher, but also a notable martyr, whose martyrdom all desire to imitate, for it followed the Gospel of Christ.
11. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.28, 1.28.1, 3.23.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Justin, First Apology, 14.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Justin, Second Apology, 13, 15, 2-3, 5, 9, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. But neither should we be put to death, nor would wicked men and devils be more powerful than we, were not death a debt due by every man that is born. Wherefore we give thanks when we pay this debt. And we judge it right and opportune to tell here, for the sake of Crescens and those who rave as he does, what is related by Xenophon. Hercules, says Xenophon, coming to a place where three ways met, found Virtue and Vice, who appeared to him in the form of women: Vice, in a luxurious dress, and with a seductive expression rendered blooming by such ornaments, and her eyes of a quickly melting tenderness, said to Hercules that if he would follow her, she would always enable him to pass his life in pleasure and adorned with the most graceful ornaments, such as were then upon her own person; and Virtue, who was of squalid look and dress, said, But if you obey me, you shall adorn yourself not with ornament nor beauty that passes away and perishes, but with everlasting and precious graces. And we are persuaded that every one who flees those things that seem to be good, and follows hard after what are reckoned difficult and strange, enters into blessedness. For Vice, when by imitation of what is incorruptible (for what is really incorruptible she neither has nor can produce) she has thrown around her own actions, as a disguise, the properties of virtue, and qualities which are really excellent, leads captive earthly-minded men, attaching to Virtue her own evil properties. But those who understood the excellences which belong to that which is real, are also uncorrupt in virtue. And this every sensible person ought to think both of Christians and of the athletes, and of those who did what the poets relate of the so-called gods, concluding as much from our contempt of death, even when it could be escaped.
14. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 2.2-2.6, 4.7, 7.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. While I was going about one morning in the walks of the Xystus, a certain man [Trypho], with others in his company, met me. Trypho: Hail, O philosopher! And immediately after saying this, he turned round and walked along with me; his friends likewise followed him. Justin: What is there important? Trypho: I was instructed by Corinthus the Socratic in Argos, that I ought not to despise or treat with indifference those who array themselves in this dress but to show them all kindness, and to associate with them, as perhaps some advantage would spring from the intercourse either to some such man or to myself. It is good, moreover, for both, if either the one or the other be benefited. On this account, therefore, whenever I see any one in such costume, I gladly approach him, and now, for the same reason, have I willingly accosted you; and these accompany me, in the expectation of hearing for themselves something profitable from you. Justin: (In jest.) But who are you, most excellent man? Then he told me frankly both his name and his family. Trypho: Trypho, I am called; and I am a Hebrew of the circumcision, and having escaped from the war lately carried on there I am spending my days in Greece, and chiefly at Corinth. Justin: And in what would you be profited by philosophy so much as by your own lawgiver and the prophets? Trypho: Why not? Do not the philosophers turn every discourse on God? And do not questions continually arise to them about His unity and providence? Is not this truly the duty of philosophy, to investigate the Deity? Justin: Assuredly, so we too have believed. But the most have not taken thought of this whether there be one or more gods, and whether they have a regard for each one of us or no, as if this knowledge contributed nothing to our happiness; nay, they moreover attempt to persuade us that God takes care of the universe with its genera and species, but not of me and you, and each individually, since otherwise we would surely not need to pray to Him night and day. But it is not difficult to understand the upshot of this; for fearlessness and license in speaking result to such as maintain these opinions, doing and saying whatever they choose, neither dreading punishment nor hoping for any benefit from God. For how could they? They affirm that the same things shall always happen; and, further, that I and you shall again live in like manner, having become neither better men nor worse. But there are some others, who, having supposed the soul to be immortal and immaterial, believe that though they have committed evil they will not suffer punishment (for that which is immaterial is insensible), and that the soul, in consequence of its immortality, needs nothing from God. Trypho: (Smiling gently.) Tell us your opinion of these matters, and what idea you entertain respecting God, and what your philosophy is.
15. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 16, 9, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Lucian, The Runaways, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Lucian, The Lover of Lies, 23-24, 22 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.16. To Valerius Paulinus. Rejoice, rejoice, rejoice, on my account, on your own, and on that of the public. The profession of oratory is still held in honour. Just recently, when I had to speak in the court of the centumviri, I could find no way in except by crossing the tribunal and passing through the judges, all the other places were so crowded and thronged. Moreover, a certain young man of fashion who had his tunic torn to pieces - as often happens in a crowd - kept his ground for seven long hours with only his toga thrown round him. For my speech lasted all that time; and though it cost me a great effort, the results were more than worth it. Let us therefore prosecute our studies, and not allow the idleness of other people to be an excuse for laziness on our part. We can still find an audience and readers, provided only that our compositions are worth hearing, and worth the paper they are written on. Farewell.
19. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.16. To Valerius Paulinus. Rejoice, rejoice, rejoice, on my account, on your own, and on that of the public. The profession of oratory is still held in honour. Just recently, when I had to speak in the court of the centumviri, I could find no way in except by crossing the tribunal and passing through the judges, all the other places were so crowded and thronged. Moreover, a certain young man of fashion who had his tunic torn to pieces - as often happens in a crowd - kept his ground for seven long hours with only his toga thrown round him. For my speech lasted all that time; and though it cost me a great effort, the results were more than worth it. Let us therefore prosecute our studies, and not allow the idleness of other people to be an excuse for laziness on our part. We can still find an audience and readers, provided only that our compositions are worth hearing, and worth the paper they are written on. Farewell.
20. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 1.1, 2.1, 5.1, 9.2, 15.1, 15.4, 19.2, 25.1, 25.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tertullian, Apology, 25, 14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14. I wish now to review your sacred rites; and I pass no censure on your sacrificing, when you offer the worn-out, the scabbed, the corrupting; when you cut off from the fat and the sound the useless parts, such as the head and the hoofs, which in your house you would have assigned to the slaves or the dogs; when of the tithe of Hercules you do not lay a third upon his altar (I am disposed rather to praise your wisdom in rescuing something from being lost); but turning to your books, from which you get your training in wisdom and the nobler duties of life, what utterly ridiculous things I find!- that for Trojans and Greeks the gods fought among themselves like pairs of gladiators; that Venus was wounded by a man, because she would rescue her son Æneas when he was in peril of his life from the same Diomede; that Mars was almost wasted away by a thirteen months' imprisonment; that Jupiter was saved by a monster's aid from suffering the same violence at the hands of the other gods; that he now laments the fate of Sarpedon, now foully makes love to his own sister, recounting (to her) former mistresses, now for a long time past not so dear as she. After this, what poet is not found copying the example of his chief, to be a disgracer of the gods? One gives Apollo to king Admetus to tend his sheep; another hires out the building labours of Neptune to Laomedon. A well-known lyric poet, too - Pindar, I mean - sings of Æsculapius deservedly stricken with lightning for his greed in practising wrongfully his art. A wicked deed it was of Jupiter - if he hurled the bolt - unnatural to his grandson, and exhibiting envious feeling to the Physician. Things like these should not be made public if they are true; and if false, they should not be fabricated among people professing a great respect for religion. Nor indeed do either tragic or comic writers shrink from setting forth the gods as the origin of all family calamities and sins. I do not dwell on the philosophers, contenting myself with a reference to Socrates, who, in contempt of the gods, was in the habit of swearing by an oak, and a goat, and a dog. In fact, for this very thing Socrates was condemned to death, that he overthrew the worship of the gods. Plainly, at one time as well as another, that is, always truth is disliked. However, when rueing their judgment, the Athenians inflicted punishment on his accusers, and set up a golden image of him in a temple, the condemnation was in the very act rescinded, and his witness was restored to its former value. Diogenes, too, makes utter mock of Hercules and the Roman cynic Varro brings forward three hundred Joves, or Jupiters they should be called, all headless.
22. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.16, 4.16.1, 4.16.3, 4.16.7-4.16.8, 4.29, 5.13, 5.13.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.16.1. About this time Justin, who was mentioned by us just above, after he had addressed a second work in behalf of our doctrines to the rulers already named, was crowned with divine martyrdom, in consequence of a plot laid against him by Crescens, a philosopher who emulated the life and manners of the Cynics, whose name he bore. After Justin had frequently refuted him in public discussions he won by his martyrdom the prize of victory, dying in behalf of the truth which he preached. 4.16.7. And that he met his death as he had predicted that he would, in consequence of the machinations of Crescens, is stated by Tatian, a man who early in life lectured upon the sciences of the Greeks and won no little fame in them, and who has left a great many monuments of himself in his writings. He records this fact in his work against the Greeks, where he writes as follows: And that most admirable Justin declared with truth that the aforesaid persons were like robbers. 4.16.8. Then, after making some remarks about the philosophers, he continues as follows: Crescens, indeed, who made his nest in the great city, surpassed all in his unnatural lust, and was wholly devoted to the love of money. 5.13.8. In the same work, addressing Callistio, the same writer acknowledges that he had been instructed at Rome by Tatian. And he says that a book of Problems had been prepared by Tatian, in which he promised to explain the obscure and hidden parts of the divine Scriptures. Rhodo himself promises to give in a work of his own solutions of Tatian's problems. There is also extant a Commentary of his on the Hexaemeron.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of justin and his companions, recensions Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
acts of justin and his companions Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
acts of ptolemaeus and lucius Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
alexandria, platonism and stoicism in, ancient/barbarian wisdom, development of interest in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
animals, dogs Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
apollonius Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
apologetics, purpose of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 537
apology, of justin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884
apology Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
aristoteles, peripatetics Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
artist, works of art Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
asphodel meadows Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
atheism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
atheists Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
augustus, augustan Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
avarice, crescens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
bion of borysthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
caesar Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
canon, development of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 216
cerberus Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
christians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
citizenship, political rights Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
cosmos, cosmology, nature Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
crates Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
crescens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884, 892; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
creszens Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 285
cynic Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765, 892
cynics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
death, of justin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884
death Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
democritus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
domitian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
east, the Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 281, 285, 325, 426
egypt, egyptian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
ephesus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
epicurean Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
epicurus , epicureanism Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
erinyes Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
ethics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 281
eusebius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884
excommunication Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285
exegesis, in tatian Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215, 216
experience, post-mortality Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
family, parent-child, and death Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
gnostics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285
god, tatian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 537
gods, traditional Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
grammatikoi, schools of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
hades, underworld, image of hades, critique Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
hades, underworld Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
hadrian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
hecate Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
helvidius priscus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
hercules (heracles) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
heretics {see also gnostics; marcionites) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285
hippokrates Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
historiography Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
humiliores Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
illness Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
impiety Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
irenaeus of lyons Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 214
jerome Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
judaism, hellenistic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
justin Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 281, 285; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
justin martyr Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 214; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884, 892
law, the, gnostic views of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215
libraries Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
logos, doctrine of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
lucian of samosata Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64; Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
magi, criticism as heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 216
magic, magic papyri Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
magic Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
magicians, witchcraft Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
magicians Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
marcion Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
marcus aurelius Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
martyr/martyrdom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884
martyrdom, of justin Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
martyrdom, of polycarp Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
mary Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
miracle Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
mythology Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
nerva Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
new testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215
night, and post-mortality motif Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
nigrinus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275
old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 216
paetus thrasea Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
paul Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 214; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
pederasty Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
perennis Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
persecution, martyrs Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281, 325
persephone Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765, 892
philosophers, ancient Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
philosophy Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
pilhofer, peter Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
plato, platonic tradition Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
platonism Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 285, 426
polemic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
possessions, wealth Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 892
privileges Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
propaedeutic Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
provincials, immigrants Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281, 285
pseudo-clementine Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 214
psyche Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
ptolemy (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215
pyriphlegeton, river Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
pythagoras, pythagoreans Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
pythagoreans Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
quintilian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
rhetoric (study) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281, 426
rhodon Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285
rusticus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275
sacrifice Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
schools Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281, 285
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215, 216
scripture, harmony of the scriptures/unity of the testaments Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215
senator, senatorial Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
smyrna Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284
social advancement Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
socially elevated Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
socrates Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
soul Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
stoic philosophy Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
stoicism, and christianity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
stoicism, ethics Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
stoicism, natural theology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
stoicism, nature, live by Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
stoicism, stoics Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 275, 281, 325
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765, 892
syria, syrian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285, 325
tartaros Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
tatian, biography Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 537
tatian, theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 537
tatian Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215, 216; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 285, 426; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 884, 892; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 284; Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
tatian and celsus, conversion of tatian Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
tatian and celsus, cultural history and hellenic deviance, tatian on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
tatian and celsus, greek corruption and barbarian purity, tatian on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
tatian and celsus, incoherence of tatians oration Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
tatian and celsus Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
taxes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
teachers Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281, 285
theater Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 426
theology, natural Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
tradition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
trees Waldner et al., Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire (2016) 69
trials Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 325
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 215
vespasian' Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 281
vice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
vienne and lyons, sources Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 89
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
whittaker, molly Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 64
wisdom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765
zeno of citium, stoicism founder Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 765