Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10591
Tacitus, Histories, 4.81


nan During the months while Vespasian was waiting at Alexandria for the regular season of the summer winds and a settled sea, many marvels continued to mark the favour of heaven and a certain partiality of the gods toward him. One of the common people of Alexandria, well known for his loss of sight, threw himself before Vespasian's knees, praying him with groans to cure his blindness, being so directed by the god Serapis, whom this most superstitious of nations worships before all others; and he besought the emperor to deign to moisten his cheeks and eyes with his spittle. Another, whose hand was useless, prompted by the same god, begged Caesar to step and trample on it. Vespasian at first ridiculed these appeals and treated them with scorn; then, when the men persisted, he began at one moment to fear the discredit of failure, at another to be inspired with hopes of success by the appeals of the suppliants and the flattery of his courtiers: finally, he directed the physicians to give their opinion as to whether such blindness and infirmity could be overcome by human aid. Their reply treated the two cases differently: they said that in the first the power of sight had not been completely eaten away and it would return if the obstacles were removed; in the other, the joints had slipped and become displaced, but they could be restored if a healing pressure were applied to them. Such perhaps was the wish of the gods, and it might be that the emperor had been chosen for this divine service; in any case, if a cure were obtained, the glory would be Caesar's, but in the event of failure, ridicule would fall only on the poor suppliants. So Vespasian, believing that his good fortune was capable of anything and that nothing was any longer incredible, with a smiling countenance, and amid intense excitement on the part of the bystanders, did as he was asked to do. The hand was instantly restored to use, and the day again shone for the blind man. Both facts are told by eye-witnesses even now when falsehood brings no reward.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’"
2. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 717-732, 716 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

716. πρῶτον δὲ πάντων τῷ Νεοκλείδῃ φάρμακον
3. Herodotus, Histories, 2.37, 2.81 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.37. They are religious beyond measure, more than any other people; and the following are among their customs. They drink from cups of bronze, which they clean out daily; this is done not by some but by all. ,They are especially careful always to wear newly-washed linen. They practise circumcision for cleanliness' sake; for they would rather be clean than more becoming. Their priests shave the whole body every other day, so that no lice or anything else foul may infest them as they attend upon the gods. ,The priests wear a single linen garment and sandals of papyrus: they may have no other kind of clothing or footwear. Twice a day and twice every night they wash in cold water. Their religious observances are, one may say, innumerable. ,But also they receive many benefits: they do not consume or spend anything of their own; sacred food is cooked for them, beef and goose are brought in great abundance to each man every day, and wine of grapes is given to them, too. They may not eat fish. ,The Egyptians sow no beans in their country; if any grow, they will not eat them either raw or cooked; the priests cannot endure even to see them, considering beans an unclean kind of legume. Many (not only one) are dedicated to the service of each god. One of these is the high priest; and when a high priest dies, his son succeeds to his office. 2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
4. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.871-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Strabo, Geography, 17.1.17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.1.17. Canobus is a city, distant by land from Alexandreia 120 stadia. It has its name from Canobus, the pilot of Menelaus, who died there. It contains the temple of Sarapis, held in great veneration, and celebrated for the cure of diseases; persons even of the highest rank confide in them, and sleep there themselves on their own account, or others for them. Some persons record the cures, and others the veracity of the oracles which are delivered there. But remarkable above everything else is the multitude of persons who resort to the public festivals, and come from Alexandreia by the canal. For day and night there are crowds of men and women in boats, singing and dancing, without restraint, and with the utmost licentiousness. Others, at Canobus itself, keep hostelries situated on the banks of the canal, which are well adapted for such kind of diversion and revelry.
6. Vergil, Aeneis, 8.698 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart
7. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.13.9-3.13.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.42-8.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.42. 5. Now the sagacity and wisdom which God had bestowed on Solomon was so great, that he exceeded the ancients; insomuch that he was no way inferior to the Egyptians, who are said to have been beyond all men in understanding; nay, indeed, it is evident that their sagacity was very much inferior to that of the king’s. 8.42. Accordingly Ahab appears to have been deceived thereby, till he disbelieved those that foretold his defeat; but, by giving credit to such as foretold what was grateful to him, was slain; and his son Ahaziah succeeded him. 8.43. He also excelled and distinguished himself in wisdom above those who were most eminent among the Hebrews at that time for shrewdness; those I mean were Ethan, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol. 8.44. He also composed books of odes and songs a thousand and five, of parables and similitudes three thousand; for he spake a parable upon every sort of tree, from the hyssop to the cedar; and in like manner also about beasts, about all sorts of living creatures, whether upon the earth, or in the seas, or in the air; for he was not unacquainted with any of their natures, nor omitted inquiries about them, but described them all like a philosopher, and demonstrated his exquisite knowledge of their several properties. 8.45. God also enabled him to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a science useful and sanative to men. He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, by which they drive away demons, so that they never return; 8.46. and this method of cure is of great force unto this day; for I have seen a certain man of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian, and his sons, and his captains, and the whole multitude of his soldiers. The manner of the cure was this: 8.47. He put a ring that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon to the nostrils of the demoniac, after which he drew out the demon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down immediately, he abjured him to return into him no more, making still mention of Solomon, and reciting the incantations which he composed. 8.48. And when Eleazar would persuade and demonstrate to the spectators that he had such a power, he set a little way off a cup or basin full of water, and commanded the demon, as he went out of the man, to overturn it, and thereby to let the spectators know that he had left the man; 8.49. and when this was done, the skill and wisdom of Solomon was shown very manifestly: for which reason it is, that all men may know the vastness of Solomon’s abilities, and how he was beloved of God, and that the extraordinary virtues of every kind with which this king was endowed may not be unknown to any people under the sun for this reason, I say, it is that we have proceeded to speak so largely of these matters.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.659, 7.73 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.659. So Titus marched on foot as far as Nicopolis, which is distant twenty furlongs from Alexandria; there he put his army on board some long ships, and sailed upon the river along the Mendesian Nomus, as far as the city Thmuis; 7.73. The multitude did also betake themselves to feasting; which feasts and drink-offerings they celebrated by their tribes, and their families, and their neighborhoods, and still prayed God to grant that Vespasian, his sons, and all their posterity, might continue in the Roman government for a very long time, and that his dominion might be preserved from all opposition.
10. Juvenal, Satires, 6.533 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. New Testament, Acts, 4.24-4.30, 19.11-19.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.24. They, when they heard it, lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, "O Lord, you are God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all that is in them; 4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? 4.26. The kings of the earth take a stand, And the rulers take council together, Against the Lord, and against his Christ.' 4.27. For truly, in this city against your holy servant, Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together 4.28. to do whatever your hand and your council foreordained to happen. 4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 4.30. while you stretch out your hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done through the name of your holy Servant Jesus. 19.11. God worked special miracles by the hands of Paul 19.12. so that even handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away from his body to the sick, and the evil spirits went out.
12. New Testament, John, 9.6-9.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.6. When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man's eyes with the mud 9.7. and said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which means "Sent"). So he went away, washed, and came back seeing.
13. New Testament, Luke, 3.18, 9.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up.
14. New Testament, Mark, 8.22-8.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.22. He came to Bethsaida. They brought a blind man to him, and begged him to touch him. 8.23. He took hold of the blind man by the hand, and brought him out of the village. When he had spit on his eyes, and laid his hands on him, he asked him if he saw anything. 8.24. He looked up, and said, "I see men; for I see them like trees walking. 8.25. Then again he laid his hands on his eyes. He looked intently, and was restored, and saw everyone clearly. 8.26. He sent him away to his house, saying, "Don't enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village.
15. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 7.2-7.3, 25.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Tacitus, Agricola, 45.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tacitus, Annals, 2.85, 15.44 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.85.  In the same year, bounds were set to female profligacy by stringent resolutions of the senate; and it was laid down that no woman should trade in her body, if her father, grandfather, or husband had been a Roman knight. For Vistilia, the daughter of a praetorian family, had advertised her venality on the aediles' list — the normal procedure among our ancestors, who imagined the unchaste to be sufficiently punished by the avowal of their infamy. Her husband, Titidius Labeo, was also required to explain why, in view of his wife's manifest guilt, he had not invoked the penalty of the law. As he pleaded that sixty days, not yet elapsed, were allowed for deliberation, it was thought enough to pass sentence on Vistilia, who was removed to the island of Seriphos. — Another debate dealt with the proscription of the Egyptian and Jewish rites, and a senatorial edict directed that four thousand descendants of enfranchised slaves, tainted with that superstition and suitable in point of age, were to be shipped to Sardinia and there employed in suppressing brigandage: "if they succumbed to the pestilential climate, it was a cheap loss." The rest had orders to leave Italy, unless they had renounced their impious ceremonial by a given date. 15.44.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
21. Tacitus, Histories, 1.2-1.4, 1.3.2, 1.10.3, 1.11, 1.27.1, 1.86, 2.1.1, 2.3-2.4, 2.4.2, 2.50.2, 2.76, 2.78, 2.78.1, 2.91.1, 3.48, 3.56.1, 3.71-3.72, 3.74.1, 4.8, 4.52, 4.61, 4.82-4.84, 5.2-5.10, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.86.  Prodigies which were reported on various authorities also contributed to the general terror. It was said that in the vestibule of the Capitol the reins of the chariot in which Victory stood had fallen from the goddess's hands, that a superhuman form had rushed out of Juno's chapel, that a statue of the deified Julius on the island of the Tiber had turned from west to east on a bright calm day, that an ox had spoken in Etruria, that animals had given birth to strange young, and that many other things had happened which in barbarous ages used to be noticed even during peace, but which now are only heard of in seasons of terror. Yet the chief anxiety which was connected with both present disaster and future danger was caused by a sudden overflow of the Tiber which, swollen to a great height, broke down the wooden bridge and then was thrown back by the ruins of the bridge which dammed the stream, and overflowed not only the low-lying level parts of the city, but also parts which are normally free from such disasters. Many were swept away in the public streets, a larger number cut off in shops and in their beds. The common people were reduced to famine by lack of employment and failure of supplies. Apartment houses had their foundations undermined by the standing water and then collapsed when the flood withdrew. The moment people's minds were relieved of this danger, the very fact that when Otho was planning a military expedition, the Campus Martius and the Flaminian Way, over which he was to advance, were blocked against him was interpreted as a prodigy and an omen of impending disaster rather than as the result of chance or natural causes. 2.3.  The founder of the temple, according to ancient tradition, was King Aerias. Some, however, say that this was the name of the goddess herself. A more recent tradition reports that the temple was consecrated by Cinyras, and that the goddess herself after she sprang from the sea, was wafted hither; but that the science and method of divination were imported from abroad by the Cilician Tamiras, and so it was agreed that the descendants of both Tamiras and Cinyras should preside over the sacred rites. It is also said that in a later time the foreigners gave up the craft that they had introduced, that the royal family might have some prerogative over foreign stock. Only a descendant of Cinyras is now consulted as priest. Such victims are accepted as the individual vows, but male ones are preferred. The greatest confidence is put in the entrails of kids. Blood may not be shed upon the altar, but offering is made only with prayers and pure fire. The altar is never wet by any rain, although it is in the open air. The representation of the goddess is not in human form, but it is a circular mass that is broader at the base and rises like a turning-post to a small circumference at the top. The reason for this is obscure. 2.4.  After Titus had examined the treasures, the gifts made by kings, and all those other things which the Greeks from their delight in ancient tales attribute to a dim antiquity, he asked the oracle first with regard to his voyage. On learning that his path was open and the sea favourable, he slew many victims and then questioned indirectly about himself. When Sostratus, for such was the priest's name, saw that the entrails were uniformly favourable and that the goddess favoured great undertakings, he made at the moment a brief reply in the usual fashion, but asked for a private interview in which he disclosed the future. Greatly encouraged, Titus sailed on to his father; his arrival brought a great accession of confidence to the provincials and to the troops, who were in a state of anxious uncertainty. Vespasian had almost put an end to the war with the Jews. The siege of Jerusalem, however, remained, a task rendered difficult and arduous by the character of the mountain-citadel and the obstinate superstition of the Jews rather than by any adequate resources which the besieged possessed to withstand the inevitable hardships of a siege. As we have stated above, Vespasian himself had three legions experienced in war. Mucianus was in command of four in a peaceful province, but a spirit of emulation and the glory won by the neighbouring army had banished from his troops all inclination to idleness, and just as dangers and toils had given Vespasian's troops power of resistance, so those of Mucianus had gained vigour from unbroken repose and that love of war which springs from inexperience. Both generals had auxiliary infantry and cavalry, as well as fleets and allied kings; while each possessed a famous name, though a different reputation. 2.76.  While he was hesitating, moved by such fears as these, his mind was confirmed by his officers and friends and especially by Mucianus, who first had long private conversations with him and then spoke openly before the rest: "All who are debating high emprises ought to consider whether their purpose is useful to the state, glorious for themselves, easy of accomplishment, or at least not difficult. At the same time they must take into account the character of their adviser. Is he ready to share the risks involved as well as to give advice? If Fortune favours the undertaking, who is the man for whom the highest honour is sought? I call you, Vespasian, to the throne. How advantageous to the state, how glorious for you this may prove, are questions which depend, after the gods, on your own acts. Have no fear that I may appear to flatter you. It is rather a disgrace than a glory to be chosen emperor after Vitellius. It is not against the keen mind of the deified Augustus, nor the cautious nature of the aged Tiberius, nor against the long-established imperial house of even a Gaius or a Claudius, or, if you like, of a Nero, that we are rising. You respected the ancestry even of Galba. But to remain longer inactive and to leave the state to corruption and ruin would appear nothing but sloth and cowardice on your part, even if subservience should prove as safe for you as it certainly would be disgraceful. The time is already past and gone when you could seem to have no desires for supreme power. Your only refuge is the throne. Have you forgotten the murder of Corbulo? He was of more splendid family than I am, I grant you, but Nero also was superior to Vitellius in point of noble birth. Anyone who is feared is noble enough in the eyes of the man who fears him. Moreover you have proof in the case of Vitellius himself that an army can make an emperor, for Vitellius owes his elevation to no campaigns or reputation as a soldier, but solely to men's hatred of Galba. Even Otho, who owed his defeat, not to his rival's skill as general or to the force of the opposing army, but to his own hasty despair, Vitellius has already made seem a great emperor whom men regret; and in the meantime he is scattering his legions, disarming his cohorts, and every day sowing new seeds of war. All the enthusiasm and courage that his soldiers ever had is being dissipated in taverns, in debauches, and in imitation of their emperor. You have in Syria, Judea, and Egypt nine legions at their full strength, not worn out by fighting, not infected by mutiny, but troops who have gained strength by experience and proved themselves victorious over a foreign foe. You have strong fleets, cavalry, and cohorts, princes wholly loyal to you, and an experience greater than all others. 2.78.  After Mucianus had spoken, the rest became bolder; they gathered about Vespasian, encouraged him, and recalled the prophecies of seers and the movements of the stars. Nor indeed was he wholly free from such superstitious belief, as was evident later when he had obtained supreme power, for he openly kept at court an astrologer named Seleucus, whom he regarded as his guide and oracle. Old omens came back to his mind: once on his country estate a cypress of conspicuous height suddenly fell, but the next day it rose again on the selfsame spot fresh, tall, and with wider expanse than before. This occurrence was a favourable omen of great significance, as the haruspices all agreed, and promised the highest distinctions for Vespasian, who was then still a young man. At first, however, the insignia of a triumph, his consulship, and his victory over Judea appeared to have fulfilled the promise given by the omen; yet after he had gained these honours, he began to think that it was the imperial throne that was foretold. Between Judea and Syria lies Carmel: this is the name given to both the mountain and the divinity. The god has no image or temple — such is the rule handed down by the fathers; there is only an altar and the worship of the god. When Vespasian was sacrificing there and thinking over his secret hopes in his heart, the priest Basilides, after repeated inspection of the victim's vitals, said to him: "Whatever you are planning, Vespasian, whether to build a house, or to enlarge your holdings, or to increase the number of your slaves, the god grants you a mighty home, limitless bounds, and a multitude of men." This obscure oracle rumour had caught up at the time, and now was trying to interpret; nothing indeed was more often on men's lips. It was discussed even more in Vespasian's presence — for men have more to say to those who are filled with hope. The two leaders now separated with clear purposes before them, Mucianus going to Antioch, Vespasian to Caesarea. Antioch is the capital of Syria, Caesarea of Judea. 3.48.  These events attracted Vespasian's attention, so that he sent detachments from his legions under the command of Virdius Geminus, whose military skill had been well tested. He attacked the enemy's troops when they were off their guard and were scattered in their greed for booty, and forced them to their boats; afterwards he quickly built some light galleys and caught up with Anicetus at the mouth of the river Chobus, where he had sought shelter under the protection of the king of the Sedochezi, whose alliance he had secured by bribes and gifts. At first the king sheltered his suppliant with the aid of threats and arms; but after the reward for treachery and the alternative of war were set before him, with the unstable loyalty of a barbarian he bargained away the life of Anicetus, gave up the refugees, and so an end was put to this servile war. While Vespasian was rejoicing over this victory, for everything was succeeding beyond his hopes and prayers, the news of the battle at Cremona reached him in Egypt. He moved with all the more speed to Alexandria, that he might impose the burden of famine on the broken armies of Vitellius and on Rome, which always needs help from outside. For he was now preparing to invade Africa also by land and sea, situated as it is in the same quarter of the world, his purpose being to shut off Italy's supplies of grain and so cause need and discord among his foes. 3.71.  Martialis had hardly returned to the Capitol when the soldiers arrived in fury. They had no leader; each directed his own movements. Rushing through the Forum and past the temples that rise above it, they advanced in column up the hill, as far as the first gates of the Capitoline citadel. There were then some old colonnades on the right as you go up the slopes; the defenders came out on the roofs of these and showered stones and tiles on their assailants. The latter had no arms except their swords, and they thought that it would cost too much time to send for artillery and missiles; consequently they threw firebrands on a projecting colonnade, and then followed in the path of the flames; they actually burned the gates of the Capitol and would have forced their way through, if Sabinus had not torn down all the statues, memorials to the glory of our ancestors, and piled them up across the entrance as a barricade. Then the assailants tried different approaches to the Capitol, one by the grove of the asylum and another by the hundred steps that lead up to the Tarpeian Rock. Both attacks were unexpected; but the one by the asylum was closer and more threatening. Moreover, the defenders were unable to stop those who climbed through neighbouring houses, which, built high in time of peace, reached the level of the Capitol. It is a question here whether it was the besiegers or the besieged who threw fire on the roofs. The more common tradition says this was done by the latter in their attempts to repel their assailants, who were climbing up or had reached the top. From the houses the fire spread to the colonnades adjoining the temple; then the "eagles" which supported the roof, being of old wood, caught and fed the flames. So the Capitol burned with its doors closed; none defended it, none pillaged it. 3.72.  This was the saddest and most shameful crime that the Roman state had ever suffered since its foundation. Rome had no foreign foe; the gods were ready to be propitious if our characters had allowed; and yet the home of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, founded after due auspices by our ancestors as a pledge of empire, which neither Porsenna, when the city gave itself up to him, nor the Gauls when they captured it, could violate — this was the shrine that the mad fury of emperors destroyed! The Capitol had indeed been burned before in civil war, but the crime was that of private individuals. Now it was openly besieged, openly burned — and what were the causes that led to arms? What was the price paid for this great disaster? This temple stood intact so long as we fought for our country. King Tarquinius Priscus had vowed it in the war with the Sabines and had laid its foundations rather to match his hope of future greatness than in accordance with what the fortunes of the Roman people, still moderate, could supply. Later the building was begun by Servius Tullius with the enthusiastic help of Rome's allies, and afterwards carried on by Tarquinius Superbus with the spoils taken from the enemy at the capture of Suessa Pometia. But the glory of completing the work was reserved for liberty: after the expulsion of the kings, Horatius Pulvillus in his second consulship dedicated it; and its magnificence was such that the enormous wealth of the Roman people acquired thereafter adorned rather than increased its splendour. The temple was built again on the same spot when after an interval of four hundred and fifteen years it had been burned in the consulship of Lucius Scipio and Gaius Norbanus. The victorious Sulla undertook the work, but still he did not dedicate it; that was the only thing that his good fortune was refused. Amid all the great works built by the Caesars the name of Lutatius Catulus kept its place down to Vitellius's day. This was the temple that then was burned. 4.8.  Marcellus replied that it was not his proposal, but that of the consul designate that was attacked; and it was a proposal that conformed to the ancient precedents, which prescribed that delegates should be chosen by lot, that there might be no room for self-seeking or for hate. Nothing had occurred to give reason for abandoning long-established customs or for turning the honour due an emperor into an insult to any man: they could all pay homage. What they must try to avoid was allowing the wilfulness of certain individuals to irritate the mind of the emperor, who was as yet unbiassed, being newly come to power and watchful of every look and every word. For his own part he remembered the time in which he was born, the form of government that their fathers and grandfathers had established; he admired the earlier period, but adapted himself to the present; he prayed for good emperors, but endured any sort. It was not by his speech any more than by the judgment of the senate that Thrasea had been brought to ruin; Nero's cruel nature found its delight in such shows of justice, and such a friendship caused him no less anxiety than exile in others. In short, let them set Helvidius on an equality with Cato and Brutus in firmness and courage: for himself, he was only one of a senate which accepted a common servitude. He would also advise Priscus not to exalt himself above an emperor, not to try to check by his precepts a man of ripe age as Vespasian was, a man who had gained the insignia of a triumph, and who had sons grown to man's estate. Just as the worst emperors wish for absolute tyrannical power, even the best desire some limit to the freedom of their subjects. These arguments, which were hurled back and forth with great vehemence, were received with different feelings. The party prevailed that favoured the selection of the envoys by lot, for even the ordinary senators were eager to preserve precedent, and all the most prominent also inclined to the same course, fearing to excite envy if they should be selected themselves. 4.52.  It is said that Titus, before leaving, in a long interview with his father begged him not to be easily excited by the reports of those who calumniated Domitian, and urged him to show himself impartial and forgiving toward his son. "Neither armies nor fleets," he argued, "are so strong a defence of the imperial power as a number of children; for friends are chilled, changed, and lost by time, fortune, and sometimes by inordinate desires or by mistakes: the ties of blood cannot be severed by any man, least of all by princes, whose success others also enjoy, but whose misfortunes touch only their nearest kin. Not even brothers will always agree unless the father sets the example." Not so much reconciled toward Domitian as delighted with Titus's show of brotherly affection, Vespasian bade him be of good cheer and to magnify the state by war and arms; he would himself care for peace and his house. Then he had some of the swiftest ships laden with grain and entrusted to the sea, although it was still dangerous: for, in fact, Rome was in such a critical condition that she did not have more than ten days' supplies in her granaries when the supplies from Vespasian came to her relief. 4.61.  Civilis, in accordance with a vow such as these barbarians frequently make, had dyed his hair red and let it grow long from the time he first took up arms against the Romans, but now that the massacre of the legions was finally accomplished, he cut it short; it was also said that he presented his little son with some captives to be targets for the child's arrows and darts. However, he did not bind himself or any Batavian by an oath of allegiance to Gaul, for he relied on the resources of the Germans, and he felt that, if it became necessary to dispute the empire with the Gauls, he would have the advantage of his reputation and his superior power. Munius Lupercus, commander of a legion, was sent, among other gifts, to Veleda. This maiden of the tribe of the Bructeri enjoyed extensive authority, according to the ancient German custom, which regards many women as endowed with prophetic powers and, as the superstition grows, attributes divinity to them. At this time Veleda's influence was at its height, since she had foretold the German success and the destruction of the legions. But Lupercus was killed on the road. A few of the centurions and tribunes of Gallic birth were reserved as hostages to assure the alliance. The winter quarters of the auxiliary infantry and cavalry and of the legions were pulled down and burned, with the sole exception of those at Mainz and Vindonissa. 4.82.  These events gave Vespasian a deeper desire to visit the sanctuary of the god to consult him with regard to his imperial fortune: he ordered all to be excluded from the temple. Then after he had entered the temple and was absorbed in contemplation of the god, he saw behind him one of the leading men of Egypt, named Basilides, who he knew was detained by sickness in a place many days' journey distant from Alexandria. He asked the priests whether Basilides had entered the temple on that day; he questioned the passers-by whether he had been seen in the city; finally, he sent some cavalry and found that at that moment he had been eighty miles away: then he concluded that this was a supernatural vision and drew a prophecy from the name Basilides. 4.83.  The origin of this god has not yet been generally treated by our authors: the Egyptian priests tell the following story, that when King Ptolemy, the first of the Macedonians to put the power of Egypt on a firm foundation, was giving the new city of Alexandria walls, temples, and religious rites, there appeared to him in his sleep a vision of a young man of extraordinary beauty and of more than human stature, who warned him to send his most faithful friends to Pontus and bring his statue hither; the vision said that this act would be a happy thing for the kingdom and that the city that received the god would be great and famous: after these words the youth seemed to be carried to heaven in a blaze of fire. Ptolemy, moved by this miraculous omen, disclosed this nocturnal vision to the Egyptian priests, whose business it is to interpret such things. When they proved to know little of Pontus and foreign countries, he questioned Timotheus, an Athenian of the clan of the Eumolpidae, whom he had called from Eleusis to preside over the sacred rites, and asked him what this religion was and what the divinity meant. Timotheus learned by questioning men who had travelled to Pontus that there was a city there called Sinope, and that not far from it there was a temple of Jupiter Dis, long famous among the natives: for there sits beside the god a female figure which most call Proserpina. But Ptolemy, although prone to superstitious fears after the nature of kings, when he once more felt secure, being more eager for pleasures than religious rites, began gradually to neglect the matter and to turn his attention to other things, until the same vision, now more terrible and insistent, threatened ruin upon the king himself and his kingdom unless his orders were carried out. Then Ptolemy directed that ambassadors and gifts should be despatched to King Scydrothemis — he ruled over the people of Sinope at that time — and when the embassy was about to sail he instructed them to visit Pythian Apollo. The ambassadors found the sea favourable; and the answer of the oracle was not uncertain: Apollo bade them go on and bring back the image of his father, but leave that of his sister. 4.84.  When the ambassadors reached Sinope, they delivered the gifts, requests, and messages of their king to Scydrothemis. He was all uncertainty, now fearing the god and again being terrified by the threats and opposition of his people; often he was tempted by the gifts and promises of the ambassadors. In the meantime three years passed during which Ptolemy did not lessen his zeal or his appeals; he increased the dignity of his ambassadors, the number of his ships, and the quantity of gold offered. Then a terrifying vision appeared to Scydrothemis, warning him not to hinder longer the purposes of the god: as he still hesitated, various disasters, diseases, and the evident anger of the gods, growing heavier from day to day, beset the king. He called an assembly of his people and made known to them the god's orders, the visions that had appeared to him and to Ptolemy, and the misfortunes that were multiplying upon them: the people opposed their king; they were jealous of Egypt, afraid for themselves, and so gathered about the temple of the god. At this point the tale becomes stranger, for tradition says that the god himself, voluntarily embarking on the fleet that was lying on the shore, miraculously crossed the wide stretch of sea and reached Alexandria in two days. A temple, befitting the size of the city, was erected in the quarter called Rhacotis; there had previously been on that spot an ancient shrine dedicated to Serapis and Isis. Such is the most popular account of the origin and arrival of the god. Yet I am not unaware that there are some who maintain that the god was brought from Seleucia in Syria in the reign of Ptolemy III; still others claim that the same Ptolemy introduced the god, but that the place from which he came was Memphis, once a famous city and the bulwark of ancient Egypt. Many regard the god himself as identical with Aesculapius, because he cures the sick; some as Osiris, the oldest god among these peoples; still more identify him with Jupiter as the supreme lord of all things; the majority, however, arguing from the attributes of the god that are seen on his statue or from their own conjectures, hold him to be Father Dis. 5.2.  However, as I am about to describe the last days of a famous city, it seems proper for me to give some account of its origin. It is said that the Jews were originally exiles from the island of Crete who settled in the farthest parts of Libya at the time when Saturn had been deposed and expelled by Jove. An argument in favour of this is derived from the name: there is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida, and hence the inhabitants were called the Idaei, which was later lengthened into the barbarous form Iudaei. Some hold that in the reign of Isis the superfluous population of Egypt, under the leadership of Hierosolymus and Iuda, discharged itself on the neighbouring lands; many others think that they were an Egyptian stock, which in the reign of Cepheus was forced to migrate by fear and hatred. Still others report that they were Assyrian refugees, a landless people, who first got control of a part of Egypt, then later they had their own cities and lived in the Hebrew territory and the nearer parts of Syria. Still others say that the Jews are of illustrious origin, being the Solymi, a people celebrated in Homer's poems, who founded a city and gave it the name Hierosolyma, formed from their own. 5.3.  Most authors agree that once during a plague in Egypt which caused bodily disfigurement, King Bocchoris approached the oracle of Ammon and asked for a remedy, whereupon he was told to purge his kingdom and to transport this race into other lands, since it was hateful to the gods. So the Hebrews were searched out and gathered together; then, being abandoned in the desert, while all others lay idle and weeping, one only of the exiles, Moses by name, warned them not to hope for help from gods or men, for they were deserted by both, but to trust to themselves, regarding as a guide sent from heaven the one whose assistance should first give them escape from their present distress. They agreed, and then set out on their journey in utter ignorance, but trusting to chance. Nothing caused them so much distress as scarcity of water, and in fact they had already fallen exhausted over the plain nigh unto death, when a herd of wild asses moved from their pasturage to a rock that was shaded by a grove of trees. Moses followed them, and, conjecturing the truth from the grassy ground, discovered abundant streams of water. This relieved them, and they then marched six days continuously, and on the seventh seized a country, expelling the former inhabitants; there they founded a city and dedicated a temple. 5.4.  To establish his influence over this people for all time, Moses introduced new religious practices, quite opposed to those of all other religions. The Jews regard as profane all that we hold sacred; on the other hand, they permit all that we abhor. They dedicated, in a shrine, a statue of that creature whose guidance enabled them to put an end to their wandering and thirst, sacrificing a ram, apparently in derision of Ammon. They likewise offer the ox, because the Egyptians worship Apis. They abstain from pork, in recollection of a plague, for the scab to which this animal is subject once afflicted them. By frequent fasts even now they bear witness to the long hunger with which they were once distressed, and the unleavened Jewish bread is still employed in memory of the haste with which they seized the grain. They say that they first chose to rest on the seventh day because that day ended their toils; but after a time they were led by the charms of indolence to give over the seventh year as well to inactivity. Others say that this is done in honour of Saturn, whether it be that the primitive elements of their religion were given by the Idaeans, who, according to tradition, were expelled with Saturn and became the founders of the Jewish race, or is due to the fact that, of the seven planets that rule the fortunes of mankind, Saturn moves in the highest orbit and has the greatest potency; and that many of the heavenly bodies traverse their paths and courses in multiples of seven. 5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean. 5.6.  Their land is bounded by Arabia on the east, Egypt lies on the south, on the west are Phoenicia and the sea, and toward the north the people enjoy a wide prospect over Syria. The inhabitants are healthy and hardy. Rains are rare; the soil is fertile; its products are like ours, save that the balsam and the palm also grow there. The palm is a tall and handsome tree; the balsam a mere shrub: if a branch, when swollen with sap, is pierced with steel, the veins shrivel up; so a piece of stone or a potsherd is used to open them; the juice is employed by physicians. of the mountains, Lebanon rises to the greatest height, and is in fact a marvel, for in the midst of the excessive heat its summit is shaded by trees and covered with snow; it likewise is the source and supply of the river Jordan. This river does not empty into the sea, but after flowing with volume undiminished through two lakes is lost in the third. The last is a lake of great size: it is like the sea, but its water has a nauseous taste, and its offensive odour is injurious to those who live near it. Its waters are not moved by the wind, and neither fish nor water-fowl can live there. Its lifeless waves bear up whatever is thrown upon them as on a solid surface; all swimmers, whether skilled or not, are buoyed up by them. At a certain season of the year the sea throws up bitumen, and experience has taught the natives how to collect this, as she teaches all arts. Bitumen is by nature a dark fluid which coagulates when sprinkled with vinegar, and swims on the surface. Those whose business it is, catch hold of it with their hands and haul it on shipboard: then with no artificial aid the bitumen flows in and loads the ship until the stream is cut off. Yet you cannot use bronze or iron to cut the bituminous stream; it shrinks from blood or from a cloth stained with a woman's menses. Such is the story told by ancient writers, but those who are acquainted with the country aver that the floating masses of bitumen are driven by the winds or drawn by hand to shore, where later, after they have been dried by vapours from the earth or by the heat of the sun, they are split like timber or stone with axes and wedges. 5.7.  Not far from this lake is a plain which, according to report, was once fertile and the site of great cities, but which was later devastated by lightning; and it is said that traces of this disaster still exist there, and that the very ground looks burnt and has lost its fertility. In fact, all the plants there, whether wild or cultivated, turn black, become sterile, and seem to wither into dust, either in leaf or in flower or after they have reached their usual mature form. Now for my part, although I should grant that famous cities were once destroyed by fire from heaven, I still think that it is the exhalations from the lake that infect the ground and poison the atmosphere about this district, and that this is the reason that crops and fruits decay, since both soil and climate are deleterious. The river Belus also empties into the Jewish Sea; around its mouth a kind of sand is gathered, which when mixed with soda is fused into glass. The beach is of moderate size, but it furnishes an inexhaustible supply. 5.8.  A great part of Judea is covered with scattered villages, but there are some towns also; Jerusalem is the capital of the Jews. In it was a temple possessing enormous riches. The first line of fortifications protected the city, the next the palace, and the innermost wall the temple. Only a Jew might approach its doors, and all save the priests were forbidden to cross the threshold. While the East was under the dominion of the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, the Jews were regarded as the meanest of their subjects: but after the Macedonians gained supremacy, King Antiochus endeavoured to abolish Jewish superstition and to introduce Greek civilization; the war with the Parthians, however, prevented his improving this basest of peoples; for it was exactly at that time that Arsaces had revolted. Later on, since the power of Macedon had waned, the Parthians were not yet come to their strength, and the Romans were far away, the Jews selected their own kings. These in turn were expelled by the fickle mob; but recovering their throne by force of arms, they banished citizens, destroyed towns, killed brothers, wives, and parents, and dared essay every other kind of royal crime without hesitation; but they fostered the national superstition, for they had assumed the priesthood to support their civil authority. 5.9.  The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot in their temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey; thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing. The walls of Jerusalem were razed, but the temple remained standing. Later, in the time of our civil wars, when these eastern provinces had fallen into the hands of Mark Antony, the Parthian prince, Pacorus, seized Judea, but he was slain by Publius Ventidius, and the Parthians were thrown back across the Euphrates: the Jews were subdued by Gaius Sosius. Antony gave the throne to Herod, and Augustus, after his victory, increased his power. After Herod's death, a certain Simon assumed the name of king without waiting for Caesar's decision. He, however, was put to death by Quintilius Varus, governor of Syria; the Jews were repressed; and the kingdom was divided into three parts and given to Herod's sons. Under Tiberius all was quiet. Then, when Caligula ordered the Jews to set up his statue in their temple, they chose rather to resort to arms, but the emperor's death put an end to their uprising. The princes now being dead or reduced to insignificance, Claudius made Judea a province and entrusted it to Roman knights or to freedmen; one of the latter, Antonius Felix, practised every kind of cruelty and lust, wielding the power of king with all the instincts of a slave; he had married Drusilla, the grand-daughter of Cleopatra and Antony, and so was Antony's grandson-in‑law, while Claudius was Antony's grandson. 5.10.  Still the Jews' patience lasted until Gessius Florus became procurator: in his time war began. When Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria, tried to stop it, he suffered varied fortunes and met defeat more often than he gained victory. On his death, whether in the course of nature or from vexation, Nero sent out Vespasian, who, aided by his good fortune and reputation as well as by his excellent subordinates, within two summers occupied with his victorious army the whole of the level country and all the cities except Jerusalem. The next year was taken up with civil war, and thus was passed in inactivity so far as the Jews were concerned. When peace had been secured throughout Italy, foreign troubles began again; and the fact that the Jews alone had failed to surrender increased our resentment; at the same time, having regard to all the possibilities and hazards of a new reign, it seemed expedient for Titus to remain with the army. 5.13.  Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.
22. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 25.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

25.5. מִי שָׁת בַּטֻּחוֹת חָכְמָה (איוב לח, לו), מַהוּ בַּטֻחוֹת, בַּטָּוָיָא, (איוב לח, לו): אוֹ מִי נָתַן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲרָבְיָא צָוְחִין לְתַרְנְגוֹלְתָּא שֶׂכְוִיא, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא כַּד אֶפְרוֹחֶיהָ דַּקִּיקִין הִיא מְכַנְשָׁא לְהוֹן וְיַהֲבַת לְהוֹן תְּחוֹת אֲגַפַּיָּא וּמְשַׁחֲנָה לְהוֹן וּמַעֲדַרְנָה קֳדָמֵיהוֹן, וְכַד אִינוּן רַבְיָה חַד מִנְהוֹן בָּעֵי לְמִקְרַב לְוָתֵיהּ וְהִיא נָקְרָה לֵיהּ בְּגוֹ רֵישֵׁיהּ, וַאֲמָרַת לֵיהּ זִיל עֲדוֹר בְּקוּקַלְתָּךְ, כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָיָה הַמָּן יוֹרֵד וְהַבְּאֵר עוֹלֶה לָהֶן וְהַשְּׂלָיו מָצוּי לָהֶן, וְעַנְנֵי כָבוֹד מַקִּיפוֹת אוֹתָן, וְעַמּוּד עָנָן מַסִּיעַ לִפְנֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִכֶּם יִטְעוֹן מַכּוּשֵׁיהּ וְיִפּוֹק וְיִנְצוֹב לֵיהּ נְצִיבִין, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם. אַדְרִיָּנוּס שְׁחִיק טְמַיָּא הֲוָה עָבַר בְּאִלֵּין שְׁבִילַיָיא דִּטְבֶרְיָא וְחָמָא חַד גְּבַר סַב קָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבָן לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָבָא סָבָא אִי קָרַצְתְּ לָא חֲשַׁכְתְּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ קְרִיצַת וַחֲשִׁיכַת, וּמַה דְּהַנֵּי לְמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא עֲבֵיד, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיֶּיךָ סָבָא בַּר כַּמָּה שְׁנִין אַתְּ יוֹמָא דֵין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאַתְּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין וְקָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, סָבַר דְּאַתְּ אָכֵיל מִנְּהוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין זָכִית אֲכָלִית, וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיָּגְעוּ לִי אֲבָהָתִי, כָּךְ אֲנִי יָגֵעַ לְבָנַי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיָּיךְ, אִם זָכִית אָכוֹל מִנְהוֹן תֶּהֱוֵה מוֹדַע לִי. לְסוֹף יוֹמִין עָבְדִין תְּאֵנַיָא, אֲמַר הָא עָנָתָה נוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא קַרְטְלָא תְּאֵינִין וְסָלַק וְקָם לֵיהּ עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן עֲלוֹן קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, כֵּיוָן דְּעָל אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא סָבָא דַּעֲבַרְתְּ עָלַי וַאֲנָא חָצֵיב חֲצִיבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, וַאֲמַרְתְּ לִי אִין זָכִית תֵּיכוֹל מִנְּהוֹן תְּהֵא מוֹדַע לִי, הָא זָכִיתִי וַאֲכֵילִית מִנְּהוֹן וְהֵילֵין תְּאֵינַיָא מִן פֵּרֵיהוֹן. אֲמַר אַדְרִיָּנוּס בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא תִּתְּנוּן סֵילוֹן דְּדַהֲבָא וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ, אֲמַר קְלַווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְפַנּוּן הָדֵין קַרְטַל דִּידֵיהּ וּתְמַלּוּן יָתֵיהּ דִּינָרִין. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַבְדוֹהִי כָּל הָדֵין מוֹקְרָא תְּיַקְרִינֵיהּ לְהָדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אֲמַר לְהוֹן בָּרְיֵה אוֹקְרֵיא וַאֲנָא לָא אֲנָא מוֹקַר לֵיהּ. אִנְתְּתֵיהּ דִּמְגֵירָא הֲוַת בְּרַת פַּחִין, אָמְרָה לְבַעְלָהּ בַּר קַבָּלוּי חָמֵי דַּהֲדָא מַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין וַאֲזַל וְקָם קֳדָם פָּלָטִין, אֲמָרוּן לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, עָלוֹן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא חַד סָבָא קָאֵים עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין טָעֵין מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין, וַאֲמַרְנָא לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ אֲמַר לָן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, אֲמַר קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְקִימוּן יָתֵיהּ קֳדָם תְּרַע פָּלָטִין וְכָל מַאן דְּעָיֵיל וְנָפֵיק יְהֵי טָרֵי עַל אַפֵּיהּ. בְּאַפְתֵּי רַמְשָׁא פַּנּוּן יָתֵיהּ וַאֲזַל לְבֵיתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לְאִנְתְּתֵיהּ כְּכָל הָדֵין יְקָרָא אֲנָא שְׁלִים לָךְ, אֲמַרָה אָזֵיל גְּלוֹג לְאִמָּךְ דַּהֲווֹן אִינוּן תֵּינִין וְלָא הֲווֹן אֶתְרוֹגִין, דַּהֲווֹן בְּשִׁילָן וְלָא פְגִינָן.
23. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.24. When morning came, and that the solemnities were finished, I came forth sanctified with twelve robes and in a religious habit. I am not forbidden to speak of this since many persons saw me at that time. There I was commanded to stand upon a seat of wood which stood in the middle of the temple before the image of the goddess. My vestment was of fine linen, covered and embroidered with flowers. I had a precious cloak upon my shoulders hung down to the ground. On it were depicted beasts wrought of diverse colors: Indian dragons and Hyperborean griffins which the other world engenders in the form of birds. The priests commonly call such a habit a celestial robe. In my right hand I carried a lit torch. There was a garland of flowers upon my head with palm leaves sprouting out on every side. I was adorned like un the sun and made in fashion of an image such that all the people came up to behold me. Then they began to solemnize the feast of the nativity and the new procession, with sumptuous banquets and delicacies. The third day was likewise celebrated with like ceremonies with a religious dinner, and with all the consummation of the order. After I had stayed there a good space, I conceived a marvelous pleasure and consolation in beholding the image of the goddess. She at length urged me to depart homeward. I rendered my thanks which, although not sufficient, yet they were according to my power. However, I could not be persuaded to depart before I had fallen prostrate before the face of the goddess and wiped her steps with my face. Then I began greatly to weep and sigh (so uch so that my words were interrupted) and, as though devouring my prayer, I began to speak in this way:
24. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 66.8.1, 66.15.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 4.45 (2nd cent. CE

4.45. Here too is a miracle which Apollonius worked: A girl had died just in the hour of her marriage, and the bridegroom was following her bier lamenting as was natural his marriage left unfulfilled, and the whole of Rome was mourning with him, for the maiden belonged to a consular family. Apollonius then witnessing their grief, said: Put down the bier, for I will stay the tears that you are shedding for this maiden. And withal he asked what was her name. The crowd accordingly thought that he was about to deliver such an oration as is commonly delivered to grace the funeral as to stir up lamentation; but he did nothing of the kind, but merely touching her and whispering in secret some spell over her, at once woke up the maiden from her seeming death; and the girl spoke out loud, and returned to her father's house, just as Alcestis did when she was brought back to life by Heracles. And the relations of the maiden wanted to present him with the sum of 150,000 sesterces, but he said that he would freely present the money to the young lady by way of dowry. Now whether he detected some spark of life in her, which those who were nursing her had not noticed — for it is said that although it was raining at the time, a vapor went up from her face — or whether her life was really extinct, and he restored it by the warmth of his touch, is a mysterious problem which neither I myself nor those who were present could decide.
26. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 174
aedituus Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
alexandria, vespasians uprising in Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
alexandria Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191
alexandria sarapieion, and incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
alexandria sarapieion, relationship to canopus sarapieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
altars Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
anger, divine Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16
apollonius of tyana Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
arelate Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, asklepios healing by touch Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepieia, sacrificial ram skins used for incubation(?) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, as physician or surgeon in dreams Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, healing touch and healing hands metaphor Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, specific ailments cured, blindness/vision problem Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, specific ailments cured, epilepsy Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, specific ailments cured, infertility Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios, specific ailments cured, sciatica Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios and incubation reliefs, question of reliefs accurately representing dreams Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios and incubation reliefs, representation of animal skins and bedding materials Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
asklepios and incubation reliefs Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
astrologers, emperors practice of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
athenodoros dipinto as aretalogy, for sarapis Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
augustus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
blindness Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
canopus, named for mythological helmsman Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
canopus sarapieion, and therapeutic incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
canopus sarapieion, physical remains Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
canopus sarapieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
capitoline hill Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
charismatic wonderworkers, hadrian and vespasian Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
charismatic wonderworkers Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
communication Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
cosmopolitism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
cult statues Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
cynics Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
daughters of philip Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
domitian Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
dreams Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
dreams (in greek and latin literature), suetonius, life of vespasian Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
dreams (in greek and latin literature), tacitus, histories Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
egypt Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191; Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
egyptian religion, disapproval of Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
egyptian religion, its influence in rome Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
emperors and egypt, octavian-augustus Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
emperors and egypt, vespasian Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
epictetus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
epidauros asklepieion, visit of marcus julius apellas (carian citizen) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
epidauros miracle inscriptions, testimonies about fertility cures Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
epidauros miracle inscriptions, testimonies with healing by touch Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
essenes Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
favorinus of arelate Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
foreign cults Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
fortune, τύχη/fortuna Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
hadrian Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
hercules Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191
histories, prodigies and omens in Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16
histories Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
incubation (greek), ram (and sheep) skins linked to incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
invidia, isis, cult of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
isis cult, banned from rome Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
jerusalem (zion) Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
julio-claudian dynasty Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16, 359
jupiter conservator Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
jupiter custos Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
juvenal, roman poet Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
lebena asklepieion, surgery performed by asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 174
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
magic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
miracles Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
miracula Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
musonius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring), canopus Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring), jason Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring), phineus Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
necessity, δεῖ Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
necessity, ἀνάγκη/necessitas Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
necessity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
nero, roman emperor Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
nero Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191
nile, and grain supply (annona) Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
nile, delta (mouths of the nile) Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
nile, inundation (flood) of the Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
nonviolence Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
onomastics Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
pacifism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
palestine Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
panegyric Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
phenomenology of landscapes Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
physiognomy Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
plutarch, calls herodotus a barbarophile Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
plutarch, disapproves of egyptian religion Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
plutarch, greek writer Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
polemon (second sophistic) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
portents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 170
primitive peoples\r\n, human sacrifice offered by Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
prodigies Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16
prophets, prophecy Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
providence, πρόνοια/providentia Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
quindecimviri Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
reate Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191
religion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
resurrection Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 174
revisionism, of egypt and the nile Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 122
roman Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
rome, temple of venus and rome Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
rome Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
sarapis, as oracular god Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
sarapis, incubation in cult Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 339
sardinia Isaac, The invention of racism in classical antiquity (2004) 362
serapis, egyptian god Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
serapis Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
stoicism, cosmic religion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
suetonius tranquillus, c. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191
suffering Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164
superstitio Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
symbolism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 174
sympathy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
syria, domitian and Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
syria, interest in religious material Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16
syria, priesthood of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
syria Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
tacitus, on christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
tacitus, on magic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
tacitus, roman historian Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
tacitus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 174
theopompos (comic poet), dedication of relief to asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221
tibur, hadrians villa, canopus Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
tibur, hadrians villa, piazza doro Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
tibur, hadrians villa, valle di tempe Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
tibur, hadrians villa Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
touch miracles Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175
trajan, roman emperor Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
ultio' Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 16
vespasian, healing of visitors to alexandrian sarapieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 221, 339
vespasian, roman emperor Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
vespasian Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 164, 170; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 175; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 191; Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 359
vespasian (emperor) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 208
vopiscus flavius, roman historian Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 120
wisdom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 772
zeno Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 170