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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10588
Tacitus, Annals, 4.34-4.35


Cornelio Cosso Asinio Agrippa consulibus Cremutius Cordus postulatur novo ac tunc primum audito crimine, quod editis annalibus laudatoque M. Bruto C. Cassium Romanorum ultimum dixisset. accusabant Satrius Secundus et Pinarius Natta, Seiani clientes. id perniciabile reo et Caesar truci vultu defensionem accipiens, quam Cremutius relinquendae vitae certus in hunc modum exorsus est: 'verba mea, patres conscripti, arguuntur: adeo factorum innocens sum. sed neque haec in principem aut principis parentem, quos lex maiestatis amplectitur: Brutum et Cassium laudavisse dicor, quorum res gestas cum plurimi composuerint, nemo sine honore memoravit. Titus Livius, eloquentiae ac fidei praeclarus in primis, Cn. Pompeium tantis laudibus tulit ut Pompeianum eum Augustus appellaret; neque id amicitiae eorum offecit. Scipionem, Afranium, hunc ipsum Cassium, hunc Brutum nusquam latrones et parricidas, quae nunc vocabula imponuntur, saepe ut insignis viros nominat. Asinii Pollionis scripta egregiam eorundem memoriam tradunt; Messala Corvinus imperatorem suum Cassium praedicabat: et uterque opibusque atque honoribus perviguere. Marci Ciceronis libro quo Catonem caelo aequavit, quid aliud dictator Caesar quam rescripta oratione velut apud iudices respondit? Antonii epistulae Bruti contiones falsa quidem in Augustum probra set multa cum acerbitate habent; carmina Bibaculi et Catulli referta contumeliis Caesarum leguntur: sed ipse divus Iulius, ipse divus Augustus et tulere ista et reliquere, haud facile dixerim, moderatione magis an sapientia. namque spreta exolescunt: si irascare, adgnita videntur. The consulate of Cornelius Cossus and Asinius Agrippa opened with the prosecution of Cremutius Cordus upon the novel and till then unheard-of charge of publishing a history, eulogizing Brutus, and styling Cassius the last of the Romans. The accusers were Satrius Secundus and Pinarius Natta, clients of Sejanus. That circumstance sealed the defendant's fate — that and the lowering brows of the Caesar, as he bent his attention to the defence; which Cremutius, resolved to take his leave of life, began as follows:— "Conscript Fathers, my words are brought to judgement — so guiltless am I of deeds! Nor are they even words against the sole persons embraced by the law of treason, the sovereign or the parent of the sovereign: I am said to have praised Brutus and Cassius, whose acts so many pens have recorded, whom not one has mentioned save with honour. Livy, with a fame for eloquence and candour second to none, lavished such eulogies on Pompey that Augustus styled him 'the Pompeian': yet it was without prejudice to their friendship. Scipio, Afranius, this very Cassius, this Brutus — not once does he describe them by the now fashionable titles of brigand and parricide, but time and again in such terms as he might apply to any distinguished patriots. The works of Asinius Pollio transmit their character in noble colours; Messalla Corvinus gloried to have served under Cassius: and Pollio and Corvinus lived and died in the fulness of wealth and honour! When Cicero's book praised Cato to the skies, what did it elicit from the dictator Caesar but a written oration as though at the bar of public opinion? The letters of Antony, the speeches of Brutus, contain invectives against Augustus, false undoubtedly yet bitter in the extreme; the poems — still read — of Bibaculus and Catullus are packed with scurrilities upon the Caesars: yet even the deified Julius, the divine Augustus himself, tolerated them and left them in peace; and I hesitate whether to ascribe their action to forbearance or to wisdom. For things contemned are soon things forgotten: anger is read as recognition. <


Cornelio Cosso Asinio Agrippa consulibus Cremutius Cordus postulatur novo ac tunc primum audito crimine, quod editis annalibus laudatoque M. Bruto C. Cassium Romanorum ultimum dixisset. accusabant Satrius Secundus et Pinarius Natta, Seiani clientes. id perniciabile reo et Caesar truci vultu defensionem accipiens, quam Cremutius relinquendae vitae certus in hunc modum exorsus est: 'verba mea, patres conscripti, arguuntur: adeo factorum innocens sum. sed neque haec in principem aut principis parentem, quos lex maiestatis amplectitur: Brutum et Cassium laudavisse dicor, quorum res gestas cum plurimi composuerint, nemo sine honore memoravit. Titus Livius, eloquentiae ac fidei praeclarus in primis, Cn. Pompeium tantis laudibus tulit ut Pompeianum eum Augustus appellaret; neque id amicitiae eorum offecit. Scipionem, Afranium, hunc ipsum Cassium, hunc Brutum nusquam latrones et parricidas, quae nunc vocabula imponuntur, saepe ut insignis viros nominat. Asinii Pollionis scripta egregiam eorundem memoriam tradunt; Messala Corvinus imperatorem suum Cassium praedicabat: et uterque opibusque atque honoribus perviguere. Marci Ciceronis libro quo Catonem caelo aequavit, quid aliud dictator Caesar quam rescripta oratione velut apud iudices respondit? Antonii epistulae Bruti contiones falsa quidem in Augustum probra set multa cum acerbitate habent; carmina Bibaculi et Catulli referta contumeliis Caesarum leguntur: sed ipse divus Iulius, ipse divus Augustus et tulere ista et reliquere, haud facile dixerim, moderatione magis an sapientia. namque spreta exolescunt: si irascare, adgnita videntur. The consulate of Cornelius Cossus and Asinius Agrippa opened with the prosecution of Cremutius Cordus upon the novel and till then unheard-of charge of publishing a history, eulogizing Brutus, and styling Cassius the last of the Romans. The accusers were Satrius Secundus and Pinarius Natta, clients of Sejanus. That circumstance sealed the defendant's fate — that and the lowering brows of the Caesar, as he bent his attention to the defence; which Cremutius, resolved to take his leave of life, began as follows:— "Conscript Fathers, my words are brought to judgement — so guiltless am I of deeds! Nor are they even words against the sole persons embraced by the law of treason, the sovereign or the parent of the sovereign: I am said to have praised Brutus and Cassius, whose acts so many pens have recorded, whom not one has mentioned save with honour. Livy, with a fame for eloquence and candour second to none, lavished such eulogies on Pompey that Augustus styled him 'the Pompeian': yet it was without prejudice to their friendship. Scipio, Afranius, this very Cassius, this Brutus — not once does he describe them by the now fashionable titles of brigand and parricide, but time and again in such terms as he might apply to any distinguished patriots. The works of Asinius Pollio transmit their character in noble colours; Messalla Corvinus gloried to have served under Cassius: and Pollio and Corvinus lived and died in the fulness of wealth and honour! When Cicero's book praised Cato to the skies, what did it elicit from the dictator Caesar but a written oration as though at the bar of public opinion? The letters of Antony, the speeches of Brutus, contain invectives against Augustus, false undoubtedly yet bitter in the extreme; the poems — still read — of Bibaculus and Catullus are packed with scurrilities upon the Caesars: yet even the deified Julius, the divine Augustus himself, tolerated them and left them in peace; and I hesitate whether to ascribe their action to forbearance or to wisdom. For things contemned are soon things forgotten: anger is read as recognition.


Non attingo Graecos, quorum non modo libertas, etiam libido impunita; aut si quis advertit, dictis dicta ultus est. sed maxime solutum et sine obtrectatore fuit prodere de iis quos mors odio aut gratiae exemisset. num enim armatis Cassio et Bruto ac Philippensis campos optinentibus belli civilis causa populum per contiones incendo? an illi quidem septuagesimum ante annum perempti, quo modo imaginibus suis noscuntur, quas ne victor quidem abolevit, sic partem memoriae apud scriptores retinent? suum cuique decus posteritas rependit; nec deerunt, si damnatio ingruit, qui non modo Cassii et Bruti set etiam mei meminerint.' egressus dein senatu vitam abstinentia finivit. libros per aedilis cremandos censuere patres: set manserunt, occultati et editi. quo magis socordiam eorum inridere libet qui praesenti potentia credunt extingui posse etiam sequentis aevi memoriam. nam contra punitis ingeniis gliscit auctoritas, neque aliud externi reges aut qui eadem saevitia usi sunt nisi dedecus sibi atque illis gloriam peperere. "I leave untouched the Greeks; with them not liberty only but licence itself went unchastised, or, if a man retaliated, he avenged words by words. But what above all else was absolutely free and immune from censure was the expression of an opinion on those whom death had removed beyond the range of rancour or of partiality. Are Brutus and Cassius under arms on the plains of Philippi, and I upon the platform, firing the nation to civil war? Or is it the case that, seventy years since their taking-off, as they are known by their effigies which the conqueror himself did not abolish, so a portion of their memory is enshrined likewise in history? — To every man posterity renders his wage of honour; nor will there lack, if my condemnation is at hand, those who shall remember, not Brutus and Cassius alone, but me also!" He then left the senate, and closed his life by self-starvation. The Fathers ordered his books to be burned by the aediles; but copies remained, hidden and afterwards published: a fact which moves us the more to deride the folly of those who believe that by an act of despotism in the present there can be extinguished also the memory of a succeeding age. On the contrary, genius chastised grows in authority; nor have alien kings or the imitators of their cruelty effected more than to crown themselves with ignominy and their victims with renown. <


Non attingo Graecos, quorum non modo libertas, etiam libido impunita; aut si quis advertit, dictis dicta ultus est. sed maxime solutum et sine obtrectatore fuit prodere de iis quos mors odio aut gratiae exemisset. num enim armatis Cassio et Bruto ac Philippensis campos optinentibus belli civilis causa populum per contiones incendo? an illi quidem septuagesimum ante annum perempti, quo modo imaginibus suis noscuntur, quas ne victor quidem abolevit, sic partem memoriae apud scriptores retinent? suum cuique decus posteritas rependit; nec deerunt, si damnatio ingruit, qui non modo Cassii et Bruti set etiam mei meminerint.' egressus dein senatu vitam abstinentia finivit. libros per aedilis cremandos censuere patres: set manserunt, occultati et editi. quo magis socordiam eorum inridere libet qui praesenti potentia credunt extingui posse etiam sequentis aevi memoriam. nam contra punitis ingeniis gliscit auctoritas, neque aliud externi reges aut qui eadem saevitia usi sunt nisi dedecus sibi atque illis gloriam peperere. "I leave untouched the Greeks; with them not liberty only but licence itself went unchastised, or, if a man retaliated, he avenged words by words. But what above all else was absolutely free and immune from censure was the expression of an opinion on those whom death had removed beyond the range of rancour or of partiality. Are Brutus and Cassius under arms on the plains of Philippi, and I upon the platform, firing the nation to civil war? Or is it the case that, seventy years since their taking-off, as they are known by their effigies which the conqueror himself did not abolish, so a portion of their memory is enshrined likewise in history? — To every man posterity renders his wage of honour; nor will there lack, if my condemnation is at hand, those who shall remember, not Brutus and Cassius alone, but me also!" He then left the senate, and closed his life by self-starvation. The Fathers ordered his books to be burned by the aediles; but copies remained, hidden and afterwards published: a fact which moves us the more to deride the folly of those who believe that by an act of despotism in the present there can be extinguished also the memory of a succeeding age. On the contrary, genius chastised grows in authority; nor have alien kings or the imitators of their cruelty effected more than to crown themselves with ignominy and their victims with renown.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Cicero, Philippicae, 2.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Horace, Carmen Saeculare, 18, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Horace, Odes, 2.1.6-2.1.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Ovid, Fasti, 2.441, 2.443-2.446 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Seneca The Younger, Apocolocyntosis, 1.1, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Seneca The Younger, De Consolatione Ad Marciam, 26.6-26.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Suetonius, Augustus, 58 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Suetonius, Caligula, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Suetonius, Domitianus, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Suetonius, Tiberius, 61.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tacitus, Agricola, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tacitus, Annals, 1.1.3, 1.4.2, 1.73.3, 3.76, 4.1.1, 4.17.1, 4.32-4.33, 4.35-4.36, 4.36.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.76.  Junia, too, born niece to Cato, wife of Caius Cassius, sister of Marcus Brutus, looked her last on life, sixty-three full years after the field of Philippi. Her will was busily discussed by the crowd; because in disposing of her great wealth she mentioned nearly every patrician of note in complimentary terms, but omitted the Caesar. The slur was taken in good part, and he offered no objection to the celebration of her funeral with a panegyric at the Rostra and the rest of the customary ceremonies. The effigies of twenty great houses preceded her to the tomb — members of the Manlian and Quinctian families, and names of equal splendour. But Brutus and Cassius shone brighter than all by the very fact that their portraits were unseen. 4.1.1.  The consulate of Gaius Asinius and Gaius Antistius was to Tiberius the ninth year of public order and of domestic felicity (for he counted the death of Germanicus among his blessings), when suddenly fortune disturbed the peace and he became either a tyrant himself or the source of power to the tyrannous. The starting-point and the cause were to be found in Aelius Sejanus, prefect of the praetorian cohorts. of his influence I spoke above: now I shall unfold his origin, his character, and the crime by which he strove to seize on empire. Born at Vulsinii to the Roman knight Seius Strabo, he became in early youth a follower of Gaius Caesar, grandson of the deified Augustus; not without a rumour that he had disposed of his virtue at a price to Apicius, a rich man and a prodigal. Before long, by his multifarious arts, he bound Tiberius fast: so much so that a man inscrutable to others became to Sejanus alone unguarded and unreserved; and the less by subtlety (in fact, he was beaten in the end by the selfsame arts) than by the anger of Heaven against that Roman realm for whose equal damnation he flourished and fell. He was a man hardy by constitution, fearless by temperament; skilled to conceal himself and to incriminate his neighbour; cringing at once and insolent; orderly and modest to outward view, at heart possessed by a towering ambition, which impelled him at whiles to lavishness and luxury, but oftener to industry and vigilance — qualities not less noxious when assumed for the winning of a throne. 4.17.1.  In the consulate of Cornelius Cethegus and Visellius Varro, the pontiffs and — after their example — the other priests, while offering the vows for the life of the emperor, went further and commended Nero and Drusus to the same divinities, not so much from affection for the princes as in that spirit of sycophancy, of which the absence or the excess is, in a corrupt society, equally hazardous. For Tiberius, never indulgent to the family of Germanicus, was now stung beyond endurance to find a pair of striplings placed on a level with his own declining years. He summoned the pontiffs, and asked if they had made this concession to the entreaties — or should he say the threats? — of Agrippina. The pontiffs, in spite of their denial, received only a slight reprimand (for a large number were either relatives of his own or prominent figures in the state); but in the senate, he gave warning that for the future no one was to excite to arrogance the impressionable minds of the youths by such precocious distinctions. The truth was that Sejanus was pressing him hard: — "The state," so ran his indictment, "was split into two halves, as if by civil war. There were men who proclaimed themselves of Agrippina's party: unless a stand was taken, there would be more; and the only cure for the growing disunion was to strike down one or two of the most active malcontents. 4.32.  I am not unaware that very many of the events I have described, and shall describe, may perhaps seem little things, trifles too slight for record; but no parallel can be drawn between these chronicles of mine and the work of the men who composed the ancient history of the Roman people. Gigantic wars, cities stormed, routed and captive kings, or, when they turned by choice to domestic affairs, the feuds of consul and tribune, land-laws and corn-laws, the duel of nobles and commons — such were the themes on which they dwelt, or digressed, at will. Mine is an inglorious labour in a narrow field: for this was an age of peace unbroken or half-heartedly challenged, of tragedy in the capital, of a prince careless to extend the empire. Yet it may be not unprofitable to look beneath the surface of those incidents, trivial at the first inspection, which so often set in motion the great events of history. 4.33.  For every nation or city is governed by the people, or by the nobility, or by individuals: a constitution selected and blended from these types is easier to commend than to create; or, if created, its tenure of life is brief. Accordingly, as in the period of alternate plebeian domice and patrician ascendancy it was imperative, in one case, to study the character of the masses and the methods of controlling them; while, in the other, those who had acquired the most exact knowledge of the temper of the senate and the aristocracy were accounted shrewd in their generation and wise; so to‑day, when the situation has been transformed and the Roman world is little else than a monarchy, the collection and the chronicling of these details may yet serve an end: for few men distinguish right and wrong, the expedient and the disastrous, by native intelligence; the majority are schooled by the experience of others. But while my themes have their utility, they offer the minimum of pleasure. Descriptions of countries, the vicissitudes of battles, commanders dying on the field of honour, such are the episodes that arrest and renew the interest of the reader: for myself, I present a series of savage mandates, of perpetual accusations, of traitorous friendships, of ruined innocents, of various causes and identical results — everywhere monotony of subject, and satiety. Again, the ancient author has few detractors, and it matters to none whether you praise the Carthaginian or the Roman arms with the livelier enthusiasm. But of many, who underwent either the legal penalty or a form of degradation in the principate of Tiberius, the descendants remain; and, assuming the actual families to be now extinct, you will still find those who, from a likeness of character, read the ill deeds of others as an innuendo against themselves. Even glory and virtue create their enemies — they arraign their opposites by too close a contrast. But I return to my subject. 4.35.  "I leave untouched the Greeks; with them not liberty only but licence itself went unchastised, or, if a man retaliated, he avenged words by words. But what above all else was absolutely free and immune from censure was the expression of an opinion on those whom death had removed beyond the range of rancour or of partiality. Are Brutus and Cassius under arms on the plains of Philippi, and I upon the platform, firing the nation to civil war? Or is it the case that, seventy years since their taking-off, as they are known by their effigies which the conqueror himself did not abolish, so a portion of their memory is enshrined likewise in history? — To every man posterity renders his wage of honour; nor will there lack, if my condemnation is at hand, those who shall remember, not Brutus and Cassius alone, but me also!" He then left the senate, and closed his life by self-starvation. The Fathers ordered his books to be burned by the aediles; but copies remained, hidden and afterwards published: a fact which moves us the more to deride the folly of those who believe that by an act of despotism in the present there can be extinguished also the memory of a succeeding age. On the contrary, genius chastised grows in authority; nor have alien kings or the imitators of their cruelty effected more than to crown themselves with ignominy and their victims with renown. 4.36.  For the rest, the year was so continuous a chain of impeachments that in the days of the Latin Festival, when Drusus, as urban prefect, mounted the tribunal to inaugurate his office, he was approached by Calpurnius Salvianus with a suit against Sextus Marius: an action which drew a public reprimand from the Caesar and occasioned the banishment of Salvianus. The community of Cyzicus were charged with neglecting the cult of the deified Augustus; allegations were added of violence to Roman citizens; and they forfeited the freedom earned during the Mithridatic War, when the town was invested and they beat off the king as much by their own firmness as by the protection of Lucullus. On the other hand, Fonteius Capito, who had administered Asia as proconsul, was acquitted upon proof that the accusations against him were the invention of Vibius Serenus. The reverse, however, did no harm to Serenus, who was rendered doubly secure by the public hatred. For the informer whose weapon never rested became quasi-sacrosanct: it was on the insignificant and unknown that punishments descended.
13. Tacitus, Histories, 1.1, 2.50.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 1.5.7, 1.6.13, 4.5.6, 6.4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 53.19.1-53.19.5, 57.24.2-57.24.3, 57.24.6, 58.24.3-58.24.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53.19.1.  In this way the government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for the people to be saved under a republic. Nevertheless, the events occurring after this time can not be recorded in the same manner as those of previous times. 53.19.2.  Formerly, as we know, all matters were reported to the senate and to the people, even if they happened at a distance; hence all learned of them and many recorded them, and consequently the truth regarding them, no matter to what extent fear or favour, friendship or enmity, coloured the reports of certain writers, was always to a certain extent to be found in the works of the other writers who wrote of the same events and in the public records. 53.19.3.  But after this time most things that happened began to be kept secret and concealed, and even though some things are perchance made public, they are distrusted just because they can not be verified; for it is suspected that everything is said and done with reference to the wishes of the men in power at the time and of their associates. 53.19.4.  As a result, much that never occurs is noised abroad, and much that happens beyond a doubt is unknown, and in the case of nearly every event a version gains currency that is different from the way it really happened. Furthermore, the very magnitude of the empire and the multitude of things that occur render accuracy in regard to them most difficult. 53.19.5.  In Rome, for example, much is going on, and much in the subject territory, while, as regards our enemies, there is something happening all the time, in fact, every day, and concerning these things no one except the participants can easily have correct information, and most people do not even hear of them at all. 57.24.2.  Cremutius Cordus was forced to take his own life because he had come into collision with Sejanus. He was on the threshold of old age and had lived most irreproachably, so much so, in fact, that no serious charge could be brought against him, and he was therefore tried for this history 57.24.3.  of the achievements of Augustus which he had written long before, and which Augustus himself had read. He was accused of having praised Cassius and Brutus, and of having assailed the people and the senate; as regarded Caesar and Augustus, while he had spoken no ill of them, he had not, on the other hand, shown any unusual respect for them. 57.24.6.  There were other events, also, at this time worthy of a place in history. The people of Cyzicus were once more deprived of their freedom, because they had imprisoned some Romans and because they had not completed the shrine to Augustus which they had begun to build. 58.24.3.  Among the various persons who perished either at the hands of the executioners or by their own act was Pomponius Labeo. This man, who had once governed Moesia for eight years after his praetorship, was indicted, together with his wife, for taking bribes, and voluntarily perished along with her. Mamercus Aemilius Scaurus, on the other hand, who had never governed a province or accepted bribes, was convicted because of a tragedy he had composed, and fell a victim to a worse fate than that which he had described. 58.24.4.  "Atreus" was the name of his drama, and in the manner of Euripides it advised one of the subjects of that monarch to endure the folly of the reigning prince. Tiberius, upon hearing of it, declared that this had been written with reference to him, claiming that he himself was "Atreus" because of his bloodthirstiness; and remarking, "I will make him Ajax," he compelled him to commit suicide.
16. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, 2.86.3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acilius glabrio, m., actium, battle of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
actium, battle of Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
adulatio Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
aetiology, origins, causae Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
agamemnon Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
agrippina the elder Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
alani Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
alchemy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
alexander the great Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
allusion Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
antonius, m. (mark antony) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386; Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
arrian Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
asinius pollio, c. Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
astrology, astrologers Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
athens Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
augustus, worship of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
augustus/octavian Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
battle, of philippi Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
biography Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
brutus, marcus iunius, as parricide Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
brutus, marcus iunius Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
brutus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
brutus (m. junius brutus, assassin of julius caesar) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
burning alive Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
caesar, c. iulius Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
canon, canonisation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
cappadocia Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
cassius Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
cassius longinus, c. Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386; Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
cato the elder Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
cicero, de re publica Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
comedy Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
copyists Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
corsica Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
cotta messalinus, counting, motif of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
cremutius cordus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 117, 202; Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43; Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11, 184; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
dedication (temple, epigraphic) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
defeat (military) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
deportation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
dio cassius Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
domitian, emperor Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
domitian Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
drusus (son of germanicus) Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
esquiline Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
ethics Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
euxinus pontus (black sea) Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
execution, capital punishment, death penalty Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
exemplum Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
expiation Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
family Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
festivals, ludi saeculares Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
festivals, lupercalia Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
florus Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
fluidity, slippery meanings Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
funerary (art, rituals, monuments, processions) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
geometry Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
germanicus, memory and Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
hadrian Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
helvidius priscus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
hieroglyphs Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
historical fictions Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
histories Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
horace Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
imperial family Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
inventions, literary Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
irony, ironic Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
julius caesar, c. Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
julius caesar, in senecas works Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
julius caesar octavian, c./augustus. Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
juno regina Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
jurists Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
leges liciniae sextiae, lex papia (mariage law of Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
livia, temples dedicated to Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
livy Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49; Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
luperci Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
lygdamus Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
macedonians Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
magic Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
magicians Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
manichaeism, manichaeans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
memory, cultic Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
memory, cultural Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
monuments Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
nero Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 170
nero (son of germanicus) Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
oenone Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
offerings, sacrificial offerings, victims, hostia Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
oratory Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
palatine Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
paris Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
pax, peace Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
persecutors, persecution Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
philosophers Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
photius Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 202
plato, seneca and Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
pliny the younger Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
pompey (cn. pompeius magnus) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
portrait (imago) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
princeps (office) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
prodigies Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
providentia Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
pseudepigrapha Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
republic, atrium libertatis Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
republic, the roman, memory and trauma Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
rhetoric Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 152
rituals Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
sabines Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
saevitia' Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
sallust Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
scipio africanus Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
self-representation Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
senate, monarchy, relationship with Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
senate Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386; Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
seneca, consolation to marcia Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
seneca Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
seneca the younger Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 117
sextus pompeius (s. pompeius magnus pius) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
sexuality Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
sibylline oracles, sibylline books Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 26
site, of exemplarity Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
site, of memory Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
spain Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
suetonius (c. suetonius tranquillus) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
sulpicia Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
syme, ronald Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
syria, interest in religious material Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
syria, memory and Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
syria, perceived cynicism of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 11
tacitus, p. cornelius Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
tacitus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 117, 170; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
tacitus (p. cornelius tacitus) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
temple, of mars ultor Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 386
tiberius, and divus augustus Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
tiberius, senates relationship with Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
tiberius, temples of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
tiberius, worshipful treatment of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 184
tiberius Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 170, 202; Star, Apocalypse and Golden Age: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought (2021) 134
tibullus Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
trauma, republic, the roman Poulsen, Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography (2021), 49
valerius messalla corvinus, m., augustus, support for Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
valerius messalla corvinus, m., patronage of poets Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
valerius messalla corvinus, m. Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 43
venus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242
women Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 242