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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10588
Tacitus, Annals, 15.44.5
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let us come to the most recent spiritual heroes. Let us take the noble examples furnished in our own generation. Through envy and jealousy the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the church] have been persecuted and put to death. Let us set before our eyes the illustrious apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him. Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience.
2. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.3. I do not enjoin you, as Peter and Paul did. They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour. Yet if I shall suffer, then am I a freed-man of Jesus Christ, and I shall rise free in Him. Now I am learning in my bonds to put away every desire.
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.103, 20.131, 20.205-20.207 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.103. But now Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Joseph, the son of Camydus, from the high priesthood, and made Aias, the son of Nebedeu, his successor. And now it was that Cumanus came as successor to Tiberius Alexander; 20.131. whom Quadratus ordered to be put to death: but still he sent away Aias the high priest, and Aus the commander [of the temple], in bonds to Rome, to give an account of what they had done to Claudius Caesar. 20.205. But as for the high priest, Aias he increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had obtained the favor and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner; for he was a great hoarder up of money: he therefore cultivated the friendship of Albinus, and of the high priest [Jesus], by making them presents; 20.206. he also had servants who were very wicked, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them. 20.207. So the other high priests acted in the like manner, as did those his servants, without any one being able to prohibit them; so that [some of the] priests, that of old were wont to be supported with those tithes, died for want of food.
4. New Testament, Acts, 4.5, 5.17, 18.2, 23.6-23.9, 24.1, 26.8, 26.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.5. It happened in the morning, that their rulers, elders, and scribes were gathered together in Jerusalem. 5.17. But the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy 18.2. He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God! 24.1. After five days, the high priest, Aias, came down with certain elders and an orator, one Tertullus. They informed the governor against Paul. 26.8. Why is it judged incredible with you, if God does raise the dead? 26.22. Having therefore obtained the help that is from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses did say should come
5. New Testament, Luke, 2.32, 24.26, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel. 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
6. New Testament, Mark, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
7. Suetonius, Claudius, 25.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tacitus, Annals, 1.61.3, 2.85.4, 3.60.2, 3.66.1, 6.28, 11.14, 11.24, 11.24.7, 13.4.1, 15.23.2, 15.41.1, 15.44, 15.44.1-15.44.4, 15.44.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.66.1.  Then, step by step, they passed from the degrading to the brutal. Gaius Silanus, the proconsul of Asia, accused of extortion by the provincials, was attacked simultaneously by the ex-consul Mamercus Scaurus, the praetor Junius Otho, and the aedile Bruttedius Niger, who flung at him the charge of violating the godhead of Augustus and spurning the majesty of Tiberius, while Mamercus made play with the precedents of antiquity — the indictment of Lucius Cotta by Scipio Africanus, of Servius Galba by Cato the Censor, of Publius Rutilius by Marcus Scaurus. Such, as all men know, were the crimes avenged by Scipio and Cato or the famous Scaurus, the great-grandsire of Mamercus, whom that reproach to his ancestors dishonoured by his infamous activity! Junius Otho's old profession had been to keep a school; afterwards, created a senator by the influence of Sejanus, by his effrontery and audacity he brought further ignominy, if possible, upon the meanness of his beginnings. Bruttedius, amply provided with liberal accomplishments, and bound, if he kept the straight road, to attain all distinctions, was goaded by a spirit of haste, which impelled him to outpace first his equals, then his superiors, and finally his own ambitions: an infirmity fatal to many, even of the good, who, disdaining the sure and slow, force a premature success, though destruction may accompany the prize. 6.28.  In the consulate of Paulus Fabius and Lucius Vitellius, after a long period of ages, the bird known as the phoenix visited Egypt, and supplied the learned of that country and of Greece with the material for long disquisitions on the miracle. I propose to state the points on which they coincide, together with the larger number that are dubious, yet not too absurd for notice. That the creature is sacred to the sun and distinguished from other birds by its head and the variegation of its plumage, is agreed by those who have depicted its form: as to its term of years, the tradition varies. The generally received number is five hundred; but there are some who assert that its visits fall at intervals of 1461 years, and that it was in the reigns, first of Sesosis, then of Amasis, and finally of Ptolemy (third of the Macedonian dynasty), that the three earlier phoenixes flew to the city called Heliopolis with a great escort of common birds amazed at the novelty of their appearance. But while antiquity is obscure, between Ptolemy and Tiberius there were less than two hundred and fifty years: whence the belief has been held that this was a spurious phoenix, not originating on the soil of Arabia, and following none of the practices affirmed by ancient tradition. For — so the tale is told — when its sum of years is complete and death is drawing on, it builds a nest in its own country and sheds on it a procreative influence, from which springs a young one, whose first care on reaching maturity is to bury his sire. Nor is that task performed at random, but, after raising a weight of myrrh and proving it by a far flight, so soon as he is a match for his burden and the course before him, he lifts up his father's corpse, conveys him to the Altar of the Sun, and consigns him to the flames. — The details are uncertain and heightened by fable; but that the bird occasionally appears in Egypt is unquestioned. 11.24.  Unconvinced by these and similar arguments, the emperor not only stated his objections there and then, but, after convening the senate, addressed it as follows: — "In my own ancestors, the eldest of whom, Clausus, a Sabine by extraction, was made simultaneously a citizen and the head of a patrician house, I find encouragement to employ the same policy in my administration, by transferring hither all true excellence, let it be found where it will. For I am not unaware that the Julii came to us from Alba, the Coruncanii from Camerium, the Porcii from Tusculum; that — not to scrutinize antiquity — members were drafted into the senate from Etruria, from Lucania, from the whole of Italy; and that finally Italy itself was extended to the Alps, in order that not individuals merely but countries and nationalities should form one body under the name of Romans. The day of stable peace at home and victory abroad came when the districts beyond the Po were admitted to citizenship, and, availing ourselves of the fact that our legions were settled throughout the globe, we added to them the stoutest of the provincials, and succoured a weary empire. Is it regretted that the Balbi crossed over from Spain and families equally distinguished from Narbonese Gaul? Their descendants remain; nor do they yield to ourselves in love for this native land of theirs. What else proved fatal to Lacedaemon and Athens, in spite of their power in arms, but their policy of holding the conquered aloof as alien-born? But the sagacity of our own founder Romulus was such that several times he fought and naturalized a people in the course of the same day! Strangers have been kings over us: the conferment of magistracies on the sons of freedmen is not the novelty which it is commonly and mistakenly thought, but a frequent practice of the old commonwealth. — 'But we fought with the Senones.' — Then, presumably, the Volscians and Aequians never drew up a line of battle against us. — 'We were taken by the Gauls.' — But we also gave hostages to the Tuscans and underwent the yoke of the Samnites. — And yet, if you survey the whole of our wars, not one was finished within a shorter period than that against the Gauls: thenceforward there has been a continuous and loyal peace. Now that customs, culture, and the ties of marriage have blended them with ourselves, let them bring among us their gold and their riches instead of retaining them beyond the pale! All, Conscript Fathers, that is now believed supremely old has been new: plebeian magistrates followed the patrician; Latin, the plebeian; magistrates from the other races of Italy, the Latin. Our innovation, too, will be parcel of the past, and what to‑day we defend by precedents will rank among precedents. 13.4.1.  However, when the mockeries of sorrow had been carried to their close, he entered the curia; and, after an opening reference to the authority of the Fathers and the uimity of the army, stated that "he had before him advice and examples pointing him to an admirable system of government. Nor had his youth been poisoned by civil war or family strife: he brought to his task no hatreds, no wrongs, no desire for vengeance. He then outlined the character of the coming principate, the points which had provoked recent and intense dissatisfaction being specially discounteced:— "He would not constitute himself a judge of all cases, secluding accusers and defendants within the same four walls and allowing the influence of a few individuals to run riot. Under his roof would be no venality, no loophole for intrigue: the palace and the state would be things separate. Let the senate retain its old prerogatives! Let Italy and the public provinces take their stand before the judgement-seats of the consuls, and let the consuls grant them access to the Fathers: for the armies delegated to his charge he would himself be responsible. 15.41.1.  It would not be easy to attempt an estimate of the private dwellings, tenement-blocks, and temples, which were lost; but the flames consumed, in their old-world sanctity, the temple dedicated to Luna by Servius Tullius, the great altar and chapel of the Arcadian Evander to the Present Hercules, the shrine of Jupiter Stator vowed by Romulus, the Palace of Numa, and the holy place of Vesta with the Penates of the Roman people. To these must be added the precious trophies won upon so many fields, the glories of Greek art, and yet again the primitive and uncorrupted memorials of literary genius; so that, despite the striking beauty of the rearisen city, the older generation recollects much that it proved impossible to replace. There were those who noted that the first outbreak of the fire took place on the nineteenth of July, the anniversary of the capture and burning of Rome by the Senones: others have pushed their researches so far as to resolve the interval between the two fires into equal numbers of years, of months, and of days. 15.44.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man. 15.44.1.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
10. Tacitus, Histories, 1.3.1, 1.11.1, 1.86.1, 2.2.2, 2.4.3, 2.78.3, 3.51.2, 4.42.6, 4.61.2, 4.83.2, 5.2.1, 5.5, 5.8.2-5.8.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
11. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 3.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.25.5. Thus publicly announcing himself as the first among God's chief enemies, he was led on to the slaughter of the apostles. It is, therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abominations, crimes, flagitia de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 109, 148
aesculapius, and serapis Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
alexandria, vespasian performs healing Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
ananias Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
appian Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
asia minor Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
assmann, aleida Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
astrologers, expulsions of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
augustus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
authority, of ammianus, of tacitus Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
capitoline hill Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
celsus Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119
ceres Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
christians Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
claudius, emperor (a.d. . Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119
claudius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627
cult statues Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
decline, of morals Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
domitian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
dream, credibility Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
dream, of god Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
egypt Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
elagabalus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
exempla, in tacitus Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
expiation Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
felix Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
festus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
fire, of ad Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321, 322
foreign, religion Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
foreign, rites Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169, 170
foreign cults Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
foreigners, and religion Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
fors, and the gods Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
fors, as detail Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
fors, fors as category Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
fors, forte Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
fors, in tacitus Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
galilean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
gods, benevolence Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
gods, intervention Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
government de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 109
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
historiography Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
hostility to christians de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108
hostility towards de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 109
interpretation, positive Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
invidia, isis, cult of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
italy Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
james the just de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108
jesus, christ Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119
jews and judaism Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627
juno Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
knidos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
last, hugh de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 148
linus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
memory, cultic, decline and Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
memory, functional vs. stored Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
memory, individual Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
monumenta Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
name de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 148
nature, and chance Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
nature, and prodigies Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 170
nero, emperor de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 109
nero, emperor (a.d Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119
nero Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552, 627
palestine Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
paul, apostle Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 119
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
pliny the younger Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627; de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 148
pluto, and serapis Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
pontius pilate Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627
poppaea sabina de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 109
proserpina Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
provinces and provincials Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
provoke jews de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108
religio, religio, ritual, and emperors Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
religio, religio, ritual, of Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
roman, citizen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627
rome de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 148
rumor Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
sacrifice banned, human Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
sacrilege Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
saevitia Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
sellisternia Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
senate, and emperor Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
senate, failure of expertise Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
senate, responsible for cultus deorum Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
serapis, and superstitio Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
serapis, cult legitimised Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
sherwin-white, a.n. de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 148
sibylline books Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
spain Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 152
stephen, protomartyr de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108
suetonius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627; de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 148
superstitio, superstition de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 148
superstitio Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169, 170; Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
supplicatio and supplicia Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
tacitus, on imperial rule Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 145
tacitus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627; de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 108, 148
temples, destruction of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
temples, religious memory and Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321
temples, robbery of' Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
tertullian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
tiberius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 627
titus, and signs Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
trajan de Ste. Croix et al., Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy (2006) 148
vespasian, and signs Davies, Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods (2004) 169
vespasian, vesta, temple of Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 322
vulcan Shannon-Henderson, Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s (2019) 321