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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10588
Tacitus, Annals, 15.42


Ceterum Nero usus est patriae ruinis extruxitque domum in qua haud proinde gemmae et aurum miraculo essent, solita pridem et luxu vulgata, quam arva et stagna et in modum solitudinum hinc silvae inde aperta spatia et prospectus, magistris et machinatoribus Severo et Celere, quibus ingenium et audacia erat etiam quae natura denegavisset per artem temptare et viribus principis inludere. namque ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad ostia Tiberina depressuros promiserant squalenti litore aut per montis adversos. neque enim aliud umidum gignendis aquis occurrit quam Pomptinae paludes: cetera abrupta aut arentia ac, si perrumpi possent, intolerandus labor nec satis causae. Nero tamen, ut erat incredibilium cupitor, effodere proxima Averno iuga conisus est; manentque vestigia inritae spei. However, Nero turned to account the ruins of his fatherland by building a palace, the marvels of which were to consist not so much in gems and gold, materials long familiar and vulgarized by luxury, as in fields and lakes and the air of solitude given by wooded ground alternating with clear tracts and open landscapes. The architects and engineers were Severus and Celer, who had the ingenuity and the courage to try the force of art even against the veto of nature and to fritter away the resources of a Caesar. They had undertaken to sink a navigable canal running from Lake Avernus to the mouths of the Tiber along a desolate shore or through intervening hills; for the one district along the route moist enough to yield a supply of water is the Pomptine Marsh; the rest being cliff and sand, which could be cut through, if at all, only by intolerable exertions for which no sufficient motive existed. None the less, Nero, with his passion for the incredible, made an effort to tunnel the height nearest the Avernus, and some evidences of that futile ambition survive. <


Ceterum Nero usus est patriae ruinis extruxitque domum in qua haud proinde gemmae et aurum miraculo essent, solita pridem et luxu vulgata, quam arva et stagna et in modum solitudinum hinc silvae inde aperta spatia et prospectus, magistris et machinatoribus Severo et Celere, quibus ingenium et audacia erat etiam quae natura denegavisset per artem temptare et viribus principis inludere. namque ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad ostia Tiberina depressuros promiserant squalenti litore aut per montis adversos. neque enim aliud umidum gignendis aquis occurrit quam Pomptinae paludes: cetera abrupta aut arentia ac, si perrumpi possent, intolerandus labor nec satis causae. Nero tamen, ut erat incredibilium cupitor, effodere proxima Averno iuga conisus est; manentque vestigia inritae spei. However, Nero turned to account the ruins of his fatherland by building a palace, the marvels of which were to consist not so much in gems and gold, materials long familiar and vulgarized by luxury, as in fields and lakes and the air of solitude given by wooded ground alternating with clear tracts and open landscapes. The architects and engineers were Severus and Celer, who had the ingenuity and the courage to try the force of art even against the veto of nature and to fritter away the resources of a Caesar. They had undertaken to sink a navigable canal running from Lake Avernus to the mouths of the Tiber along a desolate shore or through intervening hills; for the one district along the route moist enough to yield a supply of water is the Pomptine Marsh; the rest being cliff and sand, which could be cut through, if at all, only by intolerable exertions for which no sufficient motive existed. None the less, Nero, with his passion for the incredible, made an effort to tunnel the height nearest the Avernus, and some evidences of that futile ambition survive.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Cicero, On Laws, 2.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.55-9.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Martial, Spectacula, 2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 55.3, 55.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Suetonius, Caligula, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Suetonius, De Grammaticis, 17.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Suetonius, Nero, 21.3, 31.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tacitus, Annals, 13.5, 15.38-15.41, 15.43-15.44, 15.44.1-15.44.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.5.  Nor was the pledge dishonoured, and many regulations were framed by the free decision of the senate. No advocate was to sell his services as a pleader for either fee or bounty; quaestors designate were to be under no obligation to produce a gladiatorial spectacle. The latter point, though opposed by Agrippina as a subversion of the acts of Claudius, was carried by the Fathers, whose meetings were specially convened in the Palatium, so that she could station herself at a newly-added door in their rear, shut off by a curtain thick enough to conceal her from view but not to debar her from hearing. In fact, when an Armenian deputation was pleading the national cause before Nero, she was preparing to ascend the emperor's tribunal and to share his presidency, had not Seneca, while others stood aghast, admonished the sovereign to step down and meet his mother: an assumption of filial piety which averted a scandal. 15.38.  There followed a disaster, whether due to chance or to the malice of the sovereign is uncertain — for each version has its sponsors — but graver and more terrible than any other which has befallen this city by the ravages of fire. It took its rise in the part of the Circus touching the Palatine and Caelian Hills; where, among the shops packed with inflammable goods, the conflagration broke out, gathered strength in the same moment, and, impelled by the wind, swept the full length of the Circus: for there were neither mansions screened by boundary walls, nor temples surrounded by stone enclosures, nor obstructions of any description, to bar its progress. The flames, which in full career overran the level districts first, then shot up to the heights, and sank again to harry the lower parts, kept ahead of all remedial measures, the mischief travelling fast, and the town being an easy prey owing to the narrow, twisting lanes and formless streets typical of old Rome. In addition, shrieking and terrified women; fugitives stricken or immature in years; men consulting their own safety or the safety of others, as they dragged the infirm along or paused to wait for them, combined by their dilatoriness or their haste to impede everything. often, while they glanced back to the rear, they were attacked on the flanks or in front; or, if they had made their escape into a neighbouring quarter, that also was involved in the flames, and even districts which they had believed remote from danger were found to be in the same plight. At last, irresolute what to avoid or what to seek, they crowded into the roads or threw themselves down in the fields: some who had lost the whole of their means — their daily bread included — chose to die, though the way of escape was open, and were followed by others, through love for the relatives whom they had proved unable to rescue. None ventured to combat the fire, as there were reiterated threats from a large number of persons who forbade extinction, and others were openly throwing firebrands and shouting that "they had their authority" — possibly in order to have a freer hand in looting, possibly from orders received. 15.39.  Nero, who at the time was staying in Antium, did not return to the capital until the fire was nearing the house by which he had connected the Palatine with the Gardens of Maecenas. It proved impossible, however, to stop it from engulfing both the Palatine and the house and all their surroundings. Still, as a relief to the homeless and fugitive populace, he opened the Campus Martius, the buildings of Agrippa, even his own Gardens, and threw up a number of extemporized shelters to accommodate the helpless multitude. The necessities of life were brought up from Ostia and the neighbouring municipalities, and the price of grain was lowered to three sesterces. Yet his measures, popular as their character might be, failed of their effect; for the report had spread that, at the very moment when Rome was aflame, he had mounted his private stage, and typifying the ills of the present by the calamities of the past, had sung the destruction of Troy. 15.40.  Only on the sixth day, was the conflagration brought to an end at the foot of the Esquiline, by demolishing the buildings over a vast area and opposing to the unabated fury of the flames a clear tract of ground and an open horizon. But fear had not yet been laid aside, nor had hope yet returned to the people, when the fire resumed its ravages; in the less congested parts of the city, however; so that, while the toll of human life was not so great, the destruction of temples and of porticoes dedicated to pleasure was on a wider scale. The second fire produced the greater scandal of the two, as it had broken out on Aemilian property of Tigellinus and appearances suggested that Nero was seeking the glory of founding a new capital and endowing it with his own name. Rome, in fact, is divided into fourteen regions, of which four remained intact, while three were laid level with the ground: in the other seven nothing survived but a few dilapidated and half-burned relics of houses. 15.41.  It would not be easy to attempt an estimate of the private dwellings, tenement-blocks, and temples, which were lost; but the flames consumed, in their old-world sanctity, the temple dedicated to Luna by Servius Tullius, the great altar and chapel of the Arcadian Evander to the Present Hercules, the shrine of Jupiter Stator vowed by Romulus, the Palace of Numa, and the holy place of Vesta with the Penates of the Roman people. To these must be added the precious trophies won upon so many fields, the glories of Greek art, and yet again the primitive and uncorrupted memorials of literary genius; so that, despite the striking beauty of the rearisen city, the older generation recollects much that it proved impossible to replace. There were those who noted that the first outbreak of the fire took place on the nineteenth of July, the anniversary of the capture and burning of Rome by the Senones: others have pushed their researches so far as to resolve the interval between the two fires into equal numbers of years, of months, and of days. 15.43.  In the capital, however, the districts spared by the palace were rebuilt, not, as after the Gallic fire, indiscriminately and piecemeal, but in measured lines of streets, with broad thoroughfares, buildings of restricted height, and open spaces, while colonnades were added as a protection to the front of the tenement-blocks. These colonnades Nero offered to erect at his own expense, and also to hand over the building-sites, clear of rubbish, to the owners. He made a further offer of rewards, proportioned to the rank and resources of the various claimants, and fixed a term within which houses or blocks of tenement must be completed, if the bounty was to be secured. As the receptacle of the refuse he settled upon the Ostian Marshes, and gave orders that vessels which had carried grain up the Tiber must run down-stream laden with débris. The buildings themselves, to an extent definitely specified, were to be solid, untimbered structures of Gabine or Alban stone, that particular stone being proof against fire. Again, there was to be a guard to ensure that the water-supply — intercepted by private lawlessness — should be available for public purposes in greater quantities and at more points; appliances for checking fire were to be kept by everyone in the open; there were to be no joint partitions between buildings, but each was to be surrounded by its own walls. These reforms, welcomed for their utility, were also beneficial to the appearance of the new capital. Still, there were those who held that the old form had been the more salubrious, as the narrow streets and high-built houses were not so easily penetrated by the rays of the sun; while now the broad expanses, with no protecting shadows, glowed under a more oppressive heat. 15.44.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man. 15.44.1.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
10. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 53.27, 62.16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53.27. 1.  Meanwhile Agrippa beautified the city at his own expense. First, in honour of the naval victories he completed the building called the Basilica of Neptune and lent it added brilliance by the painting representing the Argonauts. Next he constructed the Laconian sudatorium. He gave the name "Laconian" to the gymnasium because the Lacedaemonians had a greater reputation at that time than anybody else for stripping and exercising after anointing themselves with oil.,2.  Also he completed the building called the (Opens in another window)')" onMouseOut="nd();" Pantheon. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens.,3.  Agrippa, for his part, wished to place a statue of Augustus there also and to bestow upon him the honour of having the structure named after him; but when the emperor wouldn't accept either honour, he placed in the temple itself a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room statues of Augustus and himself.,4.  This was done, not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa's part to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the public good; hence Augustus, so far from censuring him for it, honoured them the more.,5.  For example, when he himself was prevented by illness from being in Rome at that time and celebrating there the marriage of his daughter Julia and his nephew Marcellus, he commissioned Agrippa to hold the festival in his absence; and when the house on the Palatine Mount which had formerly belonged to Antony but had later been given to Agrippa and Messalla was burned down, he presented money to Messalla, but made Agrippa share his own house.,6.  Agrippa not unnaturally took great pride in these honours. And one Gaius Toranius also acquired a good reputation because while tribune he brought his father, although a freedman of somebody or other, into the theatre and made him sit beside him upon the tribunes' bench. Publius Servilius, too, made a name for himself because while praetor he caused to be slain at a festival three hundred bears and other African wild beasts equal in number. 62.16. 1.  After this Nero set his heart on accomplishing what had doubtless always been his desire, namely to make an end of the whole city and realm during his lifetime.,2.  At all events, he, like others before him, used to call Priam wonderfully fortunate in that he had seen his country and his throne destroyed together. Accordingly he secretly sent out men who pretended to be drunk or engaged in other kinds of mischief, and caused them at first to set fire to one or two or even several buildings in different parts of the city, so that people were at their wits' end, not being able to find any beginning of the trouble nor to put an end to it, though they constantly were aware of many strange sights and sounds.,3.  For there was naught to be seen but many fires, as in a camp, and naught to be heard from the talk of the people except such exclamations as "This or that is afire," "Where?" "How did it happen?" "Who kindled it?" "Help?" Extraordinary excitement laid hold on all the citizens in all parts of the city, and they ran about, some in one direction and some in another, as if distracted.,4.  Here men while assisting their neighbours would learn that their own premises were afire; there others, before 20 reached them that their own houses had caught fire, would be told that they were destroyed. Those who were inside their houses would run out into the narrow streets thinking that they could save them from the outside, while people in the streets would rush into the dwellings in the hope of accomplishing something inside.,5.  There was shouting and wailing without end, of children, women, men, and the aged all together, so that no one could see thing or understand what was said by reason of the smoke and the shouting; and for this reason some might be seen standing speechless, as if they were dumb.,6.  Meanwhile many who were carrying out their goods and many, too, who were stealing the property of others, kept running into one another and falling over their burdens. It was not possible to go forward nor yet to stand still, but people pushed and were pushed in turn, upset others and were themselves upset.,7.  Many were suffocated, many were trampled underfoot; in a word, no evil that can possibly happen to people in such a crisis failed to befall to them. They could not even escape anywhere easily; and if anybody did save himself from the immediate danger, he would fall into another and perish.
11. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, 2.81.3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
actors Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
agamemnon Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
agrippina Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
alexander severus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
amphitheatre Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
apollo Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
architects Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
aristocracy Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
assimilated in rome Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
audience Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
augustus, colossal statuary of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
baiae Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
bathhouses Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
bay of naples Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70
carvilius, sp., dedicates colossal statue to jupiter Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
celer (neros purported architect) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
circus maximus Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
claudius, edict of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 77
claudius, temple of the deified Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
clytemnestra Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
colosseum Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69; Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79, 343
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
curia (senate-house) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
death Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
depicting, and domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70
depicting, colossal statue of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
dominus et deus, bizarre statue of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
domitian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
domus aurea, and coastal villas Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
domus aurea, egyptian motifs in Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
domus aurea, frescoes of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70
elites Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
emperors and egypt, nero Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
emperors and egypt, octavian-augustus Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
epic Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
excommunicate (see also aposynagôgos) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
execution Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 87
eye, rooms of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
eye, situation of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
eye, structures and features of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70
fear Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
forum of vespasian Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
games Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
gigantism Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
golden house of nero Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79, 343
guests/visitors, and domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
height, of buildings Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
hercules, colossal statue of on capitoline Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
hippolytus Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
identity Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
intertexts Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
justinian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
kosmos, and arrangement Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 242
marius Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
masks Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
matricide Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
microcosm' Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 242
monster Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
myth Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
nero, colossus of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
nero, emperor, interested in aegyptiaca Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
nero, giant portrait of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
nero Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 87; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 242; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 77; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
nero (emperor), (un)observed life Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
nero (emperor) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
nerva Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
nilus, architectural feature Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 42
of, spread of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 77
orestes Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
otium Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
paintings, fourth style Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
paintings, in domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
persecution of christians Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 87
phaedra Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
pliny the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
pompeian houses, frescoes in Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
pompey Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
praetexta Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
privacy, and a political life Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
privacy, and domestic architecture Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
procopius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
public life, boundaries with private life Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 79
puetoli Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 77
recitation Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
rome, as monstrosity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
rome, colosseum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
rome, horti maiani Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
rome, temple of divus augustus, colossal statue of apollo in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
rome, temple of mars ultor Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
rome Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
samnites Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
seneca, and servilius vatia Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
seneca, epistles Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
seneca, on otium Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
servilius vatia, villa of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
severus (neros purported architect) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
sol/helios Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
spectacle Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
statuary, colossal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217
suetonius, on domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
suetonius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
superstitio Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 87
tacitus, on domus aurea Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70
tacitus, works annales (annals) Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70, 183
tacitus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
theater Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
theatres Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
tiberius, and servilius vatia Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
tiberius, gaius caligula Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 183
tiberius, nero Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69, 70, 183
tiberius, works de grammaticis Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 183
tiberius Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 87
trajan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 626
triumph Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
troy Harrison, Brill's Companion to Roman Tragedy (2015) 41
velleius paterculus, roman history Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 183
venus and roma, temple of Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 69
vespasian, forum of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 343
villas Fertik, The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome (2019) 70
zenodorus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 217