The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Index Database
Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Tacitus, Annals, 11.15

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Cicero, On Divination, 1.92, 1.95 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.92. Etruria autem de caelo tacta scientissume animadvertit eademque interpretatur, quid quibusque ostendatur monstris atque portentis. Quocirca bene apud maiores nostros senatus tum, cum florebat imperium, decrevit, ut de principum filiis x ex singulis Etruriae populis in disciplinam traderentur, ne ars tanta propter tenuitatem hominum a religionis auctoritate abduceretur ad mercedem atque quaestum. Phryges autem et Pisidae et Cilices et Arabum natio avium significationibus plurimum obtemperant, quod idem factitatum in Umbria accepimus. 1.95. Quis vero non videt in optuma quaque re publica plurimum auspicia et reliqua dividi genera valuisse? Quis rex umquam fuit, quis populus, qui non uteretur praedictione divina? neque solum in pace, sed in bello multo etiam magis, quo maius erat certamen et discrimen salutis. Omitto nostros, qui nihil in bello sine extis agunt, nihil sine auspiciis domi habent auspicia ; externa videamus: Namque et Athenienses omnibus semper publicis consiliis divinos quosdam sacerdotes, quos ma/nteis vocant, adhibuerunt, et Lacedaemonii regibus suis augurem adsessorem dederunt, itemque senibus (sic enim consilium publicum appellant) augurem interesse voluerunt, iidemque de rebus maioribus semper aut Delphis oraclum aut ab Hammone aut a Dodona petebant. 1.92. Again, the Etruscans are very skilful in observing thunderbolts, in interpreting their meaning and that of every sign and portent. That is why, in the days of our forefathers, it was wisely decreed by the Senate, when its power was in full vigour, that, of the sons of the chief men, six should be handed over to each of the Etruscan tribes for the study of divination, in order that so important a profession should not, on account of the poverty of its members, be withdrawn from the influence of religion, and converted into a means of mercenary gain. On the other hand the Phrygians, Pisidians, Cilicians, and Arabians rely chiefly on the signs conveyed by the flights of birds, and the Umbrians, according to tradition, used to do the same. [42] 1.95. But who fails to observe that auspices and all other kinds of divination flourish best in the best regulated states? And what king or people has there ever been who did not employ divination? I do not mean in time of peace only, but much more even in time of war, when the strife and struggle for safety is hardest. Passing by our own countrymen, who do nothing in war without examining entrails and nothing in peace without taking the auspices, let us look at the practice of foreign nations. The Athenians, for instance, in every public assembly always had present certain priestly diviners, whom they call manteis. The Spartans assigned an augur to their kings as a judicial adviser, and they also enacted that an augur should be present in their Council of Elders, which is the name of their Senate. In matters of grave concern they always consulted the oracle at Delphi, or that of Jupiter Hammon or that of Dodona.
2. Cicero, On Laws, 2.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 19.1-19.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Livy, History, 26.19.7-26.19.8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

5. Suetonius, Augustus, 94 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Suetonius, Tiberius, 63.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tacitus, Annals, 2.32.3, 2.73.2, 2.85.4, 3.60-3.63, 3.64.3-3.64.4, 3.71.2-3.71.3, 4.16, 12.27.1, 12.43, 13.24.2, 13.32, 13.41.4, 13.57.3, 14.6.1, 14.12.2, 15.44.1, 15.47.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.60.  Tiberius, however, while tightening his grasp on the solid power of the principate, vouchsafed to the senate a shadow of the past by submitting the claims of the provinces to the discussion of its members. For throughout the Greek cities there was a growing laxity, and impunity, in the creation of rights of asylum. The temples were filled with the dregs of the slave population; the same shelter was extended to the debtor against his creditor and to the man suspected of a capital offence; nor was any authority powerful enough to quell the factions of a race which protected human felony equally with divine worship. It was resolved, therefore, that the communities in question should send their charters and deputies to Rome. A few abandoned without a struggle the claims they had asserted without a title: many relied on hoary superstitions or on their services to the Roman nation. It was an impressive spectacle which that day afforded, when the senate scrutinized the benefactions of its predecessors, the constitutions of the provinces, even the decrees of kings whose power antedated the arms of Rome, and the rites of the deities themselves, with full liberty as of old to confirm or change. 3.61.  The Ephesians were the first to appear. "Apollo and Diana," they stated, "were not, as commonly supposed, born at Delos. In Ephesus there was a river Cenchrius, with a grove Ortygia; where Latona, heavy-wombed and supporting herself by an olive-tree which remained to that day, gave birth to the heavenly twins. The grove had been hallowed by divine injunction; and there Apollo himself, after slaying the Cyclopes, had evaded the anger of Jove. Afterwards Father Liber, victor in the war, had pardoned the suppliant Amazons who had seated themselves at the altar. Then the sanctity of the temple had been enhanced, with the permission of Hercules, while he held the crown of Lydia; its privileges had not been diminished under the Persian empire; later, they had been preserved by the Macedonians — last by ourselves. 3.62.  The Magnesians, who followed, rested their case on the rulings of Lucius Scipio and Lucius Sulla, who, after their defeats of Antiochus and Mithridates respectively, had honoured the loyalty and courage of Magnesia by making the shrine of Leucophryne Diana an inviolable refuge. Next, Aphrodisias and Stratonicea adduced a decree of the dictator Julius in return for their early services to his cause, together with a modern rescript of the deified Augustus, who praised the unchanging fidelity to the Roman nation with which they had sustained the Parthian inroad. Aphrodisias, however, was championing the cult of Venus; Stratonicea, that of Jove and Diana of the Crossways. The statement of Hierocaesarea went deeper into the past: the community owned a Persian Diana with a temple dedicated in the reign of Cyrus; and there were references to Perpenna, Isauricus, and many other commanders who had allowed the same sanctity not only to the temple but to the neighbourhood for two miles round. The Cypriotes followed with an appeal for three shrines — the oldest erected by their founder Aërias to the Paphian Venus; the second by his son Amathus to the Amathusian Venus; and a third by Teucer, exiled by the anger of his father Telamon, to Jove of Salamis. 3.63.  Deputations from other states were heard as well; till the Fathers, weary of the details, and disliking the acrimony of the discussion, empowered the consuls to investigate the titles, in search of any latent flaw, and to refer the entire question back to the senate. Their report was that — apart from the communities I have already named — they were satisfied there was a genuine sanctuary of Aesculapius at Pergamum; other claimants relied on pedigrees too ancient to be clear. "For Smyrna cited an oracle of Apollo, at whose command the town had dedicated a temple to Venus Stratonicis; Tenos, a prophecy from the same source, ordering the consecration of a statue and shrine to Neptune. Sardis touched more familiar ground with a grant from the victorious Alexander; Miletus had equal confidence in King Darius. With these two, however, the divine object of adoration was Diana in the one case, Apollo in the other. The Cretans, again, were claiming for an effigy of the deified Augustus." The senate, accordingly, passed a number of resolutions, scrupulously complimentary, but still imposing a limit; and the applicants were ordered to fix the brass records actually inside the temples, both as a solemn memorial and as a warning not to lapse into secular intrigue under the cloak of religion. 4.16.  Nearly at the same date, the Caesar spoke on the need of choosing a flamen of Jupiter, to replace the late Servius Maluginensis, and of also passing new legislation. "Three patricians," he pointed out, "children of parents wedded 'by cake and spelt,' were nominated simultaneously; and on one of them the selection fell. The system was old-fashioned, nor was there now as formerly the requisite supply of candidates, since the habit of marrying by the ancient ritual had been dropped, or was retained in few families." — Here he offered several explanations of the fact, the principal one being the indifference of both sexes, though there was also a deliberate avoidance of the difficulties of the ceremony itself. — ". . . and since both the man obtaining this priesthood and the woman passing into the marital control of a flamen were automatically withdrawn from paternal jurisdiction. Consequently, a remedy must be applied either by a senatorial resolution or by special law, precisely as Augustus had modified several relics of the rough old world to suit the needs of the present." It was decided, then, after a discussion of the religious points, that no change should be made in the constitution of the flamenship; but a law was carried, that the flamen's wife, though under her husband's tutelage in respect of her sacred duties, should otherwise stand upon the same legal footing as any ordinary woman. Maluginensis' son was elected in the room of his father; and to enhance the dignity of the priests and increase their readiness to perform the ritual of the various cults, two million sesterces were voted to the Virgin Cornelia, who was being appointed to succeed Scantia; while Augusta, whenever she entered the theatre, was to take her place among the seats reserved for the Vestals. 12.27.1.  Agrippina, on the other hand, in order to advertise her strength to the provinces also, arranged for the plantation of a colony of veterans in the Ubian town where she was born. The settlement received its title from her name; and, as chance would have it, it had been her grandfather Agrippa who extended Roman protection to the tribe on its migration across the Rhine. At the same period, a panic was caused in Upper Germany by an incursion of Chattan marauders. Thereupon, the legate Publius Pomponius sent the auxiliary Vangiones and Nemetes, supported by allied cavalry, with instructions to head off the raiders, or, if they scattered, to envelop and surprise them. The general's plan was seconded by the activity of the troops. They separated into two columns; one of which, marching to the left, entrapped a newly-returned detachment of pillagers, who, after employing their booty in a debauch, were sleeping off the effects. The exultation of the men was heightened by the fact that, after forty years, they had redeemed from slavery a few survivors of the Varian disaster. 12.43.  Many prodigies occurred during the year. Ominous birds took their seat on the Capitol; houses were overturned by repeated shocks of earthquake, and, as the panic spread, the weak were trampled underfoot in the trepidation of the crowd. A shortage of corn, again, and the famine which resulted, were construed as a supernatural warning. Nor were the complaints always whispered. Claudius, sitting in judgement, was surrounded by a wildly clamorous mob, and, driven into the farthest corner of the Forum, was there subjected to violent pressure, until, with the help of a body of troops, he forced a way through the hostile throng. It was established that the capital had provisions for fifteen days, no more; and the crisis was relieved only by the especial grace of the gods and the mildness of the winter. And yet, Heaven knows, in the past, Italy exported supplies for the legions into remote provinces; nor is sterility the trouble now, but we cultivate Africa and Egypt by preference, and the life of the Roman nation has been staked upon cargo-boats and accidents. 13.32.  There was passed, also, a senatorial decree, punitive at once and precautionary, that, if a master had been assassinated by his own slaves, even those manumitted under his will, but remaining under the same roof, should suffer the penalty among the rest. The consular Lucius Varus, sentenced long before under charges of extortion, was restored to his rank. Pomponia Graecina, a woman of high family, married to Aulus Plautius — whose ovation after the British campaign I recorded earlier — and now arraigned for alien superstition, was left to the jurisdiction of her husband. Following the ancient custom, he held the inquiry, which was to determine the fate and fame of his wife, before a family council, and announced her innocent. Pomponia was a woman destined to long life and to continuous grief: for after Julia, the daughter of Drusus, had been done to death by the treachery of Messalina, she survived for forty years, dressed in perpetual mourning and lost in perpetual sorrow; and a constancy unpunished under the empire of Claudius became later a title to glory. 14.6.1.  There she reflected on the evident purpose of the treacherous letter of invitation and the exceptional honour with which she had been treated, and on the fact that, hard by the shore, a vessel, driven by no gale and striking no reef, had collapsed at the top like an artificial structure on land. She reviewed as well the killing of Acerronia, glanced simultaneously at her own wound, and realized that the one defence against treachery was to leave it undetected. Accordingly she sent the freedman Agermus to carry word to her son that, thanks to divine kindness and to his fortunate star, she had survived a grave accident; but that, however great his alarm at his mother's danger, she begged him to defer the attention of a visit: for the moment, what she needed was rest. Meanwhile, with affected unconcern, she applied remedies to her wound and fomentations to her body: Acerronia's will, she gave instructions was to be sought, and her effects sealed up, — the sole measure not referable to dissimulation. 15.44.1.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
8. Tacitus, Histories, 1.3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Hadrian, 22.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

10. Epigraphy, Cil, 3.1933, 9.730

11. Vergil, Aeneis, 7.346

7.346. they prophesy for Latium 's heir, whose seed

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adultery Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
aemilius potensis Santangelo (2013) 95
agrippina Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
agrippina the younger,murder of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
alexander the great Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
anicetus Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
apis Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
astrologers,expulsions of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
asylum,right of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
augurs and augury Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
augustus Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
benignitas Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248, 297
britannicus Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
censors and census Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
cherusci Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
cicero Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
cimbrians Santangelo (2013) 95
cited by,on divination Davies (2004) 9
claudius,antiquarianism of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
claudius,censorship of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
claudius Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166; Santangelo (2013) 95
cologne Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
confarreatio Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
crime Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
demeter Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
dissimulation Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
divination,changes from republic to empire Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
diviners Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
eleusis Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
expiation Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
fetiales Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
ficus ruminalis Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
fire Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
flamen dialis Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249, 250
flattery Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250, 297
foreign cults Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
fors Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
fortunae of antium,providential aspect of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
freedmen Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
germanicus,posthumous honors for Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
germanicus Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
gods,and success/failure Davies (2004) 9
gods,negotiation with Davies (2004) 9
gods Davies (2004) 9
haruspices,recruitment Santangelo (2013) 95
haruspices,under the roman empire Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
haruspices Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166; Santangelo (2013) 95; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247, 248, 249, 250
histories,prodigies and omens in Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
horace Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
interpretation,of prodigies Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
interventions,haruspical Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
invidia,isis,cult of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
italy Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248
jews and judaism Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
judaean/jewish Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
jupiter Santangelo (2013) 95
kin murder Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
kings Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
laetus Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249, 250
late republican prodigies Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
letters Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
lex plautia papiria Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
livia Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
livy Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
ludicrum troiae Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
magistrates Santangelo (2013) 95
mater magna Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
memory,cultic,decline and Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247, 248, 249
messalina Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
nero Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
nero (emperor),murders committed by Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
nero (emperor),relationship with agrippina the younger Shannon-Henderson (2019) 297
nero (emperor) Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247, 250
omens Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
ordo haruspicum Santangelo (2013) 95
otho Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
parthia Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
phoenix Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
pisonian conspiracy Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
placentia Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
pontifex/pontifices Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248, 250
priests adolescent,roman Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
prodigies,in early principate Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
prodigies Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
prodigy,interpretation Santangelo (2013) 95
prodigy Santangelo (2013) 95
prodigy reports Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
prophecy Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
quindecemviri,under the roman empire Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
religio,religio,ritual,approaches to Davies (2004) 9
rhodes,as vehicle of cultural memory Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247, 248, 249
ritual Davies (2004) 9
roman priests Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
rome,early principate Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
sacrifice Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
saevitia Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250
scepticism Davies (2004) 9
scipio Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
secular games Shannon-Henderson (2019) 247
senate/senators Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
senate Santangelo (2013) 95; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248, 250
senate of rome Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
senatusconsultum Santangelo (2013) 95
sibylline books Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248
sibylline books and oracles,under the roman empire Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
signs Santangelo (2013) 95
silius Shannon-Henderson (2019) 249
sortes,praenestine Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 24
suetonius Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 173
superstitio Shannon-Henderson (2019) 248
tacitus Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
tree portents,ficus ruminalis' Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 166
vitellius Shannon-Henderson (2019) 250