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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10524
Suetonius, Vespasianus, 4.5


nanThere had spread over all the Orient an old and established belief, that it was fated at that time for men coming from Judaea to rule the world. This prediction, referring to the emperor of Rome, as afterwards appeared from the event, the people of Judaea took to themselves; accordingly they revolted and after killing their governor, they routed the consular ruler of Syria as well, when he came to the rescue, and took one of his eagles. Since to put down this rebellion required a considerable army with a leader of no little enterprise, yet one to whom so great power could be entrusted without risk, Vespasian was chosen for the task, both as a man of tried energy and as one in no wise to be feared because of the obscurity of his family and name.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Cicero, On Duties, 1.61 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.61. Intelligendum autem est, cum proposita sint genera quattuor, e quibus honestas officiumque manaret, splendidissimum videri, quod animo magno elatoque humanasque res despiciente factum sit. Itaque in probris maxime in promptu est si quid tale dici potest: Vós enim, iuvenes, ánimum geritis múliebrem, ílla virgo viri et si quid eius modi: Salmácida, spolia sÍne sudore et sánguine. Contraque in laudibus, quae magno animo et fortiter excellenterque gesta sunt, ea nescio quo modo quasi pleniore ore laudamus. Hinc rhetorum campus de Marathone, Salamine, Plataeis, Thermopylis, Leuctris, hine noster Cocles, hinc Decii, hinc Cn. et P. Scipiones, hinc M. Marcellus, innumerabiles alii, maximeque ipse populus Romanus animi magnitudine excellit. Declaratur autem studium bellicae gloriae, quod statuas quoque videmus ornatu fere militari. 1.61.  We must realize, however, that while we have set down four cardinal virtues from which as sources moral rectitude and moral duty emanate, that achievement is most glorious in the eyes of the world which is won with a spirit great, exalted, and superior to the vicissitudes of earthly life. And so, when we wish to hurl a taunt, the very first to rise to our lips is, if possible, something like this: "For ye, young men, show a womanish soul, yon maiden a man's;" and this: "Thou son of Salmacis, win spoils that cost nor sweat nor blood." When, on the other hand, we wish to pay a compliment, we somehow or other praise in more eloquent strain the brave and noble work of some great soul. Hence there is an open field for orators on the subjects of Marathon, Salamis, Plataea, Thermopylae, and Leuctra, and hence our own Cocles, the Decii, Gnaeus and Publius Scipio, Marcus Marcellus, and countless others, and, above all, the Roman People as a nation are celebrated for greatness of spirit. Their passion for military glory, moreover, is shown in the fact that we see their statues usually in soldier's garb.
2. Cicero, De Oratore, 1.201 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.201. Iam illa non longam orationem desiderant, quam ob rem existimem publica quoque iura, quae sunt propria civitatis atque imperi, tum monumenta rerum gestarum et vetustatis exempla oratori nota esse debere; nam ut in rerum privatarum causis atque iudiciis depromenda saepe oratio est ex iure civili et idcirco, ut ante diximus, oratori iuris civilis scientia necessaria est, sic in causis publicis iudiciorum, contionum, senatus omnis haec et antiquitatis memoria et publici iuris auctoritas et regendae rei publicae ratio ac scientia tamquam aliqua materies eis oratoribus, qui versantur in re publica, subiecta esse debet.
3. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Livy, History, 9.30.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.352-3.356, 6.310-6.313 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests: 3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God 3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.” 3.355. 4. When he had said this, he complied with Nicanor’s invitation. But when those Jews who had fled with him understood that he yielded to those that invited him to come up, they came about him in a body, and cried out 3.356. “Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers, which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose; that God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they despise death. 6.311. for the Jews, by demolishing the tower of Antonia, had made their temple foursquare, while at the same time they had it written in their sacred oracles, “That then should their city be taken, as well as their holy house, when once their temple should become foursquare.” 6.312. But now, what did most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, “about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth.” 6.313. The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular, and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination. Now, this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea.
6. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37-1.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years;
7. Seneca The Younger, Natural Questions, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Suetonius, Caligula, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Suetonius, Iulius, 79 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Tacitus, Agricola, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tacitus, Annals, 4.5, 12.43 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.5.  Italy, on either seaboard, was protected by fleets at Misenum and Ravenna; the adjacent coast of Gaul by a squadron of fighting ships, captured by Augustus at the victory of Actium and sent with strong crews to the town of Forum Julium. Our main strength, however, lay on the Rhine — eight legions ready to cope indifferently with the German or the Gaul. The Spains, finally subdued not long before, were kept by three. Mauretania, by the national gift, had been transferred to King Juba. Two legions held down the remainder of Africa; a similar number, Egypt: then, from the Syrian marches right up to the Euphrates, four sufficed for the territories enclosed in that enormous reach of ground; while, on the borders, the Iberian, the Albanian, and other monarchs, were secured against alien power by the might of Rome. Thrace was held by Rhoemetalces and the sons of Cotys; the Danube bank by two legions in Pannonia and two in Moesia; two more being posted in Dalmatia, geographically to the rear of the other four, and within easy call, should Italy claim sudden assistance — though, in any case, the capital possessed a standing army of its own: three urban and nine praetorian cohorts, recruited in the main from Etruria and Umbria or Old Latium and the earlier Roman colonies. Again, at suitable points of the provinces, there were the federate warships, cavalry divisions and auxiliary cohorts in not much inferior strength: but to trace them was dubious, as they shifted from station to station, and, according to the exigency of the moment, increased in number or were occasionally diminished. 12.43.  Many prodigies occurred during the year. Ominous birds took their seat on the Capitol; houses were overturned by repeated shocks of earthquake, and, as the panic spread, the weak were trampled underfoot in the trepidation of the crowd. A shortage of corn, again, and the famine which resulted, were construed as a supernatural warning. Nor were the complaints always whispered. Claudius, sitting in judgement, was surrounded by a wildly clamorous mob, and, driven into the farthest corner of the Forum, was there subjected to violent pressure, until, with the help of a body of troops, he forced a way through the hostile throng. It was established that the capital had provisions for fifteen days, no more; and the crisis was relieved only by the especial grace of the gods and the mildness of the winter. And yet, Heaven knows, in the past, Italy exported supplies for the legions into remote provinces; nor is sterility the trouble now, but we cultivate Africa and Egypt by preference, and the life of the Roman nation has been staked upon cargo-boats and accidents.
12. Tacitus, Histories, 2.91, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.91.  A city which found a meaning in everything naturally regarded as an evil omen the fact that on becoming pontifex maximus Vitellius issued a proclamation concerning public religious ceremonies on the eighteenth of July, a day which for centuries had been held to be a day of ill-omen because of the disasters suffered at the Cremera and Allia: thus, wholly ignorant of law both divine and human, his freedmen and courtiers as stupid as himself, he lived as if among a set of drunkards. Yet at the time of the consular elections he canvassed with his candidates like an ordinary citizen; he eagerly caught at every murmur of the lowest orders in the theatre where he merely looked on, but in the circus he openly favoured his colours. All this no doubt gave pleasure and would have won him popularity, if it had been prompted by virtue; but as it was, the memory of his former life made men regard these acts as unbecoming and base. He frequently came to the senate, even when the senators were discussing trivial matters. Once it happened that Helvidius Priscus, being then praetor-elect, expressed a view which was opposed to his wishes. Vitellius was at first excited, but he did nothing more than call the tribunes of the people to support his authority that had been slighted. Later, when his friends, fearing that his anger might be deep-seated, tried to calm him, he replied that it was nothing strange for two senators to hold different views in the state; indeed he had usually opposed even Thrasea. Many regarded this impudent comparison as absurd; others were pleased with the very fact that he had selected, not one of the most influential, but Thrasea, to serve as a model of true glory. 5.13.  Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.
13. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 66.1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Pliny The Younger, Panegyric, 3.4, 80.3-80.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
augustus, marriage laws In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
augustus In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
consilium In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
descent, servile In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
distinction, alternate sources In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
divinatory and prophetic writings, interest in, in flavian rome Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
domitian In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
egypt, criticised in ancient sources Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
egypt, roman Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
emperors and egypt, trajan Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
family, and legislation In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
freedmen, pallas and icelus In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
freedmen In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
galba In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
gens In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
grandsons In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
imagining, imagination Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
imperial regime, legitimacy of In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
italy Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
jewish writings, interest in, in flavian rome Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
jewish writings, oracular character of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
josephus, and oracular character of jewish writings Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
kinship networks In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16, 17
laudatio funebris In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
marriage, and law In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
metanarrative perspectives Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
motifs (thematic), greek, see also under greek Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 253
municipales uiri In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
nero, emperor, and seneca Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
nero In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
pater patriae In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
paterfamilias In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
patria potestas, limited In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
pliny the younger In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
popilius laenas' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 253
provincials In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
religion, foreign, in flavian ideology Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
revisionism, of egypt and the nile Manolaraki, Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus (2012) 245
senate In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
senatorial class In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
severy, beth In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
social mobility In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16, 17
suetonius, on oracular character of judean writings Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
suetonius In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16
tacitus, on oracular character of judean writings Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
tacitus In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17
upper class, roman In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16, 17
vespasian, confirmed as emperor by judean religion and texts Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 105
vespasian In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 16, 17
wills In the Image of the Ancestors: Narratives of Kinship in Flavian Epic (2008)" 17