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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10496
Strabo, Geography, 9.5.6


nanAs for Phthia, some say that it is the same as Hellas and Achaea, and that these constitute the other, the southern, of the two parts into which Thessaly as a whole was divided; but others distinguish between Hellas and Achaea. The poet seems to make Phthia and Hellas two different things when he says, and those who held Phthia and Hellas, as though there were two, and when he says, And then (I fled) far away through spacious Hellas, and I came to Phthia, and, There are many Achaean women throughout Hellas and Phthia. So the poet makes them two, but he does not make it plain whether they are cities or countries. As for later authorities, some, speaking of Hellas as a country, say that it stretches from Palaepharsalus to Phthiotic Thebes. In this country also is the Thetideium, near both Pharsaluses, both the old and the new; and they infer from the Thetideium that this country too is a part of that which was subject to Achilles. As for those, however, who speak of Hellas as a city, the Pharsalians point out at a distance of sixty stadia from their own city a city in ruins which they believe to be Hellas, and also two springs near it, Messeis and Hypereia, whereas the Melitaeans say that Hellas was situated about ten stadia distant from themselves on the other side of the Enipeus, at the time when their own city was named Pyrrha, and that it was from Hellas, which was situated in a low-lying district, that the Hellenes migrated to their own city; and they cite as bearing witness to this the tomb of Hellen, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, situated in their marketplace. For it is related that Deucalion ruled over Phthia, and, in a word, over Thessaly. The Enipeus, flowing from Othrys past Pharsalus, turns aside into the Apidanus, and the latter into the Peneius. Thus much, then, concerning the Hellenes.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Homer, Iliad, 2.494-2.511, 2.683-2.685, 2.695-2.697 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.494. /and a voice unwearying, and though the heart within me were of bronze, did not the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis, call to my mind all them that came beneath Ilios. Now will I tell the captains of the ships and the ships in their order.of the Boeotians Peneleos and Leïtus were captains 2.495. /and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius; these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious Mycalessus; and that dwelt about Harma and Eilesium and Erythrae; 2.496. /and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius; these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious Mycalessus; and that dwelt about Harma and Eilesium and Erythrae; 2.497. /and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius; these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious Mycalessus; and that dwelt about Harma and Eilesium and Erythrae; 2.498. /and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius; these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious Mycalessus; and that dwelt about Harma and Eilesium and Erythrae; 2.499. /and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius; these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious Mycalessus; and that dwelt about Harma and Eilesium and Erythrae; 2.500. /and that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt of doves; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Haliartus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas; 2.501. /and that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt of doves; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Haliartus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas; 2.502. /and that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt of doves; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Haliartus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas; 2.503. /and that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt of doves; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Haliartus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas; 2.504. /and that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt of doves; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Haliartus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas; 2.505. /that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon; and that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. of these there came fifty ships, and on board of each 2.506. /that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon; and that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. of these there came fifty ships, and on board of each 2.507. /that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon; and that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. of these there came fifty ships, and on board of each 2.508. /that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon; and that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. of these there came fifty ships, and on board of each 2.509. /that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon; and that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. of these there came fifty ships, and on board of each 2.510. /went young men of the Boeotians an hundred and twenty. 2.511. /went young men of the Boeotians an hundred and twenty. 2.683. /And with them were ranged thirty hollow ships.Now all those again that inhabited Pelasgian Argos, and dwelt in Alos and Alope and Trachis, and that held Phthia and Hellas, the land of fair women, and were called Myrmidons and Hellenes and Achaeans— 2.684. /And with them were ranged thirty hollow ships.Now all those again that inhabited Pelasgian Argos, and dwelt in Alos and Alope and Trachis, and that held Phthia and Hellas, the land of fair women, and were called Myrmidons and Hellenes and Achaeans— 2.685. /of the fifty ships of these men was Achilles captain. Howbeit they bethought them not of dolorous war, since there was no man to lead them forth into the ranks. For he lay in idleness among the ships, the swift-footed, goodly Achilles, in wrath because of the fair-haired girl Briseïs 2.695. /And they that held Phylace and flowery Pyrasus, the sanctuary of Demeter, and Iton, mother of flocks, and Antron, hard by the sea, and Pteleos, couched in grass, these again had as leader warlike Protesilaus, while yet he lived; howbeit ere now the black earth held him fast. 2.696. /And they that held Phylace and flowery Pyrasus, the sanctuary of Demeter, and Iton, mother of flocks, and Antron, hard by the sea, and Pteleos, couched in grass, these again had as leader warlike Protesilaus, while yet he lived; howbeit ere now the black earth held him fast. 2.697. /And they that held Phylace and flowery Pyrasus, the sanctuary of Demeter, and Iton, mother of flocks, and Antron, hard by the sea, and Pteleos, couched in grass, these again had as leader warlike Protesilaus, while yet he lived; howbeit ere now the black earth held him fast.
2. Homer, Odyssey, 11.284 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 681 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

681. κλύοιτʼ ἂν ἤδη θεσμόν, Ἀττικὸς λεώς 681. Hear now my ordice, people of placeName key=
4. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes, 274, 273 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

273. Δίρκης τε πηγαῖς, ὕδατί τʼ Ἰσμηνοῦ λέγω
5. Euripides, Helen, 1673 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1673. — φρουρὸν παρ' ̓Ακτὴν τεταμένην νῆσον λέγω —
6. Herodotus, Histories, 1.56 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.56. When he heard these verses, Croesus was pleased with them above all, for he thought that a mule would never be king of the Medes instead of a man, and therefore that he and his posterity would never lose his empire. Then he sought very carefully to discover who the mightiest of the Greeks were, whom he should make his friends. ,He found by inquiry that the chief peoples were the Lacedaemonians among those of Doric, and the Athenians among those of Ionic stock. These races, Ionian and Dorian, were the foremost in ancient time, the first a Pelasgian and the second a Hellenic people. The Pelasgian race has never yet left its home; the Hellenic has wandered often and far. ,For in the days of king Deucalion it inhabited the land of Phthia, then the country called Histiaean, under Ossa and Olympus, in the time of Dorus son of Hellen; driven from this Histiaean country by the Cadmeans, it settled about Pindus in the territory called Macedonian; from there again it migrated to Dryopia, and at last came from Dryopia into the Peloponnese, where it took the name of Dorian.
7. Sophocles, Antigone, 105, 104 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Strabo, Geography, 1.1.23, 7.7.2, 8.3.19, 8.6.16, 9.1.20, 9.2.25, 9.5.3, 9.5.8, 9.5.10, 9.5.17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1.23. Having already compiled our Historical Memoirs, which, as we conceive, are a valuable addition both to political and moral philosophy, we have now determined to follow it up with the present work, which has been prepared on the same system as the former, and for the same class of readers, but more particularly for those who are in high stations of life. And as our former production contains only the most striking events in the lives of distinguished men, omitting trifling and unimportant incidents; so here it will be proper to dismiss small and doubtful particulars, and merely call attention to great and remarkable transactions, such in fact as are useful, memorable, and entertaining. In the colossal works of the sculptor we do not descend into a minute examination of particulars, but look principally for perfection in the general ensemble. This is the only method of criticism applicable to the present work. Its proportions, so to speak, are colossal; it deals in the generalities and main outlines of things, except now and then, when some minor detail can be selected, calculated to be serviceable to the seeker after knowledge, or the man of business. We now think we have demonstrated that our present undertaking is one that requires great care, and is well worthy of a philosopher. 7.7.2. As for the Pelasgi, I have already discussed them. As for the Leleges, some conjecture that they are the same as the Carians, and others that they were only fellow-inhabitants and fellow-soldiers of these; and this, they say, is why, in the territory of Miletus, certain settlements are called settlements of the Leleges, and why, in many places in Caria, tombs of the Leleges and deserted forts, known as Lelegian forts, are so called. However, the whole of what is now called Ionia used to be inhabited by Carians and Leleges; but the Ionians themselves expelled them and took possession of the country, although in still earlier times the captors of Troy had driven the Leleges from the region about Ida that is near Pedasus and the Satniois River. So then, the very fact that the Leleges made common cause with the Carians might be considered a sign that they were barbarians. And Aristotle, in his Polities, also clearly indicates that they led a wandering life, not only with the Carians, but also apart from them, and from earliest times; for instance, in the Polity of the Acarians he says that the Curetes held a part of the country, whereas the Leleges, and then the Teleboae, held the westerly part; and in the Polity of the Aitolians (and likewise in that of the Opuntii and the Megarians) he calls the Locri of today Leleges and says that they took possession of Boeotia too; again, in the Polity of the Leucadians he names a certain indigenous Lelex, and also Teleboas, the son of a daughter of Lelex, and twenty-two sons of Teleboas, some of whom, he says, dwelt in Leucas. But in particular one might believe Hesiod when he says concerning them: For verily Locrus was chieftain of the peoples of the Leleges, whom once Zeus the son of Cronus, who knoweth devices imperishable, gave to Deucalion — peoples picked out of earth; for by his etymology he seems to me to hint that from earliest times they were a collection of mixed peoples and that this was why the tribe disappeared. And the same might be said of the Caucones, since now they are nowhere to be found, although in earlier times they were settled in several places. 8.3.19. At the base of these mountains, on the seaboard, are two caves. One is the cave of the nymphs called Anigriades; the other is the scene of the stories of the daughters of Atlas and of the birth of Dardanus. And here, too, are the sacred precincts called the Ionaion and the Eurycydeium. Samicum is now only a fortress, though formerly there was also a city which was called Samos, perhaps because of its lofty situation; for they used to call lofty places Samoi. And perhaps Samicum was the acropolis of Arene, which the poet mentions in the Catalogue: And those who dwelt in Pylus and lovely Arene. For while they cannot with certainty discover Arene anywhere, they prefer to conjecture that this is its site; and the neighboring River Anigrus, formerly called Minyeius, gives no slight indication of the truth of the conjecture, for the poet says: And there is a River Minyeius which falls into the sea near Arene. For near the cave of the nymphs called Anigriades is a spring which makes the region that lies below it swampy and marshy. The greater part of the water is received by the Anigrus, a river so deep and so sluggish that it forms a marsh; and since the region is muddy, it emits an offensive odor for a distance of twenty stadia, and makes the fish unfit to eat. In the mythical accounts, however, this is attributed by some writers to the fact that certain of the Centaurs here washed off the poison they got from the Hydra, and by others to the fact that Melampus used these cleansing waters for the purification of the Proetides. The bathing-water from here cures leprosy, elephantiasis, and scabies. It is said, also, that the Alpheius was so named from its being a cure for leprosy. At any rate, since both the sluggishness of the Anigrus and the backwash from the sea give fixity rather than current to its waters, it was called the Minyeius in earlier times, so it is said, though some have perverted the name and made it Minteius instead. But the word has other sources of derivation, either from the people who went forth with Chloris, the mother of Nestor, from the Minyeian Orchomenus, or from the Minyans, who, being descendants of the Argonauts, were first driven out of Lemnos into Lacedemon, and thence into Triphylia, and took up their abode about Arene in the country which is now called Hypaesia, though it no longer has the settlements of the Minyans. Some of these Minyans sailed with Theras, the son of Autesion, who was a descendant of Polyneices, to the island which is situated between Cyrenaea and Crete (Calliste its earlier name, but Thera its later, as Callimachus says), and founded Thera, the mother-city of Cyrene, and designated the island by the same name as the city. 8.6.16. Aigina is the name of a place in Epidauria; and it is also the name of an island lying off this part of the mainland — the Aigina of which the poet means to speak in the verses just cited; and it is on this account that some write the island Aigina instead of who held Aigina, thus distinguishing between places of the same name. Now what need have I to say that the island is one of the most famous? for it is said that both Aeacus and his subjects were from there. And this is the island that was once actually mistress of the sea and disputed with the Athenians for the prize of valor in the sea fight at Salamis at the time of the Persian War. The island is said to be one hundred and eighty stadia in circuit; and it has a city of the same name that faces southwest; and it is surrounded by Attica, Megaris, and the Peloponnesus as far is Epidaurus, being distant about one hundred stadia from each; and its eastern and southern sides are washed by the Myrtoan and Cretan Seas; and around it lie small islands, many of them near the mainland, though Belbina extends to the high sea. The country of Aigina is fertile at a depth below the surface, but rocky on the surface, and particularly the level part; and therefore the whole country is bare, although it is fairly productive of barley. It is said that the Aiginetans were called Myrmidons, — not as the myth has it, because, when a great famine occurred, the ants became human beings in answer to a prayer of Aeacus, but because they excavated the earth after the manner of ants and spread the soil over the rocks, so as to have ground to till, and because they lived in the dugouts, refraining from the use of soil for bricks. Long ago Aigina was called Oinone, the same name as that of two demes in Attica, one near Eleutherae, to inhabit the plains that border on Oinone and Eleutherae; and another, one of the demes of the Marathonian Tetrapolis, to which is applied the proverb, To Oinone — the torrent. Aigina was colonized successively by the Argives, the Cretans, the Epidaurians, and the Dorians; but later the Athenians divided it by lot among settlers of their own; [...] settling with the Mendaians at Damastion in Illyria around the silver mines, which I discussed in the Illyrian section. The Lacedemonians took the island away from the Athenians and gave it back to its ancient settlers. And colonists were sent forth by the Aiginetans both to Cydonia in Crete and to the country of the Ombrici. Ephorus says that silver was first coined in Aigina, by Pheidon; for the island, he adds, became a merchant center, since, on account of the poverty of the soil, the people employed themselves at sea as merchants, and hence, he adds, petty wares were called Aiginetan merchandise. 9.1.20. It suffices, then, to add thus much: According to Philochorus, when the country was being devastated, both from the sea by the Carians, and from the land by the Boeotians, who were called Aonians, Cecrops first settled the multitude in twelve cities, the names of which were Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna (also called Aphidnae, in the plural), Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia. And at a later time Theseus is said to have united the twelve into one city, that of today. Now in earlier times the Athenians were ruled by kings; and then they changed to a democracy; but tyrants assailed them, Peisistratus and his sons; and later an oligarchy arose, not only that of the four hundred, but also that of the thirty tyrants, who were set over them by the Lacedemonians; of these they easily rid themselves, and preserved the democracy until the Roman conquest. For even though they were molested for a short time by the Macedonian kings, and were even forced to obey them, they at least kept the general type of their government the same. And some say that they were actually best governed at that time, during the ten years when Cassander reigned over the Macedonians. For although this man is reputed to have been rather tyrannical in his dealings with all others, yet he was kindly disposed towards the Athenians, once he had reduced the city to subjection; for he placed over the citizens Demetrius of Phalerum, one of the disciples of Theophrastus the philosopher, who not only did not destroy the democracy but even improved it, as is made clear in the Memoirs which Demetrius wrote concerning this government. But the envy and hatred felt for oligarchy was so strong that, after the death of Cassander, Demetrius was forced to flee to Egypt; and the statues of him, more than three hundred, were pulled down by the insurgents and melted, and some writers go on to say that they were made into chamber pots. Be that as it may, the Romans, seeing that the Athenians had a democratic government when they took them over, preserved their autonomy and liberty. But when the Mithridatic War came on, tyrants were placed over them, whomever the king wished. The most powerful of these, Aristion, who violently oppressed the city, was punished by Sulla the Roman commander when he took this city by siege, though he pardoned the city itself; and to this day it is free and held in honor among the Romans. 9.2.25. The Thespiae of today is by Antimachus spelled Thespeia; for there are many names of places which are used in both ways, both in the singular and in the plural, just as there are many which are used both in the masculine and in the feminine, whereas there are others which are used in either one or the other number only. Thespiae is a city near Mt. Helicon, lying somewhat to the south of it; and both it and Helicon are situated on the Crisaean Gulf. It has a seaport Creusa, also called Creusis. In the Thespian territory, in the part lying towards Helicon, is Ascre, the native city of Hesiod; it is situated on the right of Helicon, on a high and rugged place, and is about forty stadia distant from Thespiae. This city Hesiod himself has satirized in verses which allude to his father, because at an earlier time his father changed his abode to this place from the Aeolian Cyme, saying: And he settled near Helicon in a wretched village, Ascre, which is bad in winter, oppressive in summer, and pleasant at no time. Helicon is contiguous to Phocis in its northerly parts, and to a slight extent also in its westerly parts, in the region of the last harbor belonging to Phocis, the harbor which, from the fact in the case, is called Mychus (inmost depth); for, speaking generally, it is above this harbor of the Crisaean Gulf that Helicon and Ascre, and also Thespiae and its seaport Creusa, are situated. This is also considered the deepest recess of the Crisaean Gulf, and in general of the Corinthian Gulf. The length of the coastline from the harbor Mychus to Creusa is ninety stadia; and the length from Creusa as far as the promontory called Holmiae is one hundred and twenty; and hence Pagae and Oinoe, of which I have already spoken, are situated in the deepest recess of the gulf. Now Helicon, not far distant from Parnassus, rivals it both in height and in circuit; for both are rocky and covered with snow, and their circuit comprises no large extent of territory. Here are the sanctuary of the Muses and Hippu-crene and the cave of the nymphs called the Leibethrides; and from this fact one might infer that those who consecrated Helicon to the Muses were Thracians, the same who dedicated Pieris and Leibethrum and Pimpleia to the same goddesses. The Thracians used to be called Pieres, but, now that they have disappeared, the Macedonians hold these places. It has been said that Thracians once settled in this part of Boeotia, having overpowered the Boeotians, as did also Pelasgians and other barbarians. Now in earlier times Thespiae was well known because of the Eros of Praxiteles, which was sculptured by him and dedicated by Glycera the courtesan (she had received it as a gift from the artist) to the Thespians, since she was a native of the place. Now in earlier times travellers would go up to Thespeia, a city otherwise not worth seeing, to see the Eros; and at present it and Tanagra are the only Boeotian cities that still endure; but of all the rest only ruins and names are left. 9.5.17. However, the poet, after proceeding thus far on the Magnetan seacoast, returns to Upper Thessaly; for, beginning at Dolopia and Pindus, he recounts the parts that stretch alongside Phthiotis, as far as Lower Thessaly: And those who held Tricce and rocky Ithome. These places belong in fact to Histiaeotis, though in earlier times Histiaeotis was called Doris, as they say; but when the Perrhaebians took possession of it, who had already subdued Histiaeotis in Euboea and had forced its inhabitants to migrate to the mainland, they called the country Histiaeotis after these Histiaeans, because of the large number of these people who settled there. They call Histiaeotis and Dolopia Upper Thessaly, which is in a straight line with Upper Macedonia, as is Lower Thessaly with Lower Macedonia. Now Tricce, where is the earliest and most famous sanctuary of Asclepius, borders on the country of the Dolopians and the regions round Pindus. Ithome, which is called by the same name as the Messenian city, ought not, they say, to be pronounced in this way, but without the first syllable; for thus, they add, it was called in earlier times, though now its name has been changed to Ithome. It is a stronghold and is in reality a heap of stones; and it is situated between four strongholds, which lie in a square, as it were: Tricce, Metropolis, Pelinnaion, and Gomphi. But Ithome belongs to the territory of the Metropolitans. Metropolis in earlier times was a joint settlement composed of three insignificant towns; but later several others were added to it, among which was Ithome. Now Callimachus, in his Iambics, says that, of all the Aphrodites (for there was not merely one goddess of this name), Aphrodite Castnietis surpasses all in wisdom, since she alone accepts the sacrifice of swine. And surely he was very learned, if any other man was, and all his life, as he himself states, wished to recount these things. But the writers of later times have discovered that not merely one Aphrodite, but several, have accepted this rite; and that among these was the Aphrodite at Metropolis, and that one of the cities included in the settlement transmitted to it the Onthurian rite. Pharcadon, also, is in Histiaeotis; and the Peneius and the Curalius flow through its territory. of these rivers, the Curalius flows past the sanctuary of the Itonian Athena and empties into the Peneius; but the Peneius itself rises in Pindus, as I have already said, and after leaving Tricce and Pelinnaion and Pharcadon on the left flows past both Atrax and Larisa, and after receiving the rivers in Thessaliotis flows on through Tempe to its outlet. Historians place the Oichalia which is called the city of Eurytus not only in this region, but also in Euboea and in Arcadia; and they give its name in different ways, as I have already said in my description of the Peloponnesus. They inquire concerning these, and particularly in regard to what Oichalia it was that was captured by Heracles, and concerning what Oichalia was meant by the poet who wrote The Capture of Oichalia. These places, then, were classed by Homer as subject to the Asclepiadae.
9. Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 30 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.17.4, 9.30 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.17.4. The Greeks, however, were not to profit by the gift. For in the reign of Vespasian, the next emperor after Nero, they became embroiled in a civil war; Vespasian ordered that they should again pay tribute and be subject to a governor, saying that the Greek people had forgotten how to be free.
11. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 5.41 (2nd cent. CE

5.41. I must also explain how it came about that he never approached the emperor again, nor visited him after their encounter in Egypt, although the latter invited him and wrote often to him in that sense. The fact is, Nero restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character; and the cities regained their Doric and Attic characteristics, and a general rejuvenescence accompanied the institution among them of a peace and harmony such as not even ancient Hellas ever enjoyed. Vespasian, however, on his arrival in the country took away her liberty, alleging their factiousness with other pretexts hardly justifying such extreme severity.This policy seemed not only to those who suffered by it, but to Apollonius as well, of a harshness quite out of keeping with a royal temper and character, and accordingly he addressed the following letters to the Emperor:Apollonius to the Emperor Vespasian, Greeting:You have, they say, enslaved Hellas, and you imagine you have excelled Xerxes. You are mistaken. You have only fallen below Nero. For the latter held our liberties in his hand and respected them. Farewell.To the same.You have taken such a dislike to the Hellenes, that you have enslaved them although they were free. What do you want with my company? Farewell. To the same.Nero freed the Hellenes in play, but you have imprisoned them in all seriousness. Farewell.Such were the grounds of Apollonius' taking a dislike to Vespasian. However, when he heard of the excellence of his subsequent acts of government he made no attempt to conceal his satisfaction, but looked at it in the light of a benefaction conferred on himself.
12. Epigraphy, Ig Vii, 520



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
achaia (province) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
achaia phthiotis perioikic region se, of thessaly, location of itonos (strabo) Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
achilles Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
acte Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
aegina Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
aegium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
aegosthena Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
arcadia, region in peloponnesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
argos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
athena itonia in thessaly, itonos Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
athens, athenians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202, 203
attica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202, 203
boeotia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
catalogue of ships Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
cephisus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
cithaeron, mt. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
copae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
copaic basin Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
corinthian gulf Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
dionysos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
dodona Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
doris, central greek region Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
dryopis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
earth, changes to Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
eleusis, in attica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
eleutherae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
elis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
epidaurum in argolid Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
epiros (epirus) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
graecia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
graecus, son of zeus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
haemon, personalities so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
haemonia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
helicon, mt. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
hellas (town and region) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202, 205
hellen Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
hercules, hero Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203, 205
ismenus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
isthmos/isthmus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
iton, thessalian city Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
itonos, town in achaia phthiotis? Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
krokian plain Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
liber, father Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
locris, opuntian Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
malea, cape Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
megara, megaris Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
minyans, minyas, treasury of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
minyans Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
mithridates vi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
musculus aquaticum, muses, sanctuary of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
myrmidones Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
oenoe Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
oeta, mt. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
olympia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
orchomenos, boiotian city, pagasai, gulf of Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
orchomenus, places so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
oropus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
pagae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
pelasgis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
peloponnesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202, 205
peneios river, thessaly Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
periplous, periploi' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
periplous, periploi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
phthiotis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203, 205
probalinthos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
prometheus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
protesilaos of phylake Lalone, Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess (2019) 59
saronic gulf Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
schoenos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
straton of lampsakos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
sunium, cape Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
thebes in boeotia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
thebes in egypt Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
thebes in phthiotis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 203
thessalos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
thessaly Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205
vespasian (emperor) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
xanthos of lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 202
zeus (god) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 205