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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10496
Strabo, Geography, 5.3.6


nanAt 290 stadia from Antium is Mount Circaion, insulated by the sea and marshes. They say that it contains numerous roots, but this perhaps is only to harmonize with the myth relating to Circe. It has a small city, together with a sanctuary to Circe and an altar to Minerva; they likewise say that a cup is shown which belonged to Ulysses. Between [Antium and Circaion] is the river Stura, which has a station for ships: the rest of the coast is exposed to the southwest wind, with the exception of this small harbour of Circaion. Above this, in the interior, is the Pomentine plain: the region next to this was formerly inhabited by the Ausonians, who likewise possessed Campania: next after these the Osci, who also held part of Campania; now, however, as we have remarked, the whole, as far as Sinuessa, belongs to the Latini. A peculiar fate has attended the Osci and Ausonians; for although the Osci have ceased to exist as a distinct tribe, their dialect is extant among the Romans, dramatic and burlesque pieces composed in it being still represented at certain games which were instituted in ancient times. And as for the Ausonians, although they never have dwelt by the sea of Sicily, it is named the Ausonian Sea. At 100 stadia from Circaion is Tarracina, formerly named Trachina, on account of its ruggedness; before it is a great marsh, formed by two rivers, the larger of which is called the Aufidus. This is the first place where the Via Appia approaches the sea. This road is paved from Rome to Brundusium, and has great traffic. Of the maritime cities, these alone are situated on it; Tarracina, beyond it Formiae, Minturnae, Sinuessa, and towards its extremity Tarentum and Brundusium. Near to Tarracina, advancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals by water from the marshes and rivers. Travellers generally sail up it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by the way; however, during the day the passage boat is towed by mules. Beyond is Formiae, founded by the Lacedemonians, and formerly called Hormiae, on account of its excellent port. Between these [two cities], is a gulf which they have named Caiata, in fact all gulfs are called by the Lacedemonians Caietae: some, however, say that the gulf received this appellation from [Caieta], the nurse of Aeneas. From Tarracina to the promontory of Caiata is a length of 100 stadia. Here are opened vast caverns, which contain large and sumptuous mansions. From hence to Formiae is a distance of 40 stadia. Between this city and Sinuessa, at a distance of about 80 stadia from each, is Minturnae. The river Liris, formerly named the Clanis, flows through it. It descends from the Apennines, passes through the country of the Vescini, and by the village of Fregellae, (formerly a famous city,) and so into a sacred grove situated below the city, and held in great veneration by the people of Minturnae. There are two islands, named Pandataria and Pontia, lying in the high sea, and clearly discernible from the caverns. Although small, they are well inhabited, are not at any great distance from each other, and at 250 stadia from the mainland. Caecubum is situated on the gulf of Caiata, and next to it Fundi, a city on the Via Appia. All these places produce excellent wines; but those of Caecubum, Fundi, and Setia are most in repute, and so are the Falernian, Alban, and Statanian wines. Sinuessa is situated in a gulf from which it takes its name, sinus signifying [in Latin] a gulf. Near to it are some fine hot-baths, good for the cure of various maladies. Such are the maritime cities of Latium.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 10.133-10.574 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.659-4.663 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.659. καρπαλίμως δʼ ἐνθένδε διὲξ ἁλὸς οἶδμα νέοντο 4.660. Αὐσονίης ἀκτὰς Τυρσηνίδας εἰσορόωντες· 4.661. ἷξον δʼ Αἰαίης λιμένα κλυτόν· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα νηὸς 4.662. πείσματʼ ἐπʼ ἠιόνων σχεδόθεν βάλον. ἔνθα δὲ Κίρκην 4.663. εὗρον ἁλὸς νοτίδεσσι κάρη ἐπιφαιδρύνουσαν·
3. Horace, Sermones, 1.5.3-1.5.22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Livy, History, 2.34-2.37, 2.39-2.40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Strabo, Geography, 1.1.16, 1.2.10, 2.1.1, 3.1.3, 3.3.1, 3.4.20, 4.1.11, 4.6.6, 4.6.9-4.6.10, 5.1.2, 5.1.7, 5.2.5-5.2.6, 5.2.8-5.2.9, 5.3.2, 5.3.7, 5.3.9, 5.3.12, 7.5.1, 8.1.3, 12.3.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1.16. To the various subjects which it embraces let us add natural history, or the history of the animals, plants, and other different productions of the earth and sea, whether serviceable or useless, and my original statement will, I think, carry perfect conviction with it. That he who should undertake this work would be a benefactor to mankind, reason and the voice of antiquity agree. The poets feign that they were the wisest heroes who travelled and wandered most in foreign climes: and to be familiar with many countries, and the disposition of the inhabitants, is, according to them, of vast importance. Nestor prides himself on having associated with the Lapithae, to whom he went, having been invited thither from the Apian land afar. So does Menelaus: — Cyprus, Phoenicia, Sidon, and the shores of Egypt, roaming without hope I reach'd; In distant Ethiopia thence arrived, And Libya, where the lambs their foreheads show With budding horns defended soon as yean'd. [Od. iv. 83.] Adding as a peculiarity of the country, There thrice within the year the flocks produce. [Od. iv. 86.] And of Egypt: — Where the sustaining earth is most prolific. And Thebes, the city with an hundred gates, Whence twenty thousand chariots rush to war. Iliad ix. 383 Such information greatly enlarges our sphere of knowledge, by informing us of the nature of the country, its botanical and zoological peculiarities. To these should be added its marine history; for we are in a certain sense amphibious, not exclusively connected with the land, but with the sea as well. Hercules, on account of his vast experience and observation, was described as skilled in mighty works. All that we have previously stated is confirmed both by the testimony of antiquity and by reason. One consideration however appears to bear in a peculiar manner on the case in point; viz. the importance of geography in a political view. For the sea and the earth in which we dwell furnish theatres for action; limited, for limited actions; vast, for grander deeds; but that which contains them all, and is the scene of the greatest undertakings, constitutes what we term the habitable earth; and they are the greatest generals who, subduing nations and kingdoms under one sceptre, and one political administration, have acquired dominion over land and sea. It is clear then, that geography is essential to all the transactions of the statesman, informing us, as it does, of the position of the continents, seas, and oceans of the whole habitable earth. Information of especial interest to those who are concerned to know the exact truth of such particulars, and whether the places have been explored or not: for government will certainly be better administered where the size and position of the country, its own peculiarities, and those of the surrounding districts, are understood. Forasmuch as there are many sovereigns who rule in different regions, and some stretch their dominion over others' territories, and undertake the government of different nations and kingdoms, and thus enlarge the extent of their dominion, it is not possible that either themselves, nor yet writers on geography, should be equally acquainted with the whole, but to both there is a great deal more or less known. Indeed, were the whole earth under one government and one administration, it is hardly possible that we should be informed of every locality in an equal degree; for even then we should be most acquainted with the places nearest us: and after all, it is better that we should have a more perfect description of these, since, on account of their proximity, there is greater reed for it. We see there is no reason to be surprised that there should be one chorographer for the Indians, another for the Ethiopians, and a third for the Greeks and Romans. What use would it be to the Indians if a geographer should thus describe Boeotia to them, in the words of Homer: — The dwellers on the rocks of Aulis follow'd, with the hardy clans of Hyria, Schoenus, Scolus. Iliad ii. 496. To us this is of value, while to be acquainted with the Indies and their various territorial divisions would be useless, as it could lead to no advantage, which is the only criterion of the worth of such knowledge. 1.2.10. Being acquainted with Colchis, and the voyage of Jason to Aea, and also with the historical and fabulous relations concerning Circe and Medea, their enchantments and their various other points of resemblance, he feigns there was a relationship between them, notwithstanding the vast distance by which they were separated, the one dwelling in an inland creek of the Euxine, and the other in Italy, and both of them beyond the ocean. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf, and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia. The Cyaneae, called by some the Symplegades, or Jostling Rocks, which render the passage through the Strait of Constantinople so difficult, also afforded matter to our poet. The actual existence of a place named Aea, stamped credibility upon his Aeaea; so did the Symplegades upon the Planctae, (the Jostling Rocks upon the Wandering Rocks) and the passage of Jason through the midst of them; in the same way Scylla and Charybdis accredited the passage [of Ulysses] past those rocks. In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. It was looked upon as the largest of our seas, and was therefore par excellence styled the Sea, in the same way as Homer [is called] the Poet. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean. For narrating the voyage of Ulysses in his ship, he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons, the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] It is probable he took his account of the one-eyed Cyclopae from Scythian history, for the Arimaspi, whom Aristaeus of Proconnesus describes in his Tales of the Arimaspi, are said to be distinguished by this peculiarity. 2.1.1. IN the Third Book of his Geography Eratosthenes furnishes us with a chart of the habitable earth. This he divides into two portions, by a line running from east to west parallel to the equator. He makes the Pillars of Hercules the boundary of this line to the west, and to the east the farthest ridges of those mountains which bound India on the north. From the Pillars he draws the line through the Strait of Sicily, and the southern extremities of Peloponnesus and Attica, to Rhodes and the Gulf of Issos. He says, Through the whole of this distance the line mentioned is drawn across the sea and adjacent continents; the whole length of the Mediterranean as far as Cilicia extending in that direction. Thence it runs nearly in a straight line along the whole chain of the Taurus to India. The Taurus continuing in a straight line from the Pillars divides Asia through its whole length into two halves, north and south. So that both the Taurus and the sea from the Pillars hither lie under the parallel of Athens. 3.1.3. In shape it resembles a hide stretched out in length from west to east, the forepart towards the east, its breadth being from north to south. Its length is about 6000 stadia; the greatest breadth is 5000; while there are parts considerably less than 3000, particularly in the vicinity of the Pyrenees, which form the eastern side. This chain of mountains stretches without interruption from north to south, and divides Keltica from Iberia. The breadth both of Keltica and Iberia is irregular, the narrowest part in both of them from the Mediterranean to the [Atlantic] Ocean being near the Pyrenees, particularly on either side of that chain; this gives rise to gulfs both on the side of the Ocean, and also of the Mediterranean; the largest of these are denominated the Keltic or Galatic Gulfs, and they render the [Keltic] isthmus narrower than that of Iberia. The Pyrenees form the eastern side of Iberia, and the Mediterranean the southern from the Pyrenees to the Pillars of Hercules, thence the exterior [ocean] as far as the Sacred Promontory. The third or western side runs nearly parallel to the Pyrenees from the Sacred Promontory to the promontory of the Artabri, called [Cape] Nerium. The fourth side extends hence to the northern extremity of the Pyrenees. 3.4.20. At the present time some of the provinces having been assigned to the people and senate of the Romans, and the others to the emperor, Baetica appertains to the people, and a praetor has been sent into the country, having under him a quaestor and a lieutet. Its eastern boundary has been fixed near to Castlon. The remainder belongs to the emperor, who deputes two lieutets, a praetor, and a consul. The praetor with a lieutet administers justice amongst the Lusitanians, who are situated next Baetica, and extend as far as the outlets of the river Douro, for at the present time this district is called Lusitania by the inhabitants. Here is [the city of] Augusta Emerita. What remains, which is [indeed] the greater part of Iberia, is governed by the consul, who has under him a respectable force, consisting of about three legions, with three lieutets, one of whom with two legions guards the whole country north of the Douro, the inhabitants of which formerly were styled Lusitanians, but are now called Gallicians. The northern mountains, together with the Asturian and Cantabrian, border on these. The river Melsus flows through the country of the Asturians, and at a little distance is the city of Nougat, close to an estuary formed by the ocean, which separates the Asturians from the Cantabrians. The second lieutet with the remaining legion governs the adjoining district as far as the Pyrenees. The third oversees the midland district, and governs the cities inhabited by the togati, whom we have before alluded to as inclined to peace, and who have adopted the refined manners and mode of life of the Italians, together with the toga. These are the Keltiberians, and those who dwell on either side of the Ebro, as far as the sea-coast. The consul passes the winter in the maritime districts, mostly administering justice either in [the city of] Carthage, or Tarraco. During the summer he travels through the country, observing whatever may need reform. There are also the procurators of the emperor, men of the equestrian rank, who distribute the pay to the soldiers for their maintece. 4.6.6. On the opposite side of the mountains, sloping towards Italy, dwell the Taurini, a Ligurian nation, together with certain other Ligurians. What is called the land of Ideonnus and Cottius belongs to these Ligurians. Beyond them and the Padus are the Salassi; above whom in the summits [of the Alps] are the Kentrones, the Catoriges, the Veragri, the Nantuatae, Lake Lemmanus, traversed by the Rhone, and the sources of that river. Not far from these are the sources of the Rhine, and Mount Adulas, from whence the Rhine flows towards the north; likewise the Adda, which flows in an opposite direction, and discharges itself into Lake Larius, near to Como. Lying above Como, which is situated at the roots of the Alps, on one side are the Rhaeti and Vennones towards the east, and on the other the Lepontii, the Tridentini, the Stoni, and numerous other small nations, poor and addicted to robbery, who in former times possessed Italy. At the present time some of them have been destroyed, and the others at length civilized, so that the passes over the mountains through their territories, which were formerly few and difficult, now run in every direction, secure from any danger of these people, and as accessible as art can make them. For Augustus Caesar not only destroyed the robbers, but improved the character of the roads as far as practicable, although he could not every where overcome nature, on account of the rocks and immense precipices; some of which tower above the road, while others yawn beneath; so that departing ever so little [from the path], the traveller is in inevitable danger of falling down bottomless chasms. In some places the road is so narrow as to make both the foot traveller and his beasts of burden, who are unaccustomed to it, dizzy; but the animals of the district will carry their burdens quite securely. These things however are beyond remedy, as well as the violent descent of vast masses of congealed snow from above, capable of overwhelming a whole company at a time, and sweeping them into the chasms beneath. Numerous masses lie one upon the other, one hill of congealed snow being formed upon another, so that the uppermost mass is easily detached at any time from that below it, before being perfectly melted by the sun. 5.1.2. It is not easy to describe the whole of Italy under any one geometrical figure; although some say that it is a promontory of triangular form, extending towards the south and winter rising, with its apex towards the Strait of Sicily, and its base formed by the Alps. . . . . . [No one can allow this definition either for the base or one of the sides, ] although it is correct for the other side which terminates at the Strait, and is washed by the Tyrrhenian sea. But a triangle, properly so called, is a rectilinear figure, whereas in this instance both the base and the sides are curved. So that, if I agree, I must add that the base and the sides are of a curved figure, and it must be conceded to me that the eastern side deviates, as well; otherwise they have not been sufficiently exact in describing as one side that which extends from the head of the Adriatic to the Strait [of Sicily ]. For we designate as a side a line without any angle; now a line without any angle is one which does not incline to either side, or but very little; whereas the line from Ariminum to the Iapygian promontory, and that from the Strait [of Sicily ] to the same promontory, incline very considerably. The same I consider to be the case with regard to the lines drawn from the head of the Adriatic and Iapygia, for meeting about the neighbourhood of Ariminum and Ravenna, they form an angle, or if not an angle, at least a strongly defined curve. Consequently, if the coast from the head [of the Adriatic] to Iapygia be considered as one side, it cannot be described as a right line; neither can the remainder of the line from hence to the Strait [of Sicily ], though it may be considered another side, be said to form a right line. Thus the figure [of Italy] may be said to be rather quadrilateral than trilateral, and can never without impropriety be called a triangle. It is better to confess that you cannot define exactly ungeometrical figures. 5.1.7. These cities are situated high above the marshes; near to them is Patavium, the finest of all the cities in this district, and which at the time of the late census was said to contain 500 equites. Anciently it could muster an army of 120,000 men. The population and skill of this city is evinced by the vast amount of manufactured goods it sends to the Roman market, especially clothing of all kinds. It communicates with the sea by a river navigable from a large harbour [at its mouth], the river runs across the marshes for a distance of 250 stadia. This harbour, as well as the river, is named Medoacus. Situated in the marshes is the great [city of] Ravenna, built entirely on piles, and traversed by canals, which you cross by bridges or ferry-boats. At the full tides it is washed by a considerable quantity of sea-water, as well as by the river, and thus the sewage is carried off, and the air purified; in fact, the district is considered so salubrious that the [Roman] governors have selected it as a spot to bring up and exercise the gladiators in. It is a remarkable peculiarity of this place, that, though situated in the midst of a marsh, the air is perfectly innocuous; the same is the case with respect to Alexandria in Egypt, where the malignity of the lake during summer is entirely removed by the rising of the river which covers over the mud. Another remarkable peculiarity is that of its vines, which, though growing in the marshes, make very quickly and yield a large amount of fruit, but perish in four or five years. Altinum stands likewise in the marshes, its situation being very similar to that of Ravenna. Between them is Butrium, a small city of Ravenna, and Spina, which is now a village, but was anciently a celebrated Grecian city. In fact, the treasures of the Spinitae are shown at Delphi, and it is, besides, reported in history that they had dominion over the sea. They say that it formerly stood on the sea; now, however, the district is inland about 90 stadia from the sea. Ravenna is reported to have been founded by Thessalians, who not being able to sustain the violence of the Tyrrheni, welcomed into their city some of the Ombrici, who still possess it, while they themselves returned home. These cities for the most part are surrounded, and, as it were, washed by the marshes. 5.2.8. Along the whole coast between Poplonium and Pisa these islands are clearly visible; they are oblong, and all three nearly parallel, running towards the south and Libya. Aethalia is by far smaller than either of the other two. The chorographer says that the shortest passage from Libya to Sardinia is 300 miles. After Poplonium is the city of Cossae, situated at a short distance from the sea: there is at the head of the bay a high hill upon which it is built; below it lies the port of Hercules, and near to it a marsh formed by the sea. At the summit of the cape which commands the gulf is a lookout for thunnies; for the tunny pursues his course along the coast, from the Atlantic Ocean as far as Sicily, in search not only of acorns, but also of the fish which furnishes the purple dye. As one sails along the coast from Cossae to Ostia there are the towns of Gravisci, Pyrgi, Alsium, and Fregena. [From Cossae] to Gravisci is a distance of 300 stadia, and between them is the place named Regis-Villa. This is said to have been the royal residence of Maleos the Pelasgian; they report that after he had reigned here for some time, he departed with his Pelasgians to Athens. These were of the same tribe as those who occupied Agylla. From Gravisci to Pyrgi is a little less than 180 stadia, and the sea-port town of the Caeretani is 30 stadia farther. [Pyrgi] contains a sanctuary of Ilethyia founded by the Pelasgi, and which was formerly rich, but it was plundered by Dionysius the tyrant of the Sicilians, at the time of his voyage to Cyrnus. From Pyrgi to Ostia is 260 stadia; between the two are Alsium and Fregena. Such is our account of the coast of Tyrrhenia. 5.2.9. In the interior of the country, besides the cities already mentioned, there are Arretium, Perusia, Volsinii, Sutrium; and in addition to these are numerous small cities, as Blera, Ferentinum, Falerium, Faliscum, Nepita, Statonia, and many others; some of which exist in their original state, others have been colonized by the Romans, or partially ruined by them in their wars, viz. those they frequently waged against the Veii and the Fidenae. Some say that the inhabitants of Falerium are not Tyrrhenians, but Falisci, a distinct nation; others state further, that the Falisci speak a language peculiar to themselves; some again would make it Aequum-Faliscum on the Via Flaminia, lying between Ocricli and Rome. Below Mount Soracte is the city of Feronia, having the same name as a certain goddess of the country, highly reverenced by the surrounding people: here is her sanctuary, in which a remarkable ceremony is performed, for those possessed by the divinity pass over a large bed of burning coal and ashes barefoot, unhurt. A great concourse of people assemble to assist at the festival, which is celebrated yearly, and to see the said spectacle. Arretium, near the mountains, is the most inland city: it is distant from Rome 1200 stadia: from Clusium [to Rome ] is 800 stadia. Near to these [two cities] is Perusia. The large and numerous lakes add to the fertility of this country, they are navigable, and stocked with fish and aquatic birds. Large quantities of typha, papyrus, and anthela are transported to Rome, up the rivers which flow from these lakes to the Tiber. Among these are the lake Ciminius, and those near the Volsinii, and Clusium, and Sabatus, which is nearest to Rome and the sea, and the farthest Trasumennus, near Arretium. Along this is the pass by which armies can proceed from [Cisalpine] Keltica into Tyrrhenia; this is the one followed by Hannibal. There are two; the other leads towards Ariminum across Ombrica, and is preferable as the mountains are considerably lower; however, as this was carefully guarded, Hannibal was compelled to take the more difficult, which he succeeded in forcing after having vanquished Flaminius in a decisive engagement. There are likewise in Tyrrhenia numerous hot springs, which on account of their proximity to Rome, are not less frequented than those of Baiae, which are the most famous of all. 5.3.2. Beyond Sabina is Latium, wherein the city of Rome is situated. It comprises many places which formed no part of ancient Latium. For the Aequi, the Volsci, the Hernici, the aborigines around Rome, the Rutuli who possessed ancient Ardea, and many other nations, some larger, some smaller, formed so many separate states around Rome, when that city was first built. Some of these nations, who dwelt in villages, were governed by their own laws, and subjected to no common tribe. They say that Aeneas, with his father Anchises and his child Ascanius, arrived at Laurentum, near to Ostia and the bank of the Tiber, where he built a city about 24 stadia above the sea. That Latinus, the king of the aborigines who then dwelt on the site where Rome now stands, employed his forces to aid Aeneas against the neighbouring Rutuli who inhabited Ardea, (now from Ardea to Rome is a distance of 160 stadia,) and having gained a victory, he built near to the spot a city, to which he gave the name of his daughter Lavinia. However, in a second battle, commenced by the Rutuli, Latinus fell, and Aeneas, being conqueror, succeeded this prince on the throne, and conferred on his subjects the name of Latini. After the death both of himself and his father, Ascanius founded Alba, on Mount Albanus, situated about the same distance from Rome as Ardea. Here the Romans and Latini conjointly offer sacrifice to Jupiter. The magistracy all assemble, and during the period of the solemnity the government of the city is intrusted to some distinguished youth. The facts related of Amulius and his brother Numitor, some of which are fictitious, while others approach nearer the truth, occurred four hundred years later. These two brothers, who were descended from Ascanius, succeeded conjointly to the government of Alba, which extended as far as the Tiber. However, Amulius the younger, having expelled the elder, governed [alone]. Numitor had a son and a daughter; the former Amulius treacherously murdered in the chase; the latter, that she might remain childless, he made a priestess of Vesta, thus imposing virginity upon her. This [daughter] they name Rhea Silvia. Afterwards he discovered that she was pregt, and when she had given birth to twins, he, out of respect to his brother, placed her in confinement, instead of putting her to death, and exposed the boys by the Tiber according to a national usage. According to the mythology, Mars was the father of these children, and when they were exposed they were discovered and suckled by a she-wolf. Faustulus, one of the swine-herds of the place, took and reared them up, and named one Romulus, the other Remus. (We must understand that Faustulus, who took them up and nourished them, was an influential man, and a subject of Amulius.) Having arrived at man's estate, they waged war upon Amulius and his sons; and having slain them, restored the government to Numitor. They then returned home and founded Rome, in a locality selected rather through necessity than choice, as the site was neither fortified by nature, nor sufficiently large for a city of importance. In addition to this, the neighbourhood supplied no inhabitants; for those who dwelt around, even though touching the very walls of the newly founded city, kept to themselves, and would have nothing at all to do with the Albani. Collatia, Antemnae, Fidenae, Labicum, and similar places are here alluded to, which then were small cities, but are now villages possessed by private individuals; they are distant from Rome 30 or 40 stadia, or rather more. Between the fifth and sixth mile-stone which marks the distance from Rome there is a place named Festi; this they say was at that time the limit of the Roman territory, and at the present day, both here and in numerous other places which they consider to have been boundaries, the priests offer the sacrifice denominated Ambarvia. They say that, at the time of the foundation [of the city], a dispute arose in which Remus lost his life. The city being built, Romulus assembled men from every quarter, and instituted for an asylum a grove between the citadel and the Capitol, to which whoever fled from the neighbouring states, he proclaimed as Roman citizens. Not having wives for these men, he appointed a horse-race in honour of Neptune, which is celebrated to this day. Numbers [of spectators] having assembled, particularly of the Sabini, he commanded that each of those who were in want of a wife, should carry off one of the assembled maidens. Titus Tatius, king of the Quirites, took up arms to avenge the insult, but made peace with Romulus on condition that their kingdoms should be united, and that they should divide the sovereignty between them. Tatius, however, was treacherously assassinated in Lavinium, upon which Romulus, with the consent of the Quirites, reigned alone. After him Numa Pompilius, formerly a subject of Tatius, assumed the government, by the general desire of the people. Such is the most authentic account of the foundation of Rome. 5.3.7. In the interior, the first city above Ostia is Rome; it is the only city built on the Tiber. It has been remarked above, that its position was fixed, not by choice, but necessity; to this must be added, that those who afterwards enlarged it, were not at liberty to select a better site, being prevented by what was already built. The first [kings] fortified the Capitol, the Palatium, and the Collis Quirinalis, which was so easy of access, that when Titus Tatius came to avenge the rape of the [Sabine] virgins, he took it on the first assault. Ancus Marcius, who added Mount Caelius and the Aventine Mount with the intermediate plain, separated as these places were both from each other and from what had been formerly fortified, was compelled to do this of necessity; since he did not consider it proper to leave outside his walls, heights so well protected by nature, to whomsoever might have a mind to fortify themselves upon them, while at the same time he was not capable of enclosing the whole as far as Mount Quirinus. Servius perceived this defect, and added the Esquiline and Viminal hills. As these were both of easy access from without, a deep trench was dug outside them and the earth thrown up on the inside, thus forming a terrace of 6 stadia in length along the inner side of the trench. This terrace he surmounted with a wall flanked with towers, and extending from the Colline to the Esquiline gate. Midway along the terrace is a third gate, named after the Viminal hill. Such is the Roman rampart, which seems to stand in need of other ramparts itself. But it seems to me that the first [founders] were of opinion, both in regard to themselves and their successors, that Romans had to depend not on fortifications, but on arms and their individual valour, both for safety and for wealth, and that walls were not a defence to men, but men were a defence to walls. At the period of its commencement, when the large and fertile districts surrounding the city belonged to others, and while it lay easily open to assault, there was nothing in its position which could be looked upon as favourable; but when by valour and labour these districts became its own, there succeeded a tide of prosperity surpassing the advantages of every other place. Thus, notwithstanding the prodigious increase of the city, there has been plenty of food, and also of wood and stone for ceaseless building, rendered necessary by the falling down of houses, and on account of conflagrations, and of the sales, which seem never to cease. These sales are a kind of voluntary falling down of houses, each owner knocking down and rebuilding one part or another, according to his individual taste. For these purposes the numerous quarries, the forests, and the rivers which convey the materials, offer wonderful facilities. of these rivers, the first is the Teverone, which flows from Alba, a city of the Latins near to the country of the Marsi, and from thence through the plain below this [city], till it unites with the Tiber. After this come the Nera (Nar) and the Timia, which passing through Ombrica fall into the Tiber, and the Chiana, which flows through Tyrrhenia and the territory of Clusiumn. Augustus Caesar endeavoured to avert from the city damages of the kind alluded to, and instituted a company of freedmen, who should be ready to lend their assistance in cases of conflagration; whilst, as a preventive against the falling of houses, he decreed that all new buildings should not be carried so high as formerly, and that those erected along the public ways should not exceed seventy feet in height. But these improvements must have ceased only for the facilities afforded by the quarries, the forests, and the ease of transport. 5.3.9. of the other cities of Latium, some are distinguished by a variety of remarkable objects, others by the celebrated roads which intersect Latium, being situated either upon, or near to, or between these roads, the most celebrated of which are the Via Appia, the Via Latina, and the Via Valeria. The former of these bounds the maritime portion of Latium, as far as Sinuessa, the latter extends along Sabina as far as the Marsi, whilst between these is the Via Latina, which falls in with the Via Appia near to Casilinum, a city distant from Capua 19 stadia. The Via Latina commences from the Via Appia, branching from it towards the left, near to Rome. It passes over the Tusculan mountain, between the city of Tusculum and Mount Albanus; it then descends to the little city of Algidum, and the Pictae tavern; afterwards the Via Lavicana joins it, which commences, like the Via Praenestina, from the Esquiline gate. This road, as well as the Esquiline plain, the Via Lavicana leaves on the left; it then proceeds a distance of 120 stadia, or more, when it approaches Lavicum, an ancient city now in ruins, situated on an eminence; this and Tusculum it leaves on the right, and terminates near to Pictae in the Via Latina. This place is 210 stadia distant from Rome. Proceeding thence along the Via Latina there are noble residences, and the cities Ferentinum, Frusino, by which the river Cosa flows, Fabrateria, by which flows the river Sacco, Aquinum, a large city, by which flows the great river Melfa, Interamnium, situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Liris and another, Casinum, also an important city, and the last of those belonging to Latium. For Teanum, called Sidicinum, which lies next in order, shows by its name that it belongs to the nation of the Sidicini. These people are Osci, a surviving nation of the Campani, so that this city, which is the largest of those situated upon the Via Latina, may be said to be Campanian; as well as that of Cales, another considerable city which lies beyond, and is contiguous to Casilinum. 5.3.12. But within-side the chain of mountains, [where these cities are situated, ] there is another ridge, leaving a valley between it and Mount Algidus; it is lofty, and extends as far as Mount Albanus. It is on this ridge that Tusculum is situated, a city which is not wanting in adornment, being entirely surrounded by ornamental plantations and edifices, particularly that part of it which looks towards Rome. For on this side Tusculum presents a fertile hill, well irrigated, and with numerous gentle slopes embellished with majestic palaces. Contiguous are the undulating slopes of Mount Albanus, which are equally fertile and ornamented. Beyond are plains which extend some of them to Rome and its environs, others to the sea; these latter are unhealthy, but the others are salubrious and well cultivated. Next after Albanum is the city Aricia, on the Appian Way. It is 160 stadia from Rome. This place is situated in a hollow, and has a strong citadel. Beyond it on one side of the way is Lanuvium, a Roman city on the right of the Via Appia, and from which both the sea and Antium may be viewed. On the other side is the Artemisium, which is called Nemus, on the left side of the way, leading from Aricia to the sanctuary. They say that it is consecrated to Diana Taurica, and certainly the rites performed in this sanctuary are something barbarous and Scythic. They appoint as priest a fugitive who has murdered the preceding priest with his own hand. Apprehensive of an attack upon himself, the priest is always armed with a sword, ready for resistance. The sanctuary is in a grove, and before it is a lake of considerable size. The sanctuary and water are surrounded by abrupt and lofty precipices, so that they seem to be situated in a deep and hollow ravine. The springs by which the lake is filled are visible. One of these is denominated Egeria, after the name of a certain divinity; however, their course on leaving the lake is subterraneous, but they may be observed at some distance, when they rise to the surface of the ground. 7.5.1. The remainder of Europe consists of the country which is between the Ister and the encircling sea, beginning at the recess of the Adriatic and extending as far as the Sacred Mouth of the Ister. In this country are Greece and the tribes of the Macedonians and of the Epeirotes, and all those tribes above them whose countries reach to the Ister and to the seas on either side, both the Adriatic and the Pontic — to the Adriatic, the Illyrian tribes, and to the other sea as far as the Propontis and the Hellespont, the Thracian tribes and whatever Scythian or Celtic tribes are intermingled with them. But I must make my beginning at the Ister, speaking of the parts that come next in order after the regions which I have already encompassed in my description. These are the parts that border on Italy, on the Alps, and on the counties of the Germans, Dacians, and Getans. This country also might be divided into two parts, for, in a way, the Illyrian, Paeonian, and Thracian mountains are parallel to the Ister, thus completing what is almost a straight line that reaches from the Adrias as far as the Pontus; and to the north of this line are the parts that are between the Ister and the mountains, whereas to the south are Greece and the barbarian country which borders thereon and extends as far as the mountainous country. Now the mountain called Haemus is near the Pontus; it is the largest and highest of all mountains in that part of the world, and cleaves Thrace almost in the center. Polybius says that both seas are visible from the mountain, but this is untrue, for the distance to the Adrias is great and the things that obscure the view are many. On the other hand, almost the whole of Ardia is near the Adrias. But Paeonia is in the middle, and the whole of it too is high country. Paeonia is bounded on either side, first, towards the Thracian parts, by Rhodope, a mountain next in height to the Haemus, and secondly, on the other side, towards the north, by the Illyrian parts, both the country of the Autariatae and that of the Dardanians. So then, let me speak first of the Illyrian parts, which join the Ister and that part of the Alps which lies between Italy and Germany and begins at the lake which is near the country of the Vindelici, Rhaeti, and Toenii. 8.1.3. Ephorus says that, if one begins with the western parts, Acaria is the beginning of Greece; for, he adds, Acaria is the first to border on the tribes of the Epeirotes. But just as Ephorus, using the seacoast as his measuring-line, begins with Acaria (for he decides in favor of the sea as a kind of guide in his description of places, because otherwise he might have represented parts that border on the land of the Macedonians and the Thessalians as the beginning), so it is proper that I too, following the natural character of the regions, should make the sea my counsellor. Now this sea, issuing forth out of the Sicilian Sea, on one side stretches to the Corinthian Gulf, and on the other forms a large peninsula, the Peloponnesus, which is closed by a narrow isthmus. Thus Greece consists of two very large bodies of land, the part inside the Isthmus, and the part outside, which extends through Pylae as far as the outlet of the Peneius (this latter is the Thessalian part of Greece); but the part inside the Isthmus is both larger and more famous. I might almost say that the Peloponnesus is the acropolis of Greece as a whole; for, apart from the splendor and power of the tribes that have lived in it, the very topography of Greece, diversified as it is by gulfs, many capes, and, what are the most significant, large peninsulas that follow one another in succession, suggests such hegemony for it. The first of the peninsulas is the Peloponnesus which is closed by an isthmus forty stadia in width. The second includes the first; and its isthmus extends in width from Pagae in Megaris to Nisaea, the naval station of the Megarians, the distance across being one hundred and twenty stadia from sea to sea. The third likewise includes the second; and its isthmus extends in width from the recess of the Crisaean Gulf as far as Thermopylae — the imaginary straight line, about five hundred and eight stadia in length, enclosing within the peninsula the whole of Boeotia and cutting obliquely Phocis and the country of the Epicnemidians. The fourth is the peninsula whose isthmus extends from the Ambracian Gulf through Oita and Trachinia to the Maliac Gulf and Thermopylae — the isthmus being about eight hundred stadia in width. But there is another isthmus, more than one thousand stadia in width, extending from the same Ambracian Gulf through the countries of the Thessalians and the Macedonians to the recess of the Thermaean Gulf. So then, the succession of the peninsulas suggests a kind of order, and not a bad one, for me to follow in my description; and I should begin with the smallest, but most famous, of them. 12.3.42. Eudoxus mentions fish that are dug up in Paphlagonia in dry places, but he does not distinguish the place; and he says that they are dug up in moist places round the Ascanian Lake below Cius, without saying anything clear on the subject. Since I am describing the part of Paphlagonia which borders on Pontus and since the Bithynians border on the Paphlagonians towards the west, I shall try to go over this region also; and then, taking a new beginning from the countries of these people and the Paphlagonians, I shall interweave my description of their regions with that of the regions which follow these in order towards the south as far as the Taurus — the regions that ran parallel to Pontus and Paphlagonia; for some such order and division is suggested by the nature of the regions.
6. Vergil, Aeneis, 3.384-3.387, 7.10, 7.410-7.413, 11.532-11.596, 11.648, 11.655-11.660, 11.719-11.720, 11.725, 11.727, 11.741-11.744, 11.751, 11.768-11.782, 11.784-11.788, 11.793, 11.799-11.804, 11.816-11.819, 11.831 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.384. on fierce Ulysses' hearth and native land. 3.385. nigh hoar Leucate's clouded crest we drew 3.386. where Phoebus' temple, feared by mariners 3.387. loomed o'er us; thitherward we steered and reached 7.10. Freshly the night-winds breathe; the cloudless moon 7.410. the subjects of both kings. Let sire and son 7.411. buy with their people's blood this marriage-bond! 7.412. Let Teucrian and Rutulian slaughter be 7.413. thy virgin dower, and Bellona's blaze 11.532. thou madman! Aye, with thy vile, craven soul 11.533. disturb the general cause. Extol the power 11.534. of a twice-vanquished people, and decry 11.535. Latinus' rival arms. From this time forth 11.536. let all the Myrmidonian princes cower 11.537. before the might of Troy ; let Diomed 11.538. and let Achilles tremble; let the stream 11.539. of Aufidus in panic backward flow 11.540. from Hadria 's wave. But hear me when I say 11.541. that though his guilt and cunning feign to feel 11.542. fear of my vengeance, much embittering so 11.543. his taunts and insult—such a life as his 11.544. my sword disdains. O Drances, be at ease! 11.545. In thy vile bosom let thy breath abide! 11.546. But now of thy grave counsel and thy cause 11.547. O royal sire, I speak. If from this hour 11.548. thou castest hope of armed success away 11.549. if we be so unfriended that one rout 11.550. o'erwhelms us utterly, if Fortune's feet 11.551. never turn backward, let us, then, for peace 11.552. offer petition, lifting to the foe 11.553. our feeble, suppliant hands. Yet would I pray 11.554. ome spark of manhood such as once we knew 11.555. were ours once more! I count him fortunate 11.556. and of illustrious soul beyond us all 11.557. who, rather than behold such things, has fallen 11.558. face forward, dead, his teeth upon the dust. 11.559. But if we still have power, and men-at-arms 11.560. unwasted and unscathed, if there survive 11.561. Italian tribes and towns for help in war 11.562. aye! if the Trojans have but won success 11.563. at bloody cost,—for they dig graves, I ween 11.564. torm-smitten not less than we,—O, wherefore now 11.565. tand faint and shameful on the battle's edge? 11.566. Why quake our knees before the trumpet call? 11.567. Time and the toil of shifting, changeful days 11.568. restore lost causes; ebbing tides of chance 11.569. deceive us oft, which after at their flood 11.570. do lift us safe to shore. If aid come not 11.571. from Diomed in Arpi, our allies 11.572. hall be Mezentius and Tolumnius 11.573. auspicious name, and many a chieftain sent 11.574. from many a tribe; not all inglorious 11.575. are Latium 's warriors from Laurentian land! 11.576. Hither the noble Volscian stem sends down 11.577. Camilla with her beauteous cavalry 11.578. in glittering brass arrayed. But if, forsooth 11.579. the Trojans call me singly to the fight 11.580. if this be what ye will, and I so much 11.581. the public weal impair—when from this sword 11.582. has victory seemed to fly away in scorn? 11.583. I should not hopeless tread in honor's way 11.584. whate'er the venture. Dauntless will I go 11.585. though equal match for great Achilles, he 11.586. and though he clothe him in celestial arms 11.587. in Vulcan's smithy wrought. I, Turnus, now 11.588. not less than equal with great warriors gone 11.589. vow to Latinus, father of my bride 11.590. and to ye all, each drop of blood I owe. 11.591. Me singly doth Aeneas call? I crave 11.592. that challenge. Drances is not called to pay 11.593. the debt of death, if wrath from Heaven impend; 11.595. Thus in their doubtful cause the chieftains strove. 11.596. Meanwhile Aeneas his assaulting line 11.655. boldly exulting, while impatient hope 11.656. fore-counts his fallen foes. He seemed as when 11.657. from pinfold bursting, breaking his strong chain 11.658. th' untrammelled stallion ranges the wide field 11.741. ‘Latona's daughter, whose benigt grace 11.742. protects this grove, behold, her father now 11.743. gives thee this babe for handmaid! Lo, thy spear 11.744. her infant fingers hold, as from her foes 11.751. But Metabus, his foes in hot pursuit 11.768. the whole skin of a tigress; with soft hands 11.769. he made her plaything of a whirling spear 11.770. or, swinging round her head the polished thong 11.771. of her good sling, she fetched from distant sky 11.772. Strymonian cranes or swans of spotless wing. 11.773. From Tuscan towns proud matrons oft in vain 11.774. ought her in marriage for their sons; but she 11.775. to Dian only turned her stainless heart 11.776. her virgin freedom and her huntress' arms 11.777. with faithful passion serving. Would that now 11.778. this Iove of war had ne'er seduced her mind 11.779. the Teucrians to provoke! So might she be 11.780. one of our wood-nymphs still. But haste, I pray 11.781. for bitter is her now impending doom. 11.782. Descend, dear nymph, from heaven, and explore 11.784. with unpropitious omens now begins. 11.785. These weapons take, and from this quiver draw 11.786. a vengeful arrow, wherewith he who dares 11.787. to wound her sacred body, though he be 11.788. a Trojan or Italian, shall receive 11.793. the virgin to her native land.” Thus spake 11.803. and all the plain burns bright with lifted steel. 11.804. Messapus and swift Latin cavalry 11.816. Now with contending spears and straining thews 11.817. Tyrrhenus, and Aconteus, champion bold 11.818. ride forward; with the onset terrible 11.819. loudly their armor rings; their chargers twain 11.831. took flight and hurried far with loose-flung rein.
7. Juvenal, Satires, 3.305-3.308 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Camillus, 22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Suetonius, Iulius, 44.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aborigines Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
ad medias Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
adiectum latium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
aeneas Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142; Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
aiaia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, and rome Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, writings on Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
alexandria (egypt) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
anaphe Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
ancus marcius, roman king Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
apollo (god) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
apollonios of perge Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
arcades, italian population Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
arcadia, region in peloponnesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
ardea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
argonauts Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
artemis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
aurunci Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
auson Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
ausones Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
automate Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
benefactions Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
caieta Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
camilla Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
campania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142, 143
caria Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
carthage, carthaginians, and romans Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
caucasus Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
caves Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
cercei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
circe Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88, 142, 143
circei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88, 142, 143
colonization Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
consul Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
danaë Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
decemnovium Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
delos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
drainage Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
earth Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
earthquakes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
ephesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
eratosthenes Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
etruscans Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
feronia Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
flora Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
forum appii Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
foundation, of city Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
foundation Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
gallic invasion Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
halone Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
helios (divinity) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
hiera, aegean island Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
ilium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
intratextual reading Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142, 143
junius silanus, m. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
latium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88, 142, 143
lemnos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
leto Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
liris river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
lydia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
maeander river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
magic Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
magnesia near sipylus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
marshes Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
metonomasia Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
mining Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
minturnae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
mount haimos (haemus) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
mount rhipaia Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
neae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
norbanus balbus, l. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
nurse Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
odysseus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142, 143
osci (oscans) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
ostia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
peloponnesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
perseus (hero) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
pharos island Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
polybius Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
pomptine marsh Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
pontine marshes Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
poseidon Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
posidonius Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
praetorian prefect Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
propontis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
punic wars, first, second Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
ritual Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
rome, hills Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
rutuli Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
salt Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
sardis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
settlement density Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
sicilia (sicily), peoples of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
siculi, peoples so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
siltation' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
strabo Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
taurus Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 366
terracina Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
theoderic Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
theophrastus of eresos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
thera Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
therasia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
tiberius (emperor) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
topography Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
trajan Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
trasimenus, lake Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 88
tripontium Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
tyrrhenian, coast Skempis and Ziogas, Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic (2014) 302
urban prefect Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
vergil Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142
via appia Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 199
volsci Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 142