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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10496
Strabo, Geography, 17.3.3


nanHistorians, beginning with the voyage of Ophelas (Apellas?), have invented a great number of fables respecting the sea-coast of Africa beyond the Pillars. We have mentioned them before, and mention them now, requesting our readers to pardon the introduction of marvellous stories, whenever we may be compelled to relate anything of the kind, being unwilling to pass them over entirely in silence, and so in a manner to mutilate our account of the country.It is said, that the Sinus Emporicus (or merchants' bay) has a cave which admits the sea at high tide to the distance even of seven stadia, and in front of this bay a low and level tract with an altar of Hercules upon it, which, they say, is not covered by the tide. This I, of course, consider to be one of the fictitious stories. Like this is the tale, that on other bays in the succeeding coast there were ancient settlements of Tyrians, now abandoned, which consisted of not less than three hundred cities, and were destroyed by the Pharusii and the Nigritae. These people, they say, are distant thirty days' journey from Lynx.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 271-294, 270 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

270. Galene, Thetis, Eudora, Glauce
2. Pindar, Isthmian Odes, 4.52-4.57 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 396-402, 395 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

395. to their orchard in the west, to pluck from the leafy apple-tree its golden fruit, when he had slain the tawny dragon, whose terrible coils were twined all round to guard it;
4. Herodotus, Histories, 4.43, 4.172, 4.174, 4.176, 4.180, 4.183, 4.188, 4.191 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.43. Thus was the first knowledge of Libya gained. The next story is that of the Carthaginians: for as for Sataspes son of Teaspes, an Achaemenid, he did not sail around Libya, although he was sent for that purpose; but he feared the length and loneliness of the voyage and so returned without accomplishing the task laid upon him by his mother. ,For he had raped the virgin daughter of Zopyrus son of Megabyzus; and when on this charge he was to be impaled by King Xerxes, Sataspes' mother, who was Darius' sister, interceded for his life, saying that she would impose a heavier punishment on him than Xerxes; ,for he would be compelled to sail around Libya, until he completed his voyage and came to the Arabian Gulf. Xerxes agreed to this, and Sataspes went to Egypt where he received a ship and a crew from the Egyptians, and sailed past the Pillars of Heracles. ,Having sailed out beyond them, and rounded the Libyan promontory called Solois, he sailed south; but when he had been many months sailing over the sea, and always more before him, he turned back and made sail for Egypt. ,Coming to King Xerxes from there, he related in his narrative that, when he was farthest distant, he sailed by a country of little men, who wore palm-leaf clothing; these, whenever he and his men put in to land with their ship, left their towns and fled to the hills; he and his men did no harm when they landed, and took nothing from the people except cattle. ,As to his not sailing completely around Libya, the reason (he said) was that the ship could move no farther, but was stopped. But Xerxes did not believe that Sataspes spoke the truth, and, as the task appointed was unfulfilled, he impaled him, punishing him on the charge first brought against him. ,This Sataspes had a eunuch, who as soon as he heard of his master's death escaped to Samos, with a great hoard of wealth, of which a man of Samos got possession. I know the man's name but deliberately omit it. 4.172. Next west of these Auschisae is the populous country of the Nasamones, who in summer leave their flocks by the sea and go up to the land called Augila to gather dates from the palm-trees that grow there in great abundance and all bear fruit. They hunt locusts, which they dry in the sun, and after grinding sprinkle them into milk and drink it. ,It is their custom for every man to have many wives; their intercourse with women is promiscuous, as among the Massagetae; a staff is placed before the dwelling, and then they have intercourse. When a man of the Nasamones weds, on the first night the bride must by custom lie with each of the whole company in turn; and each man after intercourse gives her whatever gift he has brought from his house. ,As for their manner of swearing and divination, they lay their hands on the graves of the men reputed to have been the most just and good among them, and by these men they swear; their practice of divination is to go to the tombs of their ancestors, where after making prayers they lie down to sleep, and take for oracles whatever dreams come to them. ,They give and receive pledges by each drinking from the hand of the other party; and if they have nothing liquid, they take the dust of the earth and lick it up. 4.174. Inland of these to the south, the Garamantes live in wild beast country. They shun the sight and fellowship of men, and have no weapons of war, nor know how to defend themselves. 4.176. Next to these Macae are the Gindanes, where every woman wears many leather anklets, because (so it is said) she puts on an anklet for every man with whom she has had intercourse; and she who wears the most is reputed to be the best, because she has been loved by the most men. 4.180. Next to these Machlyes are the Auseans; these and the Machlyes, separated by the Triton, live on the shores of the Tritonian lake. The Machlyes wear their hair long behind, the Auseans in front. ,They celebrate a yearly festival of Athena, where their maidens are separated into two bands and fight each other with stones and sticks, thus (they say) honoring in the way of their ancestors that native goddess whom we call Athena. Maidens who die of their wounds are called false virgins. ,Before the girls are set fighting, the whole people choose the fairest maid, and arm her with a Corinthian helmet and Greek panoply, to be then mounted on a chariot and drawn all along the lake shore. ,With what armor they equipped their maidens before Greeks came to live near them, I cannot say; but I suppose the armor was Egyptian; for I maintain that the Greeks took their shield and helmet from Egypt. ,As for Athena, they say that she was daughter of Poseidon and the Tritonian lake, and that, being for some reason angry at her father, she gave herself to Zeus, who made her his own daughter. Such is their tale. The intercourse of men and women there is promiscuous; they do not cohabit but have intercourse like cattle. ,When a woman's child is well grown, the men assemble within three months and the child is adjudged to be that man's whom it is most like. 4.183. After ten days' journey again from Augila there is yet another hill of salt and springs of water and many fruit-bearing palms, as at the other places; men live there called Garamantes, an exceedingly great nation, who sow in earth which they have laid on the salt. ,The shortest way to the Lotus Eaters' country is from here, thirty days' journey distant. Among the Garamantes are the cattle that go backward as they graze, the reason being that their horns curve forward; ,therefore, not being able to go forward, since the horns would stick in the ground, they walk backward grazing. Otherwise, they are like other cattle, except that their hide is thicker and harder to the touch. ,These Garamantes go in their four-horse chariots chasing the cave-dwelling Ethiopians: for the Ethiopian cave-dwellers are swifter of foot than any men of whom tales are brought to us. They live on snakes and lizards and such-like creeping things. Their speech is like no other in the world: it is like the squeaking of bats. 4.188. The nomads' way of sacrificing is to cut a piece from the victim's ear for first-fruits and throw it over the house; then they wring the victim's neck. They sacrifice to no gods except the sun and moon; that is, this is the practice of the whole nation; but the dwellers by the Tritonian lake sacrifice to Athena chiefly, and next to Triton and Poseidon. 4.191. West of the Triton river and next to the Aseans begins the country of Libyans who cultivate the soil and possess houses; they are called Maxyes; they wear their hair long on the right side of their heads and shave the left, and they paint their bodies with vermilion. ,These claim descent from the men who came from Troy. Their country, and the rest of the western part of Libya, is much fuller of wild beasts and more wooded than the country of the nomads. ,For the eastern region of Libya, which the nomads inhabit, is low-lying and sandy as far as the Triton river; but the land west of this, where the farmers live, is exceedingly mountainous and wooded and full of wild beasts. ,In that country are the huge snakes and the lions, and the elephants and bears and asps, the horned asses, the dog-headed and the headless men that have their eyes in their chests, as the Libyans say, and the wild men and women, besides many other creatures not fabulous.
5. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 1100, 1099 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1099. and that monstrous army of beasts with double form, hostile, going on hoofed feet, violent, lawless, of surpassing violence; you tamed the beast in Erymanthia, and underground the three-headed whelp of Hades, a resistless terror, offspring of the fierce Echidna; you tamed the dragon
6. Theocritus, Idylls, 7.114 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Polybius, Histories, 3.59.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.59.7.  in view of the fact that I underwent the perils of journeys through Africa, Spain, and Gaul, and of voyages on the seas that lie on the farther side of these countries
8. Strabo, Geography, 3.1.6, 17.1.2, 17.3.2, 17.3.4-17.3.5, 17.3.7-17.3.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1.6. The sea-coast next the Sacred Promontory forms on one side the commencement of the western coast of Spain as far as the outlet of the river Tagus; and on the other forms the southern coast as far as the outlet of another river, named the Ana. Both of these rivers descend from the eastern parts [of Spain]; but the former, which is much larger than the other, pursues a straight course towards the west, while the Ana bends its course towards the south. They enclose an extent of country peopled for the most part by Kelts and certain Lusitanians, whom the Romans caused to settle here from the opposite side of the Tagus. Higher up, the country is inhabited by the Carpetani, the Oretani, and a large number of Vettones. This district is moderately fertile, but that which is beyond it to the east and south, does not give place in superiority to any part of the habitable earth with which it may be compared, in the excellence of its productions both of land and sea. This is the country through which the river Baetis flows. This river takes its rise from the same parts as the Ana and the Tagus, and is between these two in size. Like the Ana, the commencement of its course flows towards the west, but it afterwards turns to the south, and discharges itself at the same side of the coast as that river. From this river the country has received the name of Baetica; it is called Turdetania by the inhabitants, who are themselves denominated Turdetani, and Turduli. Some think these two names refer to one nation, while others believe that they designate two distinct people. of this latter opinion is Polybius, who imagines that the Turduli dwell more to the north than the Turdetani. At the present day however there does not appear to be any distinction between them. These people are esteemed to be the most intelligent of all the Iberians; they have an alphabet, and possess ancient writings, poems, and metrical laws six thousand years old, as they say. The other Iberians are likewise furnished with an alphabet, although not of the same form, nor do they speak the same language. Their country, which is on this side the Ana, extends eastward as far as Oretania, and southward along the sea-coast from the outlets of the Ana to the Pillars. But it is necessary that I should enter into further particulars concerning this and the neighbouring places, in order to illustrate their excellence and fertility. 17.1.2. He says, that the Nile is distant from the Arabian Gulf towards the west 1000 stadia, and that it resembles (in its course) the letter N reversed. For after flowing, he says, about 2700 stadia from Meroe towards the north, it turns again to the south, and to the winter sunset, continuing its course for about 3700 stadia, when it is almost in the latitude of the places about Meroe. Then entering far into Africa, and having made another bend, it flows towards the north, a distance of 5300 stadia, to the great cataract; and inclining a little to the east, traverses a distance of 1200 stadia to the smaller cataract at Syene, and 5300 stadia more to the sea.Two rivers empty themselves into it, which issue out of some lakes towards the east, and encircle Meroe, a considerable island. One of these rivers is called Astaboras, flowing along the eastern side of the island. The other is the Astapus, or, as some call it, Astasobas. But the Astapus is said to be another river, which issues out of some lakes on the south, and that this river forms nearly the body of the (stream of the) Nile, which flows in a straight line, and that it is filled by the summer rains; that above the confluence of the Astaboras and the Nile, at the distance of 700 stadia, is Meroe, a city having the same name as the island; and that there is another island above Meroe, occupied by the fugitive Egyptians, who revolted in the time of Psammitichus, and are called Sembritae, or foreigners. Their sovereign is a queen, but they obey the king of Meroe.The lower parts of the country on each side Meroe, along the Nile towards the Red Sea, are occupied by Megabari and Blemmyes, who are subject to the Ethiopians, and border upon the Egyptians; about the sea are Troglodytae. The Troglodytae, in the latitude of Meroe, are distant ten or twelve days' journey from the Nile. On the left of the course of the Nile live Nubae in Libya, a populous nation. They begin from Meroe, and extend as far as the bends (of the river). They are not subject to the Ethiopians, but live independently, being distributed into several sovereignties.The extent of Egypt along the sea, from the Pelusiac to the Canobic mouth, is 1300 stadia.Such is the account of Eratosthenes. 17.3.2. Here dwell a people called by the Greeks Maurusii, and by the Romans and the natives Mauri, a populous and flourishing African nation, situated opposite to Spain, on the other side of the strait, at the Pillars of Hercules, which we have frequently mentioned before. On proceeding beyond the strait at the Pillars, with Africa on the left hand, we come to a mountain which the Greeks call Atlas, and the barbarians Dyris. Thence projects into the sea a point formed by the foot of the mountain towards the west of Mauretania, and called the Coteis. Near it is a small town, a little above the sea, which the barbarians call Trinx; Artemidorus, Lynx; and Eratosthenes, Lixus. It lies on the side of the strait opposite to Gadeira, from which it is separated by a passage of 800 stadia, the width of the strait at the Pillars between both places. To the south, near Lixus and the Coteis, is a bay called Emporicus, having upon it Phoenician mercantile settlements. The whole coast continuous with this bay abounds with them. Subtracting these bays, and the projections of land in the triangular figure which I have described, the continent may rather be considered as increasing in magnitude in the direction of south and east. The mountain which extends through the middle of Mauretania, from the Coteis to the Syrtes, is itself inhabited, as well as others running parallel to it, first by the Maurusii, but deep in the interior of the country by the largest of the African tribes, called Gaetuli. 17.3.4. Writers in general are agreed that Mauretania is a fertile country, except a small part which is desert, and is supplied with water by rivers and lakes. It has forests of trees of vast size, and the soil produces everything. It is this country which furnishes the Romans with tables, formed of one piece of wood, of the largest dimensions, and most beautifully variegated. The rivers are said to contain crocodiles and other kinds of animals similar to those in the Nile. Some suppose that even the sources of the Nile are near the extremities of Mauretania. In a certain river leeches are bred seven cubits in length, with gills, pierced through with holes, through which they respire. This country is also said to produce a vine, the girth of which two men can scarcely compass, and bearing bunches of grapes of about a cubit in size. All plants and pot-herbs are tall, as the arum and dracontium; the stalks of the staphylinus, the hippomarathum, and the scolymus are twelve cubits in height, and four palms in thickness. The country is the fruitful nurse of large serpents, elephants, antelopes, buffaloes, and similar animals; of lions also, and panthers. It produces weasels (jerboas ?) equal in size and similar to cats, except that their noses are more prominent; and multitudes of apes, of which Poseidonius relates, that when he was sailing from Gades to Italy, and approached the coast of Africa, he saw a forest low upon the sea-shore full of these animals, some on the trees, others on the ground, and some giving suck to their young. He was amused also with seeing some with large dugs, some bald, others with ruptures, and exhibiting to view various effects of disease. 17.3.5. Above Mauretania, on the exterior sea (the Atlantic), is the country of the western Ethiopians, as they are called, which, for the most part, is badly inhabited. Iphicrates says, that camel-leopards are bred here, and elephants, and the animals called rhizeis, which in shape are like bulls, but in manner of living, in size, and strength in fighting, resemble elephants. He speaks also of large serpents, and says that even grass grows upon their backs; that lions attack the young of the elephants, and that when they have wounded them, they fly on the approach of the dams; that the latter, when they see their young besmeared with blood, kill them; and that the lions return to the dead bodies, and devour them; that Bogus king of the Mauretanians, during his expedition against the western Ethiopians, sent, as a present to his wife, canes similar to the Indian canes, each joint of which contained eight choenices, and asparagus of similar magnitude. 17.3.7. Although the Mauretanians inhabit a country, the greatest part of which is very fertile, yet the people in general continue even to this time to live like nomads. They bestow care to improve their looks by plaiting their hair, trimming their beards, by wearing golden ornaments, cleaning their teeth, and paring their nails; and you would rarely see them touch one another as they walk, lest they should disturb the arrangement of their hair.They fight for the most part on horseback, with a javelin; and ride on the bare back of the horse, with bridles made of rushes. They have also swords. The foot-soldiers present against the enemy, as shields, the skins of elephants. They wear the skins of lions, panthers, and bears, and sleep in them. These tribes, and the Masaesylii next to them, and for the most part the Africans in general, wear the same dress and arms, and resemble one another in other respects; they ride horses which are small, but spirited and tractable, so as to be guided by a switch. They have collars made of cotton or of hair, from which hangs a leading-rein. Some follow, like dogs, without being led.They have a small shield of leather, and small lances with broad heads. Their tunics are loose, with wide borders; their cloak is a skin, as I have said before, which serves also as a breastplate.The Pharusii and Nigretes, who live above these people, near the western Ethiopians, use bows and arrows, like the Ethiopians. They have chariots also, armed with scythes. The Pharusii rarely have any intercourse with the Mauretanians in passing through the desert country, as they carry skins filled with water, fastened under the bellies of their horses. Sometimes, indeed, they come to Cirta, passing through places abounding with marshes and lakes. Some of them are said to live like the Troglodytae, in caves dug in the ground. It is said that rain falls there frequently in summer, but that during the winter drought prevails. Some of the barbarians in that quarter wear the skins of serpents and fishes, and use them as coverings for their beds. Some say that the Mauretanians are Indians, who accompanied Hercules hither. A little before my time, the kings Bogus and Bocchus, allies of the Romans, possessed this country; after their death, Juba succeeded to the kingdom, having received it from Augustus Caesar, in addition to his paternal dominions. He was the son of Juba who fought, in conjunction with Scipio, against divus Caesar. Juba died lately, and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy, whose mother was the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. 17.3.8. Artemidorus censures Eratosthenes for saying that there is a city called Lixus, and not Lynx, near the extremities of Mauretania; that there are a very great number of Phoenician cities destroyed, of which no traces are to be seen; and that among the western Ethiopians, in the evenings and the mornings, the air is misty and dense;— for how could this take place where there is drought and excessive heat? But he himself relates of these same parts what is much more liable to objection. For he speaks of some tribes of Lotophagi, who had left their own country, and might have occupied the tract destitute of water; whose food might be a lotus, a sort of herb, or root, which would supply the want of drink; that these people extend as far as the places above Cyrene, and that they live there on milk and flesh, although they are situated in the same latitude.Gabinius, the Roman historian, indulges in relating marvellous stories of Mauretania. He speaks of a sepulchre of Antaeus at Lynx, and a skeleton of sixty feet in length, which Sertorius exposed, and afterwards covered it with earth. His stories also about elephants are fabulous. He says, that other animals avoid fire, but that elephants resist and fight against it, because it destroys the forests; that they engage with men in battle, and send out scouts before them; that when they perceive their enemies fly, they take to flight themselves; and that when they are wounded, they hold out as suppliants branches of a tree, or a plant, or throw up dust.
9. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 8.2.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5.11. τελεσθέντων δὲ τῶν ἄθλων ἐν μηνὶ καὶ ἔτεσιν ὀκτώ, μὴ προσδεξάμενος Εὐρυσθεὺς τόν τε τῶν τοῦ Αὐγέου βοσκημάτων καὶ τὸν τῆς ὕδρας, ἑνδέκατον ἐπέταξεν ἆθλον παρʼ Ἑσπερίδων χρύσεα μῆλα κομίζειν. 1 -- ταῦτα δὲ ἦν, οὐχ ὥς τινες εἶπον ἐν Λιβύῃ, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ τοῦ Ἄτλαντος ἐν Ὑπερβορέοις· ἃ Διὶ Γῆ γήμαντι Ἥραν 2 -- ἐδωρήσατο. ἐφύλασσε δὲ αὐτὰ δράκων ἀθάνατος, Τυφῶνος καὶ Ἐχίδνης, κεφαλὰς ἔχων ἑκατόν· ἐχρῆτο δὲ φωναῖς παντοίαις καὶ ποικίλαις. μετὰ τούτου δὲ Ἑσπερίδες ἐφύλαττον, Αἴγλη Ἐρύθεια Ἑσπερία Ἀρέθουσα. 3 -- πορευόμενος οὖν ἐπὶ ποταμὸν Ἐχέδωρον ἧκε. Κύκνος δὲ Ἄρεος καὶ Πυρήνης εἰς μονομαχίαν αὐτὸν προεκαλεῖτο. Ἄρεος δὲ τοῦτον ἐκδικοῦντος καὶ συνιστάντος μονομαχίαν, βληθεὶς κεραυνὸς μέσος ἀμφοτέρων διαλύει τὴν μάχην. βαδίζων δὲ διʼ Ἰλλυριῶν, καὶ σπεύδων 1 -- ἐπὶ ποταμὸν Ἠριδανόν, ἧκε πρὸς νύμφας Διὸς καὶ Θέμιδος. αὗται μηνύουσιν αὐτῷ Νηρέα. συλλαβὼν δὲ αὐτὸν κοιμώμενον καὶ παντοίας ἐναλλάσσοντα μορφὰς ἔδησε, καὶ οὐκ ἔλυσε πρὶν ἢ μαθεῖν παρʼ αὐτοῦ ποῦ τυγχάνοιεν τὰ μῆλα καὶ αἱ Ἑσπερίδες. μαθὼν δὲ Λιβύην διεξῄει. ταύτης ἐβασίλευε παῖς Ποσειδῶνος Ἀνταῖος, ὃς τοὺς ξένους ἀναγκάζων παλαίειν ἀνῄρει. τούτῳ παλαίειν ἀναγκαζόμενος Ἡρακλῆς ἀράμενος ἅμμασι 2 -- μετέωρον κλάσας ἀπέκτεινε· ψαύοντα γὰρ γῆς ἰσχυρότερον 3 -- συνέβαινε 4 -- γίνεσθαι, διὸ καὶ Γῆς τινες ἔφασαν τοῦτον εἶναι παῖδα. μετὰ Λιβύην δὲ Αἴγυπτον διεξῄει. 5 -- ταύτης ἐβασίλευε Βούσιρις Ποσειδῶνος παῖς καὶ Λυσιανάσσης τῆς Ἐπάφου. οὗτος τοὺς ξένους ἔθυεν ἐπὶ βωμῷ Διὸς κατά τι λόγιον· ἐννέα γὰρ ἔτη ἀφορία τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατέλαβε, Φρασίος 1 -- δὲ ἐλθὼν ἐκ Κύπρου, μάντις τὴν ἐπιστήμην, ἔφη τὴν ἀφορίαν 1 -- παύσασθαι ἐὰν ξένον ἄνδρα τῷ Διὶ σφάξωσι κατʼ ἔτος. Βούσιρις δὲ ἐκεῖνον πρῶτον σφάξας τὸν μάντιν τοὺς κατιόντας ξένους ἔσφαζε. συλληφθεὶς οὖν καὶ Ἡρακλῆς τοῖς βωμοῖς προσεφέρετο τὰ δὲ δεσμὰ διαρρήξας τόν τε Βούσιριν καὶ τὸν ἐκείνου παῖδα Ἀμφιδάμαντα ἀπέκτεινε. διεξιὼν δὲ Ἀσίαν 2 -- Θερμυδραῖς, Λινδίων 3 -- λιμένι, προσίσχει. καὶ βοηλάτου τινὸς λύσας τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ταύρων ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμάξης εὐωχεῖτο θύσας. ὁ δὲ βοηλάτης βοηθεῖν ἑαυτῷ μὴ δυνάμενος στὰς ἐπί τινος ὄρους κατηρᾶτο. διὸ καὶ νῦν, ἐπειδὰν θύωσιν Ἡρακλεῖ, μετὰ καταρῶν τοῦτο πράττουσι. παριὼν δὲ Ἀραβίαν Ἠμαθίωνα κτείνει παῖδα Τιθωνοῦ. καὶ διὰ τῆς Λιβύης πορευθεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν ἔξω θάλασσαν παρʼ Ἡλίου 1 -- τὸ δέπας παραλαμβάνει. 2 -- καὶ περαιωθεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν ἤπειρον τὴν ἀντικρὺ κατετόξευσεν ἐπὶ τοῦ Καυκάσου τὸν ἐσθίοντα τὸ τοῦ Προμηθέως ἧπαρ ἀετόν, ὄντα Ἐχίδνης καὶ Τυφῶνος· καὶ τὸν Προμηθέα ἔλυσε, δεσμὸν ἑλόμενος τὸν τῆς ἐλαίας, καὶ παρέσχε τῷ Διὶ Χείρωνα θνήσκειν ἀθάνατον 1 -- ἀντʼ αὐτοῦ θέλοντα. ὡς δὲ ἧκεν εἰς Ὑπερβορέους πρὸς Ἄτλαντα, εἰπόντος Προμηθέως τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰ μῆλα μὴ πορεύεσθαι, διαδεξάμενον δὲ Ἄτλαντος τὸν πόλον ἀποστέλλειν ἐκεῖνον, πεισθεὶς διεδέξατο. Ἄτλας δὲ δρεψάμενος 2 -- παρʼ Ἑσπερίδων τρία μῆλα ἧκε πρὸς Ἡρακλέα. καὶ μὴ βουλόμενος τὸν πόλον ἔχειν 3 -- καὶ σπεῖραν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς θέλειν ποιήσασθαι. τοῦτο ἀκούσας Ἄτλας, ἐπὶ γῆς καταθεὶς τὰ μῆλα τὸν πόλον διεδέξατο. καὶ οὕτως ἀνελόμενος αὐτὰ Ἡρακλῆς ἀπηλλάττετο. ἔνιοι δέ φασιν οὐ παρὰ Ἄτλαντος αὐτὰ λαβεῖν, ἀλλʼ αὐτὸν δρέψασθαι τὰ μῆλα, κτείναντα τὸν φρουροῦντα ὄφιν. κομίσας δὲ τὰ μῆλα Εὐρυσθεῖ ἔδωκεν. ὁ δὲ λαβὼν Ἡρακλεῖ ]; ἐδωρήσατο· παρʼ οὗ λαβοῦσα Ἀθηνᾶ πάλιν αὐτὰ ἀπεκόμισεν· ὅσιον γὰρ οὐκ ἦν αὐτὰ τεθῆναί που.
11. Lucan, Pharsalia, 10.144-10.146 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Plutarch, Sertorius, 9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tacitus, Annals, 14.31-14.32, 14.35-14.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.31.  The Icenian king Prasutagus, celebrated for his long prosperity, had named the emperor his heir, together with his two daughters; an act of deference which he thought would place his kingdom and household beyond the risk of injury. The result was contrary — so much so that his kingdom was pillaged by centurions, his household by slaves; as though they had been prizes of war. As a beginning, his wife Boudicca was subjected to the lash and his daughters violated: all the chief men of the Icenians were stripped of their family estates, and the relatives of the king were treated as slaves. Impelled by this outrage and the dread of worse to come — for they had now been reduced to the status of a province — they flew to arms, and incited to rebellion the Trinobantes and others, who, not yet broken by servitude, had entered into a secret and treasonable compact to resume their independence. The bitterest animosity was felt against the veterans; who, fresh from their settlement in the colony of Camulodunum, were acting as though they had received a free gift of the entire country, driving the natives from their homes, ejecting them from their lands, — they styled them "captives" and "slaves," — and abetted in their fury by the troops, with their similar mode of life and their hopes of equal indulgence. More than this, the temple raised to the deified Claudius continually met the view, like the citadel of an eternal tyranny; while the priests, chosen for its service, were bound under the pretext of religion to pour out their fortunes like water. Nor did there seem any great difficulty in the demolition of a colony unprotected by fortifications — a point too little regarded by our commanders, whose thoughts had run more on the agreeable than on the useful. 14.32.  Meanwhile, for no apparent reason, the statue of Victory at Camulodunum fell, with its back turned as if in retreat from the enemy. Women, converted into maniacs by excitement, cried that destruction was at hand and that alien cries had been heard in the invaders' senate-house: the theatre had rung with shrieks, and in the estuary of the Thames had been seen a vision of the ruined colony. Again, that the Ocean had appeared blood-red and that the ebbing tide had left behind it what looked to be human corpses, were indications read by the Britons with hope and by the veterans with corresponding alarm. However, as Suetonius was far away, they applied for help to the procurator Catus Decianus. He sent not more than two hundred men, without their proper weapons: in addition, there was a small body of troops in the town. Relying on the protection of the temple, and hampered also by covert adherents of the rebellion who interfered with their plans, they neither secured their position by fosse or rampart nor took steps, by removing the women and the aged, to leave only able-bodied men in the place. They were as carelessly guarded as if the world was at peace, when they were enveloped by a great barbarian host. All else was pillaged or fired in the first onrush: only the temple, in which the troops had massed themselves, stood a two days' siege, and was then carried by storm. Turning to meet Petilius Cerialis, commander of the ninth legion, who was arriving to the rescue, the victorious Britons routed the legion and slaughtered the infantry to a man: Cerialis with the cavalry escaped to the camp, and found shelter behind its fortifications. Unnerved by the disaster and the hatred of the province which his rapacity had goaded into war, the procurator Catus crossed to Gaul. 14.35.  Boudicca, mounted in a chariot with her daughters before her, rode up to clan after clan and delivered her protest:— "It was customary, she knew, with Britons to fight under female captaincy; but now she was avenging, not, as a queen of glorious ancestry, her ravished realm and power, but, as a woman of the people, her liberty lost, her body tortured by the lash, the tarnished honour of her daughters. Roman cupidity had progressed so far that not their very persons, not age itself, nor maidenhood, were left unpolluted. Yet Heaven was on the side of their just revenge: one legion, which ventured battle, had perished; the rest were skulking in their camps, or looking around them for a way of escape. They would never face even the din and roar of those many thousands, far less their onslaught and their swords! — If they considered in their own hearts the forces under arms and the motives of the war, on that field they must conquer or fall. Such was the settled purpose of a woman — the men might live and be slaves! 14.36.  Even Suetonius, in this critical moment, broke silence. In spite of his reliance on the courage of the men, he still blended exhortations and entreaty: "They must treat with contempt the noise and empty menaces of the barbarians: in the ranks opposite, more women than soldiers meet the eye. Unwarlike and unarmed, they would break immediately, when, taught by so many defeats, they recognized once more the steel and the valour of their conquerors. Even in a number of legions, it was but a few men who decided the fate of battles; and it would be an additional glory that they, a handful of troops, were gathering the laurels of an entire army. Only, keeping their order close, and, when their javelins were discharged, employing shield-boss and sword, let them steadily pile up the dead and forget the thought of plunder: once the victory was gained, all would be their own." Such was the ardour following the general's words — with such alacrity had his veteran troops, with the long experience of battle, prepared themselves in a moment to hurl the pilum — that Suetonius, without a doubt of the issue, gave the signal to engage. 14.37.  At first, the legionaries stood motionless, keeping to the defile as a natural protection: then, when the closer advance of the enemy had enabled them to exhaust their missiles with certitude of aim, they dashed forward in a wedge-like formation. The auxiliaries charged in the same style; and the cavalry, with lances extended, broke a way through any parties of resolute men whom they encountered. The remainder took to flight, although escape was difficult, as the cordon of waggons had blocked the outlets. The troops gave no quarter even to the women: the baggage animals themselves had been speared and added to the pile of bodies. The glory won in the course of the day was remarkable, and equal to that of our older victories: for, by some accounts, little less than eighty thousand Britons fell, at a cost of some four hundred Romans killed and a not much greater number of wounded. Boudicca ended her days by poison; while Poenius Postumus, camp-prefect of the second legion, informed of the exploits of the men of the fourteenth and twentieth, and conscious that he had cheated his own corps of a share in the honours and had violated the rules of the service by ignoring the orders of his commander, ran his sword through his body.
14. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.30.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.30.8. In the marketplace of that city, behind the enclosure sacred to Lycaean Zeus, is the figure of a man carved in relief on a slab, Polybius, the son of Lycortas. Elegiac verses are inscribed upon it saying that he roamed over every land and every sea, and that he became the ally of the Itomans and stayed their wrath against the Greek nation. This Polybius wrote also a history of the Romans, including how they went to war with Carthage, what the cause of the war was, and how at last, not before great dangers had been run, Scipio . . . whom they name Carthaginian, because he put an end to the war and razed Carthage to the ground.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aegipani Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
aelius donatus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
africa Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
africa (continent), circumnavigation of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
africa (continent), interior Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
africa (continent), north Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
africa (continent), sub-saharan Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
africa (continent), west Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
africa (continent) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251, 254, 257
alexander Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 59
alexandria (egypt), location and routes to and from Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
algeria Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
alps Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
ampelusia, cape Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
antaeus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
apples Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251, 254
asana river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
asia, continent and region, as continent Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
atlantic ocean, and carthaginians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
atlantic ocean, and persians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
atlantic ocean Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251, 254
atlas, mt. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254, 257
augila, augilae, augiles Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
bacchus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
baetica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113, 251
blemmyae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
bocchus ii Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
boudica Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
britannia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
carthage, carthaginians, outposts of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113, 257
carthage, carthaginians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251, 254
cedar, mt. atlas Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
celtic lusitanians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
celts, and lusitania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
chariots Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
cornelius balbus, l. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
cornelius scipio aemilianus, p. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
crocodiles Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
darat river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
dionysos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
earth Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
egypt, and mediterranean Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
egypt Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
flora Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
fowler, robert, xxiii, xxiv, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 59
fut river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
gamphasantes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
garamantes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
ger river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
golden apples Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251, 254
gorgons Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
hanno of carthage, explorations of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
hanno of carthage, writings of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
hercules, grottoes of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
hercules, hero, labors of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
hercules, hero Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113, 251, 254, 276
hercules, pillars or columns of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
hesperides, divinities, apples of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
hesperides, divinities Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
hesperides islands Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
hibernians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
hiberus river, in northern hispania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
himantopodes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
hispania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
iber river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
iberia (hispania) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
ivor river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
juba ii of mauretania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
liber, father Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
libya Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 59
lixus, city and river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
lucilius, c. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
lusitania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
mauretania, hercules and Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
mauretania, romans and Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
mauretania Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46; Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
medusa Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
morocco Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
myconos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
niger, rivers so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
nile, mouths of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
nile Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
pan (divinity) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
periplous, periploi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
perseus (hero) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
persia, persians, in iberia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
persia, persians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
pharusians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113, 276
phoenicia, phoenicians, in iberia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
plutarch Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
polybius of megalopolis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
poseidon Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
ptolemaic period Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
red sea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
sahara desert Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
sataspes Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113, 276
satyrs Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
sertorius, q. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
snow Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257
strabo Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 46
suetonius paulinus, c. Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 257, 276
tartessos (tartesos) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
thomas, rosalind Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 59
tingi Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251
troglodytae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
trogodytae, peoples so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 276
trojan war Edmunds, Greek Myth (2021) 59
varro, m. terentius Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
viniculture' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 254
xerxes, persian king Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 113
zelil Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 251