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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10314
Sextus, Outlines Of Pyrrhonism, 1.22-1.28
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.22. Haec sic sic R c? V c si X dicuntur a Stoicis concludunturque contortius. sed latius aliquando aliquando cf. 323,22 aliquanto s male, cf. de orat. 1, 133 opt. gen. 23 dicenda sunt et diffusius; sententiis tamen utendum eorum potissimum, qui qui ex quā ut v. G 2 maxime forti et, ut ita dicam, virili utuntur ratione atque sententia. nam Peripatetici, familiares nostri, quibus nihil est uberius, nihil eruditius, nihil gravius, mediocritates vel perturbationum vel morborum animi mihi non sane probant. omne enim malum, etiam mediocre, mediocre iocre in r. G 2 malum malum Bouh. magnum alt. id om. H est; nos autem id agimus, ut id in sapiente nullum sit omnino. nam ut corpus, etiamsi mediocriter aegrum est, sanum non est, sic in animo ista mediocritas caret sanitate. itaque praeclare nostri, ut alia multa, molestiam sollicitudinem angorem propter similitudinem corporum aegrorum aegritudinem aegritudinem cf. Aug. civ. 14,17 ext. nominaverunt.
2. Philodemus of Gadara, De Ira \ , 32 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 3.152-3.160, 5.45-5.50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Diogenes of Oenoanda, Fragments, 5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. New Testament, John, 1.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.41. He first found his own brother, Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah!" (which is, being interpreted, Christ).
6. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 1.17.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 2.8.40, 2.8.44, 2.8.47-2.8.49, 4.3.1-4.3.4, 4.7.24-4.7.38, 4.7.41, 5.2.3-5.2.7, 5.5.8-5.5.26, 5.6.22-5.6.26, 5.6.42, 5.7.29, 5.7.74-5.7.87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.206-7.210, 11.118, 11.141, 11.158-11.159 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.13, 1.17, 1.19-1.21, 1.23-1.28, 1.30, 1.231, 3.173-3.175, 3.177, 3.235-3.236 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 9.62, 9.76, 9.104-9.108, 10.127-10.128 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.62. He led a life consistent with this doctrine, going out of his way for nothing, taking no precaution, but facing all risks as they came, whether carts, precipices, dogs or what not, and, generally, leaving nothing to the arbitrament of the senses; but he was kept out of harm's way by his friends who, as Antigonus of Carystus tells us, used to follow close after him. But Aenesidemus says that it was only his philosophy that was based upon suspension of judgement, and that he did not lack foresight in his everyday acts. He lived to be nearly ninety.This is what Antigonus of Carystus says of Pyrrho in his book upon him. At first he was a poor and unknown painter, and there are still some indifferent torch-racers of his in the gymnasium at Elis. 9.76. But the Sceptics even refute the statement Not more (one thing than another). For, as forethought is no more existent than non-existent, so Not more (one thing than another) is no more existent than not. Thus, as Timon says in the Pytho, the statement means just absence of all determination and withholding of assent. The other statement, Every saying, etc., equally compels suspension of judgement; when facts disagree, but the contradictory statements have exactly the same weight, ignorance of the truth is the necessary consequence. But even this statement has its corresponding antithesis, so that after destroying others it turns round and destroys itself, like a purge which drives the substance out and then in its turn is itself eliminated and destroyed. 9.104. And we say in conversation that a certain thing appears white, but we are not positive that it really is white. As to our 'We determine nothing' and the like, we use the expressions in an undogmatic sense, for they are not like the assertion that the world is spherical. Indeed the latter statement is not certain, but the others are mere admissions. Thus in saying 'We determine nothing,' we are not determining even that.Again, the dogmatic philosophers maintain that the Sceptics do away with life itself, in that they reject all that life consists in. The others say this is false, for they do not deny that we see; they only say that they do not know how we see. We admit the apparent fact, say they, without admitting that it really is what it appears to be. We also perceive that fire burns; as to whether it is its nature to burn, we suspend our judgement. 9.105. We see that a man moves, and that he perishes; how it happens we do not know. We merely object to accepting the unknown substance behind phenomena. When we say a picture has projections, we are describing what is apparent; but if we say that it has no projections, we are then speaking, not of what is apparent, but of something else. This is what makes Timon say in his Python that he has not gone outside what is customary. And again in the Conceits he says:But the apparent is omnipotent wherever it goes;and in his work On the Senses, I do not lay it down that honey is sweet, but I admit that it appears to be so. 9.106. Aenesidemus too in the first book of his Pyrrhonean Discourses says that Pyrrho determines nothing dogmatically, because of the possibility of contradiction, but guides himself by apparent facts. Aenesidemus says the same in his works Against Wisdom and On Inquiry. Furthermore Zeuxis, the friend of Aenesidemus, in his work On Two-sided Arguments, Antiochus of Laodicea, and Apellas in his Agrippa all hold to phenomena alone. Therefore the apparent is the Sceptic's criterion, as indeed Aenesidemus says; and so does Epicurus. Democritus, however, denied that any apparent fact could be a criterion, indeed he denied the very existence of the apparent. 9.107. Against this criterion of appearances the dogmatic philosophers urge that, when the same appearances produce in us different impressions, e.g. a round or square tower, the Sceptic, unless he gives the preference to one or other, will be unable to take any course; if on the other hand, say they, he follows either view, he is then no longer allowing equal value to all apparent facts. The Sceptics reply that, when different impressions are produced, they must both be said to appear; for things which are apparent are so called because they appear. The end to be realized they hold to be suspension of judgement, which brings with it tranquillity like its shadow: so Timon and Aenesidemus declare. 9.108. For in matters which are for us to decide we shall neither choose this nor shrink from that; and things which are not for us to decide but happen of necessity, such as hunger, thirst and pain, we cannot escape, for they are not to be removed by force of reason. And when the dogmatists argue that he may thus live in such a frame of mind that he would not shrink from killing and eating his own father if ordered to do so, the Sceptic replies that he will be able so to live as to suspend his judgement in cases where it is a question of arriving at the truth, but not in matters of life and the taking of precautions. Accordingly we may choose a thing or shrink from a thing by habit and may observe rules and customs. According to some authorities the end proposed by the Sceptics is insensibility; according to others, gentleness. 10.127. For if he truly believes this, why does he not depart from life? It were easy for him to do so, if once he were firmly convinced. If he speaks only in mockery, his words are foolishness, for those who hear believe him not.We must remember that the future is neither wholly ours nor wholly not ours, so that neither must we count upon it as quite certain to come nor despair of it as quite certain not to come.We must also reflect that of desires some are natural, others are groundless; and that of the natural some are necessary as well as natural, and some natural only. And of the necessary desires some are necessary if we are to be happy, some if the body is to be rid of uneasiness, some if we are even to live. 10.128. He who has a clear and certain understanding of these things will direct every preference and aversion toward securing health of body and tranquillity of mind, seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life. For the end of all our actions is to be free from pain and fear, and, when once we have attained all this, the tempest of the soul is laid; seeing that the living creature has no need to go in search of something that is lacking, nor to look for anything else by which the good of the soul and of the body will be fulfilled. When we are pained because of the absence of pleasure, then, and then only, do we feel the need of pleasure. Wherefore we call pleasure the alpha and omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first and kindred good.
11. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 132

12. Epicurus, Kuriai Doxai, 25, 30, 18



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academia/academician Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
aenesidemus Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 116; Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
appearances, reliance on Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 138, 158, 171
appearances Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102, 139
arcesilaus Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 171
aristotle Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
arius didymus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
ataraxia Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 138, 158
barnes, jonathan Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 116
chrysippus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
cicero Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
criterion Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
diogenes laertius Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 116; Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
discrepancy Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
doxography Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
emotions / passions (pathē, pathēmata) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
epictetus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
epicurus/epicurean/epicureanism Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
epicurus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
false belief / false judgment / false opinion Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
galen Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
galen of pergamum Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
gnostic, gnosticism Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
goal (telos) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
impressions Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 139
isostheneia Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 138
judgment (krisis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
language Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
lucretius of rome Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
nature, requirements for a grasp of Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 116
nature (phusis) / natural, kind / type / purpose Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
neoplatonism Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
opinion (doxa) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
peripateticism / peripatetic Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
philodemus of gadara Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
philosophy Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
plato Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
platonism (middle / imperial) vi–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
plutarch Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
pyrrho Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 138
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
rhetoric Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231
school (scholē) / sect (hairesis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
self Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 138
seneca Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
sense-perception Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 139
sextus empiricus Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 231; Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102, 139
skeptical investigation Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 139
skeptical language Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 139
skepticism, academic Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 171
skepticism, as ability (dunamis) Bett, How to be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Scepticism (2019) 116
skepticism / scepticism (pyrrhonism) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stobaeus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stoicism / stoic / stoa, neostoicism (greco-roman) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
suspension of judgment Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102, 139
timon Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
tranquility Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 102
vii–viii' Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
zeno (of citium) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32